Science.gov

Sample records for promote threshold-like shifts

  1. [Promotion of healthy lifestyles among shift workers].

    PubMed

    Morreale, R; Ghiglioni, G; Bregoli, B; Corli, M

    2006-01-01

    A group of 50 shift workers were subjected to a programme of physical activity and balanced diet. The aim of this study was to promote a healthy lifestyle thus helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases, stress and to reduce alcohol and smoking habits.

  2. Promoting alertness with a short nap during a night shift.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, M; Härmä, M; Akerstedt, T; Rosa, R; Lillqvist, O

    1998-12-01

    The use of a short (< 1 h) nap in improving alertness during the early morning hours in the first night shift was examined under laboratory conditions. The study contained four experimental, non-consecutive night shifts with a nap of either 50 or 30 min at 01.00 or 04.00 hours. An experimental night shift without a nap served as a control condition. Each experimental shift was followed by daytime sleep. Fourteen experienced male shift workers went through all of the experimental conditions. The results showed that the naps improved the ability to respond to visual signals during the second half of the night shift. Physiological sleepiness was alleviated by the early naps, as measured 50 min after awakening, but not at the end of the shift. Subjective sleepiness was somewhat decreased by the naps. The naps produced sleep inertia which lasted for about 10-15 min. Daytime sleep was somewhat impaired by the 50 min naps. The study shows that a nap shorter than 1 h is able to improve alertness to a certain extent during the first night shift.

  3. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  4. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  5. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-05-04

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract.

  6. Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Eidam, Tino; Wirth, Christian; Jauregui, Cesar; Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver; Schreiber, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    We report on the observation and experimental characterization of a threshold-like onset of mode instabilities, i.e. an apparently random relative power content change of different transverse modes, occurring in originally single-mode high-power fiber amplifiers. Although the physical origin of this effect is not yet fully understood, we discuss possible explanations. Accordingly, several solutions are proposed in this paper to raise the threshold of this effect.

  7. Are insights from Indigenous health shaping a paradigm shift in health promotion praxis in Australia?

    PubMed

    Crouch, Alan; Fagan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Health promotion really is at a cross-road. Traditionally guided by the Ottawa Charter, it has been thought of as principle-guided actions, processes and technique, as well as outcomes or results. Health promotion has been characterised by its products and some even call it theory. In Australia, public funding for health promotion has, for many years, shaped its practice into behaviour change interventions. However, governments around the country are reconsidering their investments, evidenced by ideologically motivated policy shifts and associated substantial funding cuts. Recently, themes of empowerment, community control and community agency have emerged as new directions for future health promotion praxis and reports of activism-based approaches that seek to mobilise community energies around sexual health inequity have started to appear in the literature. Noting parallel developments in the social determinants and social change discourses, this paper posits that cutting edge health promotion efforts by Indigenous communities in Australia are shaping a new approach with potentially global application.

  8. Biochar Treatment Resulted in a Combined Effect on Soybean Growth Promotion and a Shift in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Behrendt, Undine; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The application of biochar to soil is considered to have the potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration, as well as for improving plant growth and suppressing soil pathogens. In our study we evaluated the effect of biochar on the plant growth of soybeans, as well as on the community composition of root-associated bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. Two types of biochar, namely, maize biochar (MBC), wood biochar (WBC), and hydrochar (HTC) were used for pot experiments to monitor plant growth. Soybean plants grown in soil amended with HTC char (2%) showed the best performance and were collected for isolation and further characterization of root-associated bacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits. Only HTC char amendment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the root and shoot dry weight of soybeans. Interestingly, rhizosphere isolates from HTC char amended soil showed higher diversity than the rhizosphere isolates from the control soil. In addition, a higher proportion of isolates from HTC char amended soil compared with control soil was found to express plant growth promoting properties and showed antagonistic activity against one or more phytopathogenic fungi. Our study provided evidence that improved plant growth by biochar incorporation into soil results from the combination of a direct effect that is dependent on the type of char and a microbiome shift in root-associated beneficial bacteria. PMID:26941730

  9. Abstinence Promotion Under PEPFAR: The Shifting Focus of HIV Prevention For Youth

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstinence-until-marriage (AUM) – strongly supported by religious conservatives in the U.S. - became a key element of initial HIV prevention efforts under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). AUM programs have demonstrated limited efficacy in changing behaviors, promoted medically inaccurate information, and withheld life-saving information about risk reduction. A focus on AUM also undermined national efforts in Africa to create integrated youth HIV prevention programs. PEPFAR prevention efforts after 2008 shifted to science-based programming, however vestiges of AUM remain. Primary prevention programs within PEPFAR are essential and nations must be able to design HIV prevention based on local needs and prevention science. PMID:23327516

  10. Threshold-like complexation of conjugated polymers with small molecule acceptors in solution within the neighbor-effect model.

    PubMed

    Sosorev, Andrey Yu; Parashchuk, Olga D; Zapunidi, Sergey A; Kashtanov, Grigoriy S; Golovnin, Ilya V; Kommanaboyina, Srikanth; Perepichka, Igor F; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu

    2016-02-14

    In some donor-acceptor blends based on conjugated polymers, a pronounced charge-transfer complex (CTC) forms in the electronic ground state. In contrast to small-molecule donor-acceptor blends, the CTC concentration in polymer:acceptor solution can increase with the acceptor content in a threshold-like way. This threshold-like behavior was earlier attributed to the neighbor effect (NE) in the polymer complexation, i.e., next CTCs are preferentially formed near the existing ones; however, the NE origin is unknown. To address the factors affecting the NE, we record the optical absorption data for blends of the most studied conjugated polymers, poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), with electron acceptors of fluorene series, 1,8-dinitro-9,10-antraquinone (), and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane () in different solvents, and then analyze the data within the NE model. We have found that the NE depends on the polymer and acceptor molecular skeletons and solvent, while it does not depend on the acceptor electron affinity and polymer concentration. We conclude that the NE operates within a single macromolecule and stems from planarization of the polymer chain involved in the CTC with an acceptor molecule; as a result, the probability of further complexation with the next acceptor molecules at the adjacent repeat units increases. The steric and electronic microscopic mechanisms of NE are discussed.

  11. Sub-threshold-like charge transport in organic field effect transistor: A study on effective channel thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavala, A. K.; Mukherjee, A. K.

    2015-09-01

    A short channel organic field effect transistors (OFET) based on Pentacene, having channel length in the range of sub-micrometer, has been numerically modelled for low values of drain voltage. The output characteristics show a nonlinear concave increase of drain current for all values of gate voltages. This anomalous current-voltage behavior, which resembles sub-threshold characteristics of silicon FETs, shows a good match with earlier experimental reports on OFET at low drain voltages. The sub-threshold-like characteristics has been interpreted in light of thermionic-emission model because of the presence of hole injection barrier at drain (gold)/Pentacene interface. The associated analysis has facilitated to obtain a significant parameter, effective channel thickness (teff), for the first time in case of OFETs. It came out to be roughly 4 nm and 8 nm for experimental devices of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and Pentacene, respectively, while the numerically modelled device yielded a value of about 60 nm. Increase of teff with transverse gate electric field is also observed. Physical explanation of the observations is also presented.

  12. Identifying Teacher Needs for Promoting Education through Science as a Paradigm Shift in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, J.; Rannikmae, M.; Valdmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies an "education through science" philosophy for school science teaching at the secondary level and determines its interrelationship with approaches to student acquisition of key educational competences and the identification of teacher needs to promote meaningful learning during science lessons. Based on the…

  13. Bacterial Community Shift Drives Antibiotic Resistance Promotion during Drinking Water Chlorination.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Shi, Peng; Hu, Qing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-10-20

    For comprehensive insights into the effects of chlorination, a widely used disinfection technology, on bacterial community and antibiotic resistome in drinking water, this study applied high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic approaches to investigate the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial community in a drinking water treatment and distribution system. At genus level, chlorination could effectively remove Methylophilus, Methylotenera, Limnobacter, and Polynucleobacter, while increase the relative abundance of Pseudomonas, Acidovorax, Sphingomonas, Pleomonas, and Undibacterium in the drinking water. A total of 151 ARGs within 15 types were detectable in the drinking water, and chlorination evidently increased their total relative abundance while reduced their diversity in the opportunistic bacteria (p < 0.05). Residual chlorine was identified as the key contributing factor driving the bacterial community shift and resistome alteration. As the dominant persistent ARGs in the treatment and distribution system, multidrug resistance genes (mainly encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division transportation system) and bacitracin resistance gene bacA were mainly carried by chlorine-resistant bacteria Pseudomonas and Acidovorax, which mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. The strong correlation between bacterial community shift and antibiotic resistome alteration observed in this study may shed new light on the mechanism behind the chlorination effects on antibiotic resistance.

  14. Bmp4 Promotes a Brown to White-like Adipocyte Shift.

    PubMed

    Modica, Salvatore; Straub, Leon G; Balaz, Miroslav; Sun, Wenfei; Varga, Lukas; Stefanicka, Patrik; Profant, Milan; Simon, Eric; Neubauer, Heike; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-08-23

    While Bmp4 has a well-established role in the commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into the adipogenic lineage, its role in brown adipocyte formation and activity is not well defined. Here, we show that Bmp4 has a dual function in adipogenesis by inducing adipocyte commitment while inhibiting the acquisition of a brown phenotype during terminal differentiation. Selective brown adipose tissue overexpression of Bmp4 in mice induces a shift from a brown to a white-like adipocyte phenotype. This effect is mediated by Smad signaling and might be in part due to suppression of lipolysis, via regulation of hormone sensitive lipase expression linked to reduced Ppar activity. Given that we observed a strong correlation between BMP4 levels and adipocyte size, as well as insulin sensitivity in humans, we propose that Bmp4 is an important factor in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27524617

  15. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Connolly, Sean R.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2015-01-01

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes’ territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes’ territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease. PMID:26144865

  16. Intravenous fish oil lipid emulsion promotes a shift toward anti-inflammatory proresolving lipid mediators.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Brian T; Le, Hau D; Fitzgerald, Jonathan M; Wang, Samantha; Seamon, Kyle; Gura, Kathleen M; Gronert, Karsten; Puder, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a life-threatening complication of the administration of PN. The development of PNALD may be partly due to the composition of the lipid emulsion administered with PN: soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are associated with liver disease, while fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are associated with prevention and improvement of liver disease. The objective of this study was to determine how the choice of lipid emulsion modified the production of bioactive lipid mediators (LMs). We utilized a mouse model of steatosis to study the differential effect of FOLE and SOLE. We subsequently validated these results in serum samples from a small cohort of human infants transitioning from SOLE to FOLE. In mice, FOLE was associated with production of anti-inflammatory, proresolving LMs; SOLE was associated with increased production of inflammatory LMs. In human infants, the transition from SOLE to FOLE was associated with a shift toward a proresolving lipidome. Together, these results demonstrate that the composition of the lipid emulsion directly modifies inflammatory homeostasis.

  17. Coral transplantation triggers shift in microbiome and promotion of coral disease associated potential pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jordan M; Connolly, Sean R; Ainsworth, Tracy D

    2015-07-06

    By cultivating turf algae and aggressively defending their territories, territorial damselfishes in the genus Stegastes play a major role in shaping coral-algal dynamics on coral reefs. The epilithic algal matrix (EAM) inside Stegastes' territories is known to harbor high abundances of potential coral disease pathogens. To determine the impact of territorial grazers on coral microbial assemblages, we established a coral transplant inside and outside of Stegastes' territories. Over the course of one year, the percent mortality of transplanted corals was monitored and coral samples were collected for microbial analysis. As compared to outside damselfish territories, Stegastes were associated with a higher rate of mortality of transplanted corals. However, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that territorial grazers do not differentially impact the microbial assemblage of corals exposed to the EAM. Regardless of Stegastes presence or absence, coral transplantation resulted in a shift in the coral-associated microbial community and an increase in coral disease associated potential pathogens. Further, transplanted corals that suffer low to high mortality undergo a microbial transition from a microbiome similar to that of healthy corals to that resembling the EAM. These findings demonstrate that coral transplantation significantly impacts coral microbial communities, and transplantation may increase susceptibility to coral disease.

  18. CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 promotes targetable pathological RyR2 conformational shift.

    PubMed

    Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Yang, Yi; Oda, Tetsuro; Li, Na; Alsina, Katherina M; Puglisi, Jose L; Chen-Izu, Ye; Cornea, Razvan L; Wehrens, Xander H T; Bers, Donald M

    2016-09-01

    Diastolic calcium (Ca) leak via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) can cause arrhythmias and heart failure (HF). Ca/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and more active in HF, promoting RyR2-mediated Ca leak by RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. Here, we tested a mechanistic hypothesis that RyR2 phosphorylation by CaMKII increases Ca leak by promoting a pathological RyR2 conformation with reduced CaM affinity. Acute CaMKII activation in wild-type RyR2, and phosphomimetic RyR2-S2814D (vs. non-phosphorylatable RyR2-S2814A) knock-in mouse myocytes increased SR Ca leak, reduced CaM-RyR2 affinity, and caused a pathological shift in RyR2 conformation (detected via increased access of the RyR2 structural peptide DPc10). This same trio of effects was seen in myocytes from rabbits with pressure/volume-overload induced HF. Excess CaM quieted leak and restored control conformation, consistent with negative allosteric coupling between CaM affinity and DPc10 accessible conformation. Dantrolene (DAN) also restored CaM affinity, reduced DPc10 access, and suppressed RyR2-mediated Ca leak and ventricular tachycardia in RyR2-S2814D mice. We propose that a common pathological RyR2 conformational state (low CaM affinity, high DPc10 access, and elevated leak) may be caused by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, oxidation, and HF. Moreover, DAN (or excess CaM) can shift this pathological gating state back to the normal physiological conformation, a potentially important therapeutic approach. PMID:27318036

  19. Immunomodulatory Device Promotes a Shift of Circulating Monocytes to a Less Inflammatory Phenotype in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Szamosfalvi, Balazs; Westover, Angela; Buffington, Deborah; Yevzlin, Alexander; Humes, H David

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis (HD) suffer accelerated morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease and infections. Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in these poor outcomes. The activated monocyte (MO) has become a prime therapeutic target to modulate this inflammatory process. A selective cytopheretic device (SCD) was evaluated to assess its effects on the circulating MO pool. A pilot trial was undertaken in 15 ESRD patients on HD with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels greater than 5 mg/dl. An excellent safety profile was observed with no decline in leukocyte (LE) or platelet counts. The effect of SCD therapy on MO phenotypes in these patients was determined on peripheral blood MO utilizing flow cytometry. SCD therapy promoted a shift in MO phenotype from predominantly CD14 expressing MO at baseline/pre-SCD therapy to CD14 expressing MO post-SCD therapy. A significant shift in MO population phenotype afforded by a single SCD therapy session was observed (p < 0.013). In a subset of patients (n = 7) presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), this persistent decline in MO CD14 expression was sustained as long as 2 weeks posttherapy. These results demonstrate that the SCD therapy has the potential to modulate the chronic proinflammatory state in ESRD patients. PMID:27258222

  20. Tandem processes promoted by a hydrogen shift in 6-arylfulvenes bearing acetalic units at ortho position: a combined experimental and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Alajarin, Mateo; Marin-Luna, Marta; Vidal, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Summary 6-Phenylfulvenes bearing (1,3-dioxolan or dioxan)-2-yl substituents at ortho position convert into mixtures of 4- and 9-(hydroxy)alkoxy-substituted benz[f]indenes as result of cascade processes initiated by a thermally activated hydrogen shift. Structurally related fulvenes with non-cyclic acetalic units afforded mixtures of 4- and 9-alkoxybenz[f]indenes under similar thermal conditions. Mechanistic paths promoted by an initial [1,4]-, [1,5]-, [1,7]- or [1,9]-H shift are conceivable for explaining these conversions. Deuterium labelling experiments exclude the [1,4]-hydride shift as the first step. A computational study scrutinized the reaction channels of these tandem conversions starting by [1,5]-, [1,7]- and [1,9]-H shifts, revealing that this first step is the rate-determining one and that the [1,9]-H shift is the one with the lowest energy barrier. PMID:26977185

  1. Tandem processes promoted by a hydrogen shift in 6-arylfulvenes bearing acetalic units at ortho position: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Alajarin, Mateo; Marin-Luna, Marta; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel

    2016-01-01

    6-Phenylfulvenes bearing (1,3-dioxolan or dioxan)-2-yl substituents at ortho position convert into mixtures of 4- and 9-(hydroxy)alkoxy-substituted benz[f]indenes as result of cascade processes initiated by a thermally activated hydrogen shift. Structurally related fulvenes with non-cyclic acetalic units afforded mixtures of 4- and 9-alkoxybenz[f]indenes under similar thermal conditions. Mechanistic paths promoted by an initial [1,4]-, [1,5]-, [1,7]- or [1,9]-H shift are conceivable for explaining these conversions. Deuterium labelling experiments exclude the [1,4]-hydride shift as the first step. A computational study scrutinized the reaction channels of these tandem conversions starting by [1,5]-, [1,7]- and [1,9]-H shifts, revealing that this first step is the rate-determining one and that the [1,9]-H shift is the one with the lowest energy barrier. PMID:26977185

  2. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  3. Threshold-like dose of local beta irradiation repeated throughout the life span of mice for induction of skin and bone tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsuyama, A.; Tanooka, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The backs of female ICR mice were irradiated with beta rays from 90Sr-90Y three times a week throughout life. Previously we observed 100% tumor incidence at five different dose levels ranging from 1.5 to 11.8 Gy per exposure, but no tumor on repeated irradiation with 1.35 Gy for 300 days. In the present study, delay of tumor development was again seen at a dose of 1.5 Gy per exposure, with further delay at 1.0 Gy. The final tumor incidence was 100% with these two doses. At 0.75 Gy per exposure, no tumor appeared within 790 days after the start of irradiation, but one osteosarcoma and one squamous cell carcinoma did finally appear. These findings indicate a threshold-like response of tumor induction in this repeated irradiation system and further suggest that the apparent threshold may be somewhat less than 0.75 Gy per exposure.

  4. Promotion by alkali metals: a theoretical analysis of the vibrational shift of CO coadsorbed with K on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Bagus, Paul S.

    1993-11-01

    By means of ab initio cluster model wavefunctions we have analyzed the electronic and electrostatic mechanisms which determine the very large negative shift of the CO vibrational frequency ω e, when CO is coadsorbed with alkali metal atoms on metal surfaces. The clusters considered, Cu 32/K 2/CO and Cu 12/K 2/CO, model K and CO coadsorption on Cu(100) at various KCO distances. In order to explain the observed large vibrational red-shifts, of the order of 600 cm -1 and more, short KCO distances, <3 Å, must be considered. For larger KCO distances the ω shift is small, <200 cm -1, and almost entirely due to electrostatic effects. In fact, on a metal surface the adsorbed K atoms become positively charged, a mechanism which is reinforced when the CO molecules are coadsorbed. The interaction between the resulting electric field and the CO dipole lowers the CO ω e. However, the large shift found for short KCO distances has a dominantly electronic origin. We show unambiguously that the chemical mechanism which determines the large negative shift is not the direct charge transfer from the K 4s orbital to the empty levels of CO, but rather the increased back donation from the Cu conduction band electrons. These latter are strongly polarized toward CO because of the presence of the K ions on the surface and can overlap more efficiently with the CO accepting orbitals.

  5. Shift work or food intake during the rest phase promotes metabolic disruption and desynchrony of liver genes in male rats.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work.

  6. Shift Work or Food Intake during the Rest Phase Promotes Metabolic Disruption and Desynchrony of Liver Genes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C.; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N.; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work. PMID:23565183

  7. DNA Methylation of the Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a) Promoter Is Involved in Temperature-Dependent Sex Ratio Shifts in the European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Martín, Laia; Viñas, Jordi; Ribas, Laia; Díaz, Noelia; Gutiérrez, Arantxa; Di Croce, Luciano; Piferrer, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb), a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a), the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:22242011

  8. BF3·OEt2-Promoted Synthesis of 2,3-Metallocenocyclohexanones: A 1,2-Hydride Shift and Cationic Cyclization Strategy.

    PubMed

    He, Congfa; Wang, Jie; Gu, Zhenhua

    2015-08-21

    A BF3·OEt2-promoted cyclization of metallocenyl enones to form cyclohexanone-fused metallocenes is reported. 2,3-Metallocenocyclohexanones were formed exclusively, and no normal Nazarov-type cyclopentanone analogues were detected. The reaction possibly proceeded via an unusual cationic 1,2-hydride shift followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylative cyclization process. During the studies of the alkylation reaction of these keto esters, an unusual and rare facial selectivity was observed. The electrophiles would be attacked from the same face as the second Cp ring. PMID:26222272

  9. EPA protects against muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by promoting a shift from the M1 to M2 macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Samara Camaçari de; Apolinário, Leticia Montanholi; Matheus, Selma Maria Michelin; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2013-11-15

    In dystrophic mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, inflammation contributes to myonecrosis. Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased inflammation and necrosis in dystrophic muscle. In the present study, we examined the effects of EPA and the corticoid deflazacort (DFZ) as modulators of M1 (iNOS-expressing cells) and M2 (CD206-expressing cells) macrophages. Mdx mice (14 days old) received EPA or DFZ for 16 days. The diaphragm, biceps brachii and quadriceps muscles were studied. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and ELISA assays showed that EPA increased interleucin-10, reduced interferon-γ and was more effective than DFZ in promoting a shift from M1 to M2.

  10. Repeated climate-linked host shifts have promoted diversification in a temperate clade of leaf-mining flies.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Isaac S; Mitter, Charles; Scheffer, Sonja J

    2009-10-27

    A central but little-tested prediction of "escape and radiation" coevolution is that colonization of novel, chemically defended host plant clades accelerates insect herbivore diversification. That theory, in turn, exemplifies one side of a broader debate about the relative influence on clade dynamics of intrinsic (biotic) vs. extrinsic (physical-environmental) forces. Here, we use a fossil-calibrated molecular chronogram to compare the effects of a major biotic factor (repeated shift to a chemically divergent host plant clade) and a major abiotic factor (global climate change) on the macroevolutionary dynamics of a large Cenozoic radiation of phytophagous insects, the leaf-mining fly genus Phytomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae). We find one of the first statistically supported examples of consistently elevated net diversification accompanying shift to new plant clades. In contrast, we detect no significant direct effect on diversification of major global climate events in the early and late Oligocene. The broader paleoclimatic context strongly suggests, however, that climate change has at times had a strong indirect influence through its effect on the biotic environment. Repeated rapid Miocene radiation of these flies on temperate herbaceous asterids closely corresponds to the dramatic, climate-driven expansion of seasonal, open habitats. PMID:19805134

  11. Focal adhesion kinase-promoted tumor glucose metabolism is associated with a shift of mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Gao, Q; Zhou, Y; Dier, U; Hempel, N; Hochwald, S N

    2016-04-14

    Cancer cells often gains a growth advantage by taking up glucose at a high rate and undergoing aerobic glycolysis through intrinsic cellular factors that reprogram glucose metabolism. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key transmitter of growth factor and anchorage stimulation, is aberrantly overexpressed or activated in most solid tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We determined whether FAK can act as an intrinsic driver to promote aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. FAK inhibition decreases and overexpression increases intracellular glucose levels during unfavorable conditions, including growth factor deficiency and cell detachment. Amplex glucose assay, fluorescence and carbon-13 tracing studies demonstrate that FAK promotes glucose consumption and glucose-to-lactate conversion. Extracellular flux analysis indicates that FAK enhances glycolysis and decreases mitochondrial respiration. FAK increases key glycolytic proteins, including enolase, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), lactate dehydrogenase and monocarboxylate transporter. Furthermore, active/tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK directly binds to PKM2 and promotes PKM2-mediated glycolysis. On the other hand, FAK-decreased levels of mitochondrial complex I can result in reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Attenuation of FAK-enhanced glycolysis re-sensitizes cancer cells to growth factor withdrawal, decreases cell viability and reduces growth of tumor xenografts. These observations, for the first time, establish a vital role of FAK in cancer glucose metabolism through alterations in the OXPHOS-to-glycolysis balance. Broadly targeting the common phenotype of aerobic glycolysis and more specifically FAK-reprogrammed glucose metabolism will disrupt the bioenergetic and biosynthetic supply for uncontrolled growth of tumors, particularly glycolytic PDAC.

  12. Focal adhesion kinase-promoted tumor glucose metabolism is associated with a shift of mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianliang; Gao, Qile; Zhou, Ying; Dier, Usawadee; Hempel, Nadine; Hochwald, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells often gains a growth advantage by taking up glucose at a high rate and undergoing aerobic glycolysis through intrinsic cellular factors that reprogram glucose metabolism. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key transmitter of growth factor and anchorage stimulation, is aberrantly overexpressed or activated in most solid tumors including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We determined whether FAK can act as an intrinsic driver to promote aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. FAK inhibition decreases and overexpression increases intracellular glucose levels during unfavorable conditions including growth factor deficiency and cell detachment. Amplex glucose assay, fluorescence and carbon-13 tracing studies demonstrate that FAK promotes glucose consumption and glucose-to-lactate conversion. Extracellular flux analysis indicates that FAK enhances glycolysis and decreases mitochondrial respiration. FAK increases key glycolytic proteins including enolase, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), lactate dehydrogenase and monocarboxylate transporter. Furthermore, active/tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK directly binds to PKM2 and promotes PKM2-mediated glycolysis. On the other hand, FAK-decreased levels of mitochondrial complex I can result in reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Attenuation of FAK-enhanced glycolysis re-sensitizes cancer cells to growth factor withdrawal, decreases cell viability, and reduces growth of tumor xenografts. These observations, for the first time, establish a vital role of FAK in cancer glucose metabolism through alterations in the OXPHOS-to-glycolysis balance. Broadly targeting the common phenotype of aerobic glycolysis and more specifically FAK-reprogrammed glucose metabolism will disrupt the bioenergetic and biosynthetic supply for uncontrolled growth of tumors, particularly glycolytic PDAC. PMID:26119934

  13. Novel Comparative Pattern Count Analysis Reveals a Chronic Ethanol-Induced Dynamic Shift in Immediate Early NF-κB Genome-wide Promoter Binding During Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Patra, Biswanath; Hoek, Jan B; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a clinically important process that is impaired by adaptation to chronic alcohol intake. We focused on the initial time points following partial hepatectomy (PHx) to analyze genome-wide binding activity of NF-κB, a key immediate early regulator. We investigated the effect of chronic alcohol intake on immediate early NF-κB genome-wide localization, in the adapted state as well as in response to partial hepatectomy, using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by promoter microarray analysis. We found many ethanol-specific NF-κB binding target promoters in the ethanol-adapted state, corresponding to regulation of biosynthetic processes, oxidation-reduction and apoptosis. Partial hepatectomy induced a diet-independent shift in NF-κB binding loci relative to the transcription start sites. We employed a novel pattern count analysis to exhaustively enumerate and compare the number of promoters corresponding to the temporal binding patterns in ethanol and pair-fed control groups. The highest pattern count corresponded to promoters with NF-κB binding exclusively in the ethanol group at 1h post PHx. This set was associated with regulation of cell death, response to oxidative stress, histone modification, mitochondrial function, and metabolic processes. Integration with the global gene expression profiles to identify putative transcriptional consequences of NF-κB binding patterns revealed that several of ethanol-specific 1h binding targets showed ethanol-specific differential expression through 6h post PHx. Motif analysis yielded co-incident binding loci for STAT3, AP-1, CREB, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α, likely participating in co-regulatory modules with NF-κB in shaping the immediate early response to PHx. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake disrupts the NF-κB promoter binding landscape with consequences for the immediate early gene regulatory response to the acute challenge of PHx. PMID:26847025

  14. An auxin-mediated shift toward growth isotropy promotes organ formation at the shoot meristem in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Massimiliano; Ali, Olivier; Boudon, Frédéric; Cloarec, Gladys; Abad, Ursula; Cellier, Coralie; Chen, Xu; Gilles, Benjamin; Milani, Pascale; Friml, Jiří; Vernoux, Teva; Godin, Christophe; Hamant, Olivier; Traas, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To control morphogenesis, molecular regulatory networks have to interfere with the mechanical properties of the individual cells of developing organs and tissues, but how this is achieved is not well known. We study this issue here in the shoot meristem of higher plants, a group of undifferentiated cells where complex changes in growth rates and directions lead to the continuous formation of new organs. Here, we show that the plant hormone auxin plays an important role in this process via a dual, local effect on the extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which determines cell shape. Our study reveals that auxin not only causes a limited reduction in wall stiffness but also directly interferes with wall anisotropy via the regulation of cortical microtubule dynamics. We further show that to induce growth isotropy and organ outgrowth, auxin somehow interferes with the cortical microtubule-ordering activity of a network of proteins, including AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 and KATANIN 1. Numerical simulations further indicate that the induced isotropy is sufficient to amplify the effects of the relatively minor changes in wall stiffness to promote organogenesis and the establishment of new growth axes in a robust manner.

  15. Semaphorin 3A Shifts Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells towards Osteogenic Phenotype and Promotes Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangwei; Tan, Naiwen; Zhou, Yuchao; Zhou, Xueying; Chen, Hui; Wei, Hongbo; Chen, Ji; Xu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are considered as the promising seed cells for bone regeneration. However, the lower osteogenic differentiation capacity limits its therapeutic efficacy. Identification of the key molecules governing the differences between ASCs and BMSCs would shed light on manipulation of ASCs towards osteogenic phenotype. In this study, we screened semaphorin family members in ASCs and BMSCs and identified Sema3A as an osteogenic semaphorin that was significantly and predominantly expressed in BMSCs. The analyses in vitro showed that the overexpression of Sema3A in ASCs significantly enhanced the expression of bone-related genes and extracellular matrix calcium deposition, while decreasing the expression of adipose-related genes and thus lipid droplet formation, resembling a BMSCs phenotype. Furthermore, Sema3A modified ASCs were then engrafted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to repair the critical-sized calvarial defects in rat model. As expected, Sema3A modified ASCs encapsulation significantly promoted new bone formation with higher bone volume fraction and bone mineral density. Additionally, Sema3A was found to simultaneously increase multiple Wnt related genes and thus activating Wnt pathway. Taken together, our study here identifies Sema3A as a critical gene for osteogenic phenotype and reveals that Sema3A-modified ASCs would serve as a promising candidate for bettering bone defect repair. PMID:27721834

  16. An auxin-mediated shift toward growth isotropy promotes organ formation at the shoot meristem in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Massimiliano; Ali, Olivier; Boudon, Frédéric; Cloarec, Gladys; Abad, Ursula; Cellier, Coralie; Chen, Xu; Gilles, Benjamin; Milani, Pascale; Friml, Jiří; Vernoux, Teva; Godin, Christophe; Hamant, Olivier; Traas, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To control morphogenesis, molecular regulatory networks have to interfere with the mechanical properties of the individual cells of developing organs and tissues, but how this is achieved is not well known. We study this issue here in the shoot meristem of higher plants, a group of undifferentiated cells where complex changes in growth rates and directions lead to the continuous formation of new organs. Here, we show that the plant hormone auxin plays an important role in this process via a dual, local effect on the extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which determines cell shape. Our study reveals that auxin not only causes a limited reduction in wall stiffness but also directly interferes with wall anisotropy via the regulation of cortical microtubule dynamics. We further show that to induce growth isotropy and organ outgrowth, auxin somehow interferes with the cortical microtubule-ordering activity of a network of proteins, including AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 and KATANIN 1. Numerical simulations further indicate that the induced isotropy is sufficient to amplify the effects of the relatively minor changes in wall stiffness to promote organogenesis and the establishment of new growth axes in a robust manner. PMID:25264254

  17. Shifts in Developmental Timing, and Not Increased Levels of Experience-Dependent Neuronal Activity, Promote Barrel Expansion in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Rats Enucleated at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; Ibarrarán-Viniegra, Ana Sofía; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Padilla-Cortés, Patricia; Mercado-Célis, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Birth-enucleated rodents display enlarged representations of whiskers (i.e., barrels of the posteromedial subfield) in the primary somatosensory cortex. Although the historical view maintains that barrel expansion is due to incremental increases in neuronal activity along the trigeminal pathway during postnatal development, recent evidence obtained in experimental models of intramodal plasticity challenges this view. Here, we re-evaluate the role of experience-dependent neuronal activity on barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats by combining various anatomical methods and sensory deprivation paradigms. We show that barrels in birth-enucleated rats were already enlarged by the end of the first week of life and had levels of metabolic activity comparable to those in control rats at different ages. Dewhiskering after the postnatal period of barrel formation did not prevent barrel expansion in adult, birth-enucleated rats. Further, dark rearing and enucleation after barrel formation did not lead to expanded barrels in adult brains. Because incremental increases of somatosensory experience did not promote barrel expansion in birth-enucleated rats, we explored whether shifts of the developmental timing could better explain barrel expansion during the first week of life. Accordingly, birth-enucleated rats show earlier formation of barrels, accelerated growth of somatosensory thalamocortical afferents, and an earlier H4 deacetylation. Interestingly, when H4 deacetylation was prevented with a histone deacetylases inhibitor (valproic acid), barrel specification timing returned to normal and barrel expansion did not occur. Thus, we provide evidence supporting that shifts in developmental timing modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, and not increased levels of experience dependent neuronal activity, promote barrel expansion in the primary somatosensory cortex of rats enucleated at birth. PMID:23372796

  18. Gel mobility shift scanning of pectin-inducible promoter from Penicillium griseoroseum reveals the involvement of a CCAAT element in the expression of a polygalacturonase gene

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Previous reports have described pgg2, a polygalacturonase-encoding gene of Penicillium griseoroseum, as an attractive model for transcriptional regulation studies, due to its high expression throughout several in vitro growth conditions, even in the presence of non-inducing sugars such as sucrose. A search for regulatory motifs in the 5' upstream regulatory sequence of pgg2 identified a putative CCAAT box that could justify this expression profile. This element, located 270 bp upstream of the translational start codon, was tested as binding target for regulatory proteins. Analysis of a 170 bp promoter fragment by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with nuclear extracts prepared from mycelia grown in pectin-containing culture medium revealed a high mobility complex that was subsequently confirmed by analyzing it with a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the CCAAT motif. A substitution in the core sequence for GTAGG partially abolished the formation of specific complexes, showing the involvement of the CCAAT box in the regulation of the polygalacturonase gene studied. PMID:21637657

  19. Fibulin-5 localisation in human endometrial cancer shifts from epithelial to stromal with increasing tumour grade, and silencing promotes endometrial epithelial cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    WINSHIP, AMY LOUISE; RAINCZUK, KATE; TON, AMANDA; DIMITRIADIS, EVA

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological malignancy. While endocrine, genetic and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis, its precise etiology and molecular regulators remain poorly understood. Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that inhibits cell growth and invasion in several cancer cell types and is downregulated in a number of types of human cancer. However, it is unknown whether fibulin-5 plays a role in endometrial tumourigenesis. In the current report, the expression and localisation of fibulin-5 in type I endometrioid human endometrial cancers of grades (G) 1–3 was investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Fibulin-5 mRNA was found to be significantly reduced in whole tumour tissues from women across G1-3 compared with benign endometrium (P<0.0001). Consistently, fibulin-5 protein was also reduced in the tumour epithelial compartment across increasing tumour grades. By contrast, increased protein localisation to the tumour stroma was observed with increasing grade. Knockdown by small interfering RNA in Ishikawa endometrial epithelial cancer cells expressing fibulin-5 stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. Fibulin-5 mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells was induced by transforming growth factor-β and fibulin-5 in turn activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), suggesting that it may act via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In summary, the present study identified fibulin-5 as a downregulated ECM gene in human endometrial cancer and observed a shift from epithelial to stromal protein localisation with increasing tumour grade in women. These data suggest that loss of fibulin-5 function may promote endometrial cancer progression by enhancing epithelial cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:27347195

  20. The Shifting Medical Paradigm: From Disease Prevention to Health Promotion. Proceedings of a Conference (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, March 20-21, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironside, Anne, Ed.; Weinstein, Mal, Ed.

    The health problems of today are different from those of the past and therefore demand new health care approaches and policies. The goals of the conference on disease prevention and health promotion were: to increase knowledge and understanding of the range of approaches to health promotion; to exchange information about the cost and effectiveness…

  1. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  2. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  3. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  4. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  5. A novel comparative pattern count analysis reveals a chronic ethanol-induced dynamic shift in immediate early NF-κB genome-wide promoter binding during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Patra, Biswanath; Hoek, Jan B; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-03-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a clinically important process that is impaired by adaptation to chronic alcohol intake. We focused on the initial time points following partial hepatectomy (PHx) to analyze the genome-wide binding activity of NF-κB, a key immediate early regulator. We investigated the effect of chronic alcohol intake on immediate early NF-κB genome-wide localization, in the adapted state as well as in response to partial hepatectomy, using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by promoter microarray analysis. We found many ethanol-specific NF-κB binding target promoters in the ethanol-adapted state, corresponding to the regulation of biosynthetic processes, oxidation-reduction and apoptosis. Partial hepatectomy induced a diet-independent shift in NF-κB binding loci relative to the transcription start sites. We employed a novel pattern count analysis to exhaustively enumerate and compare the number of promoters corresponding to the temporal binding patterns in ethanol and pair-fed control groups. The highest pattern count corresponded to promoters with NF-κB binding exclusively in the ethanol group at 1 h post PHx. This set was associated with the regulation of cell death, response to oxidative stress, histone modification, mitochondrial function, and metabolic processes. Integration with the global gene expression profiles to identify putative transcriptional consequences of NF-κB binding patterns revealed that several of ethanol-specific 1 h binding targets showed ethanol-specific differential expression through 6 h post PHx. Motif analysis yielded co-incident binding loci for STAT3, AP-1, CREB, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α, likely participating in co-regulatory modules with NF-κB in shaping the immediate early response to PHx. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake disrupts the NF-κB promoter binding landscape with consequences for the immediate early gene regulatory response to the acute challenge of PHx.

  6. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  7. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this

  8. Gear shift control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, D.A.

    1987-03-10

    A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

  9. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  10. Chemical shifts in biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Case, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary NMR chemical shifts are sensitive probes of stucture and dynamics in proteins. Empirical models, based on a large database of measured shifts, take an input structure and provide increasingly accurate estimates of the corresponding shifts. Quantum chemical calculations can provide the same information, with greater generality but (currently) with less accuracy. These methods are now providing new ways to approach NMR structure determination, and new insights into the conformational dynamics of proteins. PMID:23422068

  11. Spectral shift amplification.

    PubMed

    Han, Pin

    2012-12-01

    The behavior of a limited bandwidth light wave reflected from a material interface is studied theoretically. It is shown that near the anomalous dispersion zone, if the incident center wavelength is shifted by a small amount, this shift can be amplified by about three times in the reflected light. PMID:23202082

  12. Style Shift in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qinai, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…

  13. Spectral shift amplification.

    PubMed

    Han, Pin

    2012-12-01

    The behavior of a limited bandwidth light wave reflected from a material interface is studied theoretically. It is shown that near the anomalous dispersion zone, if the incident center wavelength is shifted by a small amount, this shift can be amplified by about three times in the reflected light.

  14. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  15. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  16. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  17. Pure shift NMR.

    PubMed

    Zangger, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Although scalar-coupling provides important structural information, the resulting signal splittings significantly reduce the resolution of NMR spectra. Limited resolution is a particular problem in proton NMR experiments, resulting in part from the limited proton chemical shift range (∼10 ppm) but even more from the splittings due to scalar coupling to nearby protons. "Pure shift" NMR spectroscopy (also known as broadband homonuclear decoupling) has been developed for disentangling overlapped proton NMR spectra. The resulting spectra are considerably simplified as they consist of single lines, reminiscent of proton-decoupled C-13 spectra at natural abundance, with no multiplet structure. The different approaches to obtaining pure shift spectra are reviewed here and several applications presented. Pure shift spectra are especially useful for highly overlapped proton spectra, as found for example in reaction mixtures, natural products and biomacromolecules.

  18. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  19. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  20. Vehicular transmission shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Okubo, K.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission having a main speed change mechanism and a sub speed change mechanism both housed within a transmission case. The main speed change mechanism has gear trains in plural shifting stages provided between input and output shafts and capable of being established selectively and also has a plurality of synchronizing mechanisms operable by shift forks to establish the gear trains selectively. The sub speed change mechanism has a reduction gear train for obtaining a still lower speed than the lowest shifting stage in the main speed change mechanism and also has a sub speed gear shifting synchronizing mechanism operable by a sub speed gear shift fork to establish the reduction gear train. This sub speed change mechanism is disposed in parallel with the main speed change mechanism, the sub speed gear shift fork having means connected to one end of a lever pivotably supported at an intermediate part thereof by a pivot pin, the pivot pin being mounted on the transmission case from the outside thereof.

  1. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  2. Predicting catastrophic shifts.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2016-05-21

    Catastrophic shifts are known to pose a serious threat to ecology, and a reliable set of early warning indicators is desperately needed. However, the tools suggested so far have two problems. First, they cannot discriminate between a smooth transition and an imminent irreversible shift. Second, they aimed at predicting the tipping point where a state loses its stability, but in noisy spatial system the actual transition occurs when an alternative state invades. Here we suggest a cluster tracking technique that solves both problems, distinguishing between smooth and catastrophic transitions and to identify an imminent shift in both cases. Our method may allow for the prediction, and thus hopefully the prevention of such transitions, avoiding their destructive outcomes. PMID:26970446

  3. Cellular cooperation with shift updating and repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Adlam, Ben; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Population structure can facilitate evolution of cooperation. In a structured population, cooperators can form clusters which resist exploitation by defectors. Recently, it was observed that a shift update rule is an extremely strong amplifier of cooperation in a one dimensional spatial model. For the shift update rule, an individual is chosen for reproduction proportional to fecundity; the offspring is placed next to the parent; a random individual dies. Subsequently, the population is rearranged (shifted) until all individual cells are again evenly spaced out. For large population size and a one dimensional population structure, the shift update rule favors cooperation for any benefit-to-cost ratio greater than one. But every attempt to generalize shift updating to higher dimensions while maintaining its strong effect has failed. The reason is that in two dimensions the clusters are fragmented by the movements caused by rearranging the cells. Here we introduce the natural phenomenon of a repulsive force between cells of different types. After a birth and death event, the cells are being rearranged minimizing the overall energy expenditure. If the repulsive force is sufficiently high, shift becomes a strong promoter of cooperation in two dimensions. PMID:26602306

  4. Non-centrosymmetric Y(HCOO)3 · 2 H2O crystal. A new inorganic material for Raman lasers with large frequency shift of three promoting vibration modes of its [O-CH-O]- formate anions: effective high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and cascaded self-frequency [(3)(SRS) (2)(SHG, SFM)] and [(2)(SHG, SFM) (3)(SRS)] conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Bohatý, L.; Becker, P.; Eichler, H. J.; Hanuza, J.; Maczka, M.; Ueda, K.; Takaichi, K.; Rhee, H.; Gad, G. M. A.

    2004-11-01

    Efficient multi-phonon steady-state stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) was excited in the novel (3)-active crystal of orthorhombic yttrium formate dihydrate, Y(HCOO)3 . 2 H2O, at room temperature under picosecond laser pumping in the visible and near-IR regions. Besides high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in this non-centrosymmetric crystal, several cascaded second ((2))- and third (χ(3))-order nonlinear interactions were observed under 1 μm pumping. Among them are self-frequency χ(2) χ(3) conversion effects by simultaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) and SRS, as well as χ(3) χ(2) lasing action by successive SRS + SHG and SRS + SFM (sum-frequency mixing). All the recorded Raman-induced lasing wavelengths were identified and attributed to the SRS-promoting optical vibration modes wSRS1 1395 cm-1, wSRS2 1377 cm-1 and wSRS3 2895 cm-1 of the [O-HC-O]- ionic groups of the crystal. The measured large Raman frequency shifts and estimated moderately high steady-state Raman gain coefficient for the first Stokes generation (gSt1-1ssR ≥ 7.5 cm GW-1) in the visible of the first SRS-promoting mode, as well as the fact that it is easy to grow large crystals of Y(HCOO)3 . 2 H2O make this material attractive for a number of new applications in modern quantum electronics and nonlinear optics. Y(HCOO)3 . 2 H2O offers the largest Raman frequency shifts among all known SRS-active inorganic crystals.

  5. Trophic shift, not collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Stow, Craig A.; Roseman, Edward F.; He, Ji X.

    2013-01-01

    scientists who are closely monitoring Lake Huron’s food web, we believe that the ongoing changes are more accurately characterized as a trophic shift in which benthic pathways have become more prominent. While decreases in abundance have occurred for some species, others are experiencing improved reproduction resulting in the restoration of several important native species.

  6. Eluding catastrophic shifts

    PubMed Central

    Villa Martín, Paula; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Transitions between regimes with radically different properties are ubiquitous in nature. Such transitions can occur either smoothly or in an abrupt and catastrophic fashion. Important examples of the latter can be found in ecology, climate sciences, and economics, to name a few, where regime shifts have catastrophic consequences that are mostly irreversible (e.g., desertification, coral reef collapses, and market crashes). Predicting and preventing these abrupt transitions remains a challenging and important task. Usually, simple deterministic equations are used to model and rationalize these complex situations. However, stochastic effects might have a profound effect. Here we use 1D and 2D spatially explicit models to show that intrinsic (demographic) stochasticity can alter deterministic predictions dramatically, especially in the presence of other realistic features such as limited mobility or spatial heterogeneity. In particular, these ingredients can alter the possibility of catastrophic shifts by giving rise to much smoother and easily reversible continuous ones. The ideas presented here can help further understand catastrophic shifts and contribute to the discussion about the possibility of preventing such shifts to minimize their disruptive ecological, economic, and societal consequences. PMID:25825772

  7. Eluding catastrophic shifts.

    PubMed

    Villa Martín, Paula; Bonachela, Juan A; Levin, Simon A; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-04-14

    Transitions between regimes with radically different properties are ubiquitous in nature. Such transitions can occur either smoothly or in an abrupt and catastrophic fashion. Important examples of the latter can be found in ecology, climate sciences, and economics, to name a few, where regime shifts have catastrophic consequences that are mostly irreversible (e.g., desertification, coral reef collapses, and market crashes). Predicting and preventing these abrupt transitions remains a challenging and important task. Usually, simple deterministic equations are used to model and rationalize these complex situations. However, stochastic effects might have a profound effect. Here we use 1D and 2D spatially explicit models to show that intrinsic (demographic) stochasticity can alter deterministic predictions dramatically, especially in the presence of other realistic features such as limited mobility or spatial heterogeneity. In particular, these ingredients can alter the possibility of catastrophic shifts by giving rise to much smoother and easily reversible continuous ones. The ideas presented here can help further understand catastrophic shifts and contribute to the discussion about the possibility of preventing such shifts to minimize their disruptive ecological, economic, and societal consequences.

  8. Strategies for the implementation of new shift systems.

    PubMed

    Knauth, P

    2001-12-01

    Implementation barriers may be caused by deficiencies in the knowledge, skills, motivation, or support of those involved in the process of implementation of a new shift system. There is no 'one and only' way of planning and implementing a new shift system. However, if the following factors of success are taken into consideration there is a better chance that workers will accept a new shift system: worker participation, information, communication, training, promoter commitment, professional project management, tailor-made solutions and an adequate organizational framework. These factors are particularly relevant in addressing barriers to the implementation of new shift systems. The most important measures to cope with resistance to change of shift systems are: worker participation, information, communication, training, promoter commitment, professional project management, tailor-made solutions and an adequate organizational framework. PMID:14564851

  9. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian

    2001-10-01

    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  10. Elective automatic shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Redzinski, G.E.

    1986-09-02

    For use in vehicle of the type having an engine coupled with traction wheels through a driveline including a change-speed transmission, the transmission includes drive direction reversing means, a drive direction selector for manual control of the reversing means and having a forward and reverse position, the transmission including ratio changing means, a manual gear selector for operation of the ratio changing means for shifting the transmission into a selected gear, and control means responsive to a control signal for upshifting and downshifting between first and second gears.

  11. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  12. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  13. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  14. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1999-08-03

    An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

  15. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  16. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  17. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  18. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook.

  19. Synchronized trend shift of Sahel rainfall with global oceanic evaporation occurred in the mid-1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diawara, Alima; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hatsumi; Ando, Yuta

    2015-04-01

    Trend shift of Sahel rainfall from decrease to increase occurred in the mid-1980s. This trend shift and its relation to global oceans were investigated by data analyses. We discovered that the Sahel trend shift was synchronized with the trend shift of global oceanic evaporation, with time series like a '' shape, i.e., from decrease to increase. Land precipitation also tended to have the '' shaped trend shift except America continents. The trend shift of the oceanic evaporation was mainly in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), extending to the subtropical Northern Hemisphere (NH) including the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. Because the increase of oceanic evaporation strengthens atmospheric moisture transport toward the land, the synchronized trend shifts of the oceanic evaporation with the land precipitation is reasonable. Surface scalar winds over the oceans in the SH had the '' shaped trend shift. Sea surface temperature (SST) also had the trend shifts in the mid-1980s: a '/\\' shaped in SH, while '' shaped in the NH. In spite of the opposite SST trend shift of the NH to the SH, the evaporation trend shift was in the '' shape in the both hemispheres. Since strong wind promotes evaporation cooling of the SST, the SH wind trend shift strengthened the trend shifts of both SSTs and the evaporation. Because high SST anomalies promote the evaporation, the NH SST trend shift strengthened the evaporation trend shift.

  20. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  1. Evolutionary shift dynamics on a cycle

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of evolutionary dynamics in one-dimensional space. Individuals are arranged on a cycle. When a new offspring is born, another individual dies and the rest shift around the cycle to make room. This rule, which is inspired by spatial evolution in somatic tissue and microbial colonies, has the remarkable property that, in the limit of large population size, evolution acts to maximize the payoff of the whole population. Therefore, social dilemmas, in which some individuals benefit at the expense of others, are resolved. We demonstrate this principle for both discrete and continuous games. We also discuss extensions of our model to other one-dimensional spatial configurations. We conclude that shift dynamics in one dimension is an unusually strong promoter of cooperative behavior. PMID:22814475

  2. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research.

  3. Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers.

    PubMed

    Lennernäs, M; Hambraeus, L; Akerstedt, T

    1995-12-01

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  4. Portable shift register

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M[sup 3]CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M[sup 3]CA; like the M[sup 3]CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel.

  5. Shift work, safety, and aging.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Simon

    2008-04-01

    It has long been recognized that older shift workers may have shorter and more disturbed day sleeps between successive night shifts than their younger colleagues. This has given rise to considerable concern over the safety of aging shift workers because of the increasing age of the work force and increases in retirement age. Because there have been no direct studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on safety, the present paper begins by reviewing the literature relating safety to features of shift systems. It then considers the general effect of age on occupational injury rates before examining existing evidence of the combined effects of shift work and age on performance capabilities. The results of the literature review indicate that when the a priori risk is constant, there is reasonably clear evidence that injury rates are higher at night, and that they increase over successive night shifts more rapidly than over successive day shifts. Further, although occupational injuries are less frequent in older workers, those that do occur tend to be more serious. Finally, there is some suggestive evidence from studies of objectively measured performance capabilities that older workers may be less able to both maintain their performance over the course of a night shift and cope with longer spans of successive night shifts. It is concluded that it seems possible, even though unproven as yet, that older workers may be at greater risk both to injury and accident on the night shift. There is a strong need for future epidemiological studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on injuries and accidents, and that these should attempt to separate the effects of age per se from those of generation. PMID:18484360

  6. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  7. Shifts in fisheries management: adapting to regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    King, Jacquelynne R.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Punt, André E.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, fisheries management was based on optimizing yield and maintaining a target biomass, with little regard given to low-frequency environmental forcing. However, this policy was often unsuccessful. In the last two to three decades, fisheries science and management have undergone a shift towards balancing sustainable yield with conservation, with the goal of including ecosystem considerations in decision-making frameworks. Scientific understanding of low-frequency climate–ocean variability, which is manifested as ecosystem regime shifts and states, has led to attempts to incorporate these shifts and states into fisheries assessment and management. To date, operationalizing these attempts to provide tactical advice has met with limited success. We review efforts to incorporate regime shifts and states into the assessment and management of fisheries resources, propose directions for future investigation and outline a potential framework to include regime shifts and changes in ecosystem states into fisheries management.

  8. Water-gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    A review covers the industrial applications of the water-gas shift reaction in hydrogen manufacturing, removing CO from ammonia synthesis feeds, and detoxifying town gas; and the catalyst characteristics, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanisms of the water-gas shift reactions catalyzed by iron-based, copper-based, or sulfided cobalt-molybdenum catalysts.

  9. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  10. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    PubMed

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  11. Cancellation of nonlinear Zeeman shifts with light shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K.; Acosta, V. M.; Higbie, J. M.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Rochester, S. M.; Budker, D.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear Zeeman (NLZ) shifts arising from magnetic-field mixing of the two hyperfine ground states in alkali-metal atoms lead to splitting of magnetic-resonance lines. This is a major source of sensitivity degradation and the so-called “heading errors” of alkali-metal-vapor atomic magnetometers operating in the geophysical field range (B≈0.2-0.7G) . Here, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that NLZ shifts can be effectively canceled by light shifts caused by a laser field of appropriate intensity, polarization, and frequency, a technique that can be readily applied in practical situations.

  12. Rhetoric or Reality: Shifts in Graduate Career Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Noeleen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with human resource specialists at 20 companies that are major recruiters found most attempting to change the nature of the traditional employer-employee relationship. Subtle shifts are evident in the definition of a career culture, promotion and career development practices, and organizational expectations. (SK)

  13. Orchestrating energy for shifting busyness to strategic work.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R; Hites, Lisle

    2015-03-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the authors discuss the elements of busy work and offers strategies for shifting to focused, strategic work. A useful energy preservation framework is introduced to promote vitality that drives engagement, productivity, and innovation. PMID:25689495

  14. Health effects of shift work.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J

    1982-12-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other "alternative work schedules" grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended.

  15. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  16. [Shift work and cardiometabolic risk].

    PubMed

    Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Bracci, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    Shift work is frequently associated with coronary heart disease. Medical research indicate metabolic disturbance among shift workers, which is characterized by associated modifications in the concentration of serum glucose and serum lipids, hypertension and obesity, especially addominal weight. Atrasversal study has been carried out: 193 (126 females and 67 males) healthcare shift workers were compared with 221 (160 females and 61 males) day workers. Medical history, health examination including anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements were assessed. All participants were submitted a standardized questionnaire on health-related behaviours and biochemical determinations (fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides). Job seniority of shift work resulted at 13.5 +/- 8.2 among shift workers and 19.0 +/- 11.3 among day workers. Assessment of the metabolic syndrome relevance was defined according to the criterions proposed by the International Diabetes Federation. The 20% shift workers (33% males and 13% females) was affected by metabolic syndrome against 12% non shift workers (20% males and 9% females). The most frequently altered parameter, apart from metabolic syndrome, was high abdominal obesity, which occurred in 64% of the sample (70% shift workers vs 58% day workers). The results of multiple logistic regression attested the presence of a higher relative risk among shift workers regarding both the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome (OR 2,1 - 95% Cl 1.15-3.86) and the excess in abdominal obesity (OR 1.8 - 95% Cl 1.16-3.25). After adjusting confusing factors such as smoke, age, alchool, consumption, physical activity, scholastic degree, a OR 2.9 - 95%Cl 1,53-5.53 and a OR 1.9 - 95%.Cl 1.32-3.86 were confirmed. PMID:20066881

  17. Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth.

    PubMed

    DiMichele, W A; Montañez, I P; Poulsen, C J; Tabor, N J

    2009-03-01

    The late Paleozoic earth experienced alternation between glacial and non-glacial climates at multiple temporal scales, accompanied by atmospheric CO2 fluctuations and global warming intervals, often attended by significant vegetational changes in equatorial latitudes of Pangaea. We assess the nature of climate-vegetation interaction during two time intervals: middle-late Pennsylvanian transition and Pennsylvanian-Permian transition, each marked by tropical warming and drying. In case study 1, there is a catastrophic intra-biomic reorganization of dominance and diversity in wetland, evergreen vegetation growing under humid climates. This represents a threshold-type change, possibly a regime shift to an alternative stable state. Case study 2 is an inter-biome dominance change in western and central Pangaea from humid wetland and seasonally dry to semi-arid vegetation. Shifts between these vegetation types had been occurring in Euramerican portions of the equatorial region throughout the late middle and late Pennsylvanian, the drier vegetation reaching persistent dominance by Early Permian. The oscillatory transition between humid and seasonally dry vegetation appears to demonstrate a threshold-like behavior but probably not repeated transitions between alternative stable states. Rather, changes in dominance in lowland equatorial regions were driven by long-term, repetitive climatic oscillations, occurring with increasing intensity, within overall shift to seasonal dryness through time. In neither case study are there clear biotic or abiotic warning signs of looming changes in vegetational composition or geographic distribution, nor is it clear that there are specific, absolute values or rates of environmental change in temperature, rainfall distribution and amount, or atmospheric composition, approach to which might indicate proximity to a terrestrial biotic-change threshold.

  18. Refining the shifted topological vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H.

    2009-01-15

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

  19. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  20. Comparisons of psychosomatic health and unhealthy behaviors between cleanroom workers in a 12-hour shift and those in an 8-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Kameda, M; Noborisaka, Y; Suzuki, H; Honda, M; Yamada, S

    2001-12-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and physical fitness tests were administered to 338 workers in clean rooms producing electronic parts in 12-h shifts. The results were compared to those in 95 workers in 8-h shifts and 284 daytime management, clerical and engineering workers. The 12-h shift workers complained of poor health, dissatisfaction with life and poor recuperation from fatigue more than the 8-h shift workers although the rates of complaints were highest in the daytime workers. The GHQ scores were similar in the two shift groups, and much better than those in the daytime workers. However, the 12-h shift workers showed significantly lower fitness levels than the 8-h shift workers, and the levels were even worse than the daytime workers who had higher mean age and BMI levels compared with the shift workers. The tendency to have sedentary freetime activities and larger alcohol and cigarette consumption were observed in the 12-h shift workers. The 12-h shift work may have contributed to the unhealthy behaviors resulting in lower physical fitness levels. Health promotion services at the workplace should devote greater attention to long-hour shift workers, together with devising the ways to improve working conditions and environments for reducing fatigue at work.

  1. The shifting foundations of nursing.

    PubMed

    Law, Kate; Aranda, Kay

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we argue that the concerns generated by the development of Foundation Degrees and the Assistant and Associate Practitioner roles have rekindled some of the unresolved debates regarding the status and identity of nursing and nurses. Through the application of the sociological theories of professionalisation and nostalgia we have identified the shifting and unresolved nature of nursing. We argue that these theories continue to have resonance in the current climate of change and 'upskilling' of the health care workforce and argue, that the shifts illuminated are perhaps so significant as to demonstrate that we have entered a post-nursing era.

  2. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  3. Shifting Patterns of Deadly Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiden, Richard H.; Freitas, Raymond P.

    1980-01-01

    While it is true that the total suicide rates has varied little, this composite figure masks a dramatic shift in the risk of suicide by age. In recent years there has been a reduction of suicide at older ages reciprocated by an unprecedented increase of suicide and homicide at younger ages. (Author)

  4. Illinois Shifting Gears Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Illinois Shifting Gears is a multilevel initiative that has simultaneously created bridge programs in the field and altered state policy to facilitate the creation of more programs in the future. These efforts have informed each other, giving policymakers the opportunity to interact with practitioners, troubleshoot bridge programs, and make…

  5. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  6. The Shift Needed for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this action research is to begin to assess to what extent organizations have in practice begun to make the shift towards triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, and key elements of TBL sustainability considered necessary to success are identified…

  7. Technology Counts 2012: Virtual Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Virtual education is moving into that intersection where rising popularity meets calls for greater accountability. How the virtual education movement responds to those calls will have a significant impact on how it evolves in K-12 over the next five to 10 years. This report tackles this shift in the virtual education landscape. It examines the…

  8. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  9. Shift control mechanism for a manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Gugin, D.G.

    1991-08-06

    This patent describes a shift control mechanism for a manual transmission having a transmission gear housing and a manual shift selecting lever. It comprises a shift selecting shaft mounted within the transmission gear housing for rotation and axial translation in response to selective manipulation of the shift selecting lever; a shift sleeve supported from the transmission gear housing; an actuating member secured to the shift selecting shaft for rotation and axial translation with the shift selecting shaft; synchronizer assemblies; the actuating member individually operating the synchronizer assemblies in response to selected manipulation of the shift selecting lever; alignment guide means interactive between the shift selecting shaft and the transmission gear housing to permit axial translation of the shift selecting shaft only when the shift selecting shaft has been rotated to align a locator means with a locating means.

  10. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size. PMID:27102066

  11. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  12. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift.

    PubMed

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  13. International regulations on the organization of shift work.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1998-01-01

    Changes since the early 1990s in international regulations on night and shift work were reviewed, including changes in complex shift systems, greater flexibility, increased female participation in night work and attention to health effects. Recent international regulations have focused on (i) a broadened scope of regulatory measures treating both genders equally, (ii) multifaceted protection, and (iii) consultation weighing many aspects of job design. The application of these international regulations depends on national laws and practice, with possible derogations. It calls for local support measures, including (i) guidelines for enterprise-level consultations on shift schedules, (ii) promotion of health and safety measures, and (iii) participatory strategies for locally adjusted shiftwork arrangements and social support.

  14. Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

  15. Phase-shift calibration algorithm for phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Gramaglia, M; Yeazell, J A

    2000-11-01

    We propose a novel phase-shift calibration algorithm. With this technique we determine the unknown phase shift between two interferograms by examining the sums and differences of the intensities on each interferogram at the same spatial location, i.e., I1(x, y) +/- I2(x, y). These intensities are normalized so that they become sinusoidal in form. A uniformly illuminated region of the interferograms that contains at least a 2pi variation in phase is examined. The extrema of these sums and differences are found in this region and are used to find the unknown phase shift. An error analysis of the algorithm is provided. In addition, an error-correction algorithm is implemented. The method is tested by numerical simulation and implemented experimentally. The numerical tests, including digitization error, indicate that the phase step has a root-mean-square (RMS) phase error of less than 10(-6) deg. Even in the presence of added intensity noise (5% amplitude) the RMS error does not exceed 1 deg. The accuracy of the technique is not sensitive to nonlinearity in the interferogram. PMID:11059603

  16. Guide to good practices for control of on-shift training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control of On-Shift Training, Chapter 5 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing on-shift training programs. ``Control of On-Shift Training`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessary for a coordinated on-shift training program to meet the continuous demand for skilled, well-trained personnel to promote safe and efficient operations.

  17. Water-gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent kinetic and mechanistic studies of the water-gas shift reaction, H/sub 2/O(g) + CO(g) reversible CO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/(g), catalyzed by iron and copper catalysts are reviewed. Composition, structure, active sites, preparation methods, additives, and poisons are discussed relative to each catalyst. New water-gas shift reaction catalyst systems studied are Mo-magnesia, Ni - Mo, Co - Mo, sulfided Co - Mo - Cs, sulfided Co - Mo, sulfided Ni - Mo, Co - Mo - Ni with added alkaki, and Co - Mo with added alkali, Cesium carbonate - cesium acetate - potassium carbonate or potassium acetate - Co - Mo is claimed to be an especially active catalyst. These new catalyst systems are sulfur tolerant and hold promise as catalysts for hydrogenation of high-sulfur coals. (BLM)

  18. Looping through the Lamb Shift

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Sometimes in science, a small measurement can have big ramifications. For a team of Livermore scientists, such was the case when they measured a small shift in the spectrum of extremely ionized atoms of uranium. The measurement involves the Lamb shift, a subtle change in the energy of an electron orbiting an atom's nucleus. The precision of the Livermore result was 10 times greater than that of existing measurements, making it the best measurement to date of a complicated correction to the simplest quantum description of how atoms behave. The measurement introduces a new realm in the search for deviations between the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is an extension of quantum mechanics, and the real world. Such deviations, if discovered, would have far-reaching consequences, indicating that QED is not a fundamental theory of nature.

  19. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  20. Boosting Shift-Invariant Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörnlein, Thomas; Jähne, Bernd

    This work presents a novel method for training shift-invariant features using a Boosting framework. Features performing local convolutions followed by subsampling are used to achieve shift-invariance. Other systems using this type of features, e.g. Convolutional Neural Networks, use complex feed-forward networks with multiple layers. In contrast, the proposed system adds features one at a time using smoothing spline base classifiers. Feature training optimizes base classifier costs. Boosting sample-reweighting ensures features to be both descriptive and independent. Our system has a lower number of design parameters as comparable systems, so adapting the system to new problems is simple. Also, the stage-wise training makes it very scalable. Experimental results show the competitiveness of our approach.

  1. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  2. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ulhôa, M. A.; Marqueze, E. C.; Burgos, L. G. A.; Moreno, C. R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes. PMID:25892993

  3. Generalized phase-shifting color digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takanori; Kawakami, Takaaki; Shinomura, Kazuma

    2016-06-01

    Two methods to apply the generalized phase-shifting digital holography to color digital holography are proposed. One is wave-splitting generalized phase-shifting color digital holography. This is realized by using a color Bayer camera. Another is multiple exposure generalized phase-shifting color digital holography. This is realized by the wavelength-dependent phase-shifting devices. Experimental results for both generalized phase-shifting color digital holography are presented to confirm the proposed methods.

  4. Sleep loss and circadian disruption in shift work: health burden and management.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Howard, Mark E; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2013-10-21

    About 1.5 million Australians are shift workers. Shift work is associated with adverse health, safety and performance outcomes. Circadian rhythm misalignment, inadequate and poor-quality sleep, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnoea, insomnia and shift work disorder (excessive sleepiness and/or insomnia temporally associated with the work schedule) contribute to these associations. Falling asleep at work at least once a week occurs in 32%-36% of shift workers. Risk of occupational accidents is at least 60% higher for non-day shift workers. Shift workers also have higher rates of cardiometabolic diseases and mood disturbances. Road and workplace accidents related to excessive sleepiness, to which shift work is a significant contributor, are estimated to cost $71-$93 billion per annum in the United States. There is growing evidence that understanding the interindividual variability in sleep-wake responses to shift work will help detect and manage workers vulnerable to the health consequences of shift work. A range of approaches can be used to enhance alertness in shift workers, including screening and treating sleep disorders, melatonin treatment to promote sleep during the daytime, and avoidance of inappropriate use of sedatives and wakefulness-promoters such as modafinil and caffeine. Short naps, which minimise sleep inertia, are generally effective. Shifting the circadian pacemaker with appropriately timed melatonin and/or bright light may be used to facilitate adjustment to a shift work schedule in some situations, such as a long sequence of night work. It is important to manage the health risk of shift workers by minimising vascular risk factors through dietary and other lifestyle approaches.

  5. Paradigm shifts in Medicare reform.

    PubMed

    Jones, S B; Etheredge, L

    1996-04-01

    Reforms passed by Congress and vetoed by the president during the past year would have accelerated initiatives already transforming Medicare. Operating in a rapidly changing insurance marketplace, Medicare is shifting from a social insurance model toward a private individual insurance model-expanding the number and type of alternative health plans it offers-and growing numbers of beneficiaries are enrolling in these plans. Such reforms, especially if bolstered by legislative reforms that are likely to resurface after the November elections, will rewrite the social contract enacted more than 30 years ago. They require fundamental shifts in ways of thinking about the federal government's responsibilities; the Medicare program's management; relations between the Medicare program and doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers; and the role of beneficiaries in the Medicare program. The likely deferral of further legislative attempts to reform Medicare affords an opportunity to step back and consider these ongoing changes. It is not easy to describe paradigm shifts accurately, but there are advantages to trying. First, conceptual comparisons can allow public discussion to go beyond budget scorekeeping and media soundbites to consider how different the Medicare program will be if it evolves in the new ways being proposed. Second, a conceptual framework can assist health policy analysts to target what to watch for in tracking changes, to assess the tradeoffs involved, and to advise about the needs for refining legislation. This paper includes examples of what to watch for in tracking the implemented changes. The paradigm shifts are summarized below, then described individually in terms of directions of change along a number of continuums. Note that complete paradigm shifts, from one end of a continuum to the other, are seldom completely realized nor even far advanced. But Medicare's ongoing reforms, accelerated by legislative proposals, seem likely predecessors of

  6. PROMOTING RESILIENCE.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Eric; Barker, Gillian; Lindo, Zoë; Dieleman, Catherine; Dussault, Antoine C

    2015-06-01

    Broadening contingents of ecologists and environmental scientists have recently begun to promote ecological resilience both as a conceptual framework and as a practical goal. As some critics have noted, this growing interest has brought with it a multiplication of notions of ecological resilience. This paper reviews how and why the notion of ecological resilience has been adopted, used, and defended in ecology since its introduction by C. S. Holling in 1973. We highlight the many faces of ecological resilience, but unlike other reviewers who see these as disunified and confused, we interpret ecological resilience as an evolving, multidimensional, theoretical concept unified by its role in guiding practical response to ecological and environmental challenges. This perspective informs a review of some of the factors often recognized as favoring resilience (structural and response diversity, functional redundancy, modularity, and spatial heterogeneity); we show how the roles and relationships of these factors can be clarified by considering them in the theoretical framework of Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs).

  7. Work-shift period and weight change.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, A; Gluck, M E; Tanowitz, M; Aronoff, N J; Zammit, G K

    2000-01-01

    The present study was done to determine whether weight gain was more prevalent in workers on late shifts than in those on day shifts. A questionnaire about changes in weight, food intake, exercise, and sleep since starting the job on the current shift was given to day-shift and late-shift (evening and night) hospital workers. Data were analyzed for 85 subjects, 36 of whom worked during the day shift and 49 the late shift. The late-shift group reported a mean weight gain of 4.3 kg, which was greater than the mean weight gain of 0.9 kg for the day-shift group (P = 0.02). There were, however, no significant differences in current body mass index (26.7 +/- 5.4 SD) between groups. There was a trend for late-shift workers to report eating more since beginning the later shift (P = 0.06). When combined with those reporting exercising less (P = NS), this trend became significant (P = 0.04). Late-shift workers reported eating fewer meals (1.9 +/- 0.9 SD) than the day-shift workers (2.5 +/- 0.9; P = 0.002). In addition, late-shift workers reported eating the last daily meal later (mean = 22:27, or 10:27 PM) than day-shift workers (17:52 or 5:52 PM; P < 0.00005). Late-shift workers also reported more naps (P = 0.01) and longer naps (P = 0.05) during the work week than did day-shift workers. The reported changes in eating, exercise, and sleep may contribute to the increased weight gain of late-shift workers.

  8. Does Learning-Centered Teaching Promote Grade Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostrom, Alison M.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    When the grade distribution within a course shifts towards higher grades, it may be due to grade inflation or grade improvement. If the positive shift is accompanied by an increase in achievement or learning, it should be considered grade improvement, "not" grade inflation. Effective learning-centered teaching is designed to promote student…

  9. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  10. Cooperativity and interaction energy threshold effects in recognition of the -10 promoter element by bacterial RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Mekler, Vladimir; Severinov, Konstantin

    2013-08-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) melts promoter DNA to form transcription-competent open promoter complex (RPo). Interaction of the RNAP σ subunit with non-template strand bases of a conserved -10 element (consensus sequence T-12A-11T-10A-9A-8T-7) is an important source of energy-driving localized promoter melting. Here, we used an RNAP molecular beacon assay to investigate interdependencies of RNAP interactions with -10 element nucleotides. The results reveal a strong cooperation between RNAP interactions with individual -10 element non-template strand nucleotides and indicate that recognition of the -10 element bases occurs only when free energy of the overall RNAP -10 element binding reaches a certain threshold level. The threshold-like mode of the -10 element recognition may be related to the energetic cost of attaining a conformation of the -10 element that is recognizable by RNAP. The RNAP interaction with T/A-12 base pair was found to be strongly stimulated by RNAP interactions with other -10 element bases and with promoter spacer between the -10 and -35 promoter elements. The data also indicate that unmelted -10 promoter element can impair RNAP interactions with promoter DNA upstream of the -11 position. We suggest that cooperativity and threshold effects are important factors guiding the dynamics and selectivity of RPo formation.

  11. Setting the Standard: The Characteristics & Consequences of Alternative Student Promotional Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    Examining student promotion standards in American education, the author reviews the origins and history of the shift between merit promotion (which advances students based on demonstrated skill competence) and social promotion (which advances students in response to their social needs). Case studies of promotional policies are provided for schools…

  12. Understanding covariate shift in model performance

    PubMed Central

    McGaughey, Georgia; Walters, W. Patrick; Goldman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Three (3) different methods (logistic regression, covariate shift and k-NN) were applied to five (5) internal datasets and one (1) external, publically available dataset where covariate shift existed. In all cases, k-NN’s performance was inferior to either logistic regression or covariate shift. Surprisingly, there was no obvious advantage for using covariate shift to reweight the training data in the examined datasets. PMID:27803797

  13. Discrete radon transform with shift of coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, X.; Wu, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the Radon transform with shift of coordinates. The appropriate shift value of spatial coordinate gives less alias in the data reconstruction and the appropriate shift value of frequency coordinate makes the reconstruction stable. The method is suitable to signal processing of seismogram, an example of wave field separation to practical VSP data is shown in the paper.

  14. AGE restriction in diabetes mellitus: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

    2011-05-24

    Persistently elevated oxidative stress and inflammation precede or occur during the development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and precipitate devastating complications. Given the rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and obesity in the space of a few decades, new genetic mutations are unlikely to be the cause, instead pointing to environmental initiators. A hallmark of contemporary culture is a preference for thermally processed foods, replete with pro-oxidant advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). These molecules are appetite-increasing and, thus, efficient enhancers of overnutrition (which promotes obesity) and oxidant overload (which promotes inflammation). Studies of genetic and nongenetic animal models of diabetes mellitus suggest that suppression of host defenses, under sustained pressure from food-derived AGEs, may potentially shift homeostasis towards a higher basal level of oxidative stress, inflammation and injury of both insulin-producing and insulin-responsive cells. This sequence promotes both types of diabetes mellitus. Reducing basal oxidative stress by AGE restriction in mice, without energy or nutrient change, reinstates host defenses, alleviates inflammation, prevents diabetes mellitus, vascular and renal complications and extends normal lifespan. Studies in healthy humans and in those with diabetes mellitus show that consumption of high amounts of food-related AGEs is a determinant of insulin resistance and inflammation and that AGE restriction improves both. This Review focuses on AGEs as novel initiators of oxidative stress that precedes, rather than results from, diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic gains from AGE restriction constitute a paradigm shift.

  15. Gear-shift mechanism for manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuchi, H.

    1986-07-22

    This patent describes a gear-shift mechanism for a manual transmission comprising a housing for the transmission; a movable shaft mounted in place within the housing for both axial and rotary movements and being operatively connected to a manual shift lever to be axially shifted from its neutral position to a forward or reverse position in selecting operation of the manual shift lever and to be rotated at its shifted position in shifting operation of the manual shift lever; a shift-and-select lever fixed to an intermediate portion of the movable shaft; an interlock member rotatably mounted in place on the movable shaft and having a pair of interlock arms located at the opposite sides of the shift-and-select lever; means for restricting rotary movement of the interlock member and permitting axial movement of the same; a pair of resilient means for centering the movable shaft to retain the shift-and-select lever and the interlock member in their neutral positions; and first, second and third shift heads arranged in sequence within the housing.

  16. Reverse shift mechanism for automotive manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, M.; Ogawa, S.

    1987-03-03

    A reverse shift mechanism is described for an automotive manual transmission of a type having a reverse idler gear which is movable to selectively complete a reverse gear train, the reverse shift mechanism comprising: a reverse shift arm having a portion disposed adjacent the reverse idler gear and pivotally carried with respect to a transmission casing so that the portion rocks along a direction of axis of the reverse idler gear in response to shifting operation. The portion of the reverse shift arm is provided with a blind hole which is open at a first end toward the reverse idler gear and is closed at a second end away from the reverse idler gear; and a shift arm shoe carried by the portion of the reverse shift arm adjacent the reverse idler gear for pushing the reverse idler gear. The shift arm shoe has an end adapted to engage with a circumferential groove formed in the reverse idler gear and an opposing end shaped to fit in the blind hole of the reverse shift arm; whereby the shift arm shoe is prevented from coming off during assembly by virtue of a vacuum effect created by air confined in the blind hole by fitting engagement between the opposing end and the blind hole, and is held in place after assembly by being clamped between the groove of the reverse idler gear and the blind hole of the reverse shift arm.

  17. A novel phase shifting structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veena; Dubey, Vishesh; Ahmad, Azeem; Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new and novel phase shifting technique for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement in microscopy. We have developed a phase shifting device which is robust, inexpensive and involves no mechanical movement. In this method, phase shifting is implemented using LED array, beam splitters and defocused projection of Ronchi grating. The light from the LEDs are made incident on the beam splitters at spatially different locations. Due to variation in the geometrical distances of LEDs from the Ronchi grating and by sequentially illuminating the grating by switching on one LED at a time the phase shifted grating patterns are generated. The phase shifted structured patterns are projected onto the sample using microscopic objective lens. The phase shifted deformed patterns are recorded by a CCD camera. The initial alignment of the setup involves a simple procedure for the calibration for equal fringe width and intensity such that the phase shifted fringes are at equal phase difference. Three frame phase shifting algorithm is employed for the reconstruction of the phase map. The method described here is fully automated so that the phase shifted images are recorded just by switching of LEDs and has been used for the shape measurement of microscopic industrial objects. The analysis of the phase shifted images provides qualitative as well as quantitative information about the sample. Thus, the method is simple, robust and low cost compared to PZT devices commonly employed for phase shifting.

  18. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  19. From sedentary to active: Shifting the movement paradigm in workplaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhibha M; Mailey, Emily; Murray, Kate; Phillips, Siobhan M; Torres, Cam; King, Abby C

    2016-06-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and reduced physical activity are risk factors for morbidity and mortality. As adults spend a significant portion of their time at work where the default is to spend the majority of the day sitting, shifting workplace norms to decrease sedentary time and increase active time could have a public health impact. Workplaces offer a unique setting for multi-level interventions that can reach diverse populations. Traditional worksite wellness initiatives have produced equivocal results in terms of increasing physical activity. One reason for this may be the focus on corporate-fitness type programs and health education with little change in workplace culture. More innovative approaches combining theory-based worksite wellness components with behavioral economics approaches promoting incidental physical activity at the workplace to make activity the default may be necessary. This article discusses strategies to shift the workplace paradigm from being sedentary to more active using a range of approaches. PMID:27286083

  20. Shifting boundaries in professional care.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, A; Solomon, J; Abelson, J

    1996-01-01

    The nature of the work undertaken by different health professionals and inter-professional boundaries are constantly shifting. The greater knowledge of users of health care, and the increasing technical and organizational complexity of modern medicine, have partly eroded the control of health professionals over the substance of their work. The definition of a field of work as lying within the province of any one profession is culturally rather than scientifically determined. It is evident that care of good quality should be delivered at the lowest possible cost. This might include delivery of care by a less trained person than heretofore, or by someone with limited but focused training. Sharing of skills is a more sensible subject for discussion than transfer of tasks. We review a number of studies which show the effectiveness of inter-professional substitution in various care settings, and also the effectiveness of substitution by those other than health professionals. The views of users of health services on inter-professional substitution need to be considered. Health professionals and others need to work together to devise innovative ways of delivering effective health care. The legal issues need clarification. PMID:8774532

  1. Shifting boundaries in professional care.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, A; Solomon, J; Abelson, J

    1996-07-01

    The nature of the work undertaken by different health professionals and inter-professional boundaries are constantly shifting. The greater knowledge of users of health care, and the increasing technical and organizational complexity of modern medicine, have partly eroded the control of health professionals over the substance of their work. The definition of a field of work as lying within the province of any one profession is culturally rather than scientifically determined. It is evident that care of good quality should be delivered at the lowest possible cost. This might include delivery of care by a less trained person than heretofore, or by someone with limited but focused training. Sharing of skills is a more sensible subject for discussion than transfer of tasks. We review a number of studies which show the effectiveness of inter-professional substitution in various care settings, and also the effectiveness of substitution by those other than health professionals. The views of users of health services on inter-professional substitution need to be considered. Health professionals and others need to work together to devise innovative ways of delivering effective health care. The legal issues need clarification.

  2. Dealing with a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Allan I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918

  3. 193-nm-laser-induced spectral shift in HR coated mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byungil; Rudisill, J. Earl; Danielewicz, Edward

    2012-12-01

    High-reflectance mirrors, fabricated by use of fluoride coating materials, were irradiated for extended periods by a 193-nm kilohertz repetitive laser source. This irradiation promoted a spectral shift in the reflectance band towards shorter wavelengths. In efforts to determine the mechanism for the observed spectral shifts, various models were investigated by employing such techniques as spectrophotometry, surface profile interferometry, coating design simulation, and x-ray diffraction. The result of the investigation indicates that layers near the top surface of the coating structure underwent densification, which resulted in the observed spectral shift.

  4. HU multimerization shift controls nucleoid compaction.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Michal; Amlanjyoti, Dhar; Reyes, Francis E; Chen, Jian-Hua; Parpana, Rochelle; Tang, Henry Y H; Larabell, Carolyn A; Tainer, John A; Adhya, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    Molecular mechanisms controlling functional bacterial chromosome (nucleoid) compaction and organization are surprisingly enigmatic but partly depend on conserved, histone-like proteins HUαα and HUαβ and their interactions that span the nanoscale and mesoscale from protein-DNA complexes to the bacterial chromosome and nucleoid structure. We determined the crystal structures of these chromosome-associated proteins in complex with native duplex DNA. Distinct DNA binding modes of HUαα and HUαβ elucidate fundamental features of bacterial chromosome packing that regulate gene transcription. By combining crystal structures with solution x-ray scattering results, we determined architectures of HU-DNA nucleoproteins in solution under near-physiological conditions. These macromolecular conformations and interactions result in contraction at the cellular level based on in vivo imaging of native unlabeled nucleoid by soft x-ray tomography upon HUβ and ectopic HUα38 expression. Structural characterization of charge-altered HUαα-DNA complexes reveals an HU molecular switch that is suitable for condensing nucleoid and reprogramming noninvasive Escherichia coli into an invasive form. Collective findings suggest that shifts between networking and cooperative and noncooperative DNA-dependent HU multimerization control DNA compaction and supercoiling independently of cellular topoisomerase activity. By integrating x-ray crystal structures, x-ray scattering, mutational tests, and x-ray imaging that span from protein-DNA complexes to the bacterial chromosome and nucleoid structure, we show that defined dynamic HU interaction networks can promote nucleoid reorganization and transcriptional regulation as efficient general microbial mechanisms to help synchronize genetic responses to cell cycle, changing environments, and pathogenesis. PMID:27482541

  5. HU multimerization shift controls nucleoid compaction

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Michal; Amlanjyoti, Dhar; Reyes, Francis E.; Chen, Jian-Hua; Parpana, Rochelle; Tang, Henry Y. H.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Tainer, John A.; Adhya, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms controlling functional bacterial chromosome (nucleoid) compaction and organization are surprisingly enigmatic but partly depend on conserved, histone-like proteins HUαα and HUαβ and their interactions that span the nanoscale and mesoscale from protein-DNA complexes to the bacterial chromosome and nucleoid structure. We determined the crystal structures of these chromosome-associated proteins in complex with native duplex DNA. Distinct DNA binding modes of HUαα and HUαβ elucidate fundamental features of bacterial chromosome packing that regulate gene transcription. By combining crystal structures with solution x-ray scattering results, we determined architectures of HU-DNA nucleoproteins in solution under near-physiological conditions. These macromolecular conformations and interactions result in contraction at the cellular level based on in vivo imaging of native unlabeled nucleoid by soft x-ray tomography upon HUβ and ectopic HUα38 expression. Structural characterization of charge-altered HUαα-DNA complexes reveals an HU molecular switch that is suitable for condensing nucleoid and reprogramming noninvasive Escherichia coli into an invasive form. Collective findings suggest that shifts between networking and cooperative and noncooperative DNA-dependent HU multimerization control DNA compaction and supercoiling independently of cellular topoisomerase activity. By integrating x-ray crystal structures, x-ray scattering, mutational tests, and x-ray imaging that span from protein-DNA complexes to the bacterial chromosome and nucleoid structure, we show that defined dynamic HU interaction networks can promote nucleoid reorganization and transcriptional regulation as efficient general microbial mechanisms to help synchronize genetic responses to cell cycle, changing environments, and pathogenesis. PMID:27482541

  6. 12-hour shifts: job satisfaction of nurses.

    PubMed

    Todd, C; Robinson, G; Reid, N

    1993-09-01

    A before and after study was carried out amongst staff of 10 wards of a county hospital before and after the introduction of a 12-hour shift system for nurses. The purpose was to investigate the impact of the shift system on job satisfaction. Some 320 nurses covering all qualified and unqualified grades were surveyed using a standard job satisfaction attitude scale. It was found that under the 12-hour shift both intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction had been detrimentally affected. Considerable dissatisfaction was expressed about hours of work, conditions of work and the impact of the shift on domestic and social arrangements. The vast majority (83%) reported that they did not want to go on working the shift and there was support for the view that recruitment to nursing would be adversely affected by the shift.

  7. Electromagnetic tracking of the pivot-shift.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Ryosuke; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    The pivot-shift test is an important examination to assess the rotational laxity in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured and reconstructed knees. Because this examination is related to subjective knee function, we may still see cases that have residual rotational laxity after ACL reconstruction. Quantitative evaluation of the pivot-shift test is preferable to the clinical pivot-shift test but is difficult to attain mainly due to complicated movements of the pivot-shift. The electromagnetic tracking system was developed to evaluate knee kinematics during the pivot-shift, providing information related to 6-degree-of-freedom knee kinematics with a high sampling rate. Through this device, the abnormal movement of the pivot-shift is characterized in two phases: an increased anterior tibial translation and a boosted acceleration of tibial posterior reduction. Since its invention, this system has been utilized to assess rotational laxity for clinical follow-up and research after the ACL reconstruction. PMID:27007473

  8. Shift mechanism for engine starting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.A.; Colvill, R.G.; Smock, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a shift lever mechanism for translating axial movement of the plunger of a starter solenoid into axial movement of a pinion of an engine starting apparatus. This apparatus consists of, a starter solenoid having an axially shiftable plunger and a coil winding, a spring opposing pull-in movement of the plunger and a solenoid switch operated to a closed condition when the plunger is completely pulled-in, a shift lever actuator carried by the plunger for axial movement therewith. The actuator has a pair of spaced surfaces, a pivotally mounted shift lever one end of which is adapted to be coupled to the pinion. The opposite end of the shift lever has a pair of opposed shift lever surfaces that respectively engage the surfaces on the actuator. The actuator surfaces and the shift lever surfaces are substantially engaged when the shift lever is in an at rest postion. The surfaces on the shift lever are at different radial distances from the pivot point of the shift lever and are arranged relative to the surfaces on the actuator such that when the solenoid plunger pulls-in the surface on the shift lever that is at the greater radial distance from the pivot point is moved by a surface of the actuator and the other surface on the shift lever becomes separated by a predetermined amount from its cooperating surface on the actuator. The amount of separation is sufficient to allow the solenoid switch to be actuated to an open condition when the solenoid coil winding is deenergized and the spring shifts and plunger to reengage the separated surfaces.

  9. Frequency shifts in gravitational resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeßler, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K. V.; Rebreyend, D.; Kupriyanova, E. A.; Voronin, A. Yu.

    2015-02-01

    Quantum states of ultracold neutrons in a gravitational field are characterized through gravitational resonance spectroscopy. This paper discusses systematic effects that appear in the spectroscopic measurements. The discussed frequency shifts—which we call the Stern-Gerlach shift, interference shift, and spectator-state shift—appear in conceivable measurement schemes and have general importance. These shifts have to be taken into account in precision experiments.

  10. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  11. Jet Lag and Shift Work Disorder.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Abbott, Sabra M

    2015-12-01

    Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders resulting from behaviorally altering the sleep-wake schedule in relation to the external environment. Not everyone who experiences trans-meridian travel or performs shift work has a disorder. The prevalence of jet lag disorder is unclear, approximately 5%-10% of shift workers have shift work disorder. Treatment aims to realign the internal circadian clock with the external environment. Behavioral therapies include sleep hygiene and management of the light-dark and sleep schedule. Pharmacologic agents are used to treat insomnia and excessive sleepiness, and melatonin is used to facilitate sleep and circadian realignment. PMID:26568127

  12. Rapid shift in sleep time and acrophase of melatonin secretion in short shift work schedule.

    PubMed

    Quera-Salva, M A; Defrance, R; Claustrat, B; De Lattre, J; Guilleminault, C

    1996-09-01

    Tolerance to shift work and adaptability to shifting schedules is an issue of growing importance in industrialized society. We studied 40 registered nurses, 20 on fixed day-shifts and 20 on fixed night-shifts, to assess whether workers with rapidly shifting schedules were able to adapt their melatonin secretion and sleep-wake cycles. The day-shift worked 5 days with 2 days off and the night-shift worked 3 nights with 2 off. All night-shift personnel acknowledged shifting back to daytime schedules on their days off. Sleep-wake was determined by sleep logs and actigraphy. To measure 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, urine was collected at 2-hour intervals on the last work day and on the last day off. Night-shift workers slept significantly more on days off. Napping on the job occurred in 9/20 night-shift workers (mean 114 minutes) between 3 and 6 a.m. The acrophase of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in day-shift nurses occurred at similar times on workdays and off days. In night-shift nurses, the acrophase was about 7 a.m. on days off, but had a random distribution on workdays. Further analysis revealed two subgroups of night-shift nurses: six subjects (group A).demonstrated a rapid shift in melatonin secretion (acrophase at near 12 noon on work days and at near 7 a.m. on days off) while 14 nurses (group B) did not shift. Group A nurses slept more in the daytime on work days and their total sleep time was the same as day-shift nurses. Group A was slightly younger and was composed solely of women (there were nine women and five men in group B). Age may be a factor in the ability to adapt to rapidly shifting schedules.

  13. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  14. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  15. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  16. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars. PMID:10113338

  17. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  18. Developing health promoting practices: a transformative process.

    PubMed

    Hartrick, G

    1998-01-01

    For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341

  19. Impact of shift work on the health and safety of nurses and patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ann M; Hobbs, Barbara B

    2006-08-01

    Shift work generally is defined as work hours that are scheduled outside of daylight. Shift work disrupts the synchronous relationship between the body's internal clock and the environment. The disruption often results in problems such as sleep disturbances, increased accidents and injuries, and social isolation. Physiologic effects include changes in rhythms of core temperature, various hormonal levels, immune functioning, and activity-rest cycles. Adaptation to shift work is promoted by reentrainment of the internally regulated functions and adjustment of activity-rest and social patterns. Nurses working various shifts can improve shift-work tolerance when they understand and adopt counter measures to reduce the feelings of jet lag. By learning how to adjust internal rhythms to the same phase as working time, nurses can improve daytime sleep and family functioning and reduce sleepiness and work-related errors. Modifying external factors such as the direction of the rotation pattern, the number of consecutive night shifts worked, and food and beverage intake patterns can help to reduce the negative health effects of shift work. Nurses can adopt counter measures such as power napping, eliminating overtime on 12-hour shifts, and completing challenging tasks before 4 am to reduce patient care errors.

  20. Socioecological regime shifts in the setting of complex social interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiarto, Hendrik Santoso; Chung, Ning Ning; Lai, Choy Heng; Chew, Lock Yue

    2015-06-01

    The coupling between social and ecological system has become more ubiquitous and predominant in the current era. The strong interaction between these systems can bring about regime shifts which in the extreme can lead to the collapse of social cooperation and the extinction of ecological resources. In this paper, we study the occurrence of such regime shifts in the context of a coupled social-ecological system where social cooperation is established by means of sanction that punishes local selfish act and promotes norms that prescribe nonexcessive resource extraction. In particular, we investigate the role of social networks on social-ecological regimes shift and the corresponding hysteresis effects caused by the local ostracism mechanism under different social and ecological parameters. Our results show that a lowering of network degree reduces the hysteresis effect and also alters the tipping point, which is duly verified by our numerical results and analytical estimation. Interestingly, the hysteresis effect is found to be stronger in scale-free network in comparison with random network even when both networks have the same average degree. These results provide deeper insights into the resilience of these systems, and can have important implications on the management of coupled social-ecological systems with complex social interactions.

  1. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  2. Apparatus for controlling transmission gear shift selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.M.

    1986-07-29

    In an automotive engine having an electrical power source and an automatic or semi-automatic transmission including a manually operated transmission gear shift lever having at least two forward drive positions, an apparatus is described which consists of: (a) a speed sensing means for sensing the rotation speed of the engine and generating an output signal when the engine reaches a preselected rotational speed; and (b) a gear shifting means for changing the shift positions of the gear shift lever from a first drive position to a second drive position automatically in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, the gear shifting means including (i) a latch actuable between open and closed positions, (ii) a normally de-energized solenoid having a plunger connected to the latch and operable to move the latch to the open position when the solenoid is energized by the electrical power source, (iii) a relay means for allowing the energizing of the solenoid by the power source in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, and (iv) an actuating means, including a spring biased linkage mechanism operably connected to the gear shift lever and the latch, for actuating the movement of the gear shift lever from the first drive position to the second drive position in response to movement of the latch from the closed to the open position, thereby causing gear shifting to occur when the engine reaches the preselected rotational speed.

  3. Shifting the patterns of nurses' work.

    PubMed

    Buchan, J

    Although most nurses tend to work a three shift pattern of 'earlies', 'lates' and 'nights', increasing interest is being shown in the use of 12-hour shift patterns. James Buchan outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this type of work for both patients and nurses.

  4. Frequency shift by optical coherent control

    SciTech Connect

    Ignesti, Emilio; Buffa, Roberto; Fini, Lorenzo; Sali, Emiliano; Cavalieri, Stefano; Tognetti, Marco V.

    2010-02-15

    We report the experimental observation of an optically controllable shift of the central frequency of a laser pulse, using a scheme based on dynamical electromagnetically induced transparency. This is evidence of frequency shift controllable by a coherent process. Original theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  6. A simplified, compact static shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. L.; Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Shift register was developed which uses only one D type flip-flop and improves packaging density by approximately 25% over the usual arrangement. Circuit is compromise between full master-slave arrangement and dynamic shift register, with limitation only of length of time that clock can be held high during new data entry.

  7. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Antunes, L C; Levandovski, R; Dantas, G; Caumo, W; Hidalgo, M P

    2010-06-01

    The present review has the objective of summarising chronobiological aspects of shift work and obesity. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: shift work; obesity; biological clock. Shift work is extremely frequent in several services and industries, in order to systematise the needs for flexibility of the workforce, necessary to optimise productivity and business competitiveness. In developing countries, this population represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies showed that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, the literature shows that shift workers seem to gain weight more often than those workers submitted to a usual work day. In conclusion, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes and CVD, perhaps as a result of physiological maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. The impact of shift work on metabolism supports a possible pathway to the development of obesity and its co-morbities. The present review demonstrated the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs chronically with shift workers. PMID:20122305

  8. A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A short history of chemical shifts in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and Mossbauer spectroscopy, which are useful for chemical studies, is described. The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element would all undergo resonance at the…

  9. Rhetorical Function-Shifts in EST Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinker, Larry; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes two methods of EST (English for Science and Technology) paragraph development: rhetorical process development and rhetorical function-shift development. A series of hypotheses set up to account for explicit and implicit information in some EST function-shift paragraphs that students have had difficulty learning to understand…

  10. 29 CFR 102.165 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.165 Section 102.165 Labor Regulations... by Administrative Offset § 102.165 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in connection with... offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  11. 29 CFR 102.171 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.171 Section 102.171 Labor Regulations... By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.171 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in... amount of the offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  12. The Concept Shifting Test: Adult Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was…

  13. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  14. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients. PMID:9119269

  15. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-01

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  16. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  17. New Teachers' Identity Shifts at the Boundary of Teacher Education and Initial Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Thomas, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    As teachers enter the school communities of their initial practice, they experience identity shifts that reflect their learning. Throughout teacher education they have constructed an identity informed by their previous school experiences, the ideas and approaches promoted by their teacher education programs, and an ideal of the teachers they hope…

  18. Dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferometry based on two dc-term-suppressed intensities with a special phase shift for quantitative phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yawei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    To efficiently promote the phase retrieval in quantitative phase imaging, a new approach of quantitative phase extraction is proposed based on two intensities with dual wavelength after filtering the corresponding dc terms for each wavelength, in which a special phase shift is used. In this approach, only the combination of the phase-shifting technique and subtraction procedures is needed, and no additional algorithms are required. The thickness of the phase object can be achieved from the phase image, which is related to the synthetic beat wavelength. The feasibility of this method is verified by the simulated experiments of the optically transparent objects. PMID:27244381

  19. Sequential eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF5) binding to the charged disordered segments of eIF4G and eIF2β stabilizes the 48S preinitiation complex and promotes its shift to the initiation mode.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Chowdhury, Wasimul; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Murai, Marcelo J; Yamamoto, Yasufumi; Miles, David; Ikeda, Yuka; Asano, Masayo; Asano, Katsura

    2012-10-01

    During translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an Arg- and Ser-rich segment (RS1 domain) of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the Lys-rich segment (K-boxes) of eIF2β bind three common partners, eIF5, eIF1, and mRNA. Here, we report that both of these segments are involved in mRNA recruitment and AUG recognition by distinct mechanisms. First, the eIF4G-RS1 interaction with the eIF5 C-terminal domain (eIF5-CTD) directly links eIF4G to the preinitiation complex (PIC) and enhances mRNA binding. Second, eIF2β-K-boxes increase mRNA binding to the 40S subunit in vitro in a manner reversed by the eIF5-CTD. Third, mutations altering eIF4G-RS1, eIF2β-K-boxes, and eIF5-CTD restore the accuracy of start codon selection impaired by an eIF2β mutation in vivo, suggesting that the mutual interactions of the eIF segments within the PIC prime the ribosome for initiation in response to start codon selection. We propose that the rearrangement of interactions involving the eIF5-CTD promotes mRNA recruitment through mRNA binding by eIF4G and eIF2β and assists the start codon-induced release of eIF1, the major antagonist of establishing tRNA(i)(Met):mRNA binding to the P site.

  20. Theory of the Helium Isotope Shift

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2015-09-15

    Theory of the isotope shift of the centroid energies of light few-electron atoms is reviewed. Numerical results are presented for the isotope shift of the 2{sup 3}P-2{sup 3}S and 2{sup 1}S-2{sup 3}S transition energies of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. By comparing theoretical predictions for the isotope shift with the experimental results, the difference of the squares of the nuclear charge radii of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, δR{sup 2}, is determined with high accuracy.

  1. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Onofrio, Roberto; Wegner, Gary A. E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  2. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  3. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  4. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    PubMed

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  5. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  6. Trends in adsorbate induced core level shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Van den Bossche, Maxime; Hellman, Anders; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectron core level spectroscopy is commonly used to monitor atomic and molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. As changes in the electron binding energies are convoluted measures with different origins, calculations are often used to facilitate the decoding of experimental signatures. The interpretation could in this sense benefit from knowledge on trends in surface core level shifts for different metals and adsorbates. Here, density functional theory calculations have been used to systematically evaluate core level shifts for (111) and (100) surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals upon CO, H, O and S adsorption. The results reveal trends and several non-intuitive cases. Moreover, the difficulties correlating core level shifts with charging and d-band shifts are underlined.

  7. Shift Work and Child Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using a large, contemporary U.S. dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement, this paper explores the relationship between maternal shift work and the behavioral outcomes of children aged 4 to 10. Special attention was given to subgroups of children (e.g., based on family type, family income, and mother’s occupation and working hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours. Regression results suggest that maternal shift work may contribute to more behavioral problems. Of all children whose mothers worked non-day shifts, the strongest associations were found for children who lived in single-mother or low-income families, whose mothers worked in cashier or service occupations, and whose mothers worked non-day shifts full-time. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21666886

  8. Gradual regime shifts in fairy circles.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Meron, Ehud; Bel, Golan

    2015-10-01

    Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions--regime shifts--are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Our results provide new support, based on the dynamics of the ecosystem, for the view of fairy circles as a self-organization phenomenon driven by water-vegetation interactions. The study further suggests that fairy circle birth and death processes correspond to spatially confined transitions between alternative stable states. Cascades of such transitions, possible in various pattern-forming systems, result in gradual rather than abrupt regime shifts. PMID:26362787

  9. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  10. Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Christensen, U.R.

    1982-02-26

    This invention provides simple, inexpensive, independent and passive, conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring having externally produced equilibrium fields on opposite sides of the plasma ring and internal plasma currents that interact to tilt and/or shift the plasma ring relative to the externally produced equilibrium field so as to produce unstable tilting and/or shifting modes in the plasma ring. More particularly this invention provides first and second passive conducting loops for containing first and second induced currents in first and second directions corresponding to the amplitude and directions of the unstable tilting and/or shifting modes in the plasma ring. To this end, the induced currents provide additional magnetic fields for producing restoring forces and/or restoring torques for counteracting the tilting and/or shifting modes when the conducting loops are held fixed in stationary positions relative to the externally produced equilibrium fields on opposite sides of the plasma ring.

  11. Job Strain in Shift and Daytime Workers.

    PubMed

    Knutsson; Nilsson

    1997-07-01

    Cross-sectional questionnaire data were used to compare the levels of job strain in shift and daytime workers. Job strain was measured according to Karasek's Demands/Discretion model. Four occupational groups were included: drivers, industrial workers, policemen/watchmen, and cooks. The study subjects were a random sample of 508 daytime workers and 418 shift workers. Job demand did not differentiate between shift and daytime workers, comparing groups broken down by gender and by occupation. The daytime workers reported higher levels of job strain than the shift workers, and women experienced a higher level of job strain than did men. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only occupational group and gender predicted job strain level. Shiftwork was not significantly associated with job strain in the regression model.

  12. Gradual regime shifts in fairy circles.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Meron, Ehud; Bel, Golan

    2015-10-01

    Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions--regime shifts--are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Our results provide new support, based on the dynamics of the ecosystem, for the view of fairy circles as a self-organization phenomenon driven by water-vegetation interactions. The study further suggests that fairy circle birth and death processes correspond to spatially confined transitions between alternative stable states. Cascades of such transitions, possible in various pattern-forming systems, result in gradual rather than abrupt regime shifts.

  13. Data for phase angle shift with frequency

    PubMed Central

    Paul, T.; Banerjee, D.; Kargupta, K.

    2016-01-01

    Phase angle shift between the current and voltage with frequency has been reported for a single phosphoric acid fuel cell in the cell temperature from 100 °C to 160 °C and the humidifier temperature from 40 °C to 90 °C. An electrochemical workbench is employed to find the shift. The figure of phase angle shift shows a peak in high humidifier temperatures. The peak in phase angle shift directs to lower frequency side with decreasing humidifier temperature. The estimation of electrochemical reaction time is also evaluated in the humidifier temperature zone from 50 °C to 90 °C. PMID:27158655

  14. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  15. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326

  16. Hydrogen isotope effect on the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope effect on the Dimits shift in drift wave turbulence (Dimits et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 969) is discussed using the theory of zonal flows, in which the nonlinear damping rate of zonal flows is taken into account. The up-shift of the critical linear growth rate of the drift waves, above which drift wave fluctuations develop, is investigated. The dependence on the mass number of the hydrogen isotope is discussed.

  17. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  18. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts.

    PubMed

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  19. Centralizing physician office functions. A paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Croopnick, J G

    1999-01-01

    Recent trends show that organizations that once thought business office centralization was beneficial are re-thinking their strategies and decentralizing business office functions. This article focuses on the paradigm shift from business office centralization to decentralization and the political factors effecting this shift. It provides actual case summaries to demonstrate what has transpired, and presents an alternative strategy to establishing successful business office functions, a hybrid business office.

  20. Metrology on phase-shift masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Maurer, Wilhelm; Blaesing-Bangert, Carola

    1992-06-01

    In the evaluation of new manufacturing processes, metrology is a key function, beginning with the first step of process development through the final step of everyday mass production at the fabrication floor level. RIM-type phase shift masks are expected to be the first application of phase shift masks in high volume production, since they provide improved lithography process capability at the expense of only moderate complexity in their manufacturing. Measurements of critical dimension (CD) and pattern position (overlay) on experimental rim-type and chromeless phase shift masks are reported. Pattern placement (registration) was measured using the Leitz LMS 2000. The overall design and important components were already described. The pattern placement of the RIM type phase shift structures on the photomask described above was determined within a tolerance of 25 nm (3s); nominal accuracy was within 45 nm (3s). On the chromeless phase shift mask the measurement results were easily obtained using a wafer intensity algorithm available with the system. The measurement uncertainties were less than 25 nm and 50 nm for precision and nominal accuracy respectively. The measurement results from the Leitz CD 200 using transmitted light were: a CD- distribution of 135 nm (3s) on a typical 6 micrometers structure all over the mask; the 0.9 micrometers RIM structure had a distribution of 43 nm (3s). Typical long term precision performance values for the CD 200 on both chrome and phase shift structures have been less than 15 nm.

  1. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. PMID:26563802

  2. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-12-13

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics: an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation, we address the question of which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models, we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-soil domains expand into vegetated domains. The significance of these findings is that, while models belonging to the first group can only exhibit abrupt shifts, models belonging to the second group can also exhibit gradual and incipient shifts. A discussion of open problems concludes the paper.

  3. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics: an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation, we address the question of which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models, we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-soil domains expand into vegetated domains. The significance of these findings is that, while models belonging to the first group can only exhibit abrupt shifts, models belonging to the second group can also exhibit gradual and incipient shifts. A discussion of open problems concludes the paper.

  4. Novel Synthetic Promoters from the Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sarkar, Shayan; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive promoters direct gene expression uniformly in most tissues and cells at all stages of plant growth and development; they confer steady levels of transgene expression in plant cells and hence their demand is high in plant biology. The gene silencing due to promoter homology can be avoided by either using diverse promoters isolated from different plant and viral genomes or by designing synthetic promoters. The aim of this chapter was to describe the basic protocols needed to develop and analyze novel, synthetic, nearly constitutive promoters from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) through promoter/leader deletion and activating cis-sequence analysis. We also describe the methods to evaluate the strength of the promoters efficiently in various transient expression systems like agroinfiltration assay, gene-gun method, and assay in tobacco protoplasts. Besides, the detailed methods for developing transgenic plants (tobacco and Arabidopsis) for evaluation of the promoter using the GUS reporter gene are also described. The detailed procedure for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) coupled with super-shift EMSA analysis are also described for showing the binding of tobacco transcription factor, TGA1a to cis-elements in the CmYLCV distal promoter region. PMID:27557764

  5. Novel Synthetic Promoters from the Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sarkar, Shayan; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive promoters direct gene expression uniformly in most tissues and cells at all stages of plant growth and development; they confer steady levels of transgene expression in plant cells and hence their demand is high in plant biology. The gene silencing due to promoter homology can be avoided by either using diverse promoters isolated from different plant and viral genomes or by designing synthetic promoters. The aim of this chapter was to describe the basic protocols needed to develop and analyze novel, synthetic, nearly constitutive promoters from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) through promoter/leader deletion and activating cis-sequence analysis. We also describe the methods to evaluate the strength of the promoters efficiently in various transient expression systems like agroinfiltration assay, gene-gun method, and assay in tobacco protoplasts. Besides, the detailed methods for developing transgenic plants (tobacco and Arabidopsis) for evaluation of the promoter using the GUS reporter gene are also described. The detailed procedure for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) coupled with super-shift EMSA analysis are also described for showing the binding of tobacco transcription factor, TGA1a to cis-elements in the CmYLCV distal promoter region.

  6. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  7. A holistic view of marine regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    Conversi, Alessandra; Dakos, Vasilis; Gårdmark, Anna; Ling, Scott; Folke, Carl; Mumby, Peter J.; Greene, Charles; Edwards, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten; Casini, Michele; Pershing, Andrew; Möllmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Understanding marine regime shifts is important not only for ecology but also for developing marine management that assures the provision of ecosystem services to humanity. While regime shift theory is well developed, there is still no common understanding on drivers, mechanisms and characteristic of abrupt changes in real marine ecosystems. Based on contributions to the present theme issue, we highlight some general issues that need to be overcome for developing a more comprehensive understanding of marine ecosystem regime shifts. We find a great divide between benthic reef and pelagic ocean systems in how regime shift theory is linked to observed abrupt changes. Furthermore, we suggest that the long-lasting discussion on the prevalence of top-down trophic or bottom-up physical drivers in inducing regime shifts may be overcome by taking into consideration the synergistic interactions of multiple stressors, and the special characteristics of different ecosystem types. We present a framework for the holistic investigation of marine regime shifts that considers multiple exogenous drivers that interact with endogenous mechanisms to cause abrupt, catastrophic change. This framework takes into account the time-delayed synergies of these stressors, which erode the resilience of the ecosystem and eventually enable the crossing of ecological thresholds. Finally, considering that increased pressures in the marine environment are predicted by the current climate change assessments, in order to avoid major losses of ecosystem services, we suggest that marine management approaches should incorporate knowledge on environmental thresholds and develop tools that consider regime shift dynamics and characteristics. This grand challenge can only be achieved through a holistic view of marine ecosystem dynamics as evidenced by this theme issue.

  8. A paradigm shift in nursing education: a new model.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Mary Jo C; Dougherty, Jacalyn P

    2010-01-01

    Nurse educators are being inspired to rethink historically teacher-centered curriculum designs and to embrace new ideologies that have a stronger focus on student-centered learning. The paradigm shift is reflected in the National League for Nursing's call for nursing education to respond to the changing needs of our student population by providing an educational learning environment substantiated in evidence for both curriculum and pedagogical practice. To meet these expectations, education should provide active learning that promotes critical thinking and analysis and problem-solving skills. This article presents a model for higher education in nursing that takes into account the learner, the instructor, and the systems that influence their relationships, providing congruence for educational outcomes. PMID:21280445

  9. Chemical shift prediction for denatured proteins.

    PubMed

    Prestegard, James H; Sahu, Sarata C; Nkari, Wendy K; Morris, Laura C; Live, David; Gruta, Christian

    2013-02-01

    While chemical shift prediction has played an important role in aspects of protein NMR that include identification of secondary structure, generation of torsion angle constraints for structure determination, and assignment of resonances in spectra of intrinsically disordered proteins, interest has arisen more recently in using it in alternate assignment strategies for crosspeaks in (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra of sparsely labeled proteins. One such approach involves correlation of crosspeaks in the spectrum of the native protein with those observed in the spectrum of the denatured protein, followed by assignment of the peaks in the latter spectrum. As in the case of disordered proteins, predicted chemical shifts can aid in these assignments. Some previously developed empirical formulas for chemical shift prediction have depended on basis data sets of 20 pentapeptides. In each case the central residue was varied among the 20 amino common acids, with the flanking residues held constant throughout the given series. However, previous choices of solvent conditions and flanking residues make the parameters in these formulas less than ideal for general application to denatured proteins. Here, we report (1)H and (15)N shifts for a set of alanine based pentapeptides under the low pH urea denaturing conditions that are more appropriate for sparse label assignments. New parameters have been derived and a Perl script was created to facilitate comparison with other parameter sets. A small, but significant, improvement in shift predictions for denatured ubiquitin is demonstrated.

  10. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  11. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    2016-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species. PMID:26873018

  12. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  13. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  14. Climate-driven regime shifts in Arctic marine benthos.

    PubMed

    Kortsch, Susanne; Primicerio, Raul; Beuchel, Frank; Renaud, Paul E; Rodrigues, João; Lønne, Ole Jørgen; Gulliksen, Bjørn

    2012-08-28

    Climate warming can trigger abrupt ecosystem changes in the Arctic. Despite the considerable interest in characterizing and understanding the ecological impact of rapid climate warming in the Arctic, few long time series exist that allow addressing these research goals. During a 30-y period (1980-2010) of gradually increasing seawater temperature and decreasing sea ice cover in Svalbard, we document rapid and extensive structural changes in the rocky-bottom communities of two Arctic fjords. The most striking component of the benthic reorganization was an abrupt fivefold increase in macroalgal cover in 1995 in Kongsfjord and an eightfold increase in 2000 in Smeerenburgfjord. Simultaneous changes in the abundance of benthic invertebrates suggest that the macroalgae played a key structuring role in these communities. The abrupt, substantial, and persistent nature of the changes observed is indicative of a climate-driven ecological regime shift. The ecological processes thought to drive the observed regime shifts are likely to promote the borealization of these Arctic marine communities in the coming years. PMID:22891319

  15. 12 hour shifts the Nambour Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    Union members have a lengthy history of campaigning for fair working hours and conditions. The success of such campaigns has led to the implementation of the eight hour working day and the 40 hour and then 38 hour week as industrial standards. More recently though, calls for greater flexibility in their shift arrangements by nurses at Nambour Hospital have led to a voluntary 12 hour shift being implemented in their Intensive Care Unit. While union members are protective of their hard won gains in achieving reduced working hours through the 8 hour day--ICU nurses at Nambour Hospital say the voluntary 12 hour shift initiative goes a way in addressing their work/life balance issues.

  16. Shift symmetry and inflation in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome

    2005-07-15

    We consider models of inflation in supergravity with a shift symmetry. We focus on models with one modulus and one inflaton field. The presence of this symmetry guarantees the existence of a flat direction for the inflaton field. Mildly breaking the shift symmetry using a superpotential which depends not only on the modulus, but also on the inflaton field allows one to lift the inflaton flat direction. Along the inflaton direction, the {eta} problem is alleviated. Combining the KKLT mechanism for modulus stabilization and a shift symmetry breaking superpotential of the chaotic inflation type, we find models reminiscent of 'mutated hybrid inflation' where the inflationary trajectory is curved in the modulus-inflaton plane. We analyze the phenomenology of these models and stress their differences with both chaotic and hybrid inflation.

  17. Gradual regime shifts in fairy circles

    PubMed Central

    Zelnik, Yuval R.; Meron, Ehud; Bel, Golan

    2015-01-01

    Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions—regime shifts—are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Our results provide new support, based on the dynamics of the ecosystem, for the view of fairy circles as a self-organization phenomenon driven by water–vegetation interactions. The study further suggests that fairy circle birth and death processes correspond to spatially confined transitions between alternative stable states. Cascades of such transitions, possible in various pattern-forming systems, result in gradual rather than abrupt regime shifts. PMID:26362787

  18. Isotope shifts in spectra of molecular liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, E. V.; Kolomiitsova, T. D.; Shurukhina, A. V.; Shchepkin, D. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the IR absorption spectra of low-temperature molecular liquids, we have observed anomalously large isotope shifts of frequencies of vibrational bands that are strong in the dipole absorption. The same effect has also been observed in their Raman spectra. At the same time, in the spectra of cryosolutions, the isotope shifts of the same bands coincide with a high accuracy (±(0.1-0.5) cm-1) with the shifts that are observed in the spectra of the gas phase. The difference between the spectra of examined low-temperature systems is caused by the occurrence of resonant dipole-dipole interactions between spectrally active identical molecules. The calculation of the band contour in the spectrum of liquid freon that we have performed in this work taking into account the resonant interaction between states of simultaneous transitions in isotopically substituted molecules can explain this effect.

  19. On the anatomy of a chain shift.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Green, Christopher R; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L

    2011-07-01

    Phonological chain shifts have been the focus of many theoretical, developmental, and clinical concerns. This paper considers an overlooked property of the problem by focusing on the typological properties of the widely attested 's > θ > f' chain shift involving the processes of Labialization and Dentalization in early phonological development. Findings are reported from a cross-sectional study of 234 children (ages 3 years; 0 months-7;9) with functional (nonorganic) phonological delays. The results reveal some unexpected gaps in the predicted interactions of these processes and are brought to bear on the evaluation of recent optimality theoretic proposals for the characterization of phonological interactions. A developmental modification to the theory is proposed that has the desired effect of precluding certain early-stage grammars. The proposal is further evaluated against the facts of another widely cited developmental chain shift known as the 'puzzle > puddle > pickle' problem (Smith 1973).

  20. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation.

  1. Clock shifts in the Unitary Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Richard; Man, Jay; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Clock shifts are interaction-induced changes in the transition frequency between atomic spin states. So-called because of their importance as systematic errors in atomic clocks, they reveal details of both the interaction energy within a gas and the particle correlations. In this work, we employ a RF-injection technique to rapidly project a thermal Bose gas into the unitary regime on a timescale much shorter than three-body losses. Working with a two-state system, one of which exhibits strong intrastate interactions, we carry out Ramsey spectroscopy to extract the variation in the clock shift across a Feshbach resonance. Thanks to the relationship between these shifts and particle correlations, we use our measurements to infer the contact as a function of both interaction strength and degeneracy. This quantity plays a central role in the many-body physics of strongly correlated systems, offering a link between few-body and thermodynamic behaviour.

  2. Understanding and diagnosing shift work disorder.

    PubMed

    Thorpy, Michael

    2011-09-01

    A significant proportion of the workforce in industrialized countries (16%) are employed as shift workers. These workers may be susceptible to shift work disorder (SWD), a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, particularly those who work at night or on early-morning shifts. Shift work disorder remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated problem among this population. Patients with SWD have difficulty initiating sleep and waking up. Often, these patients have excessive sleepiness during their work shift. Shift work disorder has been associated with decreased productivity, impaired safety, diminished quality of life, and adverse effects on health. Several tools have been validated to assess excessive daytime sleepiness and are often used to assess excessive nighttime sleepiness, such as that experienced in patients with SWD, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The criteria for diagnosing SWD as established by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and published in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Second Edition (ICSD-2) were most recently updated in 2005 and thus do not contain newer agents approved for use in patients with SWD. The symptoms of SWD can be treated using behavioral, prescription, and nonprescription therapies. Current treatment guidelines suggest nonpharmacologic interventions, such as exercise and exposure to light. In addition, medications that contain melatonin or caffeine may have clinical benefits in some patients with SWD. However, modafinil and armodafinil are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to improve wakefulness in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with SWD, and recent data suggest a clinical benefit. The use of these therapies can significantly improve sleep, performance, and quality of life for patients with SWD. PMID:21904091

  3. Gear shift controller for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, M.; Sakai, S.; Sakurai, T.

    1987-01-20

    A gear shift controller is described for an automatic transmission having a gear shift, comprising: a hydraulic torque converter; a gear change group, having a plurality of gears, each gear providing a different transmission ratio for the transmission of power from the hydraulic torque converter to the output of the transmission, each of the gears comprising a gear train; a one-way clutch interposed in at least one of the gear trains; a plurality of clutch means operatively connected with the gear trains for actuating each of the gear trains selectively; a gear change determination circuit operatively connected with the clutch means to control the operation of each of the clutch means according to a predetermined gear shifting program for engaging a gear train selected by the program; a coasting detection circuit for detecting a car in the coasting state; a gear shift limiting circuit, operatively connected with the gear change determination circuit and with the coasting detection circuit. The circuit is for actuating only the gear train in which the one-way clutch is interposed immediately, regardless of the selected gear train and of the operation of the gear change determination circuit, when the coasting detection circuit has determined the car to be coasting; and an operation transfer control system including a brake operation detecting means and a mode selector switch means for transferring the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit. The operation transfer control system is adapted to stop, upon detection of one of the brake operation and a reset state of the mode selector switch, the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit and to place the plurality of clutch means under the control of the gear change determination circuit.

  4. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    PubMed Central

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. PMID:26061455

  5. Molecular implementation of molecular shift register memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N. (Inventor); Onuchic, Jose N. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic shift register memory (20) at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are based on a chain of electron transfer molecules (22) and the information is shifted by photoinduced (26) electron transfer reactions. Thus, multi-step sequences of charge transfer reactions are used to move charge with high efficiency down a molecular chain. The device integrates compositions of the invention onto a VLSI substrate (36), providing an example of a molecular electronic device which may be fabricated. Three energy level schemes, molecular implementation of these schemes, optical excitation strategies, charge amplification strategies, and error correction strategies are described.

  6. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care.

  7. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  8. The Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom: Shift of s states

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1995-02-01

    A theoretical expression for the difference of the Lamb shifts of the 1s{sub 1/2} and 2s{sub 1/2} levels is obtained. The Lamb shift of the ground state in the hydrogen atom is recalculated and found to be 8172.898(26) MHz. 22 refs.

  9. Response-Based Strengthening in Task Shifting: Evidence from Shift Effects Produced by Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco; Hubner, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis is introduced that 1 source of shift costs is the strengthening of task-related associations occurring whenever an overt response is produced. The authors tested this account by examining shift effects following errors and error compensation processes. The authors predicted that following a specific type of error, called task…

  10. Invertebrate community response to a shifting mosaic of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Roper, A.; Leslie, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Grazing management has focused largely on promoting vegetation homogeneity through uniform distribution of grazing to minimize area in a pasture that is either heavily disturbed or undisturbed. An alternative management model that couples grazing and fire (i.e., patch burning) to promote heterogeneity argues that grazing and fire interact through a series of positive and negative feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation composition and structure across the landscape. We compared patch burning with traditional homogeneity-based management in tallgrass prairie to determine the influence of the two treatments on the aboveground invertebrate community. Patch burning resulted in a temporal flush of invertebrate biomass in patches transitional between unburned and patches burned in the current year. Total invertebrate mass was about 50% greater in these transitional patches within patch-burned pastures as compared to pastures under traditional, homogeneity-based management. Moreover, the mosaic of patches in patch-burned pastures contained a wider range of invertebrate biomass and greater abundance of some invertebrate orders than did the traditionally managed pastures. Patch burning provides habitat that meets requirements for a broad range of invertebrate species, suggesting the potential for patch burning to benefit other native animal assemblages in the food chain.

  11. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  12. Promoting Shifts in Preservice Science Teachers' Thinking through Teaching and Action Research in Informal Science Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an integrated experiential learning and action research project on preservice science teachers' developing ideas about science teaching, learning, and action research itself. The qualitative, interpretive study examined the action research of 10 master's degree students who were involved in service learning with children in informal education settings. Results indicated that all of the participants enhanced their knowledge of children as diverse learners and the importance of prior knowledge in science learning. In-depth case studies for three of the participants indicated that two developed deeper understandings of science learners and learning. However, one participant was resistant to learning and gained more limited understandings.

  13. Lack of Buffering by Composites Promotes Shift to More Cariogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, I; De Munck, J; Slomka, V; Van Meerbeek, B; Teughels, W; Van Landuyt, K L

    2016-07-01

    Secondary caries (SC) remains a very important problem with composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to test the acid-buffering ability of several restorative materials and to evaluate whether buffering of the restorative material has an impact on the microbial composition of the biofilm. Disk-shaped specimens of conventional composite, composite with surface prereacted glass-ionomer filler particles (so-called giomer), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), amalgam, and hydroxyapatite (HAp) (control) were exposed to aqueous solutions with pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 and to the medium containing bacteria-produced acids, and pH changes were recorded over several days. Next, material specimens were immersed in bacterial growth medium with pH adjusted to 5. After a 24-h incubation, the extracts were collected and inoculated with a cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and a noncariogenic (Streptococcus sanguinis) species. The bacterial growth was monitored both in a single-species model by spectrophotometry and in a dual-species model by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Amalgam and HAp showed the strongest acid-buffering ability, followed by the GIC and the giomer, while the conventional composite did not exhibit any buffering capacity. Furthermore, due to the lack of acid-buffering abilities, composite was not able to increase the pH of the medium (pH 5), which, in the absence of antibacterial properties, allowed the growth of S. mutans, while the growth of S. sanguinis, a less aciduric species, was completely inhibited. A similar effect was observed when bacteria were cultured together: there was a higher percentage of S. mutans and lower percentage of S. sanguinis with the conventional composite than with other materials and HAp. In conclusion, conventional composites lack the ability to increase the local pH, which leads to the outgrowth of more acidogenic/aciduric bacteria and higher cariogenicity of the biofilm. Together with lack of antibacterial properties, lack of buffering may account for the higher susceptibility of composites to SC. PMID:27146702

  14. Shift in precipitation regime promotes interspecific hybridization of introduced Coffea species.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Despinoy, Marc; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Salmon, Danyela; Akaffou, Doffou Sélastique; Legnate, Hyacinthe; de Kochko, Alexandre; Mangeas, Morgan; Poncet, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of plant species introductions has increased in a highly connected world, modifying species distribution patterns to include areas outside their natural ranges. These introductions provide the opportunity to gain new insight into the importance of flowering phenology as a component of adaptation to a new environment. Three Coffea species, C. arabica, C. canephora (Robusta), and C. liberica, native to intertropical Africa have been introduced to New Caledonia. On this archipelago, a secondary contact zone has been characterized where these species coexist, persist, and hybridize spontaneously. We investigated the impact of environmental changes undergone by each species following its introduction in New Caledonia on flowering phenology and overcoming reproductive barriers between sister species. We developed species distribution models and compared both environmental envelopes and climatic niches between native and introduced hybrid zones. Flowering phenology was monitored in a population in the hybrid zone along with temperature and precipitation sequences recorded at a nearby weather station. The extent and nature of hybridization events were characterized using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. The three Coffea species encountered weak environmental suitability compared to their native ranges when introduced to New Caledonia, especially C. arabica and C. canephora. The niche of the New Caledonia hybrid zone was significantly different from all three species' native niches based on identity tests (I Similarity and D Schoener's Similarity Indexes). This area appeared to exhibit intermediate conditions between the native conditions of the three species for temperature-related variables and divergent conditions for precipitation-related ones. Flowering pattern in these Coffea species was shown to have a strong genetic component that determined the time between the triggering rain and anthesis (flower opening), specific to each species. However, a precipitation regime different from those in Africa was directly involved in generating partial flowering overlap between species and thus in allowing hybridization and interspecific gene flow. Interspecific hybrids accounted for 4% of the mature individuals in the sympatric population and occurred between each pair of species with various level of introgression. Adaptation to new environmental conditions following introduction of Coffea species to New Caledonia has resulted in a secondary contact between three related species, which would not have happened in their native ranges, leading to hybridization and gene flow. PMID:27096083

  15. Shifts in rDNA levels act as a genome buffer promoting chromosome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deregowska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Gurgul, Artur; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Szmatola, Tomasz; Jasielczuk, Igor; Magda, Michal; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Panek, Anita; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus is considered to be a stress sensor and rDNA-based regulation of cellular senescence and longevity has been proposed. However, the role of rDNA in the maintenance of genome integrity has not been investigated in detail. Using genomically diverse industrial yeasts as a model and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we show that chromosome level may be balanced during passages and as a response to alcohol stress that may be associated with changes in rDNA pools. Generation- and ethanol-mediated changes in genes responsible for protein and DNA/RNA metabolism were revealed using next-generation sequencing. Links between redox homeostasis, DNA stability, and telomere and nucleolus states were also established. These results suggest that yeast genome is dynamic and chromosome homeostasis may be controlled by rDNA. PMID:26566866

  16. Nitrate Intake Promotes Shift in Muscle Fiber Type Composition during Sprint Interval Training in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Stefan; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; James, Ruth; Sale, Craig; Bishop, David J.; Hespel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the effect of sprint interval training (SIT) in normoxia, vs. SIT in hypoxia alone or in conjunction with oral nitrate intake, on buffering capacity of homogenized muscle (βhm) and fiber type distribution, as well as on sprint and endurance performance. Methods: Twenty-seven moderately-trained participants were allocated to one of three experimental groups: SIT in normoxia (20.9% FiO2) + placebo (N), SIT in hypoxia (15% FiO2) + placebo (H), or SIT in hypoxia + nitrate supplementation (HN). All participated in 5 weeks of SIT on a cycle ergometer (30-s sprints interspersed by 4.5 min recovery-intervals, 3 weekly sessions, 4–6 sprints per session). Nitrate (6.45 mmol NaNO3) or placebo capsules were administered 3 h before each session. Before and after SIT participants performed an incremental VO2max-test, a 30-min simulated cycling time-trial, as well as a 30-s cycling sprint test. Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis. Results: SIT decreased the proportion of type IIx muscle fibers in all groups (P < 0.05). The relative number of type IIa fibers increased (P < 0.05) in HN (P < 0.05 vs. H), but not in the other groups. SIT had no significant effect on βhm. Compared with H, SIT tended to enhance 30-s sprint performance more in HN than in H (P = 0.085). VO2max and 30-min time-trial performance increased in all groups to a similar extent. Conclusion: SIT in hypoxia combined with nitrate supplementation increases the proportion of type IIa fibers in muscle, which may be associated with enhanced performance in short maximal exercise. Compared with normoxic training, hypoxic SIT does not alter βhm or endurance and sprinting exercise performance. PMID:27378942

  17. Explorations in Promoting Conceptual Change in Electrical Concepts via Ontological Category Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung; Law, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses difficulties encountered by students in learning physics concepts that arise because they attribute ontology of material substance to these concepts. Reports on a series of four studies that explored the usefulness of an ontological categorization framework in investigating students' alternative conceptions of electric circuits and…

  18. Population diversification in a yeast metabolic program promotes anticipation of environmental shifts.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Ophelia S; Zuleta, Ignacio; Murray, Richard M; El-Samad, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Delineating the strategies by which cells contend with combinatorial changing environments is crucial for understanding cellular regulatory organization. When presented with two carbon sources, microorganisms first consume the carbon substrate that supports the highest growth rate (e.g., glucose) and then switch to the secondary carbon source (e.g., galactose), a paradigm known as the Monod model. Sequential sugar utilization has been attributed to transcriptional repression of the secondary metabolic pathway, followed by activation of this pathway upon depletion of the preferred carbon source. In this work, we demonstrate that although Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells consume glucose before galactose, the galactose regulatory pathway is activated in a fraction of the cell population hours before glucose is fully consumed. This early activation reduces the time required for the population to transition between the two metabolic programs and provides a fitness advantage that might be crucial in competitive environments.

  19. Ambiguity Produces Attention Shifts in Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadillo, Miguel A.; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference…

  20. Solvent stark effects and spectral shifts. II

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, M; Swain, J; Shum, Y Y; Merin, R; Chen, R H.H.

    1981-03-01

    Solvent shifts of the energies of the lowest /sup 1/L/sub a/ bands of the electronic absorption spectra of anthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, and tetracene and of the lowest /sup 1/L/sub b/ bands of the electronic absorption spectra of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and picene are reported. The origins of these shifts are analyzed in terms of theories developed by Baur and Nicol and by Abe. Satisfactory fits of the experimental data are obtained for theoretical expressions derived from both theories, but discrepancies are observed between the relative magnitudes assigned to the various contributions to the shifts by the two theories. The magnitudes of the parameters of the Baur and Nicol theory, relating solvent shifts to the dielectric constant and refractive index of the solvent, are found to be the same within experimental precision for the /sup 1/L/sub a/ transitions in all of the molecules studied; a similar regularity of the parameters for the /sup 1/L/sub b/ transitions also is observed.

  1. Deindustrialization and the Shift to Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Ronald E.; Personick, Valerie A.

    1986-01-01

    Bureau of Labor Statistics data show the industrial sector as a whole in healthy shape, but a few manufacturing industries in deep trouble. These industries include tobacco manufacturers, iron and steel foundries, leather products, and steel manufacturers. Also examines shifts in employment and output, job quality, and outlook for the future. (CT)

  2. Meal composition and shift work performance.

    PubMed

    Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance.

  3. Shifting Context: A Better Approach to Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkoe, Morty

    1985-01-01

    Context shifting is an approach to training that aims to transform the participants' point of view, allowing them to create a new context in which to perform their jobs, a new way of defining their roles that motivates them to exhibit skills and use information. (SK)

  4. The Phase Shift in the Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2008-01-01

    The popular physics demonstration experiment known as Thomson's Jumping Ring (JR) has been variously explained as a simple example of Lenz's law, or as the result of a phase shift of the ring current relative to the induced emf. The failure of the first-quadrant Lenz's law explanation is shown by the time the ring takes to jump and by levitation.…

  5. Prolonged Instability Prior to a Regime Shift

    PubMed Central

    Spanbauer, Trisha L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Eason, Tarsha; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Stone, Jeffery R.

    2014-01-01

    Regime shifts are generally defined as the point of ‘abrupt’ change in the state of a system. However, a seemingly abrupt transition can be the product of a system reorganization that has been ongoing much longer than is evident in statistical analysis of a single component of the system. Using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods, we tested a long-term high-resolution paleoecological dataset with a known change in species assemblage for a regime shift. Analysis of this dataset with Fisher Information and multivariate time series modeling showed that there was a∼2000 year period of instability prior to the regime shift. This period of instability and the subsequent regime shift coincide with regional climate change, indicating that the system is undergoing extrinsic forcing. Paleoecological records offer a unique opportunity to test tools for the detection of thresholds and stable-states, and thus to examine the long-term stability of ecosystems over periods of multiple millennia. PMID:25280010

  6. Heart-rate pulse-shift detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M.

    1974-01-01

    Detector circuit accurately separates and counts phase-shift pulses over wide range of basic pulse-rate frequency, and also provides reasonable representation of full repetitive EKG waveform. Single telemeter implanted in small animal monitors not only body temperature but also animal movement and heart rate.

  7. Has the Education Paradigm Begun to Shift?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    2014-01-01

    The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…

  8. Implications of Shifting Technology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; Holland, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the implications of shifting technology trends by looking at what we've lost or are losing, where we are, and where we need to go for making the needed transitions in knowledge and skills. Areas of growth within new media and the tech industry are good indicators of our growing interests in mobility, improved quality,…

  9. Blackbody radiation shifts in optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail; Clark, Charles

    2012-03-01

    A review of recent theoretical calculations of blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts in optical atomic clocks is presented. We summarize previous results for monovalent ions that were obtained by a relativistic all-order single-double method, where all single and double excitations of the Dirac- Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory. A recently developed method for accurate calculations of BBR shifts in divalent atoms is then presented. This approach combines the relativistic all-order method and the configuration interaction method, which provides for accurate treatment of correlation corrections in atoms with two valence electrons. Calculations of the BBR shifts in B+, Al+, and In+ have enabled us to reduce the present fractional uncertainties in the frequencies of their clock transitions as measured at room temperature: to 4 × 10-19 for Al+ and 10-18 for B+ and In+. These uncertainties approach recent estimates of the limits of precision of currently proposed optical atomic clocks. We discuss directions of future theoretical developments for reducing clock uncertainties resulting from blackbody radiation shifts.

  10. Using LEADS to shift to high performance.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Shauna; Hagge, Erna

    2016-03-01

    Health systems across Canada are tasked to measure results of all their strategic initiatives. Included in most strategic plans is leadership development. How to measure leadership effectiveness in relation to organizational objectives is key in determining organizational effectiveness. The following findings offer considerations for a 21(st)-century approach to shifting to high-performance systems.

  11. RQL Fuel Shifting Sector Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Haid, Daniel A.; Koopman, Frederick S.; Peschke, William O. T.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the HIgh Speed Civil transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program. Fuel shifting as an approach to combustor control was evaluated in a multiple bank RQL combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a convoluted linear with quench plate concept.

  12. Shifting Human Performance Technology to Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits and potential drawbacks of transferring HPT (human performance technology) skills from outside consultants to managers within organizations. Discusses HPT competence and control over work environment, the role of traditional HPT experts after the shift, and three approaches to implementing the change. (PEN)

  13. Paradigmatic Shift or Tinkering at the Edges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In their target paper, "Towards a systemic theory of gifted education," A. Ziegler and S. N. Phillipson present a long awaited call for a paradigmatic shift in thinking within the field of gifted education. The paper considers how educators and researchers within the field could bring about such a change. They challenge the prevailing…

  14. Survey Detects Shifting Priorities of School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author reports the results of a nationwide survey of school board members which show a shift in focus toward student achievement and away from district-management issues known as the "killer B's": buses, buildings, books, budgets, and bonds. But today's school board members appear not to be as interested in issues that many policy observers…

  15. Blackbody radiation shifts in optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail; Clark, Charles

    2012-03-01

    A review of recent theoretical calculations of blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts in optical atomic clocks is presented. We summarize previous results for monovalent ions that were obtained by a relativistic all-order single-double method, where all single and double excitations of the Dirac- Fock wave function are included to all orders of perturbation theory. A recently developed method for accurate calculations of BBR shifts in divalent atoms is then presented. This approach combines the relativistic all-order method and the configuration interaction method, which provides for accurate treatment of correlation corrections in atoms with two valence electrons. Calculations of the BBR shifts in B+, Al+, and In+ have enabled us to reduce the present fractional uncertainties in the frequencies of their clock transitions as measured at room temperature: to 4 × 10-19 for Al+ and 10-18 for B+ and In+. These uncertainties approach recent estimates of the limits of precision of currently proposed optical atomic clocks. We discuss directions of future theoretical developments for reducing clock uncertainties resulting from blackbody radiation shifts. PMID:22481777

  16. Study Predicts Dramatic Shifts in Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1991-01-01

    A new study detailing demographic shifts in the college-age population predicts growth in minority high school graduates and shrinkage or maintenance of White graduation rates. The report is the first to provide state-by-state figures on actual and projected graduates from 1986 through 1995 by racial and ethnic group. (MSE)

  17. Critical Review--Outsourcing: A Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakabadse, Nada; Kakabadse, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses trends in outsourcing, provision of goods and services to an organization that were previously delivered in house. Addresses outsourcing in the public sector, advantages and disadvantages, implications for human resource development, and the shift to the new "psychological contract" between employers and employees. (Contains 227…

  18. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. PMID:27111139

  19. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  20. Design principles of shift current photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Ashley; Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Moore, Joel

    While the basic principles and limitations of conventional solar cells are well understood, relatively little attention has gone toward evaluating and maximizing the potential efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. In this work, a sum rule approach is introduced and used to outline design principles for optimizing shift currents for photon energies near the band gap, which depend on wavefunctions via Berry connections as well as standard band structure. Using these we identify two new classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and orthorhombic monochalcogenides, both of which exhibit peak photoresponsivities larger than predictions for previously-known photovoltaics of this type. Using physically-motivated tight-binding models, the full frequency dependent response of these materials is obtained. Exploring the phase space of these models, we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA/W. These results show that considering the microscopic origin of shift current via effective models allows one to improve the possible efficiency of devices using this mechanism and better grasp their potential to compete with conventional solar cells. This work was completed with the support of an NSERC Michael Smith Foreign Study Supplement.

  1. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  2. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  3. Gas composition shifts in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Schettler, P.D.; Parmely, C.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of the gas composition of Devonian shale wells indicates that the composition of produced gas shifts during the production history of the well. Possible mechanisms to explain this behavior are examined in light of field and laboratory data. Application of diffusion theory is made to explain adsorption-like behavior exhibited by some shales.

  4. Shift of Meaning and Students' Alternative Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Volke, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish a relationship between the shift of meaning of the concept oxidation that has taken place during the historical development, and students' alternative concepts. First Examination Board papers were examined. The result enabled us to specify the research question. In the main part of the study,…

  5. Shifting Paradigms: From Flexner to Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraccio, Carol; Wolfsthal, Susan D.; Englander, Robert; Ferentz, Kevin; Martin, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on competency-based medical education to: (1) understand the evolution of this educational paradigm; (2) assess the evidence to date of the efficacy of competency-based education; and (3) provide practical insights into how to accomplish full implementation and evaluation of the paradigm shift. (EV)

  6. Hispanics Find Jobs that Shift Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Economic opportunity, the force that has driven population shifts for years, is changing the face of migration as Hispanics move into parts of the nation beyond border states and traditional ports of entry. North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Indiana are experiencing a steady growth in Hispanic population. In addition, West Virginia, Ohio, and…

  7. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  8. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  9. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Hercules R; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T; Chiarini, Luciana B; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G B; Kubrusly, Regina C; Faria, Robson X; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Reis, Ricardo A de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM) showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit. PMID:27078878

  10. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Hercules R.; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C.; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; do Nascimento, José Luiz M.; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H.; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G. B.; Kubrusly, Regina C.; Faria, Robson X.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1–10mM) showed that 5–10mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70μM and MK-801 20μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit. PMID:27078878

  11. Cationic Cyclizations and Rearrangements Promoted by a Heterogeneous Gold Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A heterogeneous gold catalyst with remarkable activity for promoting the electrophilic reactions of aryl vinyl ketones and aryl dienyl ketones is described. The catalyst is easy to prepare, is robust, and can be recycled. Low loadings are effective for different types of cationic reactions, including Nazarov cyclizations, lactonizations, and [1,2] shifts. PMID:24432741

  12. Teachers' Roles in Promoting Students' Learner Autonomy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumin, Fang; Li, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been promoting a shift from traditional teaching models to a new teaching model where students' autonomous learning skills can be enhanced. In particular, college students are encouraged to learn English free from the constraints of time or place. While learner autonomy has been perceived as…

  13. Current-induced spin wave Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailleul, Matthieu

    2010-03-01

    In metal ferromagnets -namely Fe, Co and Ni and their alloys- magnetism and electrical transport are strongly entangled (itinerant magnetism). This results in a number of properties such as the tunnel and giant magnetoresistance (i.e. the dependence of the electrical resistance on the magnetic state) and the more recently addressed spin transfer (i.e. the ability to manipulate the magnetic state with the help of an electrical current). The spin waves, being the low-energy elementary excitations of any ferromagnet, also exist in itinerant magnets, but they are expected to exhibit some peculiar properties due the itinerant character of the carriers. Accessing these specific properties experimentally could shed a new light on the microscopic mechanism governing itinerant magnetism, which -in turn- could help in optimizing material properties for spintronics applications. As a simple example of these specific properties, it was predicted theoretically that forcing a DC current through a ferromagnetic metal should induce a shift of the frequency of the spin waves [1,2]. This shift can be identified to a Doppler shift undergone by the electron system when it is put in motion by the electrical current. We will show how detailed spin wave measurements allow one to access this current-induced Doppler shift [3]. From an experimental point of view, we will discuss the peculiarities of propagating spin wave spectroscopy experiments carried out at a sub-micrometer length-scale and with MHz frequency resolution. Then, we will discuss the measured value of the Doppler shift in the context of both the old two-current model of spin-polarized transport and the more recent model of adiabatic spin transfer torque. [4pt] [1] P.Lederer and D.L. Mills, Phys.Rev. 148, 542 (1966).[0pt] [2] J. Fernandez-Rossier et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 174412 (2004)[0pt] [3] V. Vlaminck and M. Bailleul, Science 322, 410 (2008).

  14. The acute effects of intranasal oxytocin on automatic and effortful attentional shifting to emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie; Grumet, Robin; Cardoso, Christopher; Joober, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin is known to promote social affiliation. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown, but it may involve changes in social information processing. In a placebo-controlled study, we examined the influence of intranasal oxytocin on effortful and automatic attentional shifting in 57 participants using a spatial cueing task with emotional and neutral faces. For effortful processing, oxytocin decreased the speed of shifting attention to sad faces presented for 750 ms and facilitated disengagement from right hemifield sad and angry faces presented for 200 ms. For automatic processing, symptoms of depression moderated the relationship between drug and disengagement. Oxytocin attenuated an attentional bias to masked angry faces on disengagement trials in persons with high depression scores. Oxytocin's influence on social behavior may occur, in part, by eliciting flexible attentional shifting in the early stages of information processing. PMID:22092248

  15. Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Shift Work and Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. The reason is the conflict between the day oriented circadian physiology and the requirement for work and sleep at the “wrong” biological time of day. Other factors that negatively impact work shift sleepiness and accident risk include long duration shifts greater than 12 hours and individual vulnerability for phase intolerance that may lead to a diagnosis of shift work disorder; i.e., those shift workers with the greatest sleepiness and performance impairment during the biological night and insomnia during the biological day. Whereas some countermeasures may be used to ameliorate the negative impact of shift work on nighttime sleepiness and daytime insomnia (combined countermeasures may be the best available), there seems at present to be no way to eliminate most of the negative effects of shift work on human physiology and cognition. PMID:20640236

  16. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  17. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  18. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  19. Defining and explaining tropical deforestation: shifting cultivation and population growth in colonial Madagascar (1896-1940).

    PubMed

    Jarosz, L

    1993-10-01

    . During 1900-1941, population was below or at replacement level, but the government still blamed Malagasys. Shifting cultivation meant different things to the subsistence farmers, the state, and international agencies. Denial of context promotes an ideology of repression, fuels fear and prejudice, and promotes the wrong solutions.

  20. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Robert Y.; Maypa, Aileen; Apistar, Dean; White, Alan; Turingan, Ralph G.

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1) Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2) Do MPA size and (3) age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time. PMID:24833509

  1. Hospital pricing: cost shifting and competition.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A

    1993-05-01

    The issue of cost shifting has taken on enormous policy implications. It is estimated that unsponsored and undercompensated hospital costs--one measure of cost shifting--has totaled $21.5 billion in 1991. The health services research literature indicates that hospitals set different prices for different payers. However, the empirical evidence on hospitals' ability to raise prices to one payer to make up for unsponsored care or lower payments by other payers is mixed at best. No study has concluded that hospitals have raised prices to fully adjust for such actions. The extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. When a hospital has market power, it is able to set prices above marginal costs. However, when a buyer has enough patient/subscribers and a willingness to direct them to particular providers based on price considerations, hospitals have less flexibility in raising prices above costs. Thus, the extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. Cost shifting is not as easy as it may have been in the past because the nature of hospital and insurer competition has changed radically in the last decade. While hospital quality, services, and amenities still matter, some buyers are increasingly concerned about the price they pay. Evidence from studies of PPO and HMO negotiations with hospitals suggests that hospitals' market power is eroding, at least in some areas. In areas with relatively few hospital competitors and little PPO or HMO activity, Medicaid and Medicare price reductions and uncompensated care burdens will be partially absorbed by higher prices paid by private payers. In more price sensitive markets and in markets in which prices to private payers have risen to those commensurate with the market power of local hospitals, such cost shifting will not occur. A market-based approach in hospital pricing requires an explicit policy for the uninsured. In a competitive market, a hospital that traditionally cared for the uninsured by spending some of its

  2. Transitional Bubble in Periodic Flow Phase Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talan, M.; Hourmouziadis, Jean

    2004-01-01

    One particular characteristic observed in unsteady shear layers is the phase shift relative to the main flow. In attached boundary layers this will have an effect both on the instantaneous skin friction and heat transfer. In separation bubbles the contribution to the drag is dominated by the pressure distribution. However, the most significant effect appears to be the phase shift on the transition process. Unsteady transition behaviour may determine the bursting of the bubble resulting in an un-recoverable full separation. An early analysis of the phase shift was performed by Stokes for the incompressible boundary layer of an oscillating wall and an oscillating main flow. An amplitude overshoot within the shear layer as well as a phase shift were observed that can be attributed to the relatively slow diffusion of viscous stresses compared to the fast change of pressure. Experiments in a low speed facility with the boundary layer of a flat plate were evaluated in respect to phase shift. A pressure distribution similar to that on the suction surface of a turbomachinery aerofoil was superimposed generating a typical transitional separation bubble. A periodically unsteady main flow in the suction type wind tunnel was introduced via a rotating flap downstream of the test section. The experiments covered a range of the three similarity parameters of momentum-loss-thickness Reynolds-number of 92 to 226 and Strouhal-number (reduced frequency) of 0.0001 to 0.0004 at the separation point, and an amplitude range up to 19 %. The free stream turbulence level was less than 1% .Upstream of the separation point the phase shift in the laminar boundary layer does not appear to be affected significantly bay either of the three parameters. The trend perpendicular to the wall is similar to the Stokes analysis. The problem scales well with the wave velocity introduced by Stokes, however, the lag of the main flow near the wall is less than indicated analytically. The separation point

  3. Shape-shifting colloids via stimulated dewetting

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Mena; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reconfigure elementary building blocks from one structure to another is key to many biological systems. Bringing the intrinsic adaptability of biological systems to traditional synthetic materials is currently one of the biggest scientific challenges in material engineering. Here we introduce a new design concept for the experimental realization of self-assembling systems with built-in shape-shifting elements. We demonstrate that dewetting forces between an oil phase and solid colloidal substrates can be exploited to engineer shape-shifting particles whose geometry can be changed on demand by a chemical or optical signal. We find this approach to be quite general and applicable to a broad spectrum of materials, including polymers, semiconductors and magnetic materials. This synthetic methodology can be further adopted as a new experimental platform for designing and rapidly prototyping functional colloids, such as reconfigurable micro swimmers, colloidal surfactants and switchable building blocks for self-assembly. PMID:27426418

  4. Shape-shifting colloids via stimulated dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mena; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    The ability to reconfigure elementary building blocks from one structure to another is key to many biological systems. Bringing the intrinsic adaptability of biological systems to traditional synthetic materials is currently one of the biggest scientific challenges in material engineering. Here we introduce a new design concept for the experimental realization of self-assembling systems with built-in shape-shifting elements. We demonstrate that dewetting forces between an oil phase and solid colloidal substrates can be exploited to engineer shape-shifting particles whose geometry can be changed on demand by a chemical or optical signal. We find this approach to be quite general and applicable to a broad spectrum of materials, including polymers, semiconductors and magnetic materials. This synthetic methodology can be further adopted as a new experimental platform for designing and rapidly prototyping functional colloids, such as reconfigurable micro swimmers, colloidal surfactants and switchable building blocks for self-assembly.

  5. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument

  6. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/diameter) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output plane. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective, and second the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and can be made arbitrarily large. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument.

  7. Shifting-sand control in central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Zhao, W

    2001-09-01

    The middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo, the Lhasa, and the Nianchu rivers form the center of politics, economy, and culture in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Due to the fragility of the natural environment and overexploitation of land by the local people, desertification is becoming a serious problem in the valleys. Shifting sands cover an area of 578 km2 and have caused problems such as damage to farmland and grassland, traffic blockage and burying of water projects. This paper discusses strategies and techniques for combating shifting sands, including reformation of the agricultural structure, exploitation of new sources of energy, and combinations of mechanical and biotic measures. Using mechanical measures, straw barriers, and gravel layer covers, artificial vegetation can be established on the mobile sand dune by sowing and planting introduced species.

  8. Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shuiqin; Cai, Yi; Pan, Xinjian; Zeng, Xuanke; Li, Jingzhen; Li, Ying; Zhu, Tianlong; Lin, Qinggang; Xu, Shixiang

    2016-09-01

    Comprehensive characterization of ultrafast optical field is critical for ultrashort pulse generation and its application. This paper combines two-step phase-shifting (TSPS) into the spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) to improve the reconstruction of ultrafast optical-fields. This novel SPIDER can remove experimentally the dc portion occurring in traditional SPIDER method by recording two spectral interferograms with π phase-shifting. As a result, the reconstructed results are much less disturbed by the time delay between the test pulse replicas and the temporal widths of the filter window, thus more reliable. What is more, this SPIDER can work efficiently even the time delay is so small or the measured bandwidth is so narrow that strong overlap happens between the dc and ac portions, which allows it to be able to characterize the test pulses with complicated temporal/spectral structures or narrow bandwidths.

  9. Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuiqin; Cai, Yi; Pan, Xinjian; Zeng, Xuanke; Li, Jingzhen; Li, Ying; Zhu, Tianlong; Lin, Qinggang; Xu, Shixiang

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of ultrafast optical field is critical for ultrashort pulse generation and its application. This paper combines two-step phase-shifting (TSPS) into the spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) to improve the reconstruction of ultrafast optical-fields. This novel SPIDER can remove experimentally the dc portion occurring in traditional SPIDER method by recording two spectral interferograms with π phase-shifting. As a result, the reconstructed results are much less disturbed by the time delay between the test pulse replicas and the temporal widths of the filter window, thus more reliable. What is more, this SPIDER can work efficiently even the time delay is so small or the measured bandwidth is so narrow that strong overlap happens between the dc and ac portions, which allows it to be able to characterize the test pulses with complicated temporal/spectral structures or narrow bandwidths. PMID:27666528

  10. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  11. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  12. Collisionally induced atomic clock shifts and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y. B.; Osherov, I.

    2011-07-15

    We develop a formalism to incorporate exchange symmetry considerations into the calculation of collisional frequency shifts for atomic clocks using a density-matrix formalism. The formalism is developed for both fermionic and bosonic atomic clocks. Numerical results for a finite-temperature {sup 87}Sr {sup 1}S{sub 0} (F=9/2) atomic clock in a magic wavelength optical lattice are presented.

  13. Reweighted ℓ1 referenceless PRF shift thermometry.

    PubMed

    Grissom, William A; Lustig, Michael; Holbrook, Andrew B; Rieke, Viola; Pauly, John M; Butts-Pauly, Kim

    2010-10-01

    Temperature estimation in proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift MR thermometry requires a reference, or pretreatment, phase image that is subtracted from image phase during thermal treatment to yield a phase difference image proportional to temperature change. Referenceless thermometry methods derive a reference phase image from the treatment image itself by assuming that in the absence of a hot spot, the image phase can be accurately represented in a smooth (usually low order polynomial) basis. By masking the hot spot out of a least squares (ℓ(2)) regression, the reference phase image's coefficients on the polynomial basis are estimated and a reference image is derived by evaluating the polynomial inside the hot spot area. Referenceless methods are therefore insensitive to motion and bulk main field shifts, however, currently these methods require user interaction or sophisticated tracking to ensure that the hot spot is masked out of the polynomial regression. This article introduces an approach to reference PRF shift thermometry that uses reweighted ℓ(1) regression, a form of robust regression, to obtain background phase coefficients without hot spot tracking and masking. The method is compared to conventional referenceless thermometry, and demonstrated experimentally in monitoring HIFU heating in a phantom and canine prostate, as well as in a healthy human liver.

  14. Photonic downconversion with tunable wideband phase shift.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianwei; Yu, Song; Wu, Ruihuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-06-01

    A microwave photonic frequency downconversion system with wideband and continuous phase-shift function is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, a radio frequency (RF) and a local oscillator (LO) signal drive two arms of a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DMZM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is used for reflecting the first-order sidebands of both RF and LO signals. Due to phase independence between RF and LO optical sidebands, the phase-shifting operation for an output intermediate frequency (IF) signal can be implemented either by adjusting the bias voltage of DMZM or by controlling the optical wavelength of laser. Experimental results demonstrate a full 0° to 360° phase shift, while an RF signal between 12 GHz to 20 GHz is downconverted to IFs below 4 GHz. The phase deviation is measured less than 2°, and the fluctuation of magnitude response is measured less than ±1  dB over a wideband frequency range. PMID:27244434

  15. Cost-shifting in manged care.

    PubMed

    Norton, E C; Lindrooth, R C; Dickey, B

    1999-09-01

    We conducted a study of the change from fee-for-service to managed care for mental health services in the Massachusetts Medicaid program, which occurred in fiscal year 1993. We estimated the effect of managed care on total public expenditures over both the short and the long term. Per person expenditures were lower by 24% in the first year of managed care but only lower by 5% in the second and third years. We also tested for cost-shifting by estimating expenditures for five specific services paid by three public agencies. Expenditures on services paid by the managed care vendor decreased, expenditures paid by Medicaid increased, and expenditures paid by the Department of Mental Health decreased. We discuss the implications for both cost-shifting and quality of care improvements. The results from two-part expenditure models indicate that some cost-shifting may be related to quality improvement. The effects are generally stronger for the beneficiaries in the highest quartile of expenditures. PMID:11258741

  16. Bashful Ballerina: Southward shifted Heliospheric Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Hiltula, T.

    It is known since long (Rosenberg and Coleman, 1969) that one of the two sectors of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed at the Earth's orbit dominates at high heliographic latitudes during solar minimum times, reflecting the poloidal structure of the global solar magnetic field at these times. Here we find that while this latitudinal variation of the dominant IMF sector around the solar equator is valid for both solar hemispheres during the last four solar minima covered by direct observations, it is systematically more strongly developed in the northern heliographic hemisphere. This implies that the average heliospheric current sheet is shifted or coned southward during solar minimum times, suggesting that the temporary southward shift of the heliosheet found earlier by Ulysses observations in 1995 is a persistent pattern. This also implies that the open solar magnetic field is north-south asymmetric at these times, suggesting that the solar dynamo has an asymmetric component. Accordingly, the Sun with the heliosheet is like a bashful ballerina who is repeatedly trying to push her excessively high flaring skirt downward. However, the effective shift at 1 AU is only a few degrees, allowing the Rosenberg-Coleman rule to be valid, on an average, in both hemispheres during solar minima.

  17. Bashful ballerina: Southward shifted heliospheric current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Hiltula, T.

    2003-11-01

    It is known since long [Rosenberg and Coleman, 1969] that one of the two sectors of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed at the Earth's orbit dominates at high heliographic latitudes during solar minimum times, reflecting the poloidal structure of the global solar magnetic field at these times. Here we find that while this latitudinal variation of the dominant IMF sector around the solar equator is valid for both solar hemispheres during the last four solar minima covered by direct observations, it is systematically more strongly developed in the northern heliographic hemisphere. This implies that the average heliospheric current sheet is shifted or coned southward during solar minimum times, suggesting that the temporary southward shift of the heliosheet found earlier by Ulysses observations in 1995 is a persistent pattern. This also implies that the open solar magnetic field is north-south asymmetric at these times, suggesting that the solar dynamo has an asymmetric component. Accordingly, the Sun with the heliosheet is like a bashful ballerina who is repeatedly trying to push her excessively high flaring skirt downward. However, the effective shift at 1 AU is only a few degrees, allowing the Rosenberg-Coleman rule to be valid, on an average, in both hemispheres during solar minima.

  18. Atomic clocks with suppressed blackbody radiation shift.

    PubMed

    Yudin, V I; Taichenachev, A V; Okhapkin, M V; Bagayev, S N; Tamm, Chr; Peik, E; Huntemann, N; Mehlstäubler, T E; Riehle, F

    2011-07-15

    We develop a concept of atomic clocks where the blackbody radiation shift and its fluctuations can be suppressed by 1-3 orders of magnitude independent of the environmental temperature. The suppression is based on the fact that in a system with two accessible clock transitions (with frequencies ν1 and ν2) which are exposed to the same thermal environment, there exists a "synthetic" frequency ν(syn) ∝ (ν1 - ε12ν2) largely immune to the blackbody radiation shift. For example, in the case of 171Yb+ it is possible to create a synthetic-frequency-based clock in which the fractional blackbody radiation shift can be suppressed to the level of 10(-18) in a broad interval near room temperature (300±15  K). We also propose a realization of our method with the use of an optical frequency comb generator stabilized to both frequencies ν1 and ν2, where the frequency ν(syn) is generated as one of the components of the comb spectrum.

  19. Semi-Supervised Kernel Mean Shift Clustering.

    PubMed

    Anand, Saket; Mittal, Sushil; Tuzel, Oncel; Meer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Mean shift clustering is a powerful nonparametric technique that does not require prior knowledge of the number of clusters and does not constrain the shape of the clusters. However, being completely unsupervised, its performance suffers when the original distance metric fails to capture the underlying cluster structure. Despite recent advances in semi-supervised clustering methods, there has been little effort towards incorporating supervision into mean shift. We propose a semi-supervised framework for kernel mean shift clustering (SKMS) that uses only pairwise constraints to guide the clustering procedure. The points are first mapped to a high-dimensional kernel space where the constraints are imposed by a linear transformation of the mapped points. This is achieved by modifying the initial kernel matrix by minimizing a log det divergence-based objective function. We show the advantages of SKMS by evaluating its performance on various synthetic and real datasets while comparing with state-of-the-art semi-supervised clustering algorithms. PMID:26353281

  20. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    SciTech Connect

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times.

  1. Concatenated shift registers generating maximally spaced phase shifts of PN-sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A large class of linearly concatenated shift registers is shown to generate approximately maximally spaced phase shifts of pn-sequences, for use in pseudorandom number generation. A constructive method is presented for finding members of this class, for almost all degrees for which primitive trinomials exist. The sequences which result are not normally characterized by trinomial recursions, which is desirable since trinomial sequences can have some undesirable randomness properties.

  2. Regime Shifts in the Anthropocene: Drivers, Risks, and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Carlos; Peterson, Garry D.; Biggs, Reinette

    2015-01-01

    Many ecosystems can experience regime shifts: surprising, large and persistent changes in the function and structure of ecosystems. Assessing whether continued global change will lead to further regime shifts, or has the potential to trigger cascading regime shifts has been a central question in global change policy. Addressing this issue has, however, been hampered by the focus of regime shift research on specific cases and types of regime shifts. To systematically assess the global risk of regime shifts we conducted a comparative analysis of 25 generic types of regime shifts across marine, terrestrial and polar systems; identifying their drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Our results show that the drivers of regime shifts are diverse and co-occur strongly, which suggests that continued global change can be expected to synchronously increase the risk of multiple regime shifts. Furthermore, many regime shift drivers are related to climate change and food production, whose links to the continued expansion of human activities makes them difficult to limit. Because many regime shifts can amplify the drivers of other regime shifts, continued global change can also be expected to increase the risk of cascading regime shifts. Nevertheless, the variety of scales at which regime shift drivers operate provides opportunities for reducing the risk of many types of regime shifts by addressing local or regional drivers, even in the absence of rapid reduction of global drivers. PMID:26267896

  3. Regime shifts in the anthropocene: drivers, risks, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Carlos; Peterson, Garry D; Biggs, Reinette

    2015-01-01

    Many ecosystems can experience regime shifts: surprising, large and persistent changes in the function and structure of ecosystems. Assessing whether continued global change will lead to further regime shifts, or has the potential to trigger cascading regime shifts has been a central question in global change policy. Addressing this issue has, however, been hampered by the focus of regime shift research on specific cases and types of regime shifts. To systematically assess the global risk of regime shifts we conducted a comparative analysis of 25 generic types of regime shifts across marine, terrestrial and polar systems; identifying their drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Our results show that the drivers of regime shifts are diverse and co-occur strongly, which suggests that continued global change can be expected to synchronously increase the risk of multiple regime shifts. Furthermore, many regime shift drivers are related to climate change and food production, whose links to the continued expansion of human activities makes them difficult to limit. Because many regime shifts can amplify the drivers of other regime shifts, continued global change can also be expected to increase the risk of cascading regime shifts. Nevertheless, the variety of scales at which regime shift drivers operate provides opportunities for reducing the risk of many types of regime shifts by addressing local or regional drivers, even in the absence of rapid reduction of global drivers.

  4. Regime shifts in the anthropocene: drivers, risks, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Carlos; Peterson, Garry D; Biggs, Reinette

    2015-01-01

    Many ecosystems can experience regime shifts: surprising, large and persistent changes in the function and structure of ecosystems. Assessing whether continued global change will lead to further regime shifts, or has the potential to trigger cascading regime shifts has been a central question in global change policy. Addressing this issue has, however, been hampered by the focus of regime shift research on specific cases and types of regime shifts. To systematically assess the global risk of regime shifts we conducted a comparative analysis of 25 generic types of regime shifts across marine, terrestrial and polar systems; identifying their drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Our results show that the drivers of regime shifts are diverse and co-occur strongly, which suggests that continued global change can be expected to synchronously increase the risk of multiple regime shifts. Furthermore, many regime shift drivers are related to climate change and food production, whose links to the continued expansion of human activities makes them difficult to limit. Because many regime shifts can amplify the drivers of other regime shifts, continued global change can also be expected to increase the risk of cascading regime shifts. Nevertheless, the variety of scales at which regime shift drivers operate provides opportunities for reducing the risk of many types of regime shifts by addressing local or regional drivers, even in the absence of rapid reduction of global drivers. PMID:26267896

  5. White matter shifts in MRI: Rehabilitating the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-09-01

    A thorough exposition and analysis of the role of the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance is presented from the fundamental standpoint of macroscopic magnetostatics. The analysis will be useful to those interested in understanding susceptibility and chemical shift contributions to frequency shifts in magnetic resonance. Though the topic is mature, recent research on white matter shifts in the brain promotes the notion of replacing the Lorentz sphere with a generalized Lorentzian cylinder, and has put into question the long standing spherical approach when elongated structures are present. The cavity shape issue can be resolved by applying Helmholtz's theorem, which can be expressed in a differential and an integral formulation. The general validity of the Lorentz sphere for any situation is confirmed. Furthermore, a clear exposition of the "generalized approach" is offered, using the language of Lorentz's theory. With the rehabilitation of the Lorentz sphere settled, one must consider alternative contributions to white matter shifts and a likely candidate is the effect of molecular environment on chemical shifts. PMID:27393892

  6. White matter shifts in MRI: Rehabilitating the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    A thorough exposition and analysis of the role of the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance is presented from the fundamental standpoint of macroscopic magnetostatics. The analysis will be useful to those interested in understanding susceptibility and chemical shift contributions to frequency shifts in magnetic resonance. Though the topic is mature, recent research on white matter shifts in the brain promotes the notion of replacing the Lorentz sphere with a generalized Lorentzian cylinder, and has put into question the long standing spherical approach when elongated structures are present. The cavity shape issue can be resolved by applying Helmholtz's theorem, which can be expressed in a differential and an integral formulation. The general validity of the Lorentz sphere for any situation is confirmed. Furthermore, a clear exposition of the "generalized approach" is offered, using the language of Lorentz's theory. With the rehabilitation of the Lorentz sphere settled, one must consider alternative contributions to white matter shifts and a likely candidate is the effect of molecular environment on chemical shifts.

  7. [Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pepłońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies. PMID:23829069

  8. Shifting distributions and speciation: species divergence during rapid climate change.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2007-02-01

    Questions about how shifting distributions contribute to species diversification remain virtually without answer, even though rapid climate change during the Pleistocene clearly impacted genetic variation within many species. One factor that has prevented this question from being adequately addressed is the lack of precision associated with estimates of species divergence made from a single genetic locus and without incorporating processes that are biologically important as populations diverge. Analysis of DNA sequences from multiple variable loci in a coalescent framework that (i) corrects for gene divergence pre-dating speciation, and (ii) derives divergence-time estimates without making a priori assumptions about the processes underlying patterns of incomplete lineage sorting between species (i.e. allows for the possibility of gene flow during speciation), is critical to overcoming the inherent logistical and analytical difficulties of inferring the timing and mode of speciation during the dynamic Pleistocene. Estimates of species divergence that ignore these processes, use single locus data, or do both can dramatically overestimate species divergence. For example, using a coalescent approach with data from six loci, the divergence between two species of montane Melanoplus grasshoppers is estimated at between 200,000 and 300,000 years before present, far more recently than divergence estimates made using single-locus data or without the incorporation of population-level processes. Melanoplus grasshoppers radiated in the sky islands of the Rocky Mountains, and the analysis of divergence between these species suggests that the isolation of populations in multiple glacial refugia was an important factor in promoting speciation. Furthermore, the low estimates of gene flow between the species indicate that reproductive isolation must have evolved rapidly for the incipient species boundaries to be maintained through the subsequent glacial periods and shifts in species

  9. Shifting distributions and speciation: species divergence during rapid climate change.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2007-02-01

    Questions about how shifting distributions contribute to species diversification remain virtually without answer, even though rapid climate change during the Pleistocene clearly impacted genetic variation within many species. One factor that has prevented this question from being adequately addressed is the lack of precision associated with estimates of species divergence made from a single genetic locus and without incorporating processes that are biologically important as populations diverge. Analysis of DNA sequences from multiple variable loci in a coalescent framework that (i) corrects for gene divergence pre-dating speciation, and (ii) derives divergence-time estimates without making a priori assumptions about the processes underlying patterns of incomplete lineage sorting between species (i.e. allows for the possibility of gene flow during speciation), is critical to overcoming the inherent logistical and analytical difficulties of inferring the timing and mode of speciation during the dynamic Pleistocene. Estimates of species divergence that ignore these processes, use single locus data, or do both can dramatically overestimate species divergence. For example, using a coalescent approach with data from six loci, the divergence between two species of montane Melanoplus grasshoppers is estimated at between 200,000 and 300,000 years before present, far more recently than divergence estimates made using single-locus data or without the incorporation of population-level processes. Melanoplus grasshoppers radiated in the sky islands of the Rocky Mountains, and the analysis of divergence between these species suggests that the isolation of populations in multiple glacial refugia was an important factor in promoting speciation. Furthermore, the low estimates of gene flow between the species indicate that reproductive isolation must have evolved rapidly for the incipient species boundaries to be maintained through the subsequent glacial periods and shifts in species

  10. Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES) challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids), health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality), and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image), and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES. PMID:21261939

  11. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within Neotropical Malpighiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Cappellari, Simone C.; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Methods Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Key Results Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Conclusions Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type

  12. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  13. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

  14. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies.

    PubMed

    Hamerlinck, G; Hulbert, D; Hood, G R; Smith, J J; Forbes, A A

    2016-09-01

    Host shifts by specialist insects can lead to reproductive isolation between insect populations that use different hosts, promoting diversification. When both a phytophagous insect and its ancestrally associated parasitoid shift to the same novel host plant, they may cospeciate. However, because adult parasitoids are free living, they can also colonize novel host insects and diversify independent of their ancestral host insect. Although shifts of parasitoids to new insect hosts have been documented in ecological time, the long-term importance of such shifts to parasitoid diversity has not been evaluated. We used a genus of flies with a history of speciation via host shifting (Rhagoletis [Diptera: Tephritidae]) and three associated hymenopteran parasitoid genera (Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes) to examine cophylogenetic relationships between parasitoids and their host insects. We inferred phylogenies of Rhagoletis, Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes and used distance-based cophylogenetic methods (ParaFit and PACo) to assess congruence between fly and parasitoid trees. We used an event-based method with a free-living parasitoid cost model to reconstruct cophylogenetic histories of each parasitoid genus and Rhagoletis. We found that the current species diversity and host-parasitoid associations between the Rhagoletis flies and parasitoids are the primary result of ancient cospeciation events. Parasitoid shifts to ancestrally unrelated hosts primarily occur near the branch tips, suggesting that host shifts contribute to recent parasitoid species diversity but that these lineages may not persist over longer time periods. Our analyses also stress the importance of biologically informed cost models when investigating the coevolutionary histories of hosts and free-living parasitoids.

  15. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies.

    PubMed

    Hamerlinck, G; Hulbert, D; Hood, G R; Smith, J J; Forbes, A A

    2016-09-01

    Host shifts by specialist insects can lead to reproductive isolation between insect populations that use different hosts, promoting diversification. When both a phytophagous insect and its ancestrally associated parasitoid shift to the same novel host plant, they may cospeciate. However, because adult parasitoids are free living, they can also colonize novel host insects and diversify independent of their ancestral host insect. Although shifts of parasitoids to new insect hosts have been documented in ecological time, the long-term importance of such shifts to parasitoid diversity has not been evaluated. We used a genus of flies with a history of speciation via host shifting (Rhagoletis [Diptera: Tephritidae]) and three associated hymenopteran parasitoid genera (Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes) to examine cophylogenetic relationships between parasitoids and their host insects. We inferred phylogenies of Rhagoletis, Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes and used distance-based cophylogenetic methods (ParaFit and PACo) to assess congruence between fly and parasitoid trees. We used an event-based method with a free-living parasitoid cost model to reconstruct cophylogenetic histories of each parasitoid genus and Rhagoletis. We found that the current species diversity and host-parasitoid associations between the Rhagoletis flies and parasitoids are the primary result of ancient cospeciation events. Parasitoid shifts to ancestrally unrelated hosts primarily occur near the branch tips, suggesting that host shifts contribute to recent parasitoid species diversity but that these lineages may not persist over longer time periods. Our analyses also stress the importance of biologically informed cost models when investigating the coevolutionary histories of hosts and free-living parasitoids. PMID:27234648

  16. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  17. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  18. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  19. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  20. Ecohydrology by thinking outside the bog: Shifting paradigms in an era of shifting peatland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, James; Moore, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large shifts in vegetation distributions are occurring worldwide and at unprecedented rates. The most extreme of these regime shifts are expected to occur at ecosystem boundaries of both semi-arid and semi-humid landscapes. Despite extensive hydrological research on the interactions between water and semi-arid ecosystems, research in peatlands on the wet end of ecosystem continuum has been "bogged down" (pun fully intended) by the traditional conceptual models (paradigms?) of peatland hydrology and ecology. The consequences of this "thinking" are large given that northern peatlands provide important global and regional ecosystem services (carbon storage, water storage, and biodiversity). This is especially true because peatlands face increases in the severity, areal extent, and frequency of climate-mediated (e.g., wildfire, drought) and land-use change (e.g., drainage, flooding, and mining) disturbances placing the future security of these critical ecosystem services in doubt. We use the word doubt because while numerical modelling studies predict peatland regime shifts and the demise of global peat stocks, there is growing evidence that peatlands are self-regulating ecosystems dominated by negative ecohydrological feedbacks that stabilize the aforementioned ecosystem services through high ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This raises several important hydrological questions? "Is there field evidence of peatland regime shifts? If so, what are the potential impacts of these shifts on water resources and watershed management? If not, are researchers actually looking in the right places (or times)? In this presentation we explore the need for a "thinking outside the bog" in order to understand the ecohydrological consequences of transformative landscape change caused by peatland regime shifts. With reference to over two decades of field research, recent advances with our Peatland Hydrological Impacts model and recent research examining primary peat formation, we

  1. Sofic and Almost of Finite Type Tree-Shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, Nathalie; Béal, Marie-Pierre

    We introduce the notion of sofic tree-shifts which corresponds to symbolic dynamical systems of infinite trees accepted by finite tree automata. We show that, contrary to shifts of infinite sequences, there is no unique minimal deterministic irreducible tree automaton accepting an irreducible sofic tree-shift, but that there is a unique synchronized one, called the Shannon cover of the tree-shift. We define the notion of almost finite type tree-shift which is a meaningful intermediate dynamical class in between irreducible finite type tree-shifts and irreducible sofic tree-shifts. We characterize the Shannon cover of an almost finite type tree-shift and we design an algorithm to check whether a sofic tree-shift is almost of finite type.

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  3. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  4. Drought-induced vegetation shifts in terrestrial ecosystems: The key role of regeneration dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing climate change is modifying climatic conditions worldwide, with a trend towards drier conditions in most regions. Vegetation will respond to these changes, eventually adjusting to the new climate. It is unclear, however, how close different ecosystems are to climate-related tipping points and, thus, how dramatic these vegetation changes will be in the short- to mid-term, given the existence of strong stabilizing processes. Here, we review the published evidence for recent drought-induced vegetation shifts worldwide, addressing the following questions: (i) what are the necessary conditions for vegetation shifts to occur? (ii) How much evidence of drought-induced vegetation shifts do we have at present and where are they occurring? (iii) What are the main processes that favor/oppose the occurrence of shifts at different ecological scales? (iv) What are the complications in detecting and attributing drought-induced vegetation shifts? (v) What ecological factors can interact with drought to promote shifts or stability? We propose a demographic framework to classify the likely outcome of instances of drought-induced mortality, based upon the survival of adults of potential replacement species and the regeneration of both formerly dominant affected species and potential replacement species. Out of 35 selected case studies only eight were clearly consistent with the occurrence of a vegetation shift (species or biome shift), whereas three corresponded to self-replacements in which the affected, formerly dominant species was able to regenerate after suffering drought-induced mortality. The other 24 cases were classified as uncertain, either due to lack of information or, more commonly, because the initially affected and potential replacement species all showed similar levels of regeneration after the mortality event. Overall, potential vegetation transitions were consistent with more drought-resistant species replacing less resistant ones. However, almost half (44

  5. Metabolic responses on the early shift.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Heloisa Guarita; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Folkard, Simon; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2010-07-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of metabolic disorders and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and insulin among fixed night workers (n = 9), fixed early morning workers (n = 6), and day workers (n = 7). Food intake was recorded for 7 days using a diary. Blood samples were collected every 4 h over the course of 24 h, yielding six samples. Total carbohydrate intake was lowest (p < .0005), whereas fat (p = .03) and protein (p < .0005) were highest on the early morning shifts. Early morning workers also had overall elevated cortisol levels relative to the other two groups. Cortisol levels appeared to be more influenced by time since waking prior to the shift than by time-of-day. Cortisol was highest for the early morning group than the day group 12 h after waking, and both the early morning and night groups had higher levels than the day group 16 h after waking (p < .05 in all cases). In contrast, the homesostatsis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) appeared to be more influenced by time-of-day than by time since waking prior to the shift. The early morning group had higher levels of HOMA-IR at 08:00 h than the other groups (p < .05). In conclusion, the early morning group had the highest overall concentrations of cortisol and tended to have higher levels of HOMA-IR, indicating that more attention should be given to these workers. Moreover, all three groups showed pronounced cortisol levels on awakening, suggesting that they may have adjusted to their awaking time. (Author: heloguarita@rgnutri.com.br ).

  6. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  7. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  8. Phase-shifting interferometer for surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Siu Chung; Low, Beng-Yew; Chua, Hock-Chuan; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Neo, Wah-Peng

    1997-08-01

    A phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer has been constructed. Using three consecutively captured interferograms, the phase profile of a reflective surface can be determined. Results using various fringe processing techniques are compared. These methods include uniform averaging, Gaussian mask and spin filtering. For simulated fringes superimposed with random noise and fixed-pattern noise, it has been observed that a combination of weighted averaging and spin filtering could generate the best results. The computerized system has been applied to the measurement of the form errors of a silicon wafer and a cosmetic mirror, respectively. The root-mean-square error of the wafer is determined to be 11.13 nm.

  9. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  10. Nonrelativistic Lamb shift for muonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowski, Robert; Jeziorski, Bogumil

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed formula [R. Bukowski and B. Jeziorski, Phys. Rev. A46 (1992) 5437]. has been applied to estimate the soft-photon Lamb shift contribution to the energies of the muonic molecules ppμ, ddμ, ttμ, pdμ, ptμ and dtμ. The corresponding corrections to the dissociation energies for the excited P states of ddμ and dtμ have been found to be almost identical and equal to 0.048 meV. The magnitude of this stabilizing effect is too small to affect seriously the formation rates predictions.

  11. Phase shifting interferometry of cold atoms.

    PubMed

    Ku, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Chi-Yuan; Shiau, Bor-Wen; Han, Dian-Jiun

    2011-02-14

    We propose a scheme to engage phase shifting interferometry on cold atomic samples and present the simulation results under several experimentally achievable conditions nowadays. This method allows far-detuning, low power probing, and is intrinsically nondestructive. This novel detection means yields image quality superior to the conventional phase contrast imaging at certain conditions and could be experimentally realized. Furthermore, the longitudinal resolution of imaging by this manner is mainly set by optical interference and can be better than the diffraction limit. This scheme also provides special advantages to diagnose the surface-trapped clouds, with which phase imaging on the fabricated wires and atoms altogether is possible as well.

  12. The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non

  13. Space charge effects: tune shifts and resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The effects of space charge and beam-beam interactions on single particle motion in the transverse degree of freedom are considered. The space charge force and the resulting incoherent tune shift are described, and examples are given from the AGS and CERN's PSB. Equations of motion are given for resonances in the presence of the space charge force, and particle behavior is examined under resonance and space charge conditions. Resonance phase space structure is described with and without space charge. Uniform and bunched beams are compared. Beam-beam forces and resonances and beam-beam detuning are described. 18 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  14. Solar Doppler shifts - Sources of continuous spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Harvey, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Oscillation observations can be used to study nonoscillatory solar phenomena that exhibit Doppler shifts. The paper discusses several effects of these phenomena and their associated temporal and spatial power spectra: (1) they limit the signal-to-noise ratio and sometimes detectability of oscillation modes; (2) there is the potential for better understanding and/or detection of solar phenomena; (3) large-scale convection may spatially modulate oscillation modes, leading to a continuous background spectrum; and (4) in regions of the spectrum where the resolution to separate modes is lacking one can determine upper limits for the integrated effects of modes.

  15. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  16. Goos-Hänchen shifts in harmonic generation from metals.

    PubMed

    Yallapragada, V J; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Agarwal, G S

    2013-05-01

    We present the first calculation of the Goos-Hänchen shifts in the context of the nonlinear generation of fields. We specifically concentrate on shifts of second harmonic generated at metallic surfaces. At metallic surfaces the second harmonic primarily arises from discontinuities of the field at surfaces which not only result in large harmonic generation but also in significant Goos-Hänchen shifts of the generated second harmonic. Our results can be extended to other shifts like angular shifts and Fedorov-Imbert shifts.

  17. Cost-shifting in the current medical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, William H.

    1994-12-01

    `Cost shifting' occurs when there is not a fair or accurate match of the payment and use of medical services. A common `cost shifting' occurs when an insured patient is charged more to cover free services provided to an uninsured patient. This paper documents the multiple negative consequences of the many categories of cost shifting, reviews forces which are leading both to an increase and decrease in the magnitude of cost shifting, and evaluates the consequences of cost shifting on the goals of U.S. health care reform and investment in medical technology. Policy to minimize the negative consequences of cost shifting is recommended.

  18. How orbital angular momentum affects beam shifts in optical reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Merano, M.; Hermosa, N.; Woerdman, J. P.; Aiello, A.

    2010-08-15

    It is well known that reflection of a Gaussian light beam (TEM{sub 00}) by a planar dielectric interface leads to four beam shifts when compared to the geometrical-optics prediction. These are the spatial Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift, the angular GH shift, the spatial Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shift, and the angular IF shift. We report here, theoretically and experimentally, that endowing the beam with orbital angular momentum leads to coupling of these four shifts; this is described by a 4x4 mixing matrix.

  19. Wideband Doppler frequency shift measurement and direction ambiguity resolution using optical frequency shift and optical heterodyning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Xianglei; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin

    2015-05-15

    A photonic approach for both wideband Doppler frequency shift (DFS) measurement and direction ambiguity resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, a light wave from a laser diode is split into two paths. In one path, the DFS information is converted into an optical sideband close to the optical carrier by using two cascaded electro-optic modulators, while in the other path, the optical carrier is up-shifted by a specific value (e.g., from several MHz to hundreds of MHz) using an optical-frequency shift module. Then the optical signals from the two paths are combined and detected by a low-speed photodetector (PD), generating a low-frequency electronic signal. Through a subtraction between the specific optical frequency shift and the measured frequency of the low-frequency signal, the value of DFS is estimated from the derived absolute value, and the direction ambiguity is resolved from the derived sign (i.e., + or -). In the proof-of-concept experiments, DFSs from -90 to 90 kHz are successfully estimated for microwave signals at 10, 15, and 20 GHz, where the estimation errors are lower than ±60  Hz. The estimation errors can be further reduced via the use of a more stable optical frequency shift module.

  20. NMR characterization of cellulose acetate: chemical shift assignments, substituent effects, and chemical shift additivity.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-15

    A series of cellulose acetates (CA) with degrees of substitution (DS) ranging from 2.92-0.92 dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-d6 and cellulose dissolved in tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF)/DMSO-d6 were investigated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The NMR spectroscopic analysis allowed the determination of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) that contain CA: 2,3,6-tri-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, and unacetylated AGUs. A comparative analysis of the chemical shift data revealed the substituent effect of acetyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions on the (1)H and (13)C nuclei in the same AGU. In addition, chemical shift additivity could be applied to the (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts of CA because the chemical shifts of the diacetylated and triacetylated AGUs could be almost completely explained by the acetyl substituent effects at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions.

  1. Pollen dispersal slows geographical range shift and accelerates ecological niche shift under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aguilée, Robin; Raoul, Gaël; Rousset, François; Ronce, Ophélie

    2016-09-27

    Species may survive climate change by migrating to track favorable climates and/or adapting to different climates. Several quantitative genetics models predict that species escaping extinction will change their geographical distribution while keeping the same ecological niche. We introduce pollen dispersal in these models, which affects gene flow but not directly colonization. We show that plant populations may escape extinction because of both spatial range and ecological niche shifts. Exact analytical formulas predict that increasing pollen dispersal distance slows the expected spatial range shift and accelerates the ecological niche shift. There is an optimal distance of pollen dispersal, which maximizes the sustainable rate of climate change. These conclusions hold in simulations relaxing several strong assumptions of our analytical model. Our results imply that, for plants with long distance of pollen dispersal, models assuming niche conservatism may not accurately predict their future distribution under climate change.

  2. Advantages of shift changeovers with meetings: ergonomic analysis of shift supervisors' activity in aircraft building.

    PubMed

    Le Bris, Valérie; Barthe, Béatrice; Marquié, Jean-Claude; Kerguelen, Alain; Aubert, Sophie; Bernadou, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Good shift changeovers contribute to ensuring continuity and reliability in shift work. In situations where production is not maintained 24 h a day, changeovers with meetings (SCM) between the two work teams (written plus oral face-to-face handovers) alternate with changeovers without meetings (SCnM; written handovers only). An ergonomic work analysis on an aircraft assembly line showed that (1) incoming and outgoing operators met during the overlap time allotted by the company, and (2) the content of the exchanges was richer for SCMs than for SCnMs. SCMs enabled the operators to pass on and process more aspects of their work than SCnMs did. SCMs also allowed incoming operators to validate their predictions, and enabled both outgoing and incoming operators to update their mental models and work together on peripheral aspects of the technical process over a greater time span. The findings highlight the importance of allowing overlap time in shift work.

  3. Pollen dispersal slows geographical range shift and accelerates ecological niche shift under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aguilée, Robin; Raoul, Gaël; Rousset, François; Ronce, Ophélie

    2016-09-27

    Species may survive climate change by migrating to track favorable climates and/or adapting to different climates. Several quantitative genetics models predict that species escaping extinction will change their geographical distribution while keeping the same ecological niche. We introduce pollen dispersal in these models, which affects gene flow but not directly colonization. We show that plant populations may escape extinction because of both spatial range and ecological niche shifts. Exact analytical formulas predict that increasing pollen dispersal distance slows the expected spatial range shift and accelerates the ecological niche shift. There is an optimal distance of pollen dispersal, which maximizes the sustainable rate of climate change. These conclusions hold in simulations relaxing several strong assumptions of our analytical model. Our results imply that, for plants with long distance of pollen dispersal, models assuming niche conservatism may not accurately predict their future distribution under climate change. PMID:27621443

  4. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  5. [Shift- and Nightwork - a scientometric analysis].

    PubMed

    van Mark, Anke; Vitzthum, Karin; Höndorf, Franka; Kloss, Lisa; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2011-04-01

    Economic restructuring processes in Germany require changes within all social and health care systems regarding night shiftwork. The aim of this paper was to analyse research results referring to shift- and nightwork using scientometric methods. A total of 3092 items could be detected. A constant increase in the number of publications per year since 1977, especially since 1990' was obvious. One third of the research results, a total of 884 articles could be assigned to the USA. Great Britain could be identified with 365 articles and France with 244 published articles. Sleep, Ergonomics and Chronobiology International are the most prolific journals. The Swedish scientist Torbjörn Akerstedt is to this date the most acclaimed researcher referring to his issue. He has written 105 articles about shift- and nightwork. He is not only a most efficient author, but also has the highest h-index [30]. Self-citations and multiple co-authorships distort parameters like impact factor and h-index enormously and should be regarded from a critical point of view.

  6. Shifts in the psychophysical function in rats.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Macinnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M; Machado, Armando

    2007-06-01

    The primary goal was to compare results from a free-operant procedure with pigeons [Machado, A., Guilhardi, P., 2000. Shifts in the psychometric function and their implications for models of timing. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 74, 25-54, Experiment 2] with new results obtained with rats. The secondary goal was to compare the results of both experiments with dependent variables that were not used in the original publication. As in the original study with pigeons, rats were trained on a two-alternative free-operant psychophysical procedure in which left lever press responses were reinforced during the first and second quarters of a 60-s trial, and right lever press responses were reinforced during the third and fourth quarters of the trial. The quarters were reinforced according to four independent variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. The VI duration was manipulated in each quarter, and shifts in the psychophysical functions that relate response rate with time since trial onset were measured. The results obtained with rats were consistent with those previously obtained with pigeons. In addition, results not originally reported were also consistent between rats and pigeons, and provided insights into the perception, memory, and decision processes in Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time Theory.

  7. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  8. Microstrip Antennas with Broadband Integrated Phase Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Jennifer T.; Romanofsky, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a spiral microstrip antenna that incorporates a thin ferroelectric layer to achieve both radiation and phase shifting. This material is placed between the conductive spiral antenna structure and the grounded substrate. Application of a DC bias between the two arms of the spiral antenna will change the effective permittivity of the radiating structure and the degree of coupling between contiguous spiral arms, therefore changing the phase of the RF signal transmitted or received by the antenna. This could eliminate the need for a separate phase shifter apart from the antenna structure. The potential benefits of such an antenna element compared to traditional phased array elements include: continuous, broadband phase shifting at the antenna, lower overall system losses, lighter, more efficient, and more compact phased arrays, and simpler control algorithms. Professor Jennifer Bernhard, graduate student Gregory Huff, and undergraduate student Brian Huang participated in this effort from March 1, 2000 to February 28, 2001. No inventions resulted from the research undertaken in this cooperative agreement.

  9. Theory of Lamb Shift in Muonic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, Savely G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Shelyuto, Valery A.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.

    2015-09-15

    There has been for a while a large discrepancy between the values of the proton charge radius measured by the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and by other methods. It has already been clear that theory of muonic hydrogen is reliable at the level of this discrepancy and an error there cannot be a reason for the contradiction. Still the status of theory at the level of the uncertainty of the muonic-hydrogen experiment (which is two orders of magnitude below the discrepancy level) requires an additional clarification. Here, we revisit theory of the 2p − 2s Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We summarize all the theoretical contributions in order α{sup 5}m, including pure quantum electrodynamics (QED) ones as well as those which involve the proton-structure effects. Certain enhanced higher-order effects are also discussed. We basically confirm former QED calculations of other authors, present a review of recent calculations of the proton-structure effects, and treat self-consistently higher-order proton-finite-size corrections. We also overview theory of the 2p states. Eventually, we derive a value of the root-mean-square proton charge radius. It is found to be 0.840 29(55) fm, which is slightly different from that previously published in the literature (0.840 87(39) fm [Antognini et al., Science 339, 417 (2013)])

  10. Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project (http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/shifting-seasons-uk.html) in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

  11. Testability and epistemic shifts in modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade new developments in theoretical and speculative cosmology have reopened the old discussion of cosmology's scientific status and the more general question of the demarcation between science and non-science. The multiverse hypothesis, in particular, is central to this discussion and controversial because it seems to disagree with methodological and epistemic standards traditionally accepted in the physical sciences. But what are these standards and how sacrosanct are they? Does anthropic multiverse cosmology rest on evaluation criteria that conflict with and go beyond those ordinarily accepted, so that it constitutes an "epistemic shift" in fundamental physics? The paper offers a brief characterization of the modern multiverse and also refers to a few earlier attempts to introduce epistemic shifts in the science of the universe. It further discusses the several meanings of testability, addresses the question of falsifiability as a sine qua non for a theory being scientific, and briefly compares the situation in cosmology with the one in systematic biology. Multiverse theory is not generally falsifiable, which has led to proposals from some physicists to overrule not only Popperian standards but also other evaluation criteria of a philosophical nature. However, this is hardly possible and nor is it possible to get rid of explicit philosophical considerations in some other aspects of cosmological research, however advanced it becomes.

  12. Generation of evolutionary novelty by functional shift.

    PubMed

    Ganfornina, M D; Sánchez, D

    1999-05-01

    That biological features may change their function during evolution has long been recognized. Particularly, the acquisition of new functions by molecules involved in developmental pathways is suspected to cause important morphologic novelties. However, the current terminology describing functional changes during evolution (co-option or recruitment) fails to recognize important biologic distinctions between diverse evolutionary routes involving functional shifts. The main goal of our work is to stress the importance of an apparently trivial distinction: Whether or not the element that adopts a new function (anything from a morphologic structure to a protein domain) is a single or a duplicated element. We propose that natural selection must act in a radically different way, depending on the historic succession of co-option and duplication events; that is, co-option may provide the selective pressure for a subsequent gene duplication or could be a stabilizing factor that helps maintain redundancy after gene duplication. We review the evidence available on functional changes, focusing whenever possible on developmental molecules, and we propose a conceptual framework for the study of functional shifts during evolution with a level of resolution appropriate to the power of our current methodologies.

  13. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  14. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255

  15. Shift work: coping with the biological clock.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    The internal circadian clock adapts slowly, if at all, to rapid transitions between different shift schedules. This leads to misalignment (desynchrony) of rhythmic physiological systems, such as sleep, alertness, performance, metabolism and the hormones melatonin and cortisol, with the imposed work-rest schedule. Consequences include sleep deprivation and poor performance. Clock gene variants may influence tolerance of sleep deprivation. Shift work is associated with an increased risk of major disease (heart disease and cancer) and this may also, at least in part, be attributed to frequent circadian desynchrony. Abnormal metabolism has been invoked as a contributory factor to the increased risk of heart disease. There is recent evidence for an increased risk of certain cancers, with hypothesized causal roles of light at night, melatonin suppression and circadian desynchrony. Various strategies exist for coping with circadian desynchrony and for hastening circadian realignment (if desired). The most important factor in manipulating the circadian system is exposure to and/or avoidance of bright light at specific times of the 'biological night'.

  16. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  17. Interaction of noise-induced permanent threshold shift and age-related threshold shift.

    PubMed

    Mills, J H; Boettcher, F A; Dubno, J R

    1997-03-01

    Current medical-legal practices as well as an international standard (ISO 1999) assume the permanent threshold shifts produced by exposure to noise add (in dB) to the threshold shifts caused by increased chronological age (presbyacusis). This assumption, known as the additivity rule, was tested in an animal model. Mongolian gerbils, born and raised in a quiet vivarium, were exposed at age 18 months to a 3.5-kHz pure tone for 1 h at 113 dB SPL. At 6-weeks post-exposure, permanent threshold shifts in the exposed ear were approximately 20 dB in the 4- to 8-kHz region. Thresholds in the nonexposed, control ear were unaffected by the exposure. Animals were then allowed to age in the quiet vivarium until age 36 months and then were retested. Thus in a given animal, aging-only effects were assessed in one ear (internal control) and noise-plus-aging effects were assessed in the other (test) ear. A second control was mean age-related threshold shift measured in 48 gerbils who were born and raised in the quiet vivarium. This group is referred to as a non-noise-exposed population (population control). Using the additivity rule, predictions with either the internal or population control significantly overestimated noise-plus-aging effects. Use of the ISO 1999 compression factor reduced the overestimations by 0-5 dB. The intensity rule produced the most accurate predictions. These results suggest that the interaction of noise-induced permanent threshold shift and age-related threshold shift is not straightforward and that current medical-legal methods using the additivity rule overestimate the contribution of "noise effects". PMID:9069635

  18. Red-Shifting versus Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bonds: Perspective from Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Weng, Xinzhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-01

    Both proper, red-shifting and improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bonds have been well-recognized with enormous experimental and computational studies. The current consensus is that there is no difference in nature between these two kinds of hydrogen bonds, where the electrostatic interaction dominates. Since most if not all the computational studies are based on molecular orbital theory, it would be interesting to gain insight into the hydrogen bonds with modern valence bond (VB) theory. In this work, we performed ab initio VBSCF computations on a series of hydrogen-bonding systems, where the sole hydrogen bond donor CF3H interacts with ten hydrogen bond acceptors Y (═NH2CH3, NH3, NH2Cl, OH(-), H2O, CH3OH, (CH3)2O, F(-), HF, or CH3F). This series includes four red-shifting and six blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. Consistent with existing findings in literature, VB-based energy decomposition analyses show that electrostatic interaction plays the dominating role and polarization plays the secondary role in all these hydrogen-bonding systems, and the charge transfer interaction, which denotes the hyperconjugation effect, contributes only slightly to the total interaction energy. As VB theory describes any real chemical bond in terms of pure covalent and ionic structures, our fragment interaction analysis reveals that with the approaching of a hydrogen bond acceptor Y, the covalent state of the F3C-H bond tends to blue-shift, due to the strong repulsion between the hydrogen atom and Y. In contrast, the ionic state F3C(-) H(+) leads to the red-shifting of the C-H vibrational frequency, owing to the attraction between the proton and Y. Thus, the relative weights of the covalent and ionic structures essentially determine the direction of frequency change. Indeed, we find the correlation between the structural weights and vibrational frequency changes. PMID:27074500

  19. Red-Shifting versus Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bonds: Perspective from Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Weng, Xinzhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-01

    Both proper, red-shifting and improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bonds have been well-recognized with enormous experimental and computational studies. The current consensus is that there is no difference in nature between these two kinds of hydrogen bonds, where the electrostatic interaction dominates. Since most if not all the computational studies are based on molecular orbital theory, it would be interesting to gain insight into the hydrogen bonds with modern valence bond (VB) theory. In this work, we performed ab initio VBSCF computations on a series of hydrogen-bonding systems, where the sole hydrogen bond donor CF3H interacts with ten hydrogen bond acceptors Y (═NH2CH3, NH3, NH2Cl, OH(-), H2O, CH3OH, (CH3)2O, F(-), HF, or CH3F). This series includes four red-shifting and six blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. Consistent with existing findings in literature, VB-based energy decomposition analyses show that electrostatic interaction plays the dominating role and polarization plays the secondary role in all these hydrogen-bonding systems, and the charge transfer interaction, which denotes the hyperconjugation effect, contributes only slightly to the total interaction energy. As VB theory describes any real chemical bond in terms of pure covalent and ionic structures, our fragment interaction analysis reveals that with the approaching of a hydrogen bond acceptor Y, the covalent state of the F3C-H bond tends to blue-shift, due to the strong repulsion between the hydrogen atom and Y. In contrast, the ionic state F3C(-) H(+) leads to the red-shifting of the C-H vibrational frequency, owing to the attraction between the proton and Y. Thus, the relative weights of the covalent and ionic structures essentially determine the direction of frequency change. Indeed, we find the correlation between the structural weights and vibrational frequency changes.

  20. Urban Stormwater Governance: The Need for a Paradigm Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Krishna P.; Chevalier, Lizette R.

    2016-05-01

    Traditional urban stormwater management involves rapid removal of stormwater through centralized conveyance systems of curb-gutter-pipe networks. This results in many adverse impacts on the environment including hydrological disruption, groundwater depletion, downstream flooding, receiving water quality degradation, channel erosion, and stream ecosystem damage. In order to mitigate these adverse impacts, urban stormwater managers are increasingly using green infrastructure that promote on-site infiltration, restore hydrological functions of the landscape, and reduce surface runoff. Existing stormwater governance, however, is centralized and structured to support the conventional systems. This governance approach is not suited to the emerging distributed management approach, which involves multiple stakeholders including parcel owners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. This incongruence between technology and governance calls for a paradigm shift in the governance from centralized and technocratic to distributed and participatory governance. This paper evaluates how five US cities have been adjusting their governance to address the discord. Finally, the paper proposes an alternative governance model, which provides a mechanism to involve stakeholders and implement distributed green infrastructure under an integrative framework.

  1. Dynamics of Ionic Shifts in Cortical Spreading Depression

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Rune; Tang, Wannan; Vindedal, Gry Fluge; Jensen, Vidar; Johannes Helm, P.; Sprengel, Rolf; Looger, Loren L.; Nagelhus, Erlend A.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression is a slowly propagating wave of near-complete depolarization of brain cells followed by temporary suppression of neuronal activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that cortical spreading depression underlies the migraine aura and that similar waves promote tissue damage in stroke, trauma, and hemorrhage. Cortical spreading depression is characterized by neuronal swelling, profound elevation of extracellular potassium and glutamate, multiphasic blood flow changes, and drop in tissue oxygen tension. The slow speed of the cortical spreading depression wave implies that it is mediated by diffusion of a chemical substance, yet the identity of this substance and the pathway it follows are unknown. Intercellular spread between gap junction-coupled neurons or glial cells and interstitial diffusion of K+ or glutamate have been proposed. Here we use extracellular direct current potential recordings, K+-sensitive microelectrodes, and 2-photon imaging with ultrasensitive Ca2+ and glutamate fluorescent probes to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of ionic shifts associated with the propagation of cortical spreading depression in the visual cortex of adult living mice. Our data argue against intercellular spread of Ca2+ carrying the cortical spreading depression wavefront and are in favor of interstitial K+ diffusion, rather than glutamate diffusion, as the leading event in cortical spreading depression. PMID:25840424

  2. Urban Stormwater Governance: The Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2016-05-01

    Traditional urban stormwater management involves rapid removal of stormwater through centralized conveyance systems of curb-gutter-pipe networks. This results in many adverse impacts on the environment including hydrological disruption, groundwater depletion, downstream flooding, receiving water quality degradation, channel erosion, and stream ecosystem damage. In order to mitigate these adverse impacts, urban stormwater managers are increasingly using green infrastructure that promote on-site infiltration, restore hydrological functions of the landscape, and reduce surface runoff. Existing stormwater governance, however, is centralized and structured to support the conventional systems. This governance approach is not suited to the emerging distributed management approach, which involves multiple stakeholders including parcel owners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. This incongruence between technology and governance calls for a paradigm shift in the governance from centralized and technocratic to distributed and participatory governance. This paper evaluates how five US cities have been adjusting their governance to address the discord. Finally, the paper proposes an alternative governance model, which provides a mechanism to involve stakeholders and implement distributed green infrastructure under an integrative framework.

  3. Urban Stormwater Governance: The Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2016-05-01

    Traditional urban stormwater management involves rapid removal of stormwater through centralized conveyance systems of curb-gutter-pipe networks. This results in many adverse impacts on the environment including hydrological disruption, groundwater depletion, downstream flooding, receiving water quality degradation, channel erosion, and stream ecosystem damage. In order to mitigate these adverse impacts, urban stormwater managers are increasingly using green infrastructure that promote on-site infiltration, restore hydrological functions of the landscape, and reduce surface runoff. Existing stormwater governance, however, is centralized and structured to support the conventional systems. This governance approach is not suited to the emerging distributed management approach, which involves multiple stakeholders including parcel owners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. This incongruence between technology and governance calls for a paradigm shift in the governance from centralized and technocratic to distributed and participatory governance. This paper evaluates how five US cities have been adjusting their governance to address the discord. Finally, the paper proposes an alternative governance model, which provides a mechanism to involve stakeholders and implement distributed green infrastructure under an integrative framework. PMID:26837617

  4. Biomedical and psychosocial aspects of shift work. A review.

    PubMed

    Rutenfranz, J; Colquhoun, W P; Knauth, P; Ghata, J N

    1977-12-01

    A survey of the different types of shift-work systems in use, and the incidence of shift work in different industries and countries, is followed by a discussion of (a) the effects of shift work on health and (b) the physiological problems raised by the phase-shifting of the circadian cycle in night workers. Summaries of the existing knowledge of the effects of shift work on performance efficiency, accidents, and family and social life are then given, and a set of criteria for designing optimal shift systems is proposed. Next, the questions of selection for shift work and the provision of health services for shiftworkers are discussed. Finally, the need for further research on the problems of shift work is explained, and suggestions are offered on the lines such research should follow.

  5. Topological Imbert-Fedorov Shift in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing-Dong; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift and the Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shift are optical phenomena which describe the longitudinal and transverse lateral shifts at the reflection interface, respectively. Here, we predict the GH and IF shifts in Weyl semimetals (WSMs)—a promising material harboring low energy Weyl fermions, a massless fermionic cousin of photons. Our results show that the GH shift in WSMs is valley independent, which is analogous to that discovered in a 2D relativistic material—graphene. However, the IF shift has never been explored in nonoptical systems, and here we show that it is valley dependent. Furthermore, we find that the IF shift actually originates from the topological effect of the system. Experimentally, the topological IF shift can be utilized to characterize the Weyl semimetals, design valleytronic devices of high efficiency, and measure the Berry curvature.

  6. Topological Imbert-Fedorov Shift in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing-Dong; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, Xin-Cheng

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift and the Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shift are optical phenomena which describe the longitudinal and transverse lateral shifts at the reflection interface, respectively. Here, we predict the GHIF shifts in Weyl semimetals (WSMs)--a promising material harboring low energy Weyl fermions, afermionic cousin of photons. Our results show that the GH shift in WSMs is valley independent,is analogous to that discovered in a 2D relativistic material--graphene. However, the IF shift hasbeen explored in nonoptical systems, and here we show that it is valley dependent. Furthermore, wethat the IF shift actually originates from the topological effect of the system. Experimentally, theIF shift can be utilized to characterize theWeyl semimetals, design valleytronic devices of high, and measure the Berry curvature. Morever, we investigate the transport properties of topological semimetal using the wave-packet dynamics, which give some interesting results. NBRP of China, NSF-China.

  7. Quantitative Measurement of the Doppler Shift at an Ultrasonic Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerbun, R. C.; Leskovec, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed is a Doppler shift laboratory experiment for an introductory college physics course. Ultrasonic transducers and a digital phase detector circuit "black box" are used to overcome room noise and "standing waves" and to produce an observable frequency shift. (SL)

  8. [Growth promoting antimicrobials].

    PubMed

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1999-06-19

    The committee 'Growth promoting antimicrobials' of the Health Council of the Netherlands in 1998 advised immediate prohibition of all growth promoting antimicrobials related to human drugs and decrease of use of other growth promoting antimicrobials during the next three years in Europe. It is clear that frequent use of antibiotics is associated with development of resistance by selection in animals (and man), but it is not proven that this is an explanation of resistance in the human community. We know only little about the mechanisms and conditions of transfer of bacteria to man. Other questions raised are: what about the resulting possible increase of therapeutic application of antibiotics in animals, how to handle the increase of dung, nitrogen and phosphate in the environment and how farmers can survive with a decrease in income, sometimes by as much as 50%? Although many will feel sympathy for the report and its recommendations, implementing them will be difficult and possibly premature. PMID:10416481

  9. Vegetation zones shift in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climate variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. In case of the Köppen-Trewartha classification it is integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is used on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Furthermore, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area of individual types, in the continental scale some shifts of boundaries

  10. Evaluation of 12-hour shifts on a cardiology nursing development unit.

    PubMed

    Wootten, N

    The first part of this two-part article discussed the implementation of 12-hours shifts using a locally devised nursing development unit (NDU) framework (Vol 9(19): 2095-9). This article, the second part, discusses the results of a survey to evaluate the 12-hour shifts, the problems encountered during the implementation of 12-hours shifts, the solutions and the NDU framework as described in the first part of the article. A qualitative design to the postal survey was chosen with the resulting data being subjected to a content analysis. Data triangulation compared survey results with incident reports and sickness records. The limitations of the survey included having the change agent analysing the data, the sampling method and being unable to pilot the questionnaire. The results indicated an improvement in the quality of patient care, although this is difficult to measure, a pacing of workload throughout the day, and tiredness during, after and at the end of a stretch of shifts. Other results centred on staff morale, social life, student nurses' experience and night shifts. The solutions to identified problems included the employment of two twilight nurses to help the night staff during the busy early evening period. As a requirement of the NDU framework, standards were produced from the survey results, as this would allow subsequent audit of the 12-hour shift system. The recommendations from this survey included the dissemination of results both locally and nationally to expand the body of nursing knowledge and to promote practice based on the best available evidence.

  11. Risky and Cautious Decision Shifts in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Timothy R.; Cline, Rebecca J.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies and compares the patterns of communication of groups making risky and cautious decision shifts. Risky- and cautious-shift group discussions displayed nonrandom and statistically different distributional and sequential structures. Findings are discussed in terms of two explanations of the risky- shift phenomenon. (JMF)

  12. Doing night shifts: the good, the bad and just coping.

    PubMed

    Oxtoby, Kathy

    2016-09-21

    Working night shifts can play havoc with a person's health and well-being. Research published in April found that female nurses in the United States, who worked rotating night shifts for 10 years or longer, had a 15% or higher increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with women who did not work night shifts. PMID:27654557

  13. 30 CFR 57.19073 - Hoisting during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting during shift changes. 57.19073 Section... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19073 Hoisting during shift changes. Rock or supplies shall not be hoisted in the same shaft as persons during shift changes, unless the compartments and dumping bins...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19073 - Hoisting during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting during shift changes. 56.19073 Section... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19073 Hoisting during shift changes. Rock or supplies shall not be hoisted in the same shaft as persons during shift changes, unless the compartments and dumping bins...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 57.19067 Section 57.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19073 - Hoisting during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting during shift changes. 56.19073 Section... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19073 Hoisting during shift changes. Rock or supplies shall not be hoisted in the same shaft as persons during shift changes, unless the compartments and dumping bins...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 56.19067 Section 56.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an authorized person...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 56.19067 Section 56.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an authorized person...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19067 - Trips during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trips during shift changes. 57.19067 Section 57.19067 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19067 Trips during shift changes. During shift changes, an...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19073 - Hoisting during shift changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting during shift changes. 57.19073 Section... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19073 Hoisting during shift changes. Rock or supplies shall not be hoisted in the same shaft as persons during shift changes, unless the compartments and dumping bins...

  1. Method for measuring Doppler shifts in arc-heated flows.

    PubMed

    Aeschliman, D P; Hill, R A

    1972-01-01

    A novel method of determining both the Doppler and Stark shifts in a single measurement of spectral lines emitted by the arc-heated flow from a plasma jet has been successfully demonstrated. The method uses a spherical mirror arranged with its optical axis coincident with the optical axis of a Fabry-Perot interferometer and with its center of curvature at the center line of the flow. The common optical axis lies at an angle to the flow. With this system, both red-and blue-shifted line profiles are recorded in the same spectral scan. If conditions are such that the red-and blue-shifted profiles are not resolvable, the blue-shifted component is chopped so that the recorded signal consists of the envelopes of both the red-shifted profile and the superimposed red-and blue-shifted profiles. The wavelength difference between the blue-and red-shifted line profiles is exactly twice the Doppler shift integrated along a line of sight through the flow and is independent of a Stark shift. The Stark shift is given by the wavelength difference between the absolute line center and the midpoint of the red-and blue-shifted lines. Abel inversion of integrated line shift data has yielded radial velocity profiles to an accuracy of +/-3% in a supersonic, arc-heated argon flow.

  2. [Evaluating occupational risk in night shift work schedule].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G A; Frolova, N M

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyzed and summarized risk values of acute and chronic health disorders in night shift workers. Average annual risk increments for various chronic diseases in night shift workers were calculated. Based on these data, the authors conclude on hazard degree of night shift work.

  3. Competitive environments induce shifts in host fidelity.

    PubMed

    Rova, E; Björklund, M

    2010-08-01

    Recent models support the idea of sympatric speciation as a result of the joint effects of disruptive selection and assortative mating. We present experimental data, testing models of speciation through frequency-dependent selection. We show that under high competition on a mixture of resources/hosts, strains of the Seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, change their host fidelity and evolve a more generalistic behaviour in resource utilization among females. The change in host fidelity did not result in disruptive selection and was not followed by assortative mating. This means that only one of three fundamental prerequisites for sympatric speciation evolved as a result of the frequency-dependent selection. We conclude that for this process to work, a shift to a novel food resource as a result of selection must also lead to a loss of preference for the original resource such that individuals are only able to use either one of the two.

  4. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. PMID:24246651

  5. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study.

  6. Phase shift reflectometry for wafer inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Li, Hongru; Sun, Jianfei; Bourgade, Thomas; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2015-07-01

    In 3D measurement, specular surfaces can be reconstructed by phase shift reflectometry and the system configuration is simple. In this paper, a wafer is measured for industrial inspection to make sure the quality of the wafer by calibrating, phase unwrapping, slope calculation and integration. The profile result of the whole wafer can be reconstructed and it is a curve. As the height of the structures on the wafer is the target we are interested in, by fitting and subtracting the curve surface, the structures on the wafer can be observed on the flat surface. To confirm the quality farther, a part of the wafer is captured and zoomed in to be detected so that the difference between two structures can be observed better.

  7. Shifted power method for computing tensor eigenpairs.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-10-01

    Recent work on eigenvalues and eigenvectors for tensors of order m {>=} 3 has been motivated by applications in blind source separation, magnetic resonance imaging, molecular conformation, and more. In this paper, we consider methods for computing real symmetric-tensor eigenpairs of the form Ax{sup m-1} = {lambda}x subject to {parallel}x{parallel} = 1, which is closely related to optimal rank-1 approximation of a symmetric tensor. Our contribution is a novel shifted symmetric higher-order power method (SS-HOPM), which we showis guaranteed to converge to a tensor eigenpair. SS-HOPM can be viewed as a generalization of the power iteration method for matrices or of the symmetric higher-order power method. Additionally, using fixed point analysis, we can characterize exactly which eigenpairs can and cannot be found by the method. Numerical examples are presented, including examples from an extension of the method to fnding complex eigenpairs.

  8. Shifted power method for computing tensor eigenvalues.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    Recent work on eigenvalues and eigenvectors for tensors of order m >= 3 has been motivated by applications in blind source separation, magnetic resonance imaging, molecular conformation, and more. In this paper, we consider methods for computing real symmetric-tensor eigenpairs of the form Ax{sup m-1} = lambda x subject to ||x||=1, which is closely related to optimal rank-1 approximation of a symmetric tensor. Our contribution is a shifted symmetric higher-order power method (SS-HOPM), which we show is guaranteed to converge to a tensor eigenpair. SS-HOPM can be viewed as a generalization of the power iteration method for matrices or of the symmetric higher-order power method. Additionally, using fixed point analysis, we can characterize exactly which eigenpairs can and cannot be found by the method. Numerical examples are presented, including examples from an extension of the method to finding complex eigenpairs.

  9. Paradigm Shifts in the Treatment of Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Zee; Loeff, Deborah S

    2016-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergent surgery in children. Historically, surgical dogma dictated emergent appendectomy due to concern for impending perforation. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift in both the understanding of its pathophysiology as well as its treatment to more nonoperative management. No longer is it considered a spectrum from uncomplicated appendicitis inevitably progressing to complicated appendicitis over time. Rather, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis are now considered two distinct pathophysiologic entities. This change requires not only educating the patients and their families but also the general practitioners who will be managing treatment expectations and caring for patients long term. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of appendicitis, including the differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, as well as the new treatment paradigms. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e235-e240.]. PMID:27403670

  10. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, Hector

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  11. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  12. Using Tensor Light Shifts to Measure and Cancel a Cell's Quadruopolar Frequency Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Larry; Peck, Stephen; Lane, Nathanael; Ang, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new technique that uses the tensor light shift to measure and cancel the frequency shift produced by the quadrupolar anisotropy of a vapor cell. We demonstrate the technique on the 6 S1/2, F = 4 level of Cs using the D1 transition. The method extends our ability to study quadrupolar wall interactions beyond diamagnetic atoms. We have deduced the twist angle per wall adhesion for cesium on an alkene coating to be about 1.4 mrad. This value is about 37 times larger than the twist angle observed in 131 Xe, suggesting that it is not produced by the interaction of the nuclear quadrupole moment with a collisional electric-field gradient. Alternative mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed quadrupolar frequency shifts are discussed. By cancelling the cell-induced quadrupole shift we have extended our cells' effective spin-relaxation times by as much as a factor of two. This cancellation improves magnetometer sensitivity in highly anisotropic cells and could reduce systematic uncertainties in some precision measurements. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY1205824 and No. PHY1519265.

  13. Cochlear implants: selection criteria and shifting borders.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T

    1998-01-01

    Cochlear implants have proven to be effective and reliable in postlingually deaf adults. This is also true for congenitally deaf and perilingually deaf children up to the age of six years. Due to the increasing experience, the improvement of implant technology and the proven reliability the selection criteria are broadened with shifting borders. The main extensions are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing and special etiologies of deafness. Increasing evidence shows that very early implantation results in better performance and better hearing and speech development. Near-normal language acquisition can be achieved in children implanted under the age of four. Additional handicaps do not automatically exclude a candidate from cochlear implantation. A case-to-case decision has to be made based on additional diagnostics and the experience of the implant centre. A list of suitable handicaps is provided. Severely hearing impaired patients may also be considered for cochlear implantation if their residual hearing provides no benefit for speech discrimination. The same holds true for children. Cochlear implantation in obliterated cochleae and inner ear malformation requires a special surgical technique and special electrode arrays. In this way even difficult cases can be managed with remarkable outcome. Over all, the selection criteria have been broadened with increasing experience and technological improvement. This development may continue and the borderline between hearing aids and cochlear implants will shift further towards severe hearing loss. However, the basis for success still remains good rehabilitation, a team approach and the willingness of the patient to undergo the whole process of cochlear implantation.

  14. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  15. Phenological shifts and the fate of mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; CaraDonna, Paul J.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing of life history events in a wide array of species, many of which are involved in mutualistic interactions. Because many mutualisms can form only if partner species are able to locate each other in time, differential phenological shifts are likely to influence their strength, duration and outcome. At the extreme, climate change-driven shifts in phenology may result in phenological mismatch: the partial or complete loss of temporal overlap of mutualistic species. We have a growing understanding of how, when, and why phenological change can alter one type of mutualism–pollination. However, as we show here, there has been a surprising lack of attention to other types of mutualism. We generate a set of predictions about the characteristics that may predispose mutualisms in general to phenological mismatches. We focus not on the consequences of such mismatches but rather on the likelihood that mismatches will develop. We explore the influence of three key characteristics of mutualism: 1) intimacy, 2) seasonality and duration, and 3) obligacy and specificity. We predict that the following characteristics of mutualism may increase the likelihood of phenological mismatch: 1) a non-symbiotic life history in which co-dispersal is absent; 2) brief, seasonal interactions; and 3) facultative, generalized interactions. We then review the limited available data in light of our a priori predictions and point to mutualisms that are more and less likely to be at risk of becoming phenologically mismatched, emphasizing the need for research on mutualisms other than plant–pollinator interactions. Future studies should explicitly focus on mutualism characteristics to determine whether and how changing phenologies will affect mutualistic interactions. PMID:25883391

  16. Preventing Injuries, Promoting Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneously promoting a safe learning environment that encourages students to express their creative voices while exploring the rudiments of dance technique can be difficult. This article discusses how the author has learned to do it effectively by employing a few simple classroom strategies. To prevent injuries during class, the author offers…

  17. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  18. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  19. Dynamics of Promotion Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Elizabeth Ann

    This study attempted to identify the criteria educational administrators use when selecting individuals for promotion. Researchers compared "operative criteria" (those actually used) with "posted criteria" (those espoused). Interviews were conducted with 92 school administrators. Brown's Form PROM, derived from Kelly's role construct repertory…

  20. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  1. Health Promotion Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…

  2. Electric cars shift into second gear

    SciTech Connect

    Silber, K.

    1994-05-09

    High cost and poor performance have hurt the market for electric cars, but more states are passing emission control regulations that will make electric cars more attractive. Federal funding also will promote research on electric vehicle technologies. There is much work to do on battery recharging, range expansion, and weight to make electric cars desirable to the public. The auto industry is lobbying against the regulations because it fears electric cars will not be commercially viable by the deadlines. Other alternatives for reducing auto emissions are explored. The ultimate fate of electric cars will be decided by consumers.

  3. s-Wave collisional frequency shift of a fermion clock.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Eric L; Zhang, Yi; Stites, Ronald W; Gibble, Kurt; O'Hara, Kenneth M

    2013-04-19

    We report an s-wave collisional frequency shift of an atomic clock based on fermions. In contrast to bosons, the fermion clock shift is insensitive to the population difference of the clock states, set by the first pulse area in Ramsey spectroscopy, θ(1). The fermion shift instead depends strongly on the second pulse area θ(2). It allows the shift to be canceled, nominally at θ(2)=π/2, but correlations perturb the null to slightly larger θ(2). The frequency shift is relevant for optical lattice clocks and increases with the spatial inhomogeneity of the clock excitation field, naturally larger at optical frequencies. PMID:23679589

  4. Dispositional factors and work mastery among shift workers.

    PubMed

    Foldal, Vegard; Langvik, Eva; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how broad personality dimensions and dispositional resistance to change are associated with mastery of work among shift workers. A total of 285 shift workers employed in rotating shifts with morning, evening and night work and night shift schedules in a municipality in Norway completed electronic questionnaires. The findings suggest that the broad personality dimensions neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of perceived work mastery among shift workers in this sample, whereas the narrow trait dispositional resistance to change was not. PMID:27093576

  5. Effects of pharmacological agents on subcortical resistance shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klivington, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    Microliter quantities of tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium chloride, and picrotoxin injected into the inferior colliculus and superior olive of unanesthetized cats differentially affect the amplitude and waveform of click-evoked potentials and evoked resistance shifts. Tetrodotoxin simultaneously reduces the negative phase of the evoked potential and eliminates the evoked resistance shift. Tetraethylammonium enhances the negative evoked potential component, presumably of postsynaptic origin, without significantly altering evoked resistance shift amplitude. Picrotoxin also enhances the negative evoked potential wave but increases evoked resistance shift amplitude. These findings implicate events associated with postsynaptic membrane depolarization in the production of the evoked resistance shift.

  6. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  7. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  8. Government policies promote deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The well-documented loss of forest cover throughout the world has created a multitude of equally well-documented environmental problems, including soil erosion, water pollution, species extinctions, and the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that is contributing to global warming. Recent discussions on the causes of deforestation have focused on inevitable consequences of poverty and population growth, such as clearing for agricultural, shifting cultivation, and fuel-wood gathering. But according to a recent report from the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Washington, DC, another important often unrecognized, cause of deforestation is bad economic policies in the countries that own forest resources.

  9. Coherent control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    SciTech Connect

    Ziauddin; Qamar, Sajid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2010-02-15

    The behavior of the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shifts in the reflected and transmitted light beam which is incident on a cavity containing an intracavity medium of three-level or four-level atoms with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is discussed. We report a coherent control of the GH shift in a fixed configuration or device via superluminal and subluminal wave propagation. For superluminal wave propagation, we observe negative GH shifts in the reflected part of the incident light whereas the shifts are positive in the transmitted light beam. This corresponds to the negative group index of the cavity in the former case and positive group index of the cavity in the latter. For subluminal wave propagation, the behavior of the GH shifts in the reflected light changes and positive shifts appear; however, the GH shifts in the transmitted light remains positive. The corresponding group index of the cavity is positive in both cases.

  10. Formation of charged H3O+ and OH- fragments at consistent shifts of protons in water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, A. S.; Novakovskaya, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    Probable paths of consistent shifts of bridge protons within the hexamolecular rings of dodecamer water cluster at different arrangement of neighboring molecules are determined. As with individual rings, consistent shifts of protons in molecular cages are found to be promoted by contraction/extension of the oxygen skeleton. Transition states characterized by the formation of different numbers of such charged fragments as H3Oδ+, H5O 2 δ+ , and OH-, are identified. Conditions of the relatively long-term (about picoseconds) existence of the fragments in cluster systems are determined.

  11. Evolutionary shifts to self-fertilisation restricted to geographic range margins in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P C; Willi, Y

    2014-04-01

    Cross-fertilisation predominates in eukaryotes, but shifts to self-fertilisation are common and ecologically and evolutionarily important. Reproductive assurance under outcross gamete limitation is one eco-evolutionary process held responsible for the shift to selfing. Although small effective population size is a situation where selfing plants could theoretically benefit from reproductive assurance, empirical tests of the role of population size are rare. Here, we show that selfing evolved repeatedly at range margins, where historical demographic processes produced low effective population sizes. Outcrossing populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata have low genetic diversity at geographic margins, with a signature of post-glacial range expansion in the north and rear-edge isolation in the south. Selfing populations occur at the margins of two genetic groups and never in their interior. These results corroborate small effective population size as the promoter of self-fertilisation and have important implications for our understanding of species turnover, range limits and range dynamics.

  12. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  13. Promoter-associated noncoding RNA from the CCND1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xiangting; Arai, Shigeki; Kurokawa, Riki

    2012-01-01

    ). Our extensive exploration for naturally occurring RNA molecule that binds TLS has indicated that long ncRNAs (promoter-associated ncRNAs: pncRNAs) transcribed from the CCND1 promoter bind TLS and inhibit the HAT activities on the sites to repress the transcription of the CCND1 gene (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008). We have optimized RT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA gel-shift assay in order to detect these pncRNAs. The methods that we have developed successfully identified these low-abundant, long ncRNAs and provide the data showing that the CCND1 pncRNAs bind TLS and induce its HAT inhibitory activity to repress the transcription of CCND1 gene upon genotoxic stress.

  14. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p < 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, shift work experience and self-rated stress. In the 12fast, 98% of employees were satisfied with their shift system (75% 8fast, 54% 8slow). Negative effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p < 0.01) and self-reported sleep difficulties were less frequent than in the 8fast and 8slow groups (8%, 27%, 41%, respectively, p < 0.01). The self-reported average sleep duration (12fast 7:50, 8fast 7:24, 8slow 7:15, p < 0.01), and shift-specific sleep before and between morning shifts and after first night shift were longer in the 12fast group. Perceived negative effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p < 0.001) and work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p < 0.001) differed strongly between the groups. In conclusion, the perceived effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems.

  15. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p < 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, shift work experience and self-rated stress. In the 12fast, 98% of employees were satisfied with their shift system (75% 8fast, 54% 8slow). Negative effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p < 0.01) and self-reported sleep difficulties were less frequent than in the 8fast and 8slow groups (8%, 27%, 41%, respectively, p < 0.01). The self-reported average sleep duration (12fast 7:50, 8fast 7:24, 8slow 7:15, p < 0.01), and shift-specific sleep before and between morning shifts and after first night shift were longer in the 12fast group. Perceived negative effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p < 0.001) and work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p < 0.001) differed strongly between the groups. In conclusion, the perceived effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems. PMID:27077442

  16. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. Objectives The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. Results The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. PMID:27695372

  17. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. Objectives The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. Results The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Conclusion Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  18. Shifting self, shifting memory: testing the self-memory system model with hypnotic identity delusions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    According to Conway's self-memory system (SMS) model, autobiographical memories may be facilitated, inhibited, or misremembered to be consistent with current self. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this by hypnotically suggesting an identity delusion and indexing whether this shift in self produced a corresponding shift in autobiographical memory. High hypnotizable participants displayed a compelling identity delusion and elicited specific autobiographical events that they could justify when challenged. These memories were reinterpretations of previous experiences that supported the suggested identity. Importantly, autobiographical memories that were no longer consistent with the hypnotically deluded self were less accessible than other memories. The authors discuss these findings in the context of Conway's SMS model and propose 2 accounts of autobiographical remembering during hypnotic and clinical delusions.

  19. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  20. Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; Appelhans, Anthony D.

    2006-05-02

    Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics includes an outer electrode that defines an interior region between first and second opposed open ends. A first inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the first open end. A second inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the second open end. A first end cap electrode is positioned at about a first open end of the first inner electrode so that the first end cap electrode substantially encloses the first open end of the first inner electrode. A second end cap electrode is positioned at about a second open end of the second inner electrode so that the second end cap electrode substantially encloses the second open end of the second inner electrode. A voltage source operatively connected to each of the electrodes applies voltage functions to each of the electrodes to produce an electric field within an interior space enclosed by the electrodes.

  1. Culture shift: carer empowerment and cooperative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, M; Carson, A

    2005-04-01

    Government policy has directed local services to address the needs of carers as a way of maintaining care in the community. This study was initiated to enable carers to develop an information pack based upon their identified needs. Cooperative inquiry was the method used to ensure full participation of the carers. Group meetings were already in existence through a charity organization who provides a carers support network. The first author participated in a number of carers group meetings. Cooperative inquiry was used to clarify a number of themes identified and reflective cycles ensured that those themes remained relevant. It was found that carers did want to be involved in their relative's care, not as passive recipients but as collaborative care providers. To do this they need to be fully informed of the processes of care provision. Carers need information that is relevant, easily accessible and obtainable in varying degrees of comprehension. This study suggests that a culture shift within mental health nursing is necessary if professionals are to recognize that a perceived lack of support may lead to a breakdown in relationships between the carer, the person being cared for and the professionals.

  2. Shifting the Paradigm in Radiation Safety

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    The current radiation safety paradigm using the linear no-threshold (LNT) model is based on the premise that even the smallest amount of radiation may cause mutations increasing the risk of cancer. Autopsy studies have shown that the presence of cancer cells is not a decisive factor in the occurrence of clinical cancer. On the other hand, suppression of immune system more than doubles the cancer risk in organ transplant patients, indicating its key role in keeping occult cancers in check. Low dose radiation (LDR) elevates immune response, and so it may reduce rather than increase the risk of cancer. LNT model pays exclusive attention to DNA damage, which is not a decisive factor, and completely ignores immune system response, which is an important factor, and so is not scientifically justifiable. By not recognizing the importance of the immune system in cancer, and not exploring exercise intervention, the current paradigm may have missed an opportunity to reduce cancer deaths among atomic bomb survivors. Increased antioxidants from LDR may reduce aging-related non-cancer diseases since oxidative damage is implicated in these. A paradigm shift is warranted to reduce further casualties, reduce fear of LDR, and enable investigation of potential beneficial applications of LDR. PMID:23304105

  3. Model-based phase-shifting interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian

    2015-10-01

    A model-based phase-shifting interferometer (MPI) is developed, in which a novel calculation technique is proposed instead of the traditional complicated system structure, to achieve versatile, high precision and quantitative surface tests. In the MPI, the partial null lens (PNL) is employed to implement the non-null test. With some alternative PNLs, similar as the transmission spheres in ZYGO interferometers, the MPI provides a flexible test for general spherical and aspherical surfaces. Based on modern computer modeling technique, a reverse iterative optimizing construction (ROR) method is employed for the retrace error correction of non-null test, as well as figure error reconstruction. A self-compiled ray-tracing program is set up for the accurate system modeling and reverse ray tracing. The surface figure error then can be easily extracted from the wavefront data in forms of Zernike polynomials by the ROR method. Experiments of the spherical and aspherical tests are presented to validate the flexibility and accuracy. The test results are compared with those of Zygo interferometer (null tests), which demonstrates the high accuracy of the MPI. With such accuracy and flexibility, the MPI would possess large potential in modern optical shop testing.

  4. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  5. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  6. Shifting from preconceptions to pure wonderment.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline

    2005-07-01

    The author reflects upon her role as a public health nurse striving to attain practice authenticity. Client assessment and nursing interventions were seemingly sufficient until she became curious about 'Who is this person sitting across from me?' and 'What are her experiences in the world as a lone parent living in poverty at the margins of society?' The author begins to think that she could shift from mere client investigation to pure wonderment about the Other by imagining herself as a researcher, an explorer of another's life world. Ultimately this process enables her to enhance the 'caring' in her practice with the knowledge gained of the perceptions and meanings impoverished clients assigned to their everyday lives. Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative competence serves as the reference map guiding exploration. The author uses Habermas' theoretical principles of intersubjective mutuality--the validity claims of comprehensibility, truth, sincerity, and legitimacy. Comprehensibility embodies understanding, an attitude of unconditional acceptance, and care respect of another's individual person and self-defined reality. Intersubjective mutuality also requires that one dwell in the moment with the Other, satisfied that communication is founded on truth. Sincerity implies fostering the Other's expression of authentic self apart from oppressive distracters. Lastly, legitimacy reconciles the author's altruistic pursuit to know the Other's ontological truth with the reality of the present world.

  7. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  8. Science Advocacy in a Shifting Policy Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 50 years, federal investment in research as a share of total spending has declined from a little more than 10% in 1963 to less than 4% in 2013 (AAAS, 2013). In an era of sequestration and shrinking budgets, more and more scientists are advocating directly to policymakers (and their staff) to gain support for research programs and funding. The best advocates understand the political and policy processes, and anticipate policy shifts that may affect them. While scientists are trained with the technical skills to conduct their science, teach it to others, and market their work in order to win grants and publish papers, the policy advocacy arena is unfamiliar territory to many. Acquiring yet another area of expertise mid-career can be daunting, but science advocacy need not require another academic degree. Connecting with policymakers is the first step, and then an understanding of each policymaker's issue history and top priorities will inform the sales pitch. Here, I present some experiences on both the pitching and receiving ends of science advocacy from my year in the US Senate as an AGU/AAAS Congressional Science Fellow, and some guidance for meeting with policymakers and successful science advocacy.

  9. Science to Practice: Highly Shifted Proton MR imaging—A Shift toward Better Cell Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A “hot spot” magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cell tracking technique has been developed that allows direct detection of dysprosium- or thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-α,α′,α″,α‴-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTMA)–labeled protons inside cells. These highly shifted protons may allow specific detection of multiple cell types because it does not rely on acquiring the proton signal from bulk water. PMID:25153271

  10. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  11. Promoter propagation in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Matus-Garcia, Mariana; Nijveen, Harm; van Passel, Mark W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional activation or ‘rewiring’ of silent genes is an important, yet poorly understood, phenomenon in prokaryotic genomes. Anecdotal evidence coming from experimental evolution studies in bacterial systems has shown the promptness of adaptation upon appropriate selective pressure. In many cases, a partial or complete promoter is mobilized to silent genes from elsewhere in the genome. We term hereafter such recruited regulatory sequences as Putative Mobile Promoters (PMPs) and we hypothesize they have a large impact on rapid adaptation of novel or cryptic functions. Querying all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (1362) uncovered >4000 families of highly conserved PMPs (50 to 100 long with ≥80% nt identity) in 1043 genomes from 424 different genera. The genomes with the largest number of PMP families are Anabaena variabilis (28 families), Geobacter uraniireducens (27 families) and Cyanothece PCC7424 (25 families). Family size varied from 2 to 93 homologous promoters (in Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus). Some PMPs are present in particular species, but some are conserved across distant genera. The identified PMPs represent a conservative dataset of very recent or conserved events of mobilization of non-coding DNA and thus they constitute evidence of an extensive reservoir of recyclable regulatory sequences for rapid transcriptional rewiring. PMID:22933716

  12. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  13. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  14. Direct Derivation of the Gravitational Red Shift (Einstein Shift) with the frequency dependent Gall metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    1999-05-01

    When an electromagnetic radiation (EMR) source is in uniform motion with respect to an observer, a spectral (Doppler) shift in frequency is seen (blue as it approaches, red as it recedes). Since special relativity is limited to coordinate systems in uniform relative motion, this theory should be subject to this condition. On the other hand, the gravitational red shift (Einstein; Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Crown,(1961), p.129) claims that EMR frequency decreases as the gravitational field, where the source is located, increases. As a gravitational effect, one would expect its derivation from a solution of the general relativistic field equations (R_μσ=0). Up to now, it has only been possible to derive it indirectly, by comparing the gravitational field to a (centrifugal) field produced by coordinate systems in relative rotational motion as an approximation of special relativity. Since rotation implies acceleration, it does not meet the conditions of special relativity so this is unsatisfactory. This work shows that the problem lies in the Schwarzschild metric which is independent of EMR frequency. By contrast it is easy to deduce the gravitational red shift from the frequency dependent Gall metric (Gall in AIP Conference Proceedings 308, The Evolution of X-Ray Binaries,(1993), p. 87).

  15. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A.; March, C.; Montoya, A.

    2011-06-15

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  16. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications.

    PubMed

    Montagut, Y J; García, J V; Jiménez, Y; March, C; Montoya, A; Arnau, A

    2011-06-01

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed. PMID:21721715

  17. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagut, Y. J.; García, J. V.; Jiménez, Y.; March, C.; Montoya, A.; Arnau, A.

    2011-06-01

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  18. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification. PMID:27460588

  19. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices. PMID:7754993

  20. Toward a post-Charter health promotion.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The past 25 years have seen enormous shifts in the environmental, political, economic and social landscapes that condition people's abilities to be healthy. Climate change is now a reality. China, India, Brazil and other 'developing' countries are emerging as new axes of political and economic power. Global capitalism has become increasingly predatory and crisis ridden, a result of unregulated and irresponsible greed of unimaginable scale. The elite response has been the increased erosion of the health and other social protection policies of redistribution that characterized the first-world run-up to the Ottawa Charter. These new realities challenge health promoters in ways unforeseen a quarter century ago. It is imperative that local determinants of health, to which health promoters give their attention, be traced to broader, even global levels of determinants. Support for groups acting at these levels should become a fundamental practice tenet. So, too, should advocacy for the social state, in which progressive taxation and hefty social investment blunt the health inequalities created by unfettered markets. As environmental and economic insecurities and inequalities increase in many of the world's countries, so does the risk of xenophobia and conflict. The roots of racism are complex; but weeding them out becomes another health promotion practice of the new millennium. There are some hopeful signs of health promoting political change, much of it emanating now from countries in the global South; but the threat of a return to health behaviourism in the face of the new global pandemic of chronic disease is real and must be confronted.

  1. Health-promoting prisons: theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja

    2016-03-01

    As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison.

  2. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression.

  3. Health-promoting prisons: theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja

    2016-03-01

    As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison. PMID:27199019

  4. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression. PMID:27476975

  5. Can nurses be employed in 12-hour shift systems?

    PubMed

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Krawczyk-Adamus, P; Sprusińska, E; Jóźwiak, Z W

    2000-01-01

    Nurses are often obliged to work in a 12-hr shift work system. We have decided to check whether such a working system constitutes an excessive load for nurses. On the basis of a questionnaire survey among nurses working in an 8-hr daytime shift system (169 nurses) and in a 12-hr shift (536 nurses), the amount of physical workload, work stress, and after-work activities were compared. Data analysis has shown that a 12-hr shift system is characterized by less significant physical workload but greater mental load. The nurses working in a 2-shift system were more tired after work, but they could spend more time on leisure activities and do housework. The data suggest that there are no significant contraindications for nurses to work in a 2-shift system.

  6. Twelve-hour shift on ITU: a nursing evaluation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Dabner, Nichola; Curtis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and subsequent evaluation of a 12-h shift system in a large ITU in the northeast of UK. To date, only a small number of studies has evaluated nurses working the 12-h shifts in critical care areas. To evaluate the level of staff satisfaction, data were collected by means of a questionnaire involving 41 nurses, at 3 months following the introduction of the 12-h shifts. The responses from the evaluation advocated the continuation of 12-h shifts with alternative shift patterns for nurses who felt dissatisfied with the current system. Twelve-hour shifts can be seen as a flexible system for nurses working in intensive care and may assist with staff satisfaction and improving nurse recruitment and retention.

  7. How fast should the night shift rotate? A rejoinder.

    PubMed

    Wedderburn, A A

    1992-12-01

    The argument for greater use of permanent night shift does not match the three times greater use of rotating three-shift systems in Britain. Studies of industrial production show very slight differences between output on different shifts, unlike laboratory studies, suggesting that it is almost impossible to reproduce the practice, motivation, and real consequences of work in laboratory settings. People who prefer permanent night shift often prefer to avoid management, and few managements welcome this; or have important tasks to perform at home in the day-time. Some studies of adaptation have defined inversion of temperature curves poorly, and most night-workers never completely adapt. Social flexibility, which has been the main attraction of rapidly rotating shifts, can be reproduced on permanent night shifts, but then loses the possibility of adaptation.

  8. Task shifting in surgery: Lessons from an Indian Heart Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Budhaditya; Huckman, Robert S; Khanna, Tarun

    2015-12-01

    We present a case study that illustrates task shifting, the transfer of activities from senior to junior colleagues, in the context of cardiac surgery at the Narayana Health City Cardiac Hospital (NH) in India. The case discusses the factors driving the adoption of task shifting at NH and identifies the implications of task shifting for surgeon training, surgical capacity, and procedure costs. A comparison of the outcomes of two senior surgeons with similar experience, workload, and patient profiles--but varying in their level of task shifting--suggests that shifting of lower complexity tasks by senior surgeons to trained junior colleagues does not negatively impact in-hospital mortality and post-procedure length of stay. The study concludes with a discussion of task shifting's potential to improve access to affordable tertiary care in resource-constrained settings.

  9. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  10. Anomalous phase shifts in drift wave fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ahmed; Skiff, Fred

    2003-10-01

    Ion phase space density fluctuation measurements are performed in a linearly magnetized device using Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF). An ICP source produces an 8cm diameter plasma column that drifts in a cylindrical vessel whose diameter and length are 40 cm and 3 m, respectively. These experiments are performed using a CW singly ionized Argon plasma that is immersed in a 1kG magnetic field along the axis of the cylinder. A density of the order of 10^9 cm-3 is obtained under a regulated neutral background pressure of 2.× 10-4 torr. The electron and ion temperature are respectively 2 eV and 0.1 eV. LIF is carried out by pumping the Ar II metastable (3d^1)^2G_9/2, using a CW tunable laser centered at 611.6653 nm scanned over 6 GHz, to metastable (4p^1)F_7/2, and then detecting the 460nm photons emitted from its transition to (4s^1)^2F_5/2. This collection is made possible using two low f-umber periscopes that are directed to PMTs. Here we present measurements of the complex two-point correlation function < f(v_i_allel),z_1,ω)f(v_i_allel,z_2,ω)> as a function of the spatial separation of two LIF detection systems Δ d = z_2-z_1, the ion parallel velocity v_i_allel and the frequency ω. Preliminary results show ion particle velocity dependent phase shifts at the drift wave frequency.

  11. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  12. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  13. Synchronous marine pelagic regime shifts in the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Beaugrand, G.; Conversi, A.; Chiba, S.; Edwards, M.; Fonda-Umani, S.; Greene, C.; Mantua, N.; Otto, S. A.; Reid, P. C.; Stachura, M. M.; Stemmann, L.; Sugisaki, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts are characterized by sudden, substantial and temporally persistent changes in the state of an ecosystem. They involve major biological modifications and often have important implications for exploited living resources. In this study, we examine whether regime shifts observed in 11 marine systems from two oceans and three regional seas in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are synchronous, applying the same methodology to all. We primarily infer marine pelagic regime shifts from abrupt shifts in zooplankton assemblages, with the exception of the East Pacific where ecosystem changes are inferred from fish. Our analyses provide evidence for quasi-synchronicity of marine pelagic regime shifts both within and between ocean basins, although these shifts lie embedded within considerable regional variability at both year-to-year and lower-frequency time scales. In particular, a regime shift was detected in the late 1980s in many studied marine regions, although the exact year of the observed shift varied somewhat from one basin to another. Another regime shift was also identified in the mid- to late 1970s but concerned less marine regions. We subsequently analyse the main biological signals in relation to changes in NH temperature and pressure anomalies. The results suggest that the main factor synchronizing regime shifts on large scales is NH temperature; however, changes in atmospheric circulation also appear important. We propose that this quasi-synchronous shift could represent the variably lagged biological response in each ecosystem to a large-scale, NH change of the climatic system, involving both an increase in NH temperature and a strongly positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. Further investigation is needed to determine the relative roles of changes in temperature and atmospheric pressure patterns and their resultant teleconnections in synchronizing regime shifts at large scales.

  14. Bidirectional phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer for wavefronts testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sanbin; Zhou, Shouhuan; Tang, Xiaojun; Hong, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    The wavefront of the laser beam was tested by a point-diffraction interferometer with bidirectional phase-shifting. The phase-shifting is obtained by the bidirectional modulated of the electro-optic effect lithium niobate crystal combining with a pinhole filter in half-wave film. The wavefront aberration of incoming beam is directly measured by analyzing five frames phase-shifted interferograms captured by a CCD camera.

  15. Shifting Of Image Fields For Better Stereoscopic TV Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for shifting horizontal positions of TV image fields of stereoscopic TV display reduces stereoscopic depth distorting while increasing stereoscopic depth resolution of images. Applicable to form of stereoscopic TV in which two views of scene presented by two video cameras to different fields of one monitor. According to concept, view of left camera shifts to left, and right camera, to right. Images made to overlap, so observed comfortably. Shifting done by inexpensive electronic circuitry.

  16. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  17. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  18. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-01

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer. PMID:26959472

  19. Simultaneous correction of functional posterior cross bite and midline shift

    PubMed Central

    Arvinth, R.; Rana, Shailendra Singh; Duggal, Ritu; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent cause of functional posterior crossbite is the reduction in width of the maxillary dental arch. This posterior crossbite is associated with anterior crowding which is presented as an infrapositioned canine or a palatally positioned lateral incisor on one side; this leads to an upper midline shift toward the crowded side. The present case report shows the management of posterior crossbite with functional shift and upper midline shift simultaneously without adverse side effects. In this case, rapid maxillary expansion along with fixed appliance is used to correct posterior crossbite with the upper dental midline shift using reciprocal action of elastic transseptal fibers.

  20. Plate motion and the secular shift of the mean pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.; Carpenter, L.; Agreen, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The global plate motion indicates that changes in the products of inertia of the earth due to tectonic plate movement may provide a secular shift of the mean pole. A mathematical procedure for calculating this shift based on the plate theory is presented. Explicit expressions were obtained for the dependence of the secular polar shift on the dimensions and locations of the plate boundaries. Numerical results show that the secular motion of the mean pole is 0.0002 sec/year in the direction of 67 W. Hence, it is deduced that the influence of the plate motion on the secular polar shift may account for 10% of the observed value.

  1. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    PubMed Central

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  2. Competition between the tensor light shift and nonlinear Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupczak, W.; Wojciechowski, A.; Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.

    2010-08-15

    Many precision measurements (e.g., in spectroscopy, atomic clocks, quantum-information processing, etc.) suffer from systematic errors introduced by the light shift. In our experimental configuration, however, the tensor light shift plays a positive role enabling the observation of spectral features otherwise masked by the cancellation of the transition amplitudes and creating resonances at a frequency unperturbed either by laser power or beam inhomogeneity. These phenomena occur thanks to the special relation between the nonlinear Zeeman and light shift effects. The interplay between these two perturbations is systematically studied and the cancellation of the nonlinear Zeeman effect by the tensor light shift is demonstrated.

  3. Simultaneous correction of functional posterior cross bite and midline shift

    PubMed Central

    Arvinth, R.; Rana, Shailendra Singh; Duggal, Ritu; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent cause of functional posterior crossbite is the reduction in width of the maxillary dental arch. This posterior crossbite is associated with anterior crowding which is presented as an infrapositioned canine or a palatally positioned lateral incisor on one side; this leads to an upper midline shift toward the crowded side. The present case report shows the management of posterior crossbite with functional shift and upper midline shift simultaneously without adverse side effects. In this case, rapid maxillary expansion along with fixed appliance is used to correct posterior crossbite with the upper dental midline shift using reciprocal action of elastic transseptal fibers. PMID:27630513

  4. Simultaneous correction of functional posterior cross bite and midline shift.

    PubMed

    Arvinth, R; Rana, Shailendra Singh; Duggal, Ritu; Kharbanda, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent cause of functional posterior crossbite is the reduction in width of the maxillary dental arch. This posterior crossbite is associated with anterior crowding which is presented as an infrapositioned canine or a palatally positioned lateral incisor on one side; this leads to an upper midline shift toward the crowded side. The present case report shows the management of posterior crossbite with functional shift and upper midline shift simultaneously without adverse side effects. In this case, rapid maxillary expansion along with fixed appliance is used to correct posterior crossbite with the upper dental midline shift using reciprocal action of elastic transseptal fibers. PMID:27630513

  5. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers.

  6. Marine regime shifts: drivers and impacts on ecosystems services

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, J.; Yletyinen, J.; Biggs, R.; Blenckner, T.; Peterson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems can experience regime shifts, in which they shift from being organized around one set of mutually reinforcing structures and processes to another. Anthropogenic global change has broadly increased a wide variety of processes that can drive regime shifts. To assess the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to such shifts and their potential consequences, we reviewed the scientific literature for 13 types of marine regime shifts and used networks to conduct an analysis of co-occurrence of drivers and ecosystem service impacts. We found that regime shifts are caused by multiple drivers and have multiple consequences that co-occur in a non-random pattern. Drivers related to food production, climate change and coastal development are the most common co-occurring causes of regime shifts, while cultural services, biodiversity and primary production are the most common cluster of ecosystem services affected. These clusters prioritize sets of drivers for management and highlight the need for coordinated actions across multiple drivers and scales to reduce the risk of marine regime shifts. Managerial strategies are likely to fail if they only address well-understood or data-rich variables, and international cooperation and polycentric institutions will be critical to implement and coordinate action across the scales at which different drivers operate. By better understanding these underlying patterns, we hope to inform the development of managerial strategies to reduce the risk of high-impact marine regime shifts, especially for areas of the world where data are not available or monitoring programmes are not in place.

  7. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

  8. A scoping study on task shifting; the case of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Task shifting has been implemented in Uganda for decades with little documentation. This study’s objectives were to; gather evidence on task-shifting experiences in Uganda, establish its acceptability and perceptions among health managers and policymakers, and make recommendations. Methods This was a qualitative study. Data collection involved; review of published and gray literature, and key informant interviews of stakeholders in health policy and decision making in Uganda. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results Task shifting was the mainstay of health service delivery in Uganda. Lower cadre of health workers performed duties of specialized health workers. However, Uganda has no task shifting policy and guidelines, and task shifting was practiced informally. Lower cadre of health workers were deemed to be incompetent to handle shifted roles and already overworked, and support supervision was poor. Advocates of task shifting argued that lower cadre of health workers already performed the roles of highly trained health workers. They needed a supporting policy and support supervision. Opponents argued that lower cadre of health workers were; incompetent, overworked, and task shifting was more expensive than recruiting appropriately trained health workers. Conclusions Task shifting was unacceptable to most health managers and policy makers because lower cadres of health workers were; incompetent, overworked and support supervision was poor. Recruitment of existing unemployed well trained health workers, implementation of human resource motivation and retention strategies, and government sponsored graduates to work for a defined mandatory period of time were recommended. PMID:24754917

  9. Heart rate variability in shift workers: responses to orthostatism and relationships with anthropometry, body composition, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables.

  10. Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Responses to Orthostatism and Relationships with Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  11. Heart rate variability in shift workers: responses to orthostatism and relationships with anthropometry, body composition, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  12. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  13. [Evaluation of health promotion programmes].

    PubMed

    Berkowska, M; Sito, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of definitions of evaluation and discusses the need to evaluate health promotion programmes. The classification of types of evaluation is presented. It is aimed to create a common language of communication between evaluation and the common understanding of terms. The relation between evaluation of health promotion programmes and quality assurance, best practice and evidence based health promotion are discussed.

  14. Shift Work and Occupational Stress in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Gu, Ja K.; Hartley, Tara A.; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with occupational stress in health providers and in those working in some industrial companies. The association is not well established in the law enforcement workforce. Our objective was to examine the association between shift work and police work-related stress. Methods The number of stressful events that occurred in the previous month and year was obtained using the Spielberger Police Stress Survey among 365 police officers aged 27–66 years. Work hours were derived from daily payroll records. A dominant shift (day, afternoon, or night) was defined for each participant as the shift with the largest percentage of total time a participant worked (starting time from 4:00 AM to 11:59 AM, from 12 PM to 7:59 PM, and from 8:00 PM to 3:59 AM for day, afternoon, and night shift, respectively) in the previous month or year. Analysis of variance and covariance were used to examine the number of total and subscale (administrative/professional pressure, physical/psychological danger, or organizational support) stressful events across the shift. Results During the previous month and year, officers working the afternoon and night shifts reported more stressful events than day shift officers for total stress, administrative/professional pressure, and physical/psychological danger (p < 0.05). These differences were independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and police rank. The frequency of these stressful events did not differ significantly between officers working the afternoon and night shifts. Conclusion Non–day shift workers may be exposed to more stressful events in this cohort. Interventions to reduce or manage police stress that are tailored by shift may be considered. PMID:25830066

  15. Insects overshoot the expected upslope shift caused by climate warming.

    PubMed

    Bässler, Claus; Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Along elevational gradients, climate warming may lead to an upslope shift of the lower and upper range margin of organisms. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these shifts are species specific and considerably differ among taxonomic lineages. We used the opportunity to compare upper range margins of five lineages (plants, beetles, flies, hymenoptera, and birds) between 1902-1904 and 2006-2007 within one region (Bavarian Forest, Central Europe). Based on the increase in the regional mean annual temperature during this period and the regional lapse rate, the upslope shift is expected to be between 51 and 201 m. Averaged across species within lineages, the range margin of all animal lineages shifted upslope, but that of plants did not. For animals, the observed shifts were probably due to shifts in temperature and not to changes in habitat conditions. The range margin of plants is therefore apparently not constrained by temperature, a result contrasting recent findings. The mean shift of birds (165 m) was within the predicted range and consistent with a recent global meta-analysis. However, the upslope shift of the three insect lineages (>260 m) exceeded the expected shift even after considering several sources of uncertainty, which indicated a non-linear response to temperature. Our analysis demonstrated broad differences among lineages in their response to climate change even within one region. Furthermore, on the considered scale, the response of ectothermic animals was not consistent with expectations based on shifts in the mean annual temperature. Irrespective of the reasons for the overshooting of the response of the insects, these shifts lead to reorganizations in the composition of assemblages with consequences for ecosystem processes.

  16. Impacts of shift work on sleep and circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Boivin, D B; Boudreau, P

    2014-10-01

    Shift work comprises work schedules that extend beyond the typical "nine-to-five" workday, wherein schedules often comprise early work start, compressed work weeks with 12-hour shifts, and night work. According to recent American and European surveys, between 15 and 30% of adult workers are engaged in some type of shift work, with 19% of the European population reportedly working at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00. The 2005 International Classification of Sleep Disorders estimates that a shift work sleep disorder can be found in 2-5% of workers. This disorder is characterized by excessive sleepiness and/or sleep disruption for at least one month in relation with the atypical work schedule. Individual tolerance to shift work remains a complex problem that is affected by the number of consecutive work hours and shifts, the rest periods, and the predictability of work schedules. Sleepiness usually occurs during night shifts and is maximal at the end of the night. Impaired vigilance and performance occur around times of increased sleepiness and can seriously compromise workers' health and safety. Indeed, workers suffering from a shift work sleep-wake disorder can fall asleep involuntarily at work or while driving back home after a night shift. Working on atypical shifts has important socioeconomic impacts as it leads to an increased risk of accidents, workers' impairment and danger to public safety, especially at night. The aim of the present review is to review the circadian and sleep-wake disturbances associated with shift work as well as their medical impacts.

  17. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  18. Improving the resolution in phase-shifting Gabor holography by CCD shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, L.; Micó, V.; Zalevsky, Z.; García, J.; Javidi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Holography dates back to the year when Dennis Gabor reported on a method to avoid spherical aberration and to improve image quality in electron microscopy. Gabor's two-step holographic method was pioneer but suffered from three major drawbacks: the reconstructed image is affected by coherent noise, the twin image problem of holography that also affects the final image quality, and a restricted sample range (weak diffraction assumption) for preserving the holographic behavior of the method. Nowadays, most of those drawbacks have been overcome and new capabilities have been added due to the replacement of the classical recording media (photographic plate) by digital sensors (CCD and CMOS cameras). But in the Gabor' regime, holography is restricted to weak diffraction assumptions because otherwise, diffraction prevents an accurate recovery of the object's complex wavefront. In this contribution, we present an experimental approach to overcome such limitation and improve final image resolution. We use the phase-shifting Gabor configuration while the CCD camera is shifted to different off-axis positions in order to capture a bigger portion of the diffracted wavefront. Thus, once the whole image set is recorded and digitally processed for each camera's position, we merge the resulting band-pass images into one image by assembling a synthetic aperture. Finally, a superresolved image is recovered by Fourier transformation of the information contained in the generated synthetic aperture. Experimental results are provided using a USAF resolution test target and validating our concepts for a gain in resolution of close to 2.

  19. Shifted cosmological parameter and shifted dust matter in a two-phase tachyonic field universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Murli Manohar; Pathak, Shankar Dayal

    2013-04-01

    We propose a model of the evolution of the tachyonic scalar field over two phases in the universe. The field components do not interact in phase I, while in the subsequent phase II, they change flavours due to relative suppression of the radiation contribution. In phase II, we allow them to interact mutually with time-independent perturbation in their equations of state, as Shifted Cosmological Parameter (SCP) and Shifted Dust Matter (SDM). We determine the solutions of their scaling with the cosmic redshift in both phases. We further suggest the normalised Hubble function diagnostic, which, together with the low- and high-redshift H( z) data and the concordance values of the present density parameters from the CMBR, BAO statistics etc., constrain the strength of interaction by imposing the viable conditions to break degeneracy in 3-parameter (γ, \\varepsilon, dot{φ}2) space. The range of redshifts ( z=0.1 to z=1.75) is chosen to highlight the role of interaction during structure formation, and it may lead to a future analysis of power spectrum in this model vis a vis Warm Dark Matter (WDM) or ΛCDM models. We further calculate the influence of interaction in determining the age of the universe at the present epoch, within the degeneracy space of model parameters.

  20. Relations among early postexposure noise-induced threshold shifts and permanent threshold shifts in the chinchilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamernik, Roger P.; Ahroon, William A.; Patterson, James H.; Qiu, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Threshold shifts (TS) were measured at various times following a wide variety of noise exposures on over 900 chinchillas. An analysis of postexposure TS measures and noise-induced permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed that, across audiometric test frequency, there was a consistent relation between these variables of the form PTS (dB)=α(eTS/β-1), where, for a given test frequency, α (dB) and β (dB) are constants. TSs were measured immediately following exposure (TS0), 24 h after exposure (TS24), and at several intermediate times in order to estimate the maximum TS (TSmax). Correlation between TS and PTS at the various test frequencies was highest for TS24. An analysis of the 90th-percentile PTS showed a linear growth of PTS with TS24 of approximately 0.7 dB PTS/dB TS24. These data provide some support, in the chinchilla model, for a variation of the three postulates originally presented by Kryter et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39, 451 (1966)]. Specifically: (i) TS24 is a consistent measure of the effects of a traumatic noise exposure. (ii) All exposures that produce a given TS24 will be equally hazardous. (iii) Noise-induced PTS in the most susceptible animals, following many years of exposure, is approximately equal to (0.7)TS24 measured after an 8-h exposure to the same noise.

  1. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty

    PubMed Central

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2014-01-01

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group’s outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker’s focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

  2. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  3. Microbial and sponge loops modify fish production in phase-shifting coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Marques, Jomar S M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-10-01

    Shifts from coral to algae dominance of corals reefs have been correlated to fish biomass loss and increased microbial metabolism. Here we investigated reef benthic and planktonic primary production, benthic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release and bacterial growth efficiency in the Abrolhos Bank, South Atlantic. Benthic DOC release rates are higher while water column bacterial growth efficiency is lower at impacted reefs. A trophic model based on the benthic and planktonic primary production was able to predict the observed relative fish biomass in healthy reefs. In contrast, in impacted reefs, the observed omnivorous fish biomass is higher, while that of the herbivorous/coralivorous fish is lower than predicted by the primary production-based model. Incorporating recycling of benthic-derived carbon in the model through microbial and sponge loops explains the difference and predicts the relative fish biomass in both reef types. Increased benthic carbon release rates and bacterial carbon metabolism, but decreased bacterial growth efficiency could lead to carbon losses through respiration and account for the uncoupling of benthic and fish production in phase-shifting reefs. Carbon recycling by microbial and sponge loops seems to promote an increase of small-bodied fish productivity in phase-shifting coral reefs.

  4. Changing the Waveform of Circadian Rhythms: Considerations for Shift-Work

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24 h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified. PMID:22557994

  5. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  6. Attentional Set-Shifting in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Hamel, B. C. J.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt to the changing demands of the environment is often reported as a core deficit in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the cognitive processes that determine this attentional set-shifting deficit remain elusive. The present study investigated attentional set-shifting ability in fragile X syndrome males with the…

  7. Shift in the Use of Migrant Community Languages in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karidakis, Maria; Arunachalam, Dharma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first explore the trends in the maintenance of migrant community languages among the first generation migrants and then the socio-economic variation in the shift in use of community languages. Our analysis showed that language shift to English among first generation migrants has not been uniform, with some migrant groups adopting…

  8. Shifts of a resonance line in a dense atomic sample.

    PubMed

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne; Li, Yi; Yoo, Sung-Mi

    2014-03-21

    We study the collective response of a dense atomic sample to light essentially exactly using classical-electrodynamics simulations. In a homogeneously broadened atomic sample there is no overt Lorentz-Lorenz local field shift of the resonance, nor a collective Lamb shift. However, the addition of inhomogeneous broadening restores the usual mean-field phenomenology.

  9. AUDITORY-VISUAL PERCEPTUAL SHIFTING IN SPEECH HANDICAPPED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLOWERS, ARTHUR

    INTERACTION BETWEEN VISION AND HEARING WERE STUDIED IN 35 SPEECH HANDICAPPED FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN. THE ABILITY TO SHIFT ATTENTION FROM ONE SENSORY MODALITY TO ANOTHER WAS LABELED AS "PERCEPTUAL SHIFTING." A DEVICE DEVELOPED BY EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESENTED VARIOUS STIMULI TO EACH SUBJECT AND RECORDED THE SUBJECT'S REACTION TIME. STIMULI…

  10. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  11. Tune-Shift Compensation Using the Tevatron Electron Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Kip Bishofberger et al.

    2003-08-20

    The Tevatron Electron Lens was originally designed to alleviate the tune shift and spread induced in Tevatron antiproton bunches from interactions with the proton bunches. We report recent developments and successful results of such tune-shift compensation. Lifetime measurements are central to our data and the basis of our analysis. Future goals and possible uses for the lens are also discussed.

  12. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    PubMed

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  13. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  14. On Explaining Language Shift: Sociology or Social Psychology of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potentials and limits of sociolinguistic research on language shift. Starting from a position that the ultimate goal of the research must be to create a general theory of language shift of predictive power, the author examines the explanatory potential of current mainstream research methodology now regarded as canonical…

  15. Neural Network Modeling of Developmental Effects in Discrimination Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Shultz, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical account of human shift learning with the use of neural network tools. Details how simulations using the cascade-correlation algorithm which show that networks can capture the regularities of the discrimination shift literature better than existing psychological theories. Suggests that human developmental differences in shift…

  16. Paradigm Shift: Understanding and Implementing Change in Second Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Farrell, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Describes eight changes that fit the paradigm shift in second language education toward what is often called communicative language teaching: learner autonomy, cooperative learning, curricular integration, focus on meaning, diversity, thinking skills, alternative assessment, and teachers as co-learners. The paradigm shift is examined as an element…

  17. Relative Configuration of Natural Products Using NMR Chemical Shifts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By comparing calculated with experimental NMR chemical shifts, we were able to determine the relative configurations of three monoterpene diastereomers produced by the walkingstick Anisomorpha buprestoides. The combined RMSDs of both 1H and 13C quantum chemically calculated shifts were able to predi...

  18. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  19. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community

    PubMed Central

    CaraDonna, Paul J.; Iler, Amy M.; Inouye, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology—the timing of biological events—is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology. PMID:24639544

  20. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    PubMed

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology. PMID:24639544