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Sample records for promotes eeg theta

  1. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R; Born, Jan; Marshall, Lisa

    2009-09-08

    The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation typically occurring during this state of sleep were also enhanced. Here, we show that the same tSOS applied in the waking brain also induced an increase in endogenous EEG slow oscillations (0.4-1.2 Hz), although in a topographically restricted fashion. Applied during wakefulness tSOS, additionally, resulted in a marked and widespread increase in EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity. During wake, tSOS did not enhance consolidation of memories when applied after learning, but improved encoding of hippocampus-dependent memories when applied during learning. We conclude that the EEG frequency and related memory processes induced by tSOS critically depend on brain state. In response to tSOS during wakefulness the brain transposes stimulation by responding preferentially with theta oscillations and facilitated encoding.

  2. Modulation of EEG Theta Band Signal Complexity by Music Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lee, Eun-Jeong

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sounds used in music therapy, on the neural complexity of EEG signals obtained from patients undergoing chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to compare the EEG signal complexity values for monochords with those for progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), an alternative therapy for relaxation. Forty cancer patients were randomly allocated to one of the two relaxation groups, MC and PMR, over a period of six months; continuous EEG signals were recorded during the first and last sessions. EEG signals were analyzed by applying signal mode complexity, a measure of complexity of neuronal oscillations. Across sessions, both groups showed a modulation of complexity of beta-2 band (20-29Hz) at midfrontal regions, but only MC group showed a modulation of complexity of theta band (3.5-7.5Hz) at posterior regions. Therefore, the neuronal complexity patterns showed different changes in EEG frequency band specific complexity resulting in two different types of interventions. Moreover, the different neural responses to listening to monochords and PMR were observed after regular relaxation interventions over a short time span.

  3. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sebastian; Schneider, Signe Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13–17 Hz) at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13–17 Hz) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3–7 Hz), with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information. PMID:28192459

  4. Theta activity in the waking EEG is a marker of sleep propensity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Tobler, Irene

    2005-07-19

    In humans, EEG power in the theta frequency band (5-8 Hz) during quiet waking increases during sleep deprivation (SD), and predicts the subsequent homeostatic increase of sleep slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power between 0.5 and 4.0 Hz). These findings indicate that theta power in waking is an EEG variable, which reflects the rise in sleep propensity. In rodents, a number of short sleep attempts, as well as SWA in the waking EEG increase in the course of SD, but neither variable predicts the subsequent homeostatic increase of EEG SWA during recovery sleep. To investigate whether there is an EEG marker for sleep propensity also in rodents, the EEG of the rat was recorded during 6 h SD in the first half of the light period (SDL, n = 7). During SDL, power of the waking EEG showed an increase in the delta (1.5-4 Hz) and low theta (5-6.5 Hz) band. Based on the neck muscle EMG, wakefulness was subdivided into active (high EMG activity) and quiet (low EMG activity) waking. During quiet waking, the theta peak occurred at 5.5 Hz, the frequency at which the increase of EEG power during SD was most pronounced. This increase was due to higher amplitude of theta waves, while wave incidence (frequency) was unchanged. Correlation analysis showed that the rise in EEG power in the 5-7 Hz band during SD predicted the subsequent enhancement of SWA in non-rapid eye movement sleep. The analysis of data of a further batch of rats which were sleep deprived for 6 h after dark onset (SDD, n = 7) revealed a significant increase in theta-wave amplitude during the SD and a tendency for a similar, positive correlation between the increase of theta power (5-7 Hz) and subsequent SWA. The results indicate that in rats, as in humans, a specific waking EEG frequency, i.e., theta power in quiet waking is a marker of sleep propensity.

  5. Dissociative mental states are canonically associated with decreased temporal theta activity on spectral analysis of EEG.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christa; Bartel, Peter; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) changes relating to dissociative experiences have only rarely been demonstrated, and dissociative states were not quantified in those studies. The aim of this study was to explore concurrent associations between quantified dissociative states and QEEG spectral parameters, in particular theta activity, in psychiatric patients. Fifty psychiatric patients completed the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) immediately after a 15-min EEG recording. The EEG was assessed by conventional clinical visual analysis as well as by quantitative (QEEG) spectral analysis. Canonical analysis was performed between the set of SSD subscale scores and the following QEEG parameters: alpha-theta magnitude ratios, and relative as well as absolute theta magnitude obtained from right and left mid- to posterior-temporal and parieto-occipital derivations. The SSD transferred well to the present data in terms of reliability and internal criterion-related validity. The SSD and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) correlated significantly (r = .73, p < .001). Conventional EEG analysis identified 29 EEGs (58%) as abnormal. The main abnormality in 23 EEGs was slowing, maximal temporally in half of these cases. Canonical analyses confirmed a statistically significant relationship between the dissociation variables (especially conversion and depersonalization symptoms) and the QEEG variables (especially relative theta magnitude in the temporal regions; R = .72, p = .03, for SSD-QEEG; and R = .66, p = .04, for DES-QEEG). Quantified dissociative mental states are positively canonically associated with decreased temporal theta activity and increased alpha-theta ratios on QEEG in psychiatric patients with a high tendency to dissociate. The potential implications of the dissociation-theta-alpha relationship for understanding normal attentional processes need to be studied further.

  6. Relationship between regional hemodynamic activity and simultaneously recorded EEG-theta associated with mental arithmetic-induced workload.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Gebhard; Blecker, Carlo; Gebhardt, Helge; Bischoff, Matthias; Stark, Rudolf; Morgen, Katrin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    Theta increases with workload and is associated with numerous processes including working memory, problem solving, encoding, or self monitoring. These processes, in turn, involve numerous structures of the brain. However, the relationship between regional brain activity and the occurrence of theta remains unclear. In the present study, simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings were used to investigate the functional topography of theta. EEG-theta was enhanced by mental arithmetic-induced workload. For the EEG-constrained fMRI analysis, theta-reference time-series were extracted from the EEG, reflecting the strength of theta occurrence during the time course of the experiment. Theta occurrence was mainly associated with activation of the insular cortex, hippocampus, superior temporal areas, cingulate cortex, superior parietal, and frontal areas. Though observation of temporal and insular activation is in accord with the theory that theta specifically reflects encoding processes, the involvement of several other brain regions implies that surface-recorded theta represents comprehensive functional brain states rather than specific processes in the brain. The results provide further evidence for the concept that emergent theta band oscillations represent dynamic functional binding of widely distributed cortical assemblies, essential for cognitive processing. This binding process may form the source of surface-recorded EEG theta. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. EEG oscillations and recognition memory: theta correlates of memory retrieval and decision making.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joshua; Hwang, Grace; Curran, Tim; Kahana, Michael J

    2006-08-15

    Studies of memory retrieval have identified electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of a test item's old-new status, reaction time, and memory load. In the current study, we used a multivariate analysis to disentangle the effects of these correlated variables. During retrieval, power of left-parietal theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations increased in proportion to how well a test item was remembered, and theta in central regions correlated with decision making. We also studied how these oscillatory dynamics complemented event-related potentials. These findings are the first to demonstrate that distinct patterns of theta oscillations can simultaneously relate to different aspects of behavior.

  8. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Etkin, Amit; Hegerl, Ulrich; Williams, Leanne M; DeBattista, Charles; Palmer, Donna M; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Harris, Anthony; deBeuss, Roger; Gordon, Evian

    2015-08-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been linked to non-response. This study used source localization to attempt to integrate these apparently opposite results and test, whether antidepressant response is associated with elevated rACC theta and non-response with elevated frontal theta and whether theta activity is a differential predictor of response to different types of commonly used antidepressants. In the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D), a multi-center, international, randomized, prospective practical trial, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR. The study also recruited 336 healthy controls. Treatment response and remission were established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). The resting-state EEG was assessed at baseline with eyes closed and source localization (eLORETA) was employed to extract theta from the rACC and frontal cortex. Patients with MDD had elevated theta in both frontal cortex and rACC, with small effect sizes. High frontal and rACC theta were associated with treatment non-response, but not with non-remission, and this effect was most pronounced in a subgroup with previous treatment failures. Low theta in frontal cortex and rACC are found in responders to antidepressant treatments with a small effect size. Future studies should investigate in more detail the role of previous treatment (failure) in the association between theta and treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  10. EEG Theta and Gamma Responses to Semantic Violations in Online Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta ([Approximately]3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or contained a semantically…

  11. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  12. EEG Theta and Gamma Responses to Semantic Violations in Online Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta ([Approximately]3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or contained a semantically…

  13. Theta-Alpha Oscillations Bind the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex, and Striatum during Recollection: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Nora A; Apitz, Thore; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christioph; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Bunzeck, Nico

    2016-03-23

    Recollection of contextual information represents the core of human recognition memory. It has been associated with theta (4-8 Hz) power in electrophysiological recordings and, independently, with BOLD effects in a network including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Although the notion of the hippocampus coordinating neocortical activity by synchronization in the theta range is common among theoretical models of recollection, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is scarce. To address this apparent gap in our understanding of memory processes, we combined EEG and fMRI during a remember/know recognition task. We can show that recollection-specific theta-alpha (4-13 Hz) effects are correlated with increases in hippocampal connectivity with the PFC and, importantly, the striatum, areas that have been linked repeatedly to retrieval success. Together, our results provide compelling evidence that low-frequency oscillations in the theta and alpha range provide a mechanism to functionally bind the hippocampus, PFC, and striatum during successful recollection. Low-frequency oscillations are supposed to drive the binding of information across a large-scale network centered on the hippocampus, which supports mnemonic functions. The electrophysiological means to investigate this phenomenon in humans (EEG/MEG), however, are inherently limited by their spatial resolution and therefore do not allow a precise localization of the brain regions involved. By combining EEG with BOLD-derived estimates of hippocampal connectivity during recognition, we can identify the striatum and specific areas in the medial and lateral PFC as part of a circuit linked to low-frequency oscillations (4-13 Hz) that promotes hippocampus-dependent context retrieval. Therefore, the current study closes an apparent gap in our understanding of the network dynamics of memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363579-09$15.00/0.

  14. Resting-state EEG theta activity and risk learning: sensitivity to reward or punishment?

    PubMed

    Massar, Stijn A A; Kenemans, J Leon; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-03-01

    Increased theta (4-7 Hz)-beta (13-30 Hz) power ratio in resting state electroencephalography (EEG) has been associated with risky disadvantageous decision making and with impaired reinforcement learning. However, the specific contributions of theta and beta power in risky decision making remain unclear. The first aim of the present study was to replicate the earlier found relationship and examine the specific contributions of theta and beta power in risky decision making using the Iowa Gambling Task. The second aim of the study was to examine whether the relation were associated with differences in reward or punishment sensitivity. We replicated the earlier found relationship by showing a positive association between theta/beta ratio and risky decision making. This correlation was mainly driven by theta oscillations. Furthermore, theta power correlated with reward motivated learning, but not with punishment learning. The present results replicate and extend earlier findings by providing novel insights into the relation between thetabeta ratios and risky decision making. Specifically, findings show that resting-state theta activity is correlated with reinforcement learning, and that this association may be explained by differences in reward sensitivity.

  15. EEG synchronization characteristics of functional connectivity and complex network properties of memory maintenance in the delta and theta frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; Pósfai, Márton; Gaál, Zsófia Anna; Kónya, Anikó; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Molnár, Márk

    2012-03-01

    Task-dependent changes of nonlinear-linear synchronization features and graph theoretical properties of the delta and theta frequencies were analyzed in the present EEG study that were related to episodic memory maintenance processes. Synchronization was found to increase with respect to both the delta and theta bands within the frontal and parietal areas and also between these regions. Results of graph theoretical analysis indicated a task-related shift towards small-world network topology in the theta band.

  16. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.

  17. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain. PMID:28266595

  18. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  19. Resting posterior versus frontal delta/theta EEG activity is associated with extraversion and the COMT VAL(158)MET polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Jan; Gatt, Justine Megan

    2010-07-05

    Recent studies suggest that resting posterior versus frontal EEG delta/theta activity (delta/theta Pz-Fz) is both sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of neural dopamine and associated with the agency facet of extraversion (i.e., a motivational disposition comprising enthusiasm, energy, assertiveness, achievement striving and social dominance). These observations suggest that posterior versus frontal resting EEG delta/theta activity may represent a useful marker for investigating the molecular genetic basis of extraversion. The present study aimed to test the novel hypothesis of an association between delta/theta Pz-Fz and a functional polymorphism of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT VAL(158)MET) involved in dopamine catabolism. This was conducted in a large EEG data set from the Brain Resource International Database (BRID; resting EEG from N=1093 healthy individuals, 382 of which also genotyped for COMT VAL(158)MET). In summary, we (1) showed for the first time that the VAL allele is associated with increased delta/theta Pz-Fz; (2) replicated the association between extraversion and delta/theta Pz-Fz in a large, heterogeneous sample including both genders; and (3) documented that the VAL allele of the COMT VAL(158)MET is associated with increased extraversion scores, as previously reported for an overlapping BRID sample. This coherent pattern of findings adds further support to the suggestion that the posterior-anterior distribution of resting EEG slow wave activity in the delta/theta range represents a useful tool for probing the dopaminergic basis of extraversion.

  20. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clozapine augments delta, theta, and right frontal EEG alpha power in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Maccrimmon, D; Brunet, D; Criollo, M; Galin, H; Lawson, J S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4-3.6 Hz), theta (4.2-7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2-11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2-15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2-19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2-23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias.

  2. Clozapine Augments Delta, Theta, and Right Frontal EEG Alpha Power in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacCrimmon, D.; Brunet, D.; Criollo, M.; Galin, H.; Lawson, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4–3.6 Hz), theta (4.2–7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2–11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2–15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2–19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2–23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias. PMID:23738206

  3. Trial-by-trial coupling between EEG and BOLD identifies networks related to alpha and theta EEG power increases during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Scheeringa, René; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Oostenveld, Robert; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter; Bastiaansen, Marcel C M

    2009-02-01

    PET and fMRI experiments have previously shown that several brain regions in the frontal and parietal lobe are involved in working memory maintenance. MEG and EEG experiments have shown parametric increases with load for oscillatory activity in posterior alpha and frontal theta power. In the current study we investigated whether the areas found with fMRI can be associated with these alpha and theta effects by measuring simultaneous EEG and fMRI during a modified Sternberg task This allowed us to correlate EEG at the single trial level with the fMRI BOLD signal by forming a regressor based on single trial alpha and theta power estimates. We observed a right posterior, parametric alpha power increase, which was functionally related to decreases in BOLD in the primary visual cortex and in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus. We relate this finding to the inhibition of neuronal activity that may interfere with WM maintenance. An observed parametric increase in frontal theta power was correlated to a decrease in BOLD in regions that together form the default mode network. We did not observe correlations between oscillatory EEG phenomena and BOLD in the traditional WM areas. In conclusion, the study shows that simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings can be successfully used to identify the emergence of functional networks in the brain during the execution of a cognitive task.

  4. EEG theta and Mu oscillations during perception of human and robot actions

    PubMed Central

    Urgen, Burcu A.; Plank, Markus; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Poizner, Howard; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of others’ actions supports important skills such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in the human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans, and as such, can be used in experiments to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG as participants viewed actions performed by three agents. In the Human condition, the agent had biological appearance and motion. The other two conditions featured a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical appearance and motion. We explored whether sensorimotor mu (8–13 Hz) and frontal theta (4–8 Hz) activity exhibited selectivity for biological entities, in particular for whether the visual appearance and/or the motion of the observed agent was biological. Sensorimotor mu suppression has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and the human mirror neuron system, MNS), and frontal theta to semantic and memory-related aspects. For all three agents, action observation induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations, with no difference between agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of MNS activity, does not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience such as this one can allow us to explore neural basis of action processing on the one hand, and inform the design of social robots on the other. PMID

  5. EEG theta and Mu oscillations during perception of human and robot actions.

    PubMed

    Urgen, Burcu A; Plank, Markus; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Poizner, Howard; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-01-01

    The perception of others' actions supports important skills such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in the human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans, and as such, can be used in experiments to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG as participants viewed actions performed by three agents. In the Human condition, the agent had biological appearance and motion. The other two conditions featured a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical appearance and motion. We explored whether sensorimotor mu (8-13 Hz) and frontal theta (4-8 Hz) activity exhibited selectivity for biological entities, in particular for whether the visual appearance and/or the motion of the observed agent was biological. Sensorimotor mu suppression has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and the human mirror neuron system, MNS), and frontal theta to semantic and memory-related aspects. For all three agents, action observation induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations, with no difference between agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of MNS activity, does not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience such as this one can allow us to explore neural basis of action processing on the one hand, and inform the design of social robots on the other.

  6. Adolescent Changes in Homeostatic Regulation of EEG Activity in the Delta and Theta Frequency Bands during NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian G.; Darchia, Nato; Higgins, Lisa M.; Dykan, Igor V.; Davis, Nicole M.; de Bie, Evan; Feinberg, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave EEG activity in NREM sleep decreases by more than 60% between ages 10 and 20 years. Slow wave EEG activity also declines across NREM periods (NREMPs) within a night, and this decline is thought to represent the dynamics of sleep homeostasis. We used longitudinal data to determine whether these homeostatic dynamics change across adolescence. Design: All-night sleep EEG was recorded semiannually for 6 years. Setting: EEG was recorded with ambulatory recorders in the subjects' homes. Participants: Sixty-seven subjects in 2 cohorts, one starting at age 9 and one starting at age 12 years. Measurements and Results: For NREM delta (1-4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) EEG, we tested whether the proportion of spectral energy contained in the first NREMP changes with age. We also tested for age changes in the parameters of the process S exponential decline. For both delta and theta, the proportion of energy in the first NREMP declined significantly across ages 9 to 18 years. Process S parameters SWA0 and TWA0, respectively, represent slow wave (delta) activity and theta wave activity at the beginning of the night. SWA0 and TWA0 declined significantly (P < 0.0001) across ages 9 to 18. Conclusions: These declines indicate that the intensity of the homeostatic or restorative processes at the beginning of sleep diminished across adolescence. We propose that this change in sleep regulation is caused by the synaptic pruning that occurs during adolescent brain maturation. Citation: Campbell IG; Darchia N; Higgins LM; Dykan IV; Davis NM; de Bie E; Feinberg I. Adolescent changes in homeostatic regulation of EEG activity in the delta and theta frequency bands during NREM sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(1):83-91. PMID:21203377

  7. Mathematical cognitive style and arithmetic sign comprehension: a study of EEG alpha and theta activity.

    PubMed

    Earle, J B; Garcia-Dergay, P; Manniello, A; Dowd, C

    1996-01-01

    The localization of arithmetic sign comprehension was investigated using EEG spectral parameters as indicators of cortical engagement. Right-handed male subjects were selected on the basis of scores on the Mathematics Cognitive Style Survey and assigned to 2 groups, a 'left hemisphere oriented (LHO)' (N = 9) and 'right hemisphere oriented (RHO)' (N = 9) group. Subjects were presented with 4 conditions, a motoric baseline condition, two arithmetic fact retrieval tasks employing either a sign operator or verbal operator and a sign comprehension task which required subjects to fill in a missing sign (e.g. 6 ? 4 = 24). Both across subject correlational analysis of EEG alpha 1 asymmetry and performance as well as within subject analysis of condition means indicated a somewhat unique contribution of the right hemisphere to sign comprehension. LHO subjects exhibited greater relative left mid-temporal lobe activation than RHO subjects but less relative left frontal activation (theta band) than RHO subjects during the verbal operator task. It was tentatively concluded that this frontal lobe asymmetry difference was due to a mismatch in strategy preference and coding requirements among RHO subjects.

  8. Indication of increased phase coupling between theta and gamma EEG rhythms associated with the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukos, Elias; Angelopoulos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2013-02-08

    Electroencephalographic oscillations, with different spectral contents, recorded in various brain sites are assumed to play an important role in the information processes underlying cognition as well as the abnormal brain functioning observed in nosological entities that affect neuronal connectivity such as schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the interaction of EEG rhythms during the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). For this purpose we analyzed data obtained from patients suffering from persistent AVHs, focusing on the mode that the phase of theta oscillations modulate the amplitude of the broad gamma EEG oscillations. Our results indicate increased phase coupling between theta and gamma rhythms observed in the left frontotemporal cortices during AVHs, under eyes closed condition. The average differences of theta-gamma coupling between hallucinatory and resting stages in the left temporal area were found to be statistically significant. These results suggest that a theta-gamma interaction may be involved in the production and experience of AVHs in patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  9. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: gender variations in phasic modulation of frontal eeg theta activity during a go/ no-go task

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frontal EEG theta activity has been related to executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action). We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on frontal theta-executive function relationships using stimulus-locked responses [event-related increa...

  10. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  11. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  12. Demonstration of short-term plasticity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with theta burst stimulation: A TMS-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Wook; Lewis, Benjamin P; Rogasch, Nigel C; Saeki, Takashi; Thomson, Richard H; Hoy, Kate E; Bailey, Neil W; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-07-01

    To examine the effects of intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) on cortical reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. 10 healthy participants were stimulated with either iTBS, cTBS or sham at F3 electrode. Single- and paired-pulse TMS and concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) were used to assess change in cortical reactivity and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) via TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and TMS-evoked oscillations. Significant increases in N120 amplitudes (p<0.01) were observed following iTBS over prefrontal cortex. Changes in TMS-evoked theta oscillations and LICI of theta oscillations were also observed following iTBS (increase) and cTBS (decrease). Change in LICI of theta oscillations correlated with change in N120 amplitude following TBS (r=-0.670, p=0.001). This study provides preliminary evidence that TBS produces direct changes in cortical reactivity in the prefrontal cortex. Combining TBS with TMS-EEG may be a useful approach to optimise stimulation paradigms prior to the conduct of clinical trials. TBS is able to modulate cortical reactivity and cortical inhibition in the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Auto power and coherence analysis of delta-theta band EEG during the waking-sleeping transition period.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, T; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of delta and theta band EEGs during the waking-sleeping transition period, auto power and coherence analyses of scalp EEGs were carried out on 12 male subjects. The 7 auto power and 21 coherence values obtained from the 7 areas were studied every 20 s from 5 min before stage 1 onset to 24 min after stage 1 onset. The consecutive samples of spectra were computed for two frequency bands (delta: 2.5-3.5 Hz; theta: 4.0-7.5 Hz). Auto power started to increase after stage 1 onset and terminated 8.4 min after stage 2 onset. Topograms of each band power changed with progression towards deep sleep from the flat or relatively low voltage pattern without any focus to the frontopolar-parietal pattern or the fronto-parietal dominant pattern. Principal component analysis of the coherence values revealed generalized and localized components in each band. The generalized component was distributed across scalp areas, while the localized component was distributed in frontopolar-frontal areas. The generalized component decreased to the plateau level of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 5.4 min after stage 2 onset. The localized component started to increase after stage 1 onset and reached the plateau level of NREM sleep 2.4 min after stage 2 onset. These results indicate that the delta-theta band EEG structures of the waking-sleeping transition period may not be uniform across the scalp areas and the hypnagogic period may start after stage 1 onset and continue for 8.4 min after stage 2 onset.

  14. EEG theta power and coherence to octave illusion in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Yu, Shaohua; Xu, You; Chen, Wanzhen; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanism behind auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia remains unknown. A corollary discharge dysfunction hypothesis has been put forward, but it requires further confirmation. Electroencephalography (EEG) of the Deutsch octave illusion might offer more insight, by demonstrating an abnormal cerebral activation similar to that under auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. We invited 23 first-episode schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations and 23 healthy participants to listen to silence and two sound sequences, which consisted of alternating 400- and 800-Hz tones. EEG spectral power and coherence values of different frequency bands, including theta rhythm (3.5-7.5 Hz), were computed using 32 scalp electrodes. Task-related spectral power changes and task-related coherence differences were also calculated. Clinical characteristics of patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. After both sequences of octave illusion, the task-related theta power change values of frontal and temporal areas were significantly lower, and the task-related theta coherence difference values of intrahemispheric frontal-temporal areas were significantly higher in schizophrenic patients than in healthy participants. Moreover, the task-related power change values in both hemispheres were negatively correlated and the task-related coherence difference values in the right hemisphere were positively correlated with the hallucination score in schizophrenic patients. We only tested the Deutsch octave illusion in primary schizophrenic patients with acute first episode. Further studies might adopt other illusions or employ other forms of schizophrenia. Our results showed a lower activation but higher connection within frontal and temporal areas in schizophrenic patients under octave illusion. This suggests an oversynchronized but weak frontal area to exert an action to the ipsilateral temporal area, which supports the corollary discharge

  15. Resting EEG theta activity predicts cognitive performance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Soei, Eleonore X C; Clarke, Simon D; Kohn, Michael R; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalography has contributed significantly to elucidating the neurobiologic mechanisms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The most consistent and robust electroencephalographic disturbance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been abnormally increased theta band during resting conditions. Separate research using attention-demanding tests has elucidated cognitive disturbances that differentiate attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study attempts to integrate electroencephalographic and neuropsychological indices to determine whether cognitive performance is specifically related to increased theta. Theta activity was recorded during a resting condition for 46 children/adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their sex- and age-matched control subjects. Accuracy and reaction time during an auditory oddball and a visual continuous performance test were then recorded. Compared with control subjects, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group manifested significantly increased (primarily left) frontal theta. Furthermore, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group scored significantly delayed reaction time and decreased accuracy in both tasks. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between frontal (primarily left) theta and oddball accuracy for the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group compared with a significant relationship between posterior (primarily right) theta and reaction time in the continuous performance test for the control group. These results indicate that spatial neurophysiologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may be related to disturbances in signal detection. This observation has important implications for the role of trait-like biologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder predicting performance in information processing.

  16. Paradoxical dopaminergic drug effects in extraversion: dose- and time-dependent effects of sulpiride on EEG theta activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs frequently produce paradoxical effects depending on baseline performance levels, genotype, or personality traits. The present study for the first time aimed to specify the mechanisms underlying such opposite effects using the following recently reported scenario as an example: depending on the personality trait agentic extraversion (agentic facet, aE; i.e., assertiveness, dominance, ambition, positive emotionality) the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (200 mg) had opposite effects on resting posterior vs. anterior theta activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In order to better describe these opposite pharmaco-EEG effects and to generate hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms, we measured the EEG intermittently over 5 h in 80 healthy male volunteers extremely high or low in aE who had received either placebo or one of three doses of sulpiride (50, 200, or 400 mg). The findings suggest a model postulating stronger pre- vs. postsynaptic subreceptor effects in high aE individuals compared to low aE individuals. Future studies may now systematically apply the model to other examples of paradoxical dopaminergic drug effects and examine the molecular basis of individual differences in pre- vs. postsynaptic dopamine D2 subreceptor sensitivities and densities. PMID:23580360

  17. Positive Emotional Experience: Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation Using a Body Monochord in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders: Is Associated with an Increase in EEG-Theta and a Decrease in EEG-Alpha Power.

    PubMed

    Sandler, H; Tamm, S; Fendel, U; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Bösel, R

    2016-07-01

    Relaxation and meditation techniques are generally characterized by focusing attention, which is associated with an increase of frontal EEG Theta. Some studies on music perception suggest an activation of Frontal Midline Theta during emotionally positive attribution, others display a lateralization of electrocortical processes in the attribution of music induced emotion of different valence. The present study examined the effects of vibroacoustic stimulation using a Body Monochord and the conventional relaxation music from an audio CD on the spontaneous EEG of patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders (N = 60). Each treatment took about 20 min and was presented to the patients in random order. Subjective experience was recorded via self-rating scale. EEG power spectra of the Theta, Alpha-1 and Alpha-2 bands were analysed and compard between the two treatment conditions. There was no lateralization of electrocortical activity in terms of the emotional experience of the musical pieces. A reduction in Alpha-2 power occurred during both treatments. An emotionally positive attribution of the experience of the vibroacoustically induced relaxation state is characterized by a more pronounced release of control. In the context of focused attention this is interpreted as flow experience. The spontaneous EEG showed an increase in Theta power, particularly in the frontal medial and central medial area, and a greater reduction in Alpha-2 power. The intensity of positive emotional feelings during the CD music showed no significant effect on the increase in Theta power.

  18. Fluctuating Inhibitory Inputs Promote Reliable Spiking at Theta Frequencies in Hippocampal Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Duluxan; Skinner, Frances K.

    2012-01-01

    Theta-frequency (4–12 Hz) rhythms in the hippocampus play important roles in learning and memory. CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum junction (LM/RAD) are thought to contribute to hippocampal theta population activities by rhythmically pacing pyramidal cells with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. This implies that LM/RAD cells need to fire reliably at theta frequencies in vivo. To determine whether this could occur, we use biophysically based LM/RAD model cells and apply different cholinergic and synaptic inputs to simulate in vivo-like network environments. We assess spike reliabilities and spiking frequencies, identifying biophysical properties and network conditions that best promote reliable theta spiking. We find that synaptic background activities that feature large inhibitory, but not excitatory, fluctuations are essential. This suggests that strong inhibitory input to these cells is vital for them to be able to contribute to population theta activities. Furthermore, we find that Type I-like oscillator models produced by augmented persistent sodium currents (INaP) or diminished A-type potassium currents (IA) enhance reliable spiking at lower theta frequencies. These Type I-like models are also the most responsive to large inhibitory fluctuations and can fire more reliably under such conditions. In previous work, we showed that INaP and IA are largely responsible for establishing LM/RAD cells’ subthreshold activities. Taken together with this study, we see that while both these currents are important for subthreshold theta fluctuations and reliable theta spiking, they contribute in different ways – INaP to reliable theta spiking and subthreshold activity generation, and IA to subthreshold activities at theta frequencies. This suggests that linking subthreshold and suprathreshold activities should be done with consideration of both in vivo contexts and biophysical specifics. PMID:22654751

  19. Interhemispheric Asymmetries and Theta Activity in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex as EEG Signature of HIV-Related Depression: Gender Matters.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Lutz, Franz P C; McIntosh, Roger C; Dévieux, Jessy G; Ironson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Resting EEGs of 40 people living with HIV (PLWH) on long-term antiretroviral treatment were examined for z-scored deviations from a healthy control (normative database) to examine the main and interaction effects of depression and gender. Regions of interest were frontal (alpha) and central (all bands) for interhemispheric asymmetries in quantitative EEGs and theta in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Z-scored normed deviations of depressed PLWH, compared with nondepressed, showed right-dominant interhemispheric asymmetries in all regions. However, after adjusting for multiple testing, significance remained only central for theta, alpha, and beta. Reversed (left-dominant) frontal alpha asymmetry is a potential EEG marker of depression in the HIV negative population that was not reversed in depressive PLWH; however, corresponding with extant literature, gender had an effect on the size of frontal alpha asymmetry. The LORETA analysis revealed a trending interactional effect of depression and gender on theta activity in the rACC in Brodmann area 32. We found that compared to men, women had greater right-dominant frontal alpha-asymmetry and elevated theta activity in voxels of the rACC, which may indicate less likelihood of depression and a higher likelihood of response to antidepressants. In conclusion, subtle EEG deviations, such as right-dominant central theta, alpha, and beta asymmetries and theta activity in the rACC may mark HIV-related depressive symptoms and may predict the likelihood of response to antidepressants but gender effects need to be taken into account. Although this study introduced the use of LORETA to examine the neurophysiological correlates of negative affect in PLWH, further research is needed to assess the utility of this tool in diagnostics and treatment monitoring of depression in PLWH.

  20. A distinctive subpopulation of medial septal slow-firing neurons promote hippocampal activation and theta oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2011-01-01

    The medial septum-vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSvDB) is important for normal hippocampal functions and theta oscillations. Although many previous studies have focused on understanding how MSVDB neurons fire rhythmic bursts to pace hippocampal theta oscillations, a significant portion of MSVDB neurons are slow-firing and thus do not pace theta oscillations. The function of these MSVDB neurons, especially their role in modulating hippocampal activity, remains unknown. We recorded MSVDB neuronal ensembles in behaving rats, and identified a distinct physiologically homogeneous subpopulation of slow-firing neurons (overall firing <4 Hz) that shared three features: 1) much higher firing rate during rapid eye movement sleep than during slow-wave (SW) sleep; 2) temporary activation associated with transient arousals during SW sleep; 3) brief responses (latency 15∼30 ms) to auditory stimuli. Analysis of the fine temporal relationship of their spiking and theta oscillations showed that unlike the theta-pacing neurons, the firing of these “pro-arousal” neurons follows theta oscillations. However, their activity precedes short-term increases in hippocampal oscillation power in the theta and gamma range lasting for a few seconds. Together, these results suggest that these pro-arousal slow-firing MSvDB neurons may function collectively to promote hippocampal activation. PMID:21865435

  1. Frontal EEG theta/beta ratio as an electrophysiological marker for attentional control and its test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Angelos; van der Does, Willem; Schakel, Lemmy; Putman, Peter

    2016-12-01

    A robust finding is that resting-state frontal theta/beta ratio (TBR), a spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency band parameter, is increased in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that TBR might also provide an objective marker of executive cognitive control (and more specifically attentional control; AC) in healthy adults. The present study aimed to further investigate this conception by assessing EEG frequency band power and AC twice (with a one-week interval) in 41 young female adults. In line with our predictions, the negative association between TBR and trait AC, as measured with an often used self-report measure, was replicated. Results also demonstrated that test-retest reliability of resting-state frontal TBR was very good (r=.93) and, moreover, TBR measured at the first session predicted AC during the second session (r=-.44). These consistent results further reinforce the notion that frontal TBR could be used as a reliable biomarker for prefrontally-mediated executive AC.

  2. The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, Marieke M; Arns, Martijn; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Spronk, Desirée; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition. The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies. Future research should elucidate the functional role of resting-state brain oscillations by investigating neurophysiological subgroups, which may have a clearer relation to cognitive functions than single frequency bands.

  3. Use of EEG Beta-1 Power and Theta/Beta Ratio Over Broca's Area to confirm Diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    PubMed

    Sangal, R Bart; Sangal, JoAnne M

    2015-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a medical device using the electroencephalogram (EEG) theta/beta ratio (tbr) to help assess pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Tbr is reported to be higher in ADHD, with increased theta and decreased beta. This study examined theta and beta-1 power differences between ADHD and normal children, during tasks of selective attention, and elucidated topographical differences. EEGs were collected from 28 normal and 58 ADHD children, aged 6 to 14 years, using 31 scalp electrodes during auditory and visual tasks requiring selective attention. Spectral analysis was performed. Tbr was higher in ADHD than in normal children (2.60 vs 2.25, P = .007), with lower beta-1 (3.66 vs 4.22, P = .01), but no difference in theta power. There was lower beta-1 (P < .001) and higher tbr (P = .002) over Broca's area (electrode locations F7 and FC5). Beta-1 power over Broca's area was the best diagnostic test, with sensitivity 0.86 and specificity 0.57. Tbr is higher and beta-1 power lower in ADHD than in normal children, especially over Broca's area. Beta-1 power and tbr assist in confirming the diagnosis of ADHD in a sample with moderate pretest probability of ADHD. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  4. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  5. EEG theta/beta ratio as a potential biomarker for attentional control and resilience against deleterious effects of stress on attention.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Verkuil, Bart; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Anxious stress compromises cognitive executive performance. This occurs, for instance, in cognitive performance anxiety (CPA), in which anxiety about one's cognitive performance causes that performance to actually deteriorate (e.g., test anxiety). This is thought to result from a prefrontal cortically (PFC) mediated failure of top-down attentional control over stress-induced automatic processing of threat-related information. In addition, stress-induced increased catecholamine influx into the PFC may directly compromise attentional function. Previous research has suggested that the ratio between resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) low- and high-frequency power (the theta/beta ratio) is related to trait attentional control, which might moderate these effects of stress on attentional function. The goals of the present study were to test the novel prediction that theta/beta ratio moderates the deleterious effects of CPA-like anxious stress on state attentional control and to replicate a previous finding that the theta/beta ratio is related to self-reported trait attentional control. After recording of baseline frontal EEG signals, 77 participants performed a stress induction or a control procedure. Trait attentional control was assessed with the Attentional Control Scale, whereas stress-induced changes in attentional control and anxiety were measured with self-report visual analogue scales. The hypothesized moderating influence of theta/beta ratio on the effects of stress on state attentional control was confirmed. Theta/beta ratio explained 28% of the variance in stress-induced deterioration of self-reported attentional control. The negative relationship between theta/beta ratio and trait attentional control was replicated (r = -.33). The theta/beta ratio reflects, likely prefrontally mediated, attentional control, and should be a useful biomarker for the study of CPA and other anxiety-cognition interactions.

  6. Brain oscillations and human memory: EEG correlates in the upper alpha and theta band.

    PubMed

    Klimesch, W; Doppelmayr, M; Pachinger, T; Ripper, B

    1997-11-28

    The EEG was recorded while subjects judged whether sequentially presented feature-concept pairs are semantically congruent. Later and without prior warning they had to perform a semantic and episodic memory task. The results show that the upper alpha band is most sensitive to the encoding and processing of semantic information. It is only the upper alpha band that distinguishes between good and bad semantic memory performers and that shows significant correlations with semantic memory performance during that time period, semantic processing actually takes place. Even when the influence of episodic memory was removed by partial correlations, a reliable association between upper alpha desynchronization and semantic memory was observed.

  7. Quantitative EEG in Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Comparison of Absolute and Relative Power Spectra and Theta/Beta Ratio.

    PubMed

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) measures have been widely used to document underlying neurophysiological dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although most EEG studies focus on children, there is a growing interest in adults with ADHD too. The aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the absolute and relative EEG power as well as the theta/beta ratio in children and adults with ADHD. The evaluated sample comprised 30 male children and 30 male adults with ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. They were compared with 30 boys and 30 male adults matched by age. The mean age (±SD) of the children's group was 9 (±2.44) years and the adult group 35.8 (±8.65) years. EEG was recorded during an eyes-open condition. Spectral analysis of absolute (μV(2)) and relative power (%) was carried out for 4 frequency bands: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-21 Hz). The findings obtained for ADHD children are increased absolute power of slow waves (theta and delta), whereas adults exhibited no differences compared with normal subjects. For the relative power spectra there were no differences between the ADHD and control groups. Across groups, the children showed greater relative power than the adults in the delta and theta bands, but for the higher frequency bands (alpha and beta) the adults showed more relative power than children. Only ADHD children showed greater theta/beta ratio compared to the normal group. Classification analysis showed that ADHD children could be differentiated from the control group by the absolute theta values and theta/beta ratio at Cz, but this was not the case with ADHD adults. The question that should be further explored is if these differences are mainly due to maturation processes or if there is a core difference in cortical arousal between ADHD children and adults.

  8. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  9. Increased Prevalence of Intermittent Rhythmic Delta or Theta Activity (IRDA/IRTA) in the Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Fleck, Max; Bartels, Susanne; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Perlov, Evgeniy; Endres, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An increased prevalence of pathological electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In an elaborative case description of such a patient with intermittent rhythmic delta and theta activity (IRDA/IRTA), the BPD symptoms where linked to the frequency of the IRDAs/IRTAs and vanished with the IRDAs/IRTAs following anticonvulsive therapy. This observation raised a question regarding the prevalence of such EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of EEG abnormalities in a carefully analyzed psychiatric collective. Following earlier reports, we hypothesized an increased prevalence of EEG abnormalities in BPD patients. Participants and Methods: We recruited 96 consecutive patients with BPD from the archive of a university clinic for psychiatry and psychotherapy, and compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities to those of 76 healthy controls subjects. The EEGs were rated by three different blinded clinicians, including a consultant specializing in epilepsy from the local epilepsy center. Results: We found a significant increase in the prevalence of IRDAs and IRTAs in BPD patients (14.6%) compared to the control subjects (3.9%; p = 0.020). Discussion: In this blinded retrospective case-control study, we were able to confirm an increased prevalence of pathological EEG findings (IRDAs/IRTAs only) in BPD patients. The major limitation of this study is that the control group was not matched on age and gender. Therefore, the results should be regarded as preliminary findings of an open uncontrolled, retrospective study. Future research performing prospective, controlled studies is needed to verify our findings and answer the question of whether such EEG findings might predict a positive response to anticonvulsive pharmacological treatment. PMID:26941624

  10. Successful memory encoding is associated with increased cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta and posterior gamma oscillations in human scalp-recorded EEG.

    PubMed

    Friese, Uwe; Köster, Moritz; Hassler, Uwe; Martens, Ulla; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Gruber, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Although previous studies have established that successful memory encoding is associated with increased synchronization of theta-band and gamma-band oscillations, it is unclear if there is a functional relationship between oscillations in these frequency bands. Using scalp-recorded EEG in healthy human participants, we demonstrate that cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta phase and posterior gamma power is enhanced during the encoding of visual stimuli which participants later on remember versus items which participants subsequently forget ("subsequent memory effect," SME). Conventional wavelet analyses and source localizations revealed SMEs in spectral power of theta-, alpha-, and gamma-band. Successful compared to unsuccessful encoding was reflected in increased theta-band activity in right frontal cortex as well as increased gamma-band activity in parietal-occipital regions. Moreover, decreased alpha-band activity in prefrontal and occipital cortex was also related to successful encoding. Overall, these findings support the idea that during the formation of new memories frontal cortex regions interact with cortical representations in posterior areas.

  11. Hemifield-dependent N1 and event-related theta/delta oscillations: An unbiased comparison of surface Laplacian and common EEG reference choices

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface Laplacian methodology has been used to reduce the impact of volume conduction and arbitrary choice of EEG recording reference for the analysis of surface potentials. However, the empirical implications of employing these different transformations to the same EEG data remain obscure. This study directly compared the statistical effects of four commonly-used (nose, linked mastoids, average) or recommended (reference electrode standardization technique [REST]) references and their spherical spline current source density (CSD) transformation for a large data set stemming from a well-understood experimental manipulation. ERPs (72 sites) recorded from 130 individuals during a visual half-field paradigm with highly-controlled emotional stimuli were characterized by mid-parietooccipital N1 (125 ms peak latency) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of theta/delta (160 ms), which were most robust over the contralateral hemisphere. All five data transformations were rescaled to the same covariance and submitted to a single temporal or time-frequency PCA (Varimax) to yield simplified estimates of N1 or theta/delta ERS. Unbiased nonparametric permutation tests revealed that these hemifield-dependent asymmetries were by far most focal and prominent for CSD data, despite all transformations showing maximum effects at mid-parietooccipital sites. Employing smaller subsamples (signal-to-noise) or window-based ERP/ERS amplitudes did not affect these comparisons. Furthermore, correlations between N1 and theta/delta ERS at these sites were strongest for CSD and weakest for nose-referenced data. Contrary to the common notion that the spatial high pass filter properties of a surface Laplacian reduce important contributions of neuronal generators to the EEG signal, the present findings demonstrate that instead volume conduction inherent in surface potentials weakens the representation of neuronal activation patterns at scalp that directly reflect regional brain activity. PMID

  12. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  13. EEG patterns in theta and gamma frequency range and their probable relation to human voluntary movement organization.

    PubMed

    Popivanov, D; Mineva, A; Krekule, I

    1999-05-21

    In experiments with EEG accompanying continuous slow goal-directed voluntary movements we found abrupt short-term transients (STs) of the coefficients of EEG time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) model. The onset of STs indicated (i) a positive EEG wave related to an increase of 3-7 Hz oscillations in time period before the movement start, (ii) synchronization of 35-40 Hz prior to movement start and during the movement when the target is nearly reached. Both these phenomena are expressed predominantly over supplementary motor area, premotor and parietal cortices. These patterns were detected after averaging of EEG segments synchronized to the abrupt changes of the TVAR coefficients computed in the time course of EEG single records. The results are discussed regarding the cognitive aspect of organization of goal-directed movements.

  14. Intermittent Theta Slowings in Contralateral Side of Weakness after Sleep Deprivation on Spot EEG in Sporadic Hemiplegic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan-Hyuk; Seo, Man-Wook; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Yang, Tae-Ho; Shin, Hyun-June; Ryu, Han Uk

    2016-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is an uncommon type of migraine which is classified into sporadic and familial subtype. The noticed electroencephalogram (EEG) findings during HM attack are diffuse slowing contralateral to the weakened limb, but are usually normal in asymptomatic states. A 52-year-old woman who suffered from headache accompanying right arm weakness and aphasic symptoms admitted to our hospital. She underwent total five times of EEG including 2 times before admission. Only the last EEG exam after 24 hours of sleep deprivation (SD) showed intermittent slowing and higher amplitude of positive occipital sharp transients (POSTs) on the left parieto-occipital area. Here, we report a case with HM who revealed abnormal EEG findings after SD, which was not observed in the routine EEG study without SD. PMID:28101483

  15. Theta and high-beta networks for feedback processing: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Andreou, C; Frielinghaus, H; Rauh, J; Mußmann, M; Vauth, S; Braun, P; Leicht, G; Mulert, C

    2017-01-31

    The reward system is important in assessing outcomes to guide behavior. To achieve these purposes, its core components interact with several brain areas involved in cognitive and emotional processing. A key mechanism suggested to subserve these interactions is oscillatory activity, with a prominent role of theta and high-beta oscillations. The present study used single-trial coupling of simultaneously recorded electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate networks associated with oscillatory responses to feedback during a two-choice gambling task in healthy male participants (n=19). Differential associations of theta and high-beta oscillations with non-overlapping brain networks were observed: Increase of high-beta power in response to positive feedback was associated with activations in a largely subcortical network encompassing core areas of the reward network. In contrast, theta-band power increase upon loss was associated with activations in a frontoparietal network that included the anterior cingulate cortex. Trait impulsivity correlated significantly with activations in areas of the theta-associated network. Our results suggest that positive and negative feedback is processed by separate brain networks associated with different cognitive functions. Communication within these networks is mediated by oscillations of different frequency, possibly reflecting different modes of dopaminergic signaling.

  16. Background rhythm frequency and theta power of quantitative EEG analysis: predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment post-cerebral infarcts.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zang, Da-Wei; Jin, Yan-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Hong-Yan; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Ji, Dong-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In clinical settings, cerebral infarct is a common disease of older adults, which usually increases the risk of cognitive impairment. This study aims to assess the quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a predictive biomarker for the development of cognitive impairment, post-cerebral infarcts, in subjects from the Department of Neurology. They underwent biennial EEG recording. Cerebral infarct subjects, with follow-up cognitive evaluation, were analyzed for qEEG measures of background rhythm frequency (BRF) and relative δ, θ, α, and β band power. The relationship between cognitive impairment and qEEG, and other possible predictors, was assessed by Cox regression. The results showed that the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment was 14 times higher for those with low BRF than for those with high BRF (P < .001). Hazard ratio (HR) was also significant for more than median θ band power (HR = 5, P = .002) compared with less than median θ band power. The HRs for δ, α, and β bands were equal to the baseline demographic, and clinical characteristics were not significantly different. In conclusion, qEEG measures of BRF, and relative power in θ band, are potential predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. These biomarkers might be valuable in early prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts.

  17. [The theta rhythm of the infant EEG and the development of the mechanisms of voluntary control of attention in the 2nd half of the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-01-01

    The neurophysiological basis of attention control was studied in infants at the second half-year of life, i.e. in the period when the capability for voluntary control over behavior fundamentally improves. EEG was recorded in 60 infants aed 8-11 months in three experimental conditions: 1) attention to an object in the visual field (externally controlled attention, or the baseline state), 2) anticipation of a person in the peek-a-boo game (internally controlled attention), 3) attention to the reappeared person in the peek-a-boo game (control condition). The spectral analysis of the EEG data revealed a sharp increase in the EEG theta (3.6-6.0 Hz) during internally controlled attention as compared to the baseline and control conditions. The theta1 (3.6-4.8 Hz) increase was maximal in the frontal derivations. The reactivity of the frontal theta1 during internally controlled attention discriminated infants with different abilities to maintain this type of attention. The reactivity of the theta2 (5.2-6.0 Hz) was maximal in the right temporal derivation (T6) and did not depend on stability of the anticipatory attention. The findings point to different functional significance of the theta1 and theta2 rhythms in infants. It is suggested that synchronization of the frontal theta1 rhythm in infants reflects the activity of the anterior attention system which realizes the executive attention control. The ability to maintain anticipatory attention increased with age, whereas the frontal theta1 synchronization decreased and totally disappeared at the age of 11 months. At the age of 8 months there was a positive correlation between the frontal theta1 synchronization and behavioral index of stability of the internally controlled attention. On the contrary, this correlation was negative at the age of 9 and 10 months. It is suggested that the age-dependent dynamics of the relationship between the frontal theta1 reactivity and attention reflects a leap in maturation of the anterior

  18. Fronto-central theta oscillations are related to oscillations in saccadic response times (SRT): an EEG and behavioral data analysis.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Adele; Schomburg, Annette; van Vugt, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    The phase reset hypothesis states that the phase of an ongoing neural oscillation, reflecting periodic fluctuations in neural activity between states of high and low excitability, can be shifted by the occurrence of a sensory stimulus so that the phase value become highly constant across trials (Schroeder et al., 2008). From EEG/MEG studies it has been hypothesized that coupled oscillatory activity in primary sensory cortices regulates multi sensory processing (Senkowski et al. 2008). We follow up on a study in which evidence of phase reset was found using a purely behavioral paradigm by including also EEG measures. In this paradigm, presentation of an auditory accessory stimulus was followed by a visual target with a stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) across a range from 0 to 404 ms in steps of 4 ms. This fine-grained stimulus presentation allowed us to do a spectral analysis on the mean SRT as a function of the SOA, which revealed distinct peak spectral components within a frequency range of 6 to 11 Hz with a modus of 7 Hz. The EEG analysis showed that the auditory stimulus caused a phase reset in 7-Hz brain oscillations in a widespread set of channels. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the average phase at which the visual target stimulus appeared between slow and fast SRT trials. This effect was evident in three different analyses, and occurred primarily in frontal and central electrodes.

  19. EEG theta/beta ratio in relation to fear-modulated response-inhibition, attentional control, and affective traits.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; van Peer, Jacobien; Maimari, Ioulia; van der Werff, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Power density-ratios of fast and slow frequency spectrum-bands can be calculated from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. A well-established phenomenon is that slow wave/fast wave ratios (SW/FW) are increased in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Several researchers have also begun to study relationships between SW/FW and affect. This work suggests that increased SW/FW may reflect reduced frontal cortical control over subcortical affective approach drive. The present study (n=28) aimed to further examine this notion by testing several predictions derived from it. In line with these predictions, SW/FW was found to correlate negatively with fearful modulation of response inhibition in an emotional go/no-go task and with self-reported attentional control. Results also suggested a positive relation between SW/FW and trait approach motivation and a negative relation to anxiety, as predicted. These results are consistent with previous studies and support the notion that SW/FW may provide a useful tool in the study of affect and emotion regulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Medial septal GABAergic projection neurons promote object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Gireesh; Shin, Jonghan; Kim, Seong-Wook; Kim, Angela; Paydar, Afshin; Kim, Duk-Soo; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Kim, Jinhyun; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Daesoo; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Exploratory drive is one of the most fundamental emotions, of all organisms, that are evoked by novelty stimulation. Exploratory behavior plays a fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being of organisms. Diverse exploratory behaviors have been described, although their heterogeneity is not certain because of the lack of solid experimental evidence for their distinction. Here we present results demonstrating that different neural mechanisms underlie different exploratory behaviors. Localized Cav3.1 knockdown in the medial septum (MS) selectively enhanced object exploration, whereas the null mutant (KO) mice showed enhanced-object exploration as well as open-field exploration. In MS knockdown mice, only type 2 hippocampal theta rhythm was enhanced, whereas both type 1 and type 2 theta rhythm were enhanced in KO mice. This selective effect was accompanied by markedly increased excitability of septo-hippocampal GABAergic projection neurons in the MS lacking T-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the septo-hippocampal GABAergic pathway in WT mice also selectively enhanced object exploration behavior and type 2 theta rhythm, whereas inhibition of the same pathway decreased the behavior and the rhythm. These findings define object exploration distinguished from open-field exploration and reveal a critical role of T-type Ca2+ channels in the medial septal GABAergic projection neurons in this behavior. PMID:27208094

  1. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  2. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Graham A.; Burgess, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1–3.9 Hz), theta (4–7.9 Hz) alpha (8–12.9 Hz), beta1 (13–19.9 Hz), beta2 (20–29.9 Hz) and gamma (30–45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized “hypnotic-state.” PMID:25104928

  3. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Graham A; Burgess, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1-3.9 Hz), theta (4-7.9 Hz) alpha (8-12.9 Hz), beta1 (13-19.9 Hz), beta2 (20-29.9 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized "hypnotic-state."

  4. Comparison of Amplitude-Integrated EEG and Conventional EEG in a Cohort of Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Meledin, Irina; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Gilat, Shlomo; Yogev, Hagai; Golan, Agneta; Novack, Victor; Shany, Eilon

    2017-03-01

    To compare amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and conventional EEG (EEG) activity in premature neonates. Biweekly aEEG and EEG were simultaneously recorded in a cohort of infants born less than 34 weeks gestation. aEEG recordings were visually assessed for lower and upper border amplitude and bandwidth. EEG recordings were compressed for visual evaluation of continuity and assessed using a signal processing software for interburst intervals (IBI) and frequencies' amplitude. Ten-minute segments of aEEG and EEG indices were compared using regression analysis. A total of 189 recordings from 67 infants were made, from which 1697 aEEG/EEG pairs of 10-minute segments were assessed. Good concordance was found for visual assessment of continuity between the 2 methods. EEG IBI, alpha and theta frequencies' amplitudes were negatively correlated to the aEEG lower border while conceptional age (CA) was positively correlated to aEEG lower border ( P < .001). IBI and all frequencies' amplitude were positively correlated to the upper aEEG border ( P ≤ .001). CA was negatively correlated to aEEG span while IBI, alpha, beta, and theta frequencies' amplitude were positively correlated to the aEEG span. Important information is retained and integrated in the transformation of premature neonatal EEG to aEEG. aEEG recordings in high-risk premature neonates reflect reliably EEG background information related to continuity and amplitude.

  5. Frontal theta overrides pavlovian learning biases.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Eisenberg, Ian; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Huys, Quentin; Frank, Michael J

    2013-05-08

    Pavlovian biases influence learning and decision making by intricately coupling reward seeking with action invigoration and punishment avoidance with action suppression. This bias is not always adaptive-it can often interfere with instrumental requirements. The prefrontal cortex is thought to help resolve such conflict between motivational systems, but the nature of this control process remains unknown. EEG recordings of midfrontal theta band power are sensitive to conflict and predictive of adaptive control over behavior, but it is not clear whether this signal reflects control over conflict between motivational systems. Here we used a task that orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence while recording concurrent EEG in human participants. By applying a computational model of task performance, we derived parameters reflective of the latent influence of Pavlovian bias and how it was modulated by midfrontal theta power during motivational conflict. Between subjects, those who performed better under Pavlovian conflict exhibited higher midfrontal theta power. Within subjects, trial-to-trial variance in theta power was predictive of ability to overcome the influence of the Pavlovian bias, and this effect was most pronounced in subjects with higher midfrontal theta to conflict. These findings demonstrate that midfrontal theta is not only a sensitive index of prefrontal control, but it can also reflect the application of top-down control over instrumental processes.

  6. Interindividual Differences in Alpha and Theta Power Reflect Memory Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimesch, W.; Vogt, F.; Doppelmayr, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tested whether tonic EEG power is related to memory performance by analyzing ongoing EEG for 60 subjects in 5 experimental conditions. Subjects with good memory performance had significantly larger upper alpha power, but less theta and lower alpha power. Also discusses findings for subjects good at calculation. (SLD)

  7. Metabolite of tryptophan promoting changes in EEG signal and the oxidative status of the brain.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Rosana; Pugini, Silvana Maria Picolli; Arce, Aldo Ivan Cespedes; Costa, Ernane Jose Xavier; de Melo, Mariza Pires

    2014-08-01

    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid precursor of neurotransmitter serotonin and triptamine. During its metabolism, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is generated; this substance presents both antioxidant and prooxidant effects in different biological systems in addition to hipoglicemic effects. To date, electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to evaluate the temporal effect of several substances in neurotransmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the effect of IAA in the brain by analysing the EEG signal and evaluate the oxidative status by means of biochemical parameters. The EEG was acquired by using a noninvasive method, and the brain electric signal was analysed by advanced digital signal processing techniques to determinate the energy signal filtered in different band frequencies. Furthermore, the oxidative status of the brain was investigated by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation as well as blood glucose rates of the animals treated with different doses of IAA. Our results showed the relationship of IAA administration with changes in EEG signals. The oxidative status of the brain was modified by IAA after 14 days of treatment.

  8. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  9. Medication Effects on EEG Biomarkers in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Isiten, Havva Nuket; Cebi, Merve; Sutcubasi Kaya, Bernis; Metin, Baris; Tarhan, Nevzat

    2017-07-01

    EEG biomarkers have become increasingly used to aid in diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite several studies suggesting that EEG theta/beta ratio may help discriminating ADHD from other disorders, the effect of medications on theta/beta ratio is not known. Forty-three children with ADHD that were evaluated with quantitative EEG before and after methylphenidate were included in the study. Theta/beta ratio, theta and beta powers for whole brain, central, and frontal areas were calculated. Theta/beta power decreased significantly after treatment; however, this change was largely due to an increase in beta power, rather than a fall in theta power. The results suggest that beta power is sensitive to medication effects, while theta power remains as a trait biomarker unaffected by medication status. The value of EEG biomarkers for monitoring neuropsychological performance and clinical status should be explored by future studies.

  10. Electroencephalographic theta activity and cognition in schizophrenia: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Wichniak, Adam; Okruszek, Łukasz; Linke, Magdalena; Jarkiewicz, Michał; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Ciołkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Jernajczyk, Wojciech; Jarema, Marek

    2015-04-01

    MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is a contemporary standard for assessment of cognitive functions in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to examine the association between electroencephalographic spectral power and a wide range of cognitive functions measured with MCCB. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia (27 male, mean age 28.2 ± 5.2 years) underwent EEG recordings and were assessed with MCCB. The EEG recordings were visually inspected and manually cleaned from artifacts and subjected to spectral analysis with EEGlab. Absolute and relative power as percentage of total spectral power were computed for frequency ranges from 0.5 to 30 Hz. To compare spectral power in patients with various cognitive functioning, patients from best and worst MCCB quartiles were selected. Superior cognitive performance was associated with less power of theta waves. Six MCCB cognitive tests showed significant correlations with absolute theta power and three tests with relative theta power. The correlation coefficients between MCCB composite score and theta power were rp = -0.45 for absolute and rp = -0.36 for relative values. Increased theta power was linked especially to memory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that electroencephalographic resting state theta power is an indicator of cognitive deficit in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Theta vocabulary I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchev, S.; Zabrodin, A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is an annotated list of transformation properties and identities satisfied by the four theta functions θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4 of one complex variable, presented in a ready-to-use form. An attempt is made to reveal a pattern behind various identities for the theta-functions. It is shown that all possible 3, 4 and 5-term identities of degree four emerge as algebraic consequences of the six fundamental bilinear 3-term identities connecting the theta-functions with modular parameters τ and 2 τ.

  12. Utility of intracerebral theta burst electrical stimulation to attenuate interhemispheric inhibition and to promote motor recovery after cortical injury in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Barry, Melissa D; Boddington, Laura J; Igelström, Kajsa M; Gray, Jason P; Shemmell, Jon; Tseng, Kuei Y; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Reynolds, John N J

    2014-11-01

    Following a cerebral cortex injury such as stroke, excessive inhibition around the core of the injury is thought to reduce the potential for new motor learning. In part, this may be caused by an imbalance of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI); therefore, treatments that relieve the inhibitory drive from the healthy hemisphere to the peri-lesional area may enhance motor recovery. Theta burst stimulation delivered by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been tested as a means of normalizing IHI, but clinical results have been variable. Here we use a new rat model of synaptic IHI to demonstrate that electrical intracranial theta burst stimulation causes long-lasting changes in motor cortex excitability. Further, we show that contralateral intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) blocks IHI via a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors. Finally, we show that contralesional iTBS applied during recovery from cortical injury in rats improves the recovery of motor function. These findings suggest that theta burst stimulation delivered through implanted electrodes may be a promising avenue to explore for augmenting rehabilitation from brain injury.

  13. Hippocampal theta (3-8Hz) activity during classical eyeblink conditioning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Penttonen, Markku; Korhonen, Tapani; Wikgren, Jan

    2008-07-01

    In 1978, Berry and Thompson showed that the amount of theta (3-8Hz) activity in the spontaneous hippocampal EEG predicted learning rate in subsequent eyeblink conditioning in rabbits. More recently, the absence of theta activity during the training trial has been shown to have a detrimental effect on learning rate. Here, we aimed to further explore the relationship between theta activity and classical eyeblink conditioning by determining how the relative power of hippocampal theta activity [theta/(theta+delta) ratio] changes during both unpaired control and paired training phases. We found that animals with a higher hippocampal theta ratio immediately before conditioning learned faster and also that in these animals the theta ratio was higher throughout both experimental phases. In fact, while the hippocampal theta ratio remained stable in the fast learners as a function of training, it decreased in the slow learners already during unpaired training. In addition, the presence of hippocampal theta activity enhanced the hippocampal model of the conditioned response (CR) and seemed to be beneficial for CR performance in terms of peak latency during conditioning, but did not have any effect when the animals showed asymptotic learning. Together with earlier findings, these results imply that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity is absent is detrimental for learning, and that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity dominates is beneficial for learning, at least before a well-learned state is achieved.

  14. Frontal theta is a signature of successful working memory manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Wessel, Jan R.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that working memory (WM) is updated/manipulated via a fronto-basal-ganglia circuit. One way that this could happen is via the synchronization of neural oscillations. A first step towards testing this hypothesis is to clearly establish a frontal scalp EEG signature of WM manipulation. Although many EEG studies have indeed revealed frontal EEG signatures for WM, especially in the theta frequency band (3–8 Hz), few of them required subjects to manipulate WM, and of those that did, none specifically tied the EEG signature to the manipulation process per se. Here we employed a WM manipulation task that has been shown with imaging to engage the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. We adapted this task to titrate the success of WM manipulation to approximately 50%. Using time-frequency analysis of EEG, we showed that theta power is increased over frontal cortex for successful versus failed WM manipulation, specifically at the time of the manipulation event. This establishes a clear-cut EEG signature of WM manipulation. Future studies could employ this to test the fronto-basal-ganglia hypothesis of WM updating/manipulation. PMID:23109082

  15. Theta-Burst LTP

    PubMed Central

    Larson, John; Munkácsy, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This review covers the spatial and temporal rules governing induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) by theta-burst stimulation. Induction of LTP in field CA1 by high frequency stimulation bursts that resemble the burst discharges (complex-spikes) of hippocampal pyramidal neurons involves a multiple-step mechanism. A single burst is insufficient for LTP induction because it evokes both excitatory and inhibitory currents that partially cancel and limit postsynaptic depolarization. Bursts repeated at the frequency (~5 Hz) of the endogenous theta rhythm induce maximal LTP, primarily because this frequency disables feed-forward inhibition and allows sufficient postsynaptic depolarization to activate voltage-sensitive NMDA receptors. The disinhibitory process, referred to as “priming”, involves presynaptic GABA autoreceptors that inhibit GABA release. Activation of NMDA receptors allows a calcium flux into dendritic spines that serves as the proximal trigger for LTP. We include new data showing that theta-burst stimulation is more efficient than other forms of stimulation for LTP induction. In addityion, we demonstrate that associative interactions between synapses activated during theta-bursts are limited to major dendritic domains since such interactions occur within apical or basal dendritic trees but not between them. We review evidence that recordings of electrophysiological responses during theta burst stimulation can help to determine if experimental manipulations that affect LTP do so by affecting events antecedent to the induction process, such as NMDA receptor activation, or downstream signaling cascades that result from postsynaptic calcium fluxes. Finally, we argue that theta-burst LTP represents a minimal model for stable, non-decremental LTP that is more sensitive to a variety of experimental manipulations than is LTP induced by other stimulation paradigms. PMID:25452022

  16. Expected reward modulates encoding-related theta activity before an event.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Matthias J; Watrous, Andrew J; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ranganath, Charan; Otten, Leun J

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activity in the theta frequency range (4-8 Hz) before the onset of an event has been shown to affect the likelihood of successfully encoding the event into memory. Recent work has also indicated that frontal theta activity might be modulated by reward, but it is not clear how reward expectancy, anticipatory theta activity, and memory formation might be related. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the relationship between these factors. EEG was recorded from healthy adults while they memorized a series of words. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated whether a high or low monetary reward would be earned if the word was successfully remembered in a later recognition test. Frontal theta power between the presentation of the reward cue and the onset of a word was predictive of later memory for the word, but only in the high reward condition. No theta differences were observed before word onset following low reward cues. The magnitude of prestimulus encoding-related theta activity in the high reward condition was correlated with the number of high reward words that were later confidently recognized. These findings provide strong evidence for a link between reward expectancy, theta activity, and memory encoding. Theta activity before event onset seems to be especially important for the encoding of motivationally significant stimuli. One possibility is that dopaminergic activity during reward anticipation mediates frontal theta activity related to memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  18. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  19. Bispectral analysis of the rat EEG during various vigilance states.

    PubMed

    Ning, T K; Bronzino, J D

    1989-04-01

    Bispectra were computed to detect phase coupling in the cortical and hippocampal EEG of the rat during various vigilance states. For EEG's recorded from the hippocampus, significant phase coupling was obtained during REM sleep between the frequency components (6-8 Hz) associated with theta rhythm.

  20. EEG differences and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Glass, A; Riding, R J

    1999-10-01

    Individuals differences in information processing related to cognitive style were investigated by EEG recording during cognitive tasks. Fifteen adults received the Cognitive Styles Analysis which assessed their positions on two dimensions: the wholist-analytic and the verbal-imagery. The EEG from midline, paramedial and lateral electrode clusters was recorded, while subjects viewed words presented at different rates. A button was pressed when a word was in a target conceptual category. Off-line analysis produced spectral powers for delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma bands. For the midline, the wholists had higher output than analytics in theta and alpha, but lower in gamma. In the paramedial cluster, verbalisers had greater right power than imagers for all bands except alpha. Further, the overall power was greater on the right for imagers than verbalisers frontally, and the converse occipitally. In the lateral grouping, the wholist-verbalisers had greater overall power left antero-temporally than other sub-groups.

  1. Frontal theta as a mechanism for cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in cognitive neuroscience have afforded a description of neural responses in terms of latent algorithmic operations. However, the adoption of this approach to human scalp EEG has been more limited, despite the ability of this methodology to quantify canonical neuronal processes. Here we provide evidence that theta band activities over the mid-frontal cortex appear to reflect a common computation used for realizing the need for cognitive control. Moreover, by virtue of inherent properties of field oscillations, these theta band processes may be used to communicate this need and subsequently implement such control across disparate brain regions. Frontal theta is thus a compelling candidate mechanism by which emergent processes such as ‘cognitive control’ may be biophysically realized. PMID:24835663

  2. Understanding the theta aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, Robert; Milan, Steve; Carter, Jennifer; Maggiolo, Romain; Fazakerley, Andrew; Dandouras, Iannis; Mende, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The theta aurora, first observed by Dynamics Explorer in the 1980s, is a configuration of the Earth's aurora in which auroral emissions extend into and across the polar cap in the form of a transpolar arc. It is well established that the theta aurora occurs predominantly when the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component, but over the last thirty years various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this intriguing phenomenon. In the last couple of years, a range of evidence has accumulated which strongly suggests that the transpolar arc is formed as proposed by Milan et al. (2005): magnetotail reconnection occurs during intervals of northward IMF, which results in a local "wedge" of closed magnetospheric flux that remains trapped in the magnetotail. Precipitation on these closed field lines results in the transpolar arc analogously to the formation of the aurora in the main oval. Evidence for magnetotail reconnection as the cause of the theta aurora includes the timescales necessary to influence the location at which the transpolar arc forms, and the presence of characteristic ionospheric flows which are excited by magnetotail reconnection and which are statistically associated with transpolar arcs (Fear & Milan, 2012a,b). Most recently, direct observation has been made of a localised wedge of closed magnetic flux, "trapped" in the lobe, which was observed to move back and forth in a manner which (to our knowledge) can only be explained by the magnetotail reconnection mechanism (Fear et al., 2014). In this talk, we summarise the evidence for the formation of the theta aurora by magnetotail reconnection, and discuss the remaining challenges in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of this spectacular phenomenon.

  3. Frontal theta reflects uncertainty and unexpectedness during exploration and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Figueroa, Christina M; Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the exploitation/exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning, previous theoretical and empirical accounts have suggested that increased uncertainty may precede the decision to explore an alternative option. To date, the neural mechanisms that support the strategic application of uncertainty-driven exploration remain underspecified. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess trial-to-trial dynamics relevant to exploration and exploitation. Theta-band activities over middle and lateral frontal areas have previously been implicated in EEG studies of reinforcement learning and strategic control. It was hypothesized that these areas may interact during top-down strategic behavioral control involved in exploratory choices. Here, we used a dynamic reward-learning task and an associated mathematical model that predicted individual response times. This reinforcement-learning model generated value-based prediction errors and trial-by-trial estimates of exploration as a function of uncertainty. Mid-frontal theta power correlated with unsigned prediction error, although negative prediction errors had greater power overall. Trial-to-trial variations in response-locked frontal theta were linearly related to relative uncertainty and were larger in individuals who used uncertainty to guide exploration. This finding suggests that theta-band activities reflect prefrontal-directed strategic control during exploratory choices.

  4. Midfrontal conflict-related theta-band power reflects neural oscillations that predict behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Donner, Tobias H

    2013-12-01

    Action monitoring and conflict resolution require the rapid and flexible coordination of activity in multiple brain regions. Oscillatory neural population activity may be a key physiological mechanism underlying such rapid and flexible network coordination. EEG power modulations of theta-band (4-8 Hz) activity over the human midfrontal cortex during response conflict have been proposed to reflect neural oscillations that support conflict detection and resolution processes. However, it has remained unclear whether this frequency-band-specific activity reflects neural oscillations or nonoscillatory responses (i.e., event-related potentials). Here, we show that removing the phase-locked component of the EEG did not reduce the strength of the conflict-related modulation of the residual (i.e., non-phase-locked) theta power over midfrontal cortex. Furthermore, within-subject regression analyses revealed that the non-phase-locked theta power was a significantly better predictor of the conflict condition than was the time-domain phase-locked EEG component. Finally, non-phase-locked theta power showed robust and condition-specific (high- vs. low-conflict) cross-trial correlations with reaction time, whereas the phase-locked component did not. Taken together, our results indicate that most of the conflict-related and behaviorally relevant midfrontal EEG signal reflects a modulation of ongoing theta-band oscillations that occurs during the decision process but is not phase-locked to the stimulus or to the response.

  5. Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex to Promote Metaphor Comprehension in Parkinson Disease: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Christina; Monetta, Laura; Langlois, Mélanie; Schneider, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    This single-case research-designed study explored whether intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could improve metaphor comprehension in people with Parkinson disease (PD) and language impairments. A right-handed participant with PD diagnosed 9 years ago, receiving long-term treatment with levodopa, and with metaphor comprehension impairment was recruited to undergo 10 sessions of sham stimulation (in 2wk), a washout period (6wk), and then 10 sessions of iTBS (in 2wk). Clinical scores of metaphor comprehension and motor evaluation (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part III) and transcranial magnetic stimulation to test the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) were used at baseline, postsham, post-iTBS, and at 3 follow-ups (8, 14, and 20wk post-iTBS). Metaphor comprehension was improved after iTBS, and the highest scores were obtained 8 weeks later (P=.01). This improvement was correlated with the increase of the right M1 excitability (r=-.86, P=.03) and with the decrease of transcallosal inhibition latency from the left to the right hemisphere (r=-.88, P=.02). Sham yielded no effect (P>.05). Administration of iTBS over the right DLPFC improved metaphor comprehension likely by a long-term influence on brain synaptic plasticity, including improvement of interhemispheric dialogue. More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in larger samples of participants with PD.

  6. Increased oscillatory theta activation evoked by violent digital game events.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Mikko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2008-04-11

    The authors examined electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory responses to two violent events, the player character wounding and killing an opponent character with a gun, in the digital game James Bond 007: NightFire. EEG was recorded from 25 (16 male) right-handed healthy young adults. EEG data were segmented into one 1-s baseline epoch before each event and two 1-s epochs after event onset. Power estimates (microV(2)) were derived with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) for each artefact free event. Both of the studied events evoked increased occipital theta (4-6Hz) responses as compared to the pre-event baseline. The wounding event evoked also increased occipital high theta (6-8Hz) response and the killing event evoked low alpha (8-10Hz) asymmetry over the central electrodes, both relative to the pre-event baseline. The results are discussed in light of facial electromyographic and electrodermal activity responses evoked by these same events, and it is suggested that the reported EEG responses may be attributable to affective processes related to these violent game events.

  7. Coupling between resting cerebral perfusion and EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Poil, S-S; Brandeis, D; Klaver, P; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; Lüchinger, R; Martin, E; Shankaranarayanan, A; Alsop, D C; Michels, L

    2013-07-01

    While several studies have investigated interactions between the electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging BOLD signal fluctuations, less is known about the associations between EEG oscillations and baseline brain haemodynamics, and few studies have examined the link between EEG power outside the alpha band and baseline perfusion. Here we compare whole-brain arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI and EEG in a group of healthy adults (n = 16, ten females, median age: 27 years, range 21-48) during an eyes closed rest condition. Correlations emerged between perfusion and global average EEG power in low (delta: 2-4 Hz and theta: 4-7 Hz), middle (alpha: 8-13 Hz), and high (beta: 13-30 Hz and gamma: 30-45 Hz) frequency bands in both cortical and sub-cortical regions. The correlations were predominately positive in middle and high-frequency bands, and negative in delta. In addition, central alpha frequency positively correlated with perfusion in a network of brain regions associated with the modulation of attention and preparedness for external input, and central theta frequency correlated negatively with a widespread network of cortical regions. These results indicate that the coupling between average EEG power/frequency and local cerebral blood flow varies in a frequency specific manner. Our results are consistent with longstanding concepts that decreasing EEG frequencies which in general map onto decreasing levels of activation.

  8. Differential Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Baclofen on EEG, Sleep, Neurobehavioral Performance, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAB agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. Design: SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAB receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAB receptors in the SO response. Measurements and Results: As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. Conclusions: The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAB receptors in REMS generation. Citation: Vienne J; Lecciso G; Constantinescu I; Schwartz S; Franken P; Heinzer R; Tafti M. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1071–1084. PMID:22851803

  9. Destructive power dynamics of alpha-theta oscillations via spike and wave in CA3.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guoya; Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Wenwen; Cheng, Zhishuang; Ge, Manling

    2010-01-01

    The power dynamics of alpha-theta oscillations via inter-ictal spikes and waves (SWs) in CA3 is investigated by means of Hilbert transform and the statistical method based on CA3 channel of LFP(Local Field Potention) data sampled on total 6 rats in resting with sniffing and of iEEG data on total 10 patients in quiet wakefulness. The comparison of alpha-theta power is done between the inter-ictal groups and control groups. It is concluded that the inter-ictal SWs can disrupt the power of alpha-theta oscillations, leading to the decreased power after SW. Because the alpha-theta oscillations are related with the cognition, it is estimated that the inter-ictal SWs can negatively affecte the cognitive function during the inter-ictal dynamics, although the alpha-theta power will be recoverable in some days after injections, even exceed over the power level before injections.

  10. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics—a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes—in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network. PMID:28638334

  11. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission participates in generating the hippocampal EEG.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2004-01-01

    The participation of ionotropic glutamatergic synapses in the generation of hippocampal electroencephalography (EEG) of behaving rats has not been systematically studied. In this study, field potentials in hippocampal CA1 were recorded following injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, or vehicle control, either into the lateral ventricles or directly into the hippocampus or the medial septum. Intraventricular (i.c.v.) AMPA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX, 5-10 microg) decreased the commissural evoked potential and the amplitude of the hippocampal EEG, including the theta rhythm. Theta frequency was decreased by 10 microg, but not 5 microg DNQX i.c.v. Unilateral intrahippocampal injection of DNQX (5 microg) only decreased the amplitude, but not the frequency, of the theta rhythm near the site of injection, without affecting theta amplitude or frequency at the opposite hippocampus. Other than theta, the large irregular activity (with a delta frequency peak at 1-2 Hz) and gamma EEG (30-100 Hz) were also decreased by i.c.v. and intrahippocampal injections of DNQX. Intrahippocampal injection of NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV, 2.5 microg) decreased the amplitude of the theta rhythm and, less consistently, the gamma EEG. The frequency of the theta rhythm and the peak of the commissural evoked potential were not significantly affected by intrahippocampal D-APV injection. Medial septal injections of D-APV or D,L-APV (2.24 microg in 0.4 microl), but not DNQX (10 microg in 0.4 microl), decreased the amplitude of the hippocampal theta significantly, but theta frequency was not significantly affected. It is concluded that both NMDA and AMPA receptors in the hippocampus are involved in generating the amplitude of the hippocampal EEG of theta and gamma frequencies, while NMDA receptors in the medial septum are involved in

  12. Coherence in children with AD/HD and excess alpha power in their EEG.

    PubMed

    Robbie, Joel C; Clarke, Adam R; Barry, Robert J; Dupuy, Franca E; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated differences in EEG coherence measures between two groups of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) - one with the more common EEG profile (increased theta), and a group with excess alpha activity as the dominant EEG abnormality. 26 children (aged 9-13years) with AD/HD were included in each of the excess-theta and excess-alpha groups, and were age- and sex-matched with 26 control subjects. EEG was recorded from 19 electrode sites during an eyes-closed resting condition. Wave-shape coherence was calculated for eight intrahemispheric and eight interhemispheric electrode pairs, for the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. In comparison with the controls, the excess-theta AD/HD group had increased theta intrahemispheric coherences at short-medium inter-electrode distances. Frontally, the excess-theta AD/HD group had increased interhemispheric theta and reduced beta coherences. The excess-alpha group primarily showed increased slow wave (delta and theta) intrahemispheric coherence at short-medium inter-electrode distances, and reduced alpha coherence at longer inter-electrode distances, compared with controls. An increase in frontal interhemispheric theta coherence was also found. These results suggest that AD/HD children with excess alpha power have an underlying connectivity dysfunction in the frontal lobes, which is found in common with other subjects with the excess-theta EEG profile. However, a number of qualitative differences exist that could be associated with other aspects of the AD/HD diagnosis. The excess-alpha group appeared to have fewer frontal-lobe abnormalities than the excess-theta AD/HD group. This is the first study to investigate coherence in AD/HD children who have the atypical profile of increased alpha power in their EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Theta vocabulary II. Multidimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchev, S.; Zabrodin, A.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the Jacobi and Riemann identities of degree four for the multidimensional theta functions as well as the Weierstrass identities emerge as algebraic consequences of the fundamental multidimensional binary identities connecting the theta functions with Riemann matrices τ and 2 τ.

  14. EEG in Sarcoidosis Patients Without Neurological Findings.

    PubMed

    Bilgin Topçuoğlu, Özgür; Kavas, Murat; Öztaş, Selahattin; Arınç, Sibel; Afşar, Gülgün; Saraç, Sema; Midi, İpek

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease affecting nervous system in 5% to 10% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is accepted as the most sensitive method for detecting neurosarcoidosis. However, the most common findings in MRI are the nonspecific white matter lesions, which may be unrelated to sarcoidosis and can occur because of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and other inflammatory or infectious disorders, as well. Autopsy studies report more frequent neurological involvement than the ante mortem studies. The aim of this study is to assess electroencephalography (EEG) in sarcoidosis patients without neurological findings in order to display asymptomatic neurological dysfunction. We performed EEG on 30 sarcoidosis patients without diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis or prior neurological comorbidities. Fourteen patients (46.7%) showed intermittant focal and/or generalized slowings while awake and not mentally activated. Seven (50%) of these 14 patients with EEG slowings had nonspecific white matter changes while the other half showed EEG slowings in the absence of MRI changes. We conclude that EEG slowings, when normal variants (psychomotor variant, temporal theta of elderly, frontal theta waves) are eliminated, may be an indicator of dysfunction in brain activity even in the absence of MRI findings. Hence, EEG may contribute toward detecting asymptomatic neurological dysfunction or probable future neurological involvement in sarcoidosis patients.

  15. Rostral anterior cingulate activity generates posterior versus anterior theta activity linked to agentic extraversion.

    PubMed

    Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    Recent research using the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that posterior versus anterior theta activity (around 4-8 Hz) is consistently associated with agency, reflecting the dopaminergic core of extraversion (i.e., incentive motivation, positive emotion). Neuroimaging studies using various methodologies and experimental paradigms have converged on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a neurophysiological correlate of extraversion. The aim of the present study is integrate these lines of research by testing the hypothesis that posterior versus anterior EEG theta is at least partly based on ACC theta activity. Resting EEG data were analyzed in N = 78 healthy, male participants extremely high or low in agentic extraversion (aE). Using the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography algorithm, we localized the sources of aE-dependent intracerebral theta activity within rostral subdivisions of the ACC. The posterior versus anterior index and theta current density within the rostral ACC were significantly correlated (r = -.52), and both displayed high retest stability across 5 hr and were associated with traits from the aE spectrum. These neurophysiological correlates of aE and their possible functional significance are discussed.

  16. Mobile EEG and its potential to promote the theory and application of imagery-based motor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kranczioch, Cornelia; Zich, Catharina; Schierholz, Irina; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Studying the brain in its natural state remains a major challenge for neuroscience. Solving this challenge would not only enable the refinement of cognitive theory, but also provide a better understanding of cognitive function in the type of complex and unpredictable situations that constitute daily life, and which are often disturbed in clinical populations. With mobile EEG, researchers now have access to a tool that can help address these issues. In this paper we present an overview of technical advancements in mobile EEG systems and associated analysis tools, and explore the benefits of this new technology. Using the example of motor imagery (MI) we will examine the translational potential of MI-based neurofeedback training for neurological rehabilitation and applied research.

  17. Characterization of the Theta to Beta Ratio in ADHD: Identifying Potential Sources of Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Cho, Alexander; Hale, T. Sigi; McGough, James; McCracken, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to characterize the theta to beta ratio (THBR) obtained from electroencephalogram (EEG) measures, in a large sample of community and clinical participants with regard to (a) ADHD diagnosis and subtypes, (b) common psychiatric comorbidities, and (c) cognitive correlates. Method: The sample includes 871…

  18. Characterization of the Theta to Beta Ratio in ADHD: Identifying Potential Sources of Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Cho, Alexander; Hale, T. Sigi; McGough, James; McCracken, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to characterize the theta to beta ratio (THBR) obtained from electroencephalogram (EEG) measures, in a large sample of community and clinical participants with regard to (a) ADHD diagnosis and subtypes, (b) common psychiatric comorbidities, and (c) cognitive correlates. Method: The sample includes 871…

  19. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    PubMed

    Michels, Lars; Lüchinger, Rafael; Koenig, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz) power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM) tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-)dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and synchronization and that

  20. Inactivation of the medial mammillary nucleus attenuates theta rhythm activity in the hippocampus in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Żakowski, Witold; Braszka, Łukasz; Zawistowski, Piotr; Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2017-04-03

    Although the importance of the mammillary body for memory and learning processes is well known, its exact role has remained vague. The fact, that many neurons in one nucleus of the mammillary body in rats, i.e. the medial mammillary nucleus (MM), fires according with hippocampal theta rhythm, makes this structure crucial for a theta rhythm signaling in so-called extended hippocampal system. These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation, but it is still unknown whether the mammillary body only conveys theta rhythm or may also modulate it. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pharmacological inactivation (local infusion of 0.5μl of 20% procaine hydrochloride solution) of the MM on hippocampal theta rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats. We found that intra-MM procaine microinjections suppress sensory-elicited theta rhythm in the hippocampus by reduction of its amplitude, but not the frequency. Procaine infusion decreased the EEG signal power of low theta frequency bands, i.e. 3-5Hz, down to 9.2% in 3-4Hz band in comparison to pre-injection conditions. After water infusion (control group) no changes of hippocampal EEG signal power were observed. Our findings showed for the first time that inactivation of the MM leads to a disruption of hippocampal theta rhythm in the rat, which may suggest that the mammillary body can regulate theta rhythm signaling in the extended hippocampal system.

  1. Oscillatory frontal theta responses are increased upon bisensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sakowitz, O W; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the functional correlation of oscillatory EEG components with the interaction of sensory modalities following simultaneous audio-visual stimulation. In an experimental study (15 subjects) we compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation). BEPs were assumed to be brain responses to complex stimuli as a marker for intermodal associative functioning. Frequency domain analysis of these EPs showed marked theta-range components in response to bimodal stimulation. These theta components could not be explained by linear addition of the unimodal responses in the time domain. Considering topography the increased theta-response showed a remarkable frontality in proximity to multimodal association cortices. Referring to methodology we try to demonstrate that, even if various behavioral correlates of brain oscillations exist, common patterns can be extracted by means of a systems-theoretical approach. Serving as an example of functionally relevant brain oscillations, theta responses could be interpreted as an indicator of associative information processing.

  2. Can prefrontal theta cordance differentiate between depression recovery and dissimulation?

    PubMed

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Sos, Peter; Brunovsky, Martin; Bares, Martin; Stopkova, Pavla; Krajca, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    We present a case report of a 37-year old woman diagnosed with depressive disorder, first episode, who was admitted into a psychiatric hospital after a failed suicidal attempt. She responded to antidepressant therapy, as evidenced by a >50% reduction in MADRS total score. She was discharged after 4 weeks of treatment, denying any suicidal ideations. The following day the patient committed suicide; she burned herself to death. It is very likely that the patient dissimulated her symptoms and ideations. Subsequently, her quantitative EEG records were retrospectively analyzed. An increase of prefrontal theta cordance value after the first week of mirtazapine therapy was found. Recently three small studies have revealed that decrease of prefrontal theta cordance after 1 week of antidepressant administration can predict clinical response in patients with unipolar depression. In our previous study the absence of a decreased theta prefrontal cordance was associated with lack of treatment response with NPV 1.0 (Bares et al., 2007). Thus, we hypothesize that prefrontal theta cordance could become an objective marker of change of depressive symptoms, independent of patients' compliance and symptom dissimulation, more precise than objective and self-rated depression rating scales.

  3. Theta oscillations locked to intended actions rhythmically modulate perception

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Alice; Ambrogioni, Luca; Medendorp, W Pieter; Maris, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing brain oscillations are known to influence perception, and to be reset by exogenous stimulations. Voluntary action is also accompanied by prominent rhythmic activity, and recent behavioral evidence suggests that this might be coupled with perception. Here, we reveal the neurophysiological underpinnings of this sensorimotor coupling in humans. We link the trial-by-trial dynamics of EEG oscillatory activity during movement preparation to the corresponding dynamics in perception, for two unrelated visual and motor tasks. The phase of theta oscillations (~4 Hz) predicts perceptual performance, even >1 s before movement. Moreover, theta oscillations are phase-locked to the onset of the movement. Remarkably, the alignment of theta phase and its perceptual relevance unfold with similar non-monotonic profiles, suggesting their relatedness. The present work shows that perception and movement initiation are automatically synchronized since the early stages of motor planning through neuronal oscillatory activity in the theta range. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25618.001 PMID:28686161

  4. [Evaluation of mental workload of short-term memory task by secondary task performance and frontal midline theta rhythm].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Sato, H

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mental workload of short-term memory task by two objective measures, the secondary task performance and the frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) of the electroencephalogram (EEG). First, to choose Fm theta appearance subjects EEGs were recorded for 18 male students during performing additional task. On Fm theta appearance subjects (8 males) a series of short-term memory task with changed number of memorable figures was imposed as the primary task, and tracking task as the secondary task. The task that presents seven numbers will be over the subjects' limits of short-term memory, and it was the threshold that the subjects' mental workload will be increased.

  5. Autoregressive and bispectral analysis techniques: EEG applications.

    PubMed

    Ning, T; Bronzino, J D

    1990-01-01

    Some basic properties of autoregressive (AR) modeling and bispectral analysis are reviewed, and examples of their application in electroencephalography (EEG) research are provided. A second-order AR model was used to score cortical EEGs in order. In tests performed on five adult rats to distinguish between different vigilance states such a quiet-waking (QW), rapid-eye-movement (REM), and slow-wave sleep (SWS), SWS activity was correctly identified over 96% of the time, and a 95% agreement rate was achieved in recognizing the REM sleep stage. In a bispectral analysis of the rat EEG, third-order cumulant (TOC) sequences of 32 epochs belonging to the same vigilance state were estimated and then averaged. Preliminary results have shown that bispectra of hippocampal EEGs during REM Sleep exhibit significant quadratic phase couplings between frequencies in the 6-8-Hz range, associated with the theta rhythm.

  6. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J.; Figge, Christian; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2014-01-01

    Frontal-midline (fm) theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested as neural “working language” of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs). Here, the effects of neurofeedback (NF), a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over fm electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced NF intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after NF significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. Furthermore, task-related EEG changes show a distinct pattern for fm-theta after training between the NF and the pseudo-neurofeedback group, which indicates that NF training indeed tackles EFs-networks. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via NF may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions. PMID:25538585

  7. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Figge, Christian; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2014-01-01

    Frontal-midline (fm) theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested as neural "working language" of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs). Here, the effects of neurofeedback (NF), a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over fm electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced NF intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after NF significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. Furthermore, task-related EEG changes show a distinct pattern for fm-theta after training between the NF and the pseudo-neurofeedback group, which indicates that NF training indeed tackles EFs-networks. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via NF may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions.

  8. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAβ receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAβ receptors in the SO response. As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAβ receptors in REMS generation.

  9. Permutation symmetry for theta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C.

    2011-01-21

    This paper does for combinations of theta functions most of what Carlson (2004) [1] did for Jacobian elliptic functions. In each case the starting point is the symmetric elliptic integral R{sub F} of the first kind. Its three arguments (formerly squared Jacobian elliptic functions but now squared combinations of theta functions) differ by constants. Symbols designating the constants can often be used to replace 12 equations by three with permutation symmetry (formerly in the letters c, d, n for the Jacobian case but now in the subscripts 2, 3, 4 for theta functions). Such equations include derivatives and differential equations, bisection and duplication relations, addition formulas (apparently new for theta functions), and an example of pseudoaddition formulas.

  10. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation affects brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dan Cao; Yingjie Li; Ling Wei; Yingying Tang

    2016-08-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the emotional processing as well as in the functional brain network. Hyperactivity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would be found in anxious participants. However, it is still unclear what the role of PFC played in a resting functional network. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) is an effective tool to create virtual lesions on brain regions. In this paper, we applied cTBS over right prefrontal area, and investigated the effects of cTBS on the brain activity for functional connectivity by the method of graph theory. We recorded 64-channels EEG on thirteen healthy participants in the resting condition and emotional tasks before and after 40 s of cTBS. This work focused on the effect of cTBS on cortical activities in the resting condition by calculating the coherence between EEG channels and building functional networks before and after cTBS in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Results revealed that 1) The functional connectivity after cTBS was significantly increased compared with that before cTBS in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the resting condition; 2) The efficiency-cost reached the maximum before and after cTBS both with the cost about 0.3 in the bands above, which meant that the information transmission of functional brain network with this cost was highly efficient; 3) the clustering coefficient and path length after cTBS was significantly increased in delta, theta and beta bands. In conclusion, cTBS over PFC indeed enhanced the functional connectivity in the resting condition. In addition, the information transmission in the resting brain network was highly efficient with the cost about 0.3.

  11. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with changes in cutaneous temperature, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  12. Centrotemporal spikes during NREM sleep: The promoting action of thalamus revealed by simultaneous EEG and fMRI coregistration.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Laura; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Avanzini, Pietro; Ruggieri, Andrea; Pisani, Francesco; Cossu, Giuseppe; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Benuzzi, Francesca; Meletti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) has been investigated through EEG-fMRI with the aim of localizing the generators of the epileptic activity, revealing, in most cases, the activation of the sensory-motor cortex ipsilateral to the centrotemporal spikes (CTS). In this case report, we investigated the brain circuits hemodynamically involved by CTS recorded during wakefulness and sleep in one boy with CTS and a language disorder but without epilepsy. For this purpose, the patient underwent EEG-fMRI coregistration. During the "awake session", fMRI analysis of right-sided CTS showed increments of BOLD signal in the bilateral sensory-motor cortex. During the "sleep session", BOLD increments related to right-sided CTS were observed in a widespread bilateral cortical-subcortical network involving the thalamus, basal ganglia, sensory-motor cortex, perisylvian cortex, and cerebellum. In this patient, who fulfilled neither the diagnostic criteria for BECTS nor that for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), the transition from wakefulness to sleep was related to the involvement of a widespread cortical-subcortical network related to CTS. In particular, the involvement of a thalamic-perisylvian neural network similar to the one previously observed in patients with ESES suggests a common sleep-related network dysfunction even in cases with milder phenotypes without seizures. This finding, if confirmed in a larger cohort of patients, could have relevant therapeutic implication.

  13. Comparative EEG mapping studies in Huntington's disease patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Painold, Annamaria; Anderer, Peter; Holl, Anna K; Letmaier, Martin; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M; Saletu, Bernd; Bonelli, Raphael M

    2010-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and cognitive decline. Previous studies with small sample sizes and methodological limitations have described abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG) in this cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate objectively and quantitatively the neurophysiological basis of the disease in HD patients as compared to normal controls, utilizing EEG mapping. In 55 HD patients and 55 healthy controls, a 3-min vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG) was recorded during midmorning hours. Evaluation of 36 EEG variables was carried out by spectral analysis and visualized by EEG mapping techniques. To elucidate drug interference, the analysis was performed for the total group, unmedicated patients only and between treated and untreated patients. Statistical overall analysis by the omnibus significance test demonstrated significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) EEG differences between HD patients and controls. Subsequent univariate analysis revealed a general decrease in total power and absolute alpha and beta power, an increase in delta/theta power, and a slowing of the centroids of delta/theta, beta and total power. The slowing of the EEG in HD reflects a disturbed brain function in the sense of a vigilance decrement, electrophysiologically characterized by inhibited cortical areas (increased delta/theta power) and a lack of normal routine and excitatory activity (decreased alpha and beta power). The results are similar to those found in other dementing disorders. Medication did not affect the overall interpretation of the quantitative EEG analysis, but certain differences might be due to drug interaction, predominantly with antipsychotics. Spearman rank correlations revealed significant correlations between EEG mapping and cognitive and motor impairment in HD patients.

  14. EEG (Electroencephalogram)

    MedlinePlus

    ... caffeine on the day of the test, because caffeine can affect the test results. Take your usual medications unless instructed otherwise. If you're supposed to sleep during your EEG test, your doctor may ask ...

  15. Theta phase locking across the neocortex reflects cortico-hippocampal recursive communication during goal conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roger A; Gale, Anthony; Morris, Paul H; Forrester, Dave

    2006-06-01

    EEG theta coherence, EEG theta power and subjective levels of response were examined in a continuous monitoring target detection task where periodic goal conflicts were introduced as 34 participants progressed through a stimulus sequence leading to response. EEG theta coherence revealed increases in phase locking between cortical areas at specific task stages involving goal conflict. Theta power also increased at points of goal conflict. The temporal characteristics of subjective response (measured continuously throughout the task) indicated a delay between participants actually experiencing goal conflict and overt indications of conflict. The starting point for the study was based on a specific aspect of Gray and McNaughton's [Gray, J.A., McNaughton, N., 2000. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford] behavioural inhibition system model-namely, septo-hippocampal system involvement in the resolution of goal conflicts. We drew on Gray and McNaughton's [Gray, J.A., McNaughton, N., 2000. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal system, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford] suggestion that septo-hippocampal involvement in this process is reflected by EEG theta. While their theory explains many of our findings, we also drew upon Given's [Givens, B., 1996. Stimulus-evoked reseting of the dentate theta rhythm: relation to working memory. Neuroreport 8 (1), 159-163] proposal that the dentate theta rhythm is reset by behaviourally relevant stimuli. We made further proposals based on Makeig et al.'s [Makeig, S., Westerfield, M., Jung, T.-P., Enghoff, S., Townsend, J., Courchesne, E., Sejnowski, T.J., 2002. Dynamic brain sources of visual evoked responses. Science 295, 690-694] view that specific stimulus events invoke concurrent phase resetting and transient frequency domain coherence across different areas of neocortex. Relations

  16. Correlation of EEG with neuropsychological status in children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David A; Rayer, Katherine; Jackson, Daren C; Stafstrom, Carl E; Hsu, Murielle; Ferrazzano, Peter A; Dabbs, Kevin; Worrell, Gregory A; Jones, Jana E; Hermann, Bruce P

    2016-02-01

    To determine correlations of the EEG frequency spectrum with neuropsychological status in children with idiopathic epilepsy. Forty-six children ages 8-18 years old with idiopathic epilepsy were retrospectively identified and analyzed for correlations between EEG spectra and neuropsychological status using multivariate linear regression. In addition, the theta/beta ratio, which has been suggested as a clinically useful EEG marker of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and an EEG spike count were calculated for each subject. Neuropsychological status was highly correlated with posterior alpha (8-15 Hz) EEG activity in a complex way, with both positive and negative correlations at lower and higher alpha frequency sub-bands for each cognitive task in a pattern that depends on the specific cognitive task. In addition, the theta/beta ratio was a specific but insensitive indicator of ADHD status in children with epilepsy; most children both with and without epilepsy have normal theta/beta ratios. The spike count showed no correlations with neuropsychological status. (1) The alpha rhythm may have at least two sub-bands which serve different purposes. (2) The theta/beta ratio is not a sensitive indicator of ADHD status in children with epilepsy. (3) The EEG frequency spectrum correlates more robustly with neuropsychological status than spike count analysis in children with idiopathic epilepsy. (1) The role of posterior alpha rhythms in cognition is complex and can be overlooked if EEG spectral resolution is too coarse or if neuropsychological status is assessed too narrowly. (2) ADHD in children with idiopathic epilepsy may involve different mechanisms from those in children without epilepsy. (3) Reliable correlations with neuropsychological status require longer EEG samples when using spike count analysis than when using frequency spectra. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  17. Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, M J W; Dekkers, L M S; Westenberg, P M; van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M W

    2017-02-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age=19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs. disliked by unknown peers. Expectancies were followed by feedback indicating social acceptance vs. rejection. Results revealed a significant increase in EEG theta power to unexpected social rejection feedback. This EEG theta response could be source-localized to brain regions typically reported during activation of the saliency network (i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole, and the supplementary motor area). Theta phase dynamics mimicked the behavior of the time-domain averaged feedback-related negativity (FRN) by showing stronger phase synchrony for feedback that was unexpected vs. expected. Theta phase, however, differed from the FRN by also displaying stronger phase synchrony in response to rejection vs. acceptance feedback. Together, this study highlights distinct roles for midfrontal theta power and phase synchrony in response to social evaluative feedback. Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that midfrontal theta oscillatory power is sensitive to social rejection but only when peer rejection is unexpected, and this theta response is governed by a widely distributed neural network implicated in saliency detection and conflict monitoring.

  18. Cortico-pontine theta synchronization phase shift following monoaminergic lesion in rat.

    PubMed

    Kalauzi, A; Kesic, S; Saponjic, J

    2009-12-01

    The experiments were performed in 14 adult, male Sprague Dawley rats chronically instrumented for sleep recording and recorded during baseline condition, following sham injection (saline i.p. 1 ml/kg), and every week for 5 weeks following injection of the systemic neurotoxins (DSP-4 or PCA; 1 ml/kg, i.p.) for chemical axotomy of the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR) axon terminals. In our former study we demonstrated that the systemically induced lesion of the noradrenergic or serotonergic axon terminals did not affect the sleep-wake distribution from control condition. In this study, by using spectral analysis and phase shift spectra of the cortical and pontine EEG we analyzed cortico-pontine theta oscillation synchronization phase shift on 6-hour recordings in control condition and 28 days following the monoaminergic lesions, as a time for permanently established DR or LC chemical axotomy. Our results demonstrated for the first time that chronically decreased brain monoamines in freely moving rats changed cortico-pontine theta synchronization phase shift. Pons became a leading theta oscillator. We assume that deficit of monoamines induced predominance of the NREM/REM transitions, characterized with phasic theta oscillations (the increased density of clustered P waves which intrinsic frequency corresponds to theta frequency oscillations), and may produced preceding phasic theta versus tonic theta oscillation drive.

  19. [Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythms in the network of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ge, Man-Ling; Guo, Jun-Dan; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Fu, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Min

    2017-02-25

    Epileptic spike is an indicator of hyper-excitability and hyper-synchrony in the neural networks. The inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) might be helpful to understand the mechanism of epileptic damage on the cognitive functions. To quantitatively evaluate the inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms, intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with both sporadic spikes (SSs) and spike-free transient period between adjacent spikes were selected in 4 patients in the status of rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. The electrodes of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC) were employed, since CA3 and EC built up one of key loops to investigate cognition and epilepsy. These SSs occurred only in CA3, only in EC, or in both CA3 and EC synchronously. Theta power was respectively estimated around SSs and during the spike-free transient period by Gabor wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. The intermittent extent was then estimated to represent for the loss of theta rhythms during the spike-free transient period. The following findings were obtained: (1) The prominent rhythms were in theta frequency band; (2) The spikes could transiently reduce theta power, and the inhibitory effect was severer around SSs in both CA3 and EC synchronously than that around either SSs only in EC or SSs only in CA3; (3) During the spike-free transient period, theta rhythms were interrupted with the intermittent theta rhythms left and theta power level continued dropping, implying the inhibitory effect was sustained. Additionally, the intermittent extent of theta rhythms was converged to the inhibitory extent around SSs; (4) The average theta power level during the spike-free transient period might not be in line with the inhibitory extent of theta rhythms around SSs. It was concluded that the SSs had negative effects on theta rhythms transiently and directly, the inhibitory effects aroused by

  20. Search for Theta+ at CLAS in gamma n ---> Theta+ K-.

    SciTech Connect

    N.A. Baltzell; D.J. Tedeschi

    2006-06-01

    The existence of pentaquarks is being studied in recent experiments at Jefferson Lab. This analysis investigates the reaction gamma d --> Theta^+K^-(p) with the Theta^+ decaying to pK^0. Produced with a tagged photon beam of endpoint energy 3.6 GeV incident on a 24 cm liquid deuterium target, the pK^0_sK^-(p) final state is measured exclusively. With well defined strangeness and no neutral meson background, this channel is an important place to look for the Theta^+. However, it contains large contributions from hyperons produced via gamma n --> Y*K^0, and the effects of mesons are also present in the K^0K^- system. The current focus is on understanding these backgrounds.

  1. Local and Widely Distributed EEG Activity in Schizophrenia With Prevalence of Negative Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A; Ponomarev, Valery A; Pronina, Marina V; Poliakov, Yury I; Plotnikova, Irina V; Kropotov, Juri D

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated EEG frequency abnormalities in resting state (eyes closed and eyes open) EEG in a group of chronic schizophrenia patients as compared with healthy subjects. The study included 3 methods of analysis of deviation of EEG characteristics: genuine EEG, current source density (CSD), and group independent component (gIC). All 3 methods have shown that the EEG in schizophrenia patients is characterized by enhanced low-frequency (delta and theta) and high-frequency (beta) activity in comparison with the control group. However, the spatial pattern of differences was dependent on the type of method used. Comparative analysis has shown that increased EEG power in schizophrenia patients apparently concerns both widely spatially distributed components and local components of signal. Furthermore, the observed differences in the delta and theta range can be described mainly by the local components, and those in the beta range mostly by spatially widely distributed ones. The possible nature of the widely distributed activity is discussed.

  2. Does immobilization of dependent hand promote adaptative changes in cerebral cortex? An analysis through qEEG asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Manaia, Fernanda; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Salles, José Inácio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Basile, Luis F; Peressutti, Caroline; de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Sérgio

    2013-03-22

    This study aimed to elucidate electrophysiological and cortical mechanisms involved when 15 healthy right-handed subjects executed an index finger flexion and extension task before and after hand immobilization, using qEEG beta band (13-30Hz) asymmetry. This beta band is involved in motor activity and sensorial factors. Our hypothesis is that an increase in beta band asymmetry in pre-frontal, motor and parietal areas will occur in post-hand immobilization, because these areas need to reorganize for new planning, preparation and voluntary motor control. We found increase in beta band asymmetry during post-treatment task. We concluded that beta band asymmetry plays an important role in the analysis of cortical changes in several brain areas when associated to motor task. Furthermore, we assume that 48h of hand immobilization change cortical functioning.

  3. Hierarchical Organization of Gamma and Theta Oscillatory Dynamics in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Kenji; Rissling, Anthony J.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia patients have deficits across a broad range of important cognitive and clinical domains. Synchronization of oscillations in the gamma frequency range (~40 Hz) is associated with many normal cognitive functions and underlies at least some of the deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that gamma oscillations are modulated by the phase of theta waves, and this cross-frequency coupling indicates that a complex and hierarchical organization governs neural oscillatory dynamics. The aims of the present study were to determine if schizophrenia patients have abnormalities in the amplitude, synchrony, and cross-frequency coupling of gamma and theta oscillations in response to gamma-frequency steady-state stimulation and if abnormal neural oscillatory dynamics are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Methods Schizophrenia patients (n = 234) and healthy control subjects (n = 188) underwent EEG testing in response to 40-Hz auditory steady-state stimulation. Cognitive functions were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced gamma intertrial phase coherence, increased theta amplitude, and intact cross-frequency coupling relative to healthy control subjects. In schizophrenia patients, increased theta amplitude was associated with poor verbal memory performance. Conclusions Results suggest that schizophrenia patients have specific alterations in both gamma and theta oscillations but these deficits occur in the context of an intact hierarchical organization of their cross-frequency modulation in response to 40 Hz steady-state stimulation. Cortical oscillatory dynamics may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the disparate cognitive and functional impairments of schizophrenia. PMID:22361076

  4. Electroencephalogram Theta/Beta Ratio and Spectral Power Correlates of Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents With AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Hui; Wu, Zhanliang; Zhao, Qihua; Song, Yan; Liu, Lu; Qian, Qiujin; Wang, Yufeng; Roodenrys, Steven; Johnstone, Stuart J; De Blasio, Frances M; Sun, Li

    2017-07-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely used in AD/HD research. The current study firstly aimed to replicate a recent trend related to EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) in children and adolescents. Also, the study aimed to examine the value of resting EEG activity as biomarkers for executive function (EF) in participants with AD/HD. Fifty-three participants with AD/HD and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Resting EEG was recorded with eyes closed. Participants with AD/HD additionally completed EF tasks via the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. TBR did not differ between groups; however, TBR was positively correlated with inattentive symptoms in AD/HD. Other correlations were found between EEG activity and neuropsychological functions including spatial planning and decision making in the AD/HD group. The results do not support the diagnostic value of TBR. Instead, given the heterogeneous features, the results support the prognostic value of EEG in AD/HD.

  5. EEG Multiresolution Analysis Using Wavelet Transform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Wavelet transform (WT) is a new multiresolution time-frequency analysis method. WT possesses well localization feature both in tine and frequency...plays a key role in the diagnosing diseases and is useful for both physiological research and medical applications. Using the dyadic wavelet ... transform the EEG signals are successfully decomposed to the alpha rhythm (8-13Hz) beta rhythm (14-30Hz) theta rhythm (4-7Hz) and delta rhythm (0.3-3Hz) and

  6. Exploring resting-state EEG brain oscillatory activity in relation to cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; Hansen, Sascha; Weber, Emily; Zapf, Franziska; Habich, Juliane; Muenssinger, Jana; Wolf, Sebastian; Schönenberg, Michael; Oschmann, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring parameters related to cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sparse. Previous work reported an association between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) alpha-1 activity and information processing speed. While this remains to be replicated by more available electroencephalographic (EEG) methods, also other established EEG markers, e.g. the slow-wave/fast-wave ratio (theta/beta ratio), remain to be explored in this context. Performance on standard tests addressing information processing speed and attention (Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, SDMT; Test of Attention Performance, TAP) was examined in relation to resting-state EEG alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and the theta/beta ratio in 25MS patients. Increased global alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and an increased frontal theta/beta ratio (pronounced slow-wave relative to fast-wave activity) were associated with lower SDMT processing speed. In an exploratory analysis, clinically impaired attention was associated with a significantly increased frontal theta/beta ratio whereas alpha power did not show sensitivity to clinical impairment. EEG global alpha power and the frontal theta/beta ratio were both associated with attention. The theta/beta ratio involved potential clinical sensitivity. Resting-state EEG recordings can be obtained during the routine clinical process. The examined resting-state measures may represent feasible monitoring parameters in MS. This notion should be explored in future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of EEG patterns and genotypes in patients with Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Martina; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Zarowski, Marcin; Gregas, Matt; Shuhaiber, Hans; Sarco, Dean P; Morales, Augusto; Nespeca, Mark; Sharpe, Cia; Haas, Kevin; Barnes, Gregory; Glaze, Daniel; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2012-03-01

    We prospectively analyzed EEGs from participants in the ongoing NIH Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Angelman Syndrome Natural History Study. Of the one-hundred-sixty enrolled patients (2006-2010), 115 had complete data (58 boys, median age 3.6 years). Distinct EEG findings were intermittent rhythmic delta waves (83.5%), interictal epileptiform discharges (74.2%), intermittent rhythmic theta waves (43.5%), and posterior rhythm slowing (43.5%). Centro-occipital and centro-temporal delta waves decreased with age (p=0.01, p=0.03). There were no specific correlations between EEG patterns and genotypes. A classification tree allowed the prediction of deletions class-1 (5.9 Mb) in patients with intermittent theta waves in <50% of EEG and interictal epileptiform abnormalities; UPD, UBE3A mutation or imprinting defects in patients with intermittent theta in <50% of EEG without interictal epileptiform abnormalities; deletions class-2 (5.0 Mb) in patients with >50% theta and normal posterior rhythm; atypical deletions in patients with >50% theta but abnormal posterior rhythm. EEG patterns are important biomarkers in Angelman syndrome and may suggest the underlying genetic etiology.

  8. Effect of mental task load on fronto-central theta activity in a deep saturation dive to 450 msw.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, J; Lorenz, B; Heineke, M

    1992-07-01

    The increase of theta activity (4-7 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during deep diving is commonly attributed to pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the high pressure neurologic syndrome. The aim of this study was to clarify whether more precise cognitive aspects of the condition may be described in which theta activity occurs during a deep dive. Among 4 divers who were repeatedly examined during the GUSI 14 dive to 450 msw, 3 divers exhibited a pronounced correlation between short-term memory load, as varied by the memory set size of Sternberg's memory search task (MST), and the size of a distinct peak in the theta band of the EEG-power spectrum. The power of this peak was greatest in the fronto-central electrode position (Fz), increased dramatically during MST-performance at pressure, and failed to subside fully 1 day before surfacing. Despite the close dependency of observed theta activity on cognitive demands, no consistent correlation with performance measures (mean reaction time and errors) was found. In one diver, theta waves of similar morphology appeared in the resting EEG and increased significantly during the dive. We suggest two alternative explanations for the positive interaction of memory load and hyperbaric exposure on Fz-theta: a) Both factors induce a state of increased mental effort or selectivity of attention, known to be accompanied by frontal theta activity from normobaric studies. b) Pressure abnormally facilitates or patterns rhythmical excitations underlying theta activity that would occur naturally to a lesser extent during certain mental activities, learning, or repetitive short-term memory operations.

  9. Power spectral analysis of the EEG following protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Stisser, P; Forbes, W B; Tracy, C; Resnick, O; Morgane, P J

    1980-01-01

    In these studies, power spectral analysis techniques were utilized to quantify the EEG obtained from rats reared on either an 8% or 25% casein diet during various vigilance states at two stages of development: (1) adulthood-90 to 120 days old; and (2) immediately after weaning-22 to 23 days old. It was found that the cortical EEG contained relatively more power in the low frequencies (ie., 0.5 to 10 Hz) for the 22-23 day old animals than for the 90-120 day old rats, especially during the slow wave sleep states-SWS1 and SWS2. Theta activity (5-8 Hz) in the hippocampus was shown to have greater power for the 22-23 day old group than for the older animals during both REM sleep and waking. Analyses of power spectral data and other indices of the frequency distribution of the hippocampal EEG indicated that those animals subjected to protein malnutrition have significantly more power in the theta band during REM sleep than the normal adult group. Since it was also noted that the hippocampal EEG obtained from the 22-23 day old group contained relatively more power in the theta band than the 90-120 day old group, the dietary treatment effect might be intrepreted as an instance of retarded development associated with protein malnutrition. Thus, a significant effect of the dietary manipulation used in the study may be largely on the system responsible for regulating theta activity.

  10. Longitudinal study of EEG frequency maturation and power changes in children on the Russian North.

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Shemyakina, N V; Nagornova, Zh V; Bekshaev, S S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal longitudinal changes in electroencephalogram spectral power and frequency (percentage frequency composition of EEG and alpha peak frequency) patterns in normal children from northern Russia. Fifteen children (9 girls and 6 boys) participated in the study. The resting state (eyes closed) EEGs were recorded yearly (2005-2013) from age 8 to age 16-17 for each child. EEG frequency patterns were estimated as the percentages of waves with a 1 Hz step revealed by measuring the interval durations between points crossing zero (isoline) by a curve. EEG spectral power changes were analyzed for delta (1.5-4 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (7.5-9.5 Hz), alpha-2 (9.5-12.5 Hz), beta-1 (12.5-18 Hz) and beta-2 (18-30 Hz) bands. According to the frequency composition of the EEG signals fast synchronous, polymorphous synchronous, polymorphous desynchronous and slow synchronous types of children EEG were revealed. These EEG types were relatively stable during adolescence. In these EEG types, the frequency patterns and spectral power dynamics with age had several common and specific features. Slow wave percentage and spectral power in the delta band remarkably decreased with age in all groups. Starting from the theta band the EEG types were characterized by different EEG spectral power changes with age. In fast synchronous EEG type, the theta and alpha-1 EEG power decreased, and the alpha-2 power increased in the occipital and parietal areas. The polymorphous synchronous type was characterized by increased both the alpha-1 and alpha-2 power with regional peculiarities. In the polymorphous desynchronous type spectral power in all bands decreased with age, and in the slow synchronous type, the alpha-1 power massively increased with age. Obtained results suggest predictive strength of the spatial-frequency patterns in EEG for its following maturation through the years.

  11. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (P<0.01) and significant decrease of theta power P<0.05). Corneal nerves were damaged in corneas of retinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  12. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children

    PubMed Central

    van Noordt, Stefon J.R.; White, Lars O.; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8–12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200–400 ms) and late (i.e., 400–800 ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical “not my turn” events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400–800 ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to “rejection” events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200–400 ms or 400–800 ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood. PMID:26048623

  13. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  14. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children.

    PubMed

    van Noordt, Stefon J R; White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8-12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4-8Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200-400ms) and late (i.e., 400-800ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical "not my turn" events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400-800ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to "rejection" events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200-400ms or 400-800ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood.

  15. Theta synchronization predicts efficient memory encoding of concrete and abstract nouns.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Müller, H M; Rappelsberger, P

    2000-08-03

    Functional and topographical differences between processing of spoken nouns which were remembered or which were forgotten were shown by means of EEG coherence analysis. Later recalled nouns were related with increased neuronal synchronization (= cooperation) between anterior and posterior brain regions regardless of presented word category (either concrete or abstract nouns). However, theta coherence exhibited topographical differences during encoding of concrete and abstract nouns whereby former were related with higher short-range (mainly intrahemispheric), later with higher long-range (mainly interhemispheric) coherence. Thus, theta synchronization possibly is a general phenomenon always occurring if task demand increases and more efficient information processing is required. Measurement of EEG coherence yields new information about the neuronal interaction of involved brain regions during memory encoding of different word classes.

  16. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  17. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  18. Patterns of theta oscillation reflect the neural basis of individual differences in epistemic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Mussel, Patrick; Ulrich, Natalie; Allen, John J. B.; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations in the EEG have been shown to reflect ongoing cognitive processes related to mental effort. Here, we show that the pattern of theta oscillation in response to varying cognitive demands reflects stable individual differences in the personality trait epistemic motivation: Individuals with high levels of epistemic motivation recruit relatively more cognitive resources in response to situations possessing high, compared to low, cognitive demand; individuals with low levels do not show such a specific response. Our results provide direct evidence for the theory of the construct need for cognition and add to our understanding of the neural processes underlying theta oscillations. More generally, we provide an explanation how individual differences in personality traits might be represented on a neural level. PMID:27380648

  19. swot: Super W Of Theta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  20. Topographic Differences in the Adolescent Maturation of the Slow Wave EEG during NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Irwin; de Bie, Evan; Davis, Nicole M.; Campbell, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our ongoing longitudinal study has shown that NREM delta (1-4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) power measured at C3 and C4 decrease by more than 60% between ages 11 and 17 years. Here, we investigate the age trajectories of delta and theta power at frontal, central, and occipital electrodes. Design: Baseline sleep EEG was recorded twice yearly for 6 years in 2 cohorts, spanning ages 9-18 years, with overlap at 12-15 years. Setting: Sleep EEG was recorded in the subjects’ homes with ambulatory recorders. Participants: Sixty-seven subjects in 2 cohorts, one starting at age 9 (n = 30) and one at age 12 years (n = 37). Measurements and Results: Sleep EEG recorded from Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and O1 was referred to mastoids. Visual scoring and artifact elimination was followed by FFT power analysis. Delta and theta EEG power declined steeply across this age range. The maturational trajectories of delta power showed a “back to front” pattern, with O1 delta power declining earliest and Fz delta power declining latest. Theta EEG power did not show this topographic difference in the timing of its decline. Delta, and to a lesser extent, theta power became frontally dominant in early adolescence. Conclusions: We maintain our interpretation that the adolescent decline in EEG power reflects a widespread brain reorganization driven by synaptic pruning. The late decline in frontally recorded delta power indicates that plasticity is maintained in these circuits until a later age. Although delta and theta have similar homeostatic properties, they have different age and topographic patterns that imply different functional correlates. Citation: Feinberg I; de Bie E; Davis NM; Campbell IG. Topographic differences in the adolescent maturation of the slow wave EEG during NREM sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(3):325-333. PMID:21358849

  1. Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating pieces of DNA. This article discusses theta plasmid replication, which is a class of circular plasmid replication that includes ColE1-like origins of replication popular with expression vectors. All modalities of theta plasmid replication initiate synthesis with the leading strand at a predetermined site and complete replication through recruitment of the host's replisome, which extends the leading strand continuously while synthesizing the lagging strand discontinuously. There are clear differences between different modalities of theta plasmid replication in mechanisms of DNA duplex melting and in priming of leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. In some replicons duplex melting depends on transcription, while other replicons rely on plasmid-encoded trans-acting proteins (Reps); primers for leading-strand synthesis can be generated through processing of a transcript or in other replicons by the action of host- or plasmid-encoded primases. None of these processes require DNA breaks. The frequency of replication initiation is tightly regulated to facilitate establishment in permissive hosts and to achieve a steady state. The last section of the article reviews how plasmid copy number is sensed and how this feedback modulates the frequency of replication.

  2. Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In humans, theta phase (4-8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM.

  3. Fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization for visual and auditory-verbal working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In humans, theta phase (4–8 Hz) synchronization observed on electroencephalography (EEG) plays an important role in the manipulation of mental representations during working memory (WM) tasks; fronto-temporal synchronization is involved in auditory-verbal WM tasks and fronto-parietal synchronization is involved in visual WM tasks. However, whether or not theta phase synchronization is able to select the to-be-manipulated modalities is uncertain. To address the issue, we recorded EEG data from subjects who were performing auditory-verbal and visual WM tasks; we compared the theta synchronizations when subjects performed either auditory-verbal or visual manipulations in separate WM tasks, or performed both two manipulations in the same WM task. The auditory-verbal WM task required subjects to calculate numbers presented by an auditory-verbal stimulus, whereas the visual WM task required subjects to move a spatial location in a mental representation in response to a visual stimulus. The dual WM task required subjects to manipulate auditory-verbal, visual, or both auditory-verbal and visual representations while maintaining auditory-verbal and visual representations. Our time-frequency EEG analyses revealed significant fronto-temporal theta phase synchronization during auditory-verbal manipulation in both auditory-verbal and auditory-verbal/visual WM tasks, but not during visual manipulation tasks. Similarly, we observed significant fronto-parietal theta phase synchronization during visual manipulation tasks, but not during auditory-verbal manipulation tasks. Moreover, we observed significant synchronization in both the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal theta signals during simultaneous auditory-verbal/visual manipulations. These findings suggest that theta synchronization seems to flexibly connect the brain areas that manipulate WM. PMID:24672496

  4. What can be found in scalp EEG spectrum beyond common frequency bands. EEG-fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marecek, R.; Lamos, M.; Mikl, M.; Barton, M.; Fajkus, J.; I, Rektor; Brazdil, M.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The scalp EEG spectrum is a frequently used marker of neural activity. Commonly, the preprocessing of EEG utilizes constraints, e.g. dealing with a predefined subset of electrodes or a predefined frequency band of interest. Such treatment of the EEG spectrum neglects the fact that particular neural processes may be reflected in several frequency bands and/or several electrodes concurrently, and can overlook the complexity of the structure of the EEG spectrum. Approach. We showed that the EEG spectrum structure can be described by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), a method which blindly uncovers the spatial-temporal-spectral patterns of EEG. We used an algorithm based on variational Bayesian statistics to reveal nine patterns from the EEG of 38 healthy subjects, acquired during a semantic decision task. The patterns reflected neural activity synchronized across theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands and spread over many electrodes, as well as various EEG artifacts. Main results. Specifically, one of the patterns showed significant correlation with the stimuli timing. The correlation was higher when compared to commonly used models of neural activity (power fluctuations in distinct frequency band averaged across a subset of electrodes) and we found significantly correlated hemodynamic fluctuations in simultaneously acquired fMRI data in regions known to be involved in speech processing. Further, we show that the pattern also occurs in EEG data which were acquired outside the MR machine. Two other patterns reflected brain rhythms linked to the attentional and basal ganglia large scale networks. The other patterns were related to various EEG artifacts. Significance. These results show that PARAFAC blindly identifies neural activity in the EEG spectrum and that it naturally handles the correlations among frequency bands and electrodes. We conclude that PARAFAC seems to be a powerful tool for analysis of the EEG spectrum and might bring novel insight to the

  5. The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Anja; Jaušovec, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on resting brain activity and on measures of fluid intelligence. Theta tACS was applied to the left parietal and left frontal brain areas of healthy participants after which resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data was recorded. Following sham/active stimulation, the participants solved two tests of fluid intelligence while their EEG was recorded. The results showed that active theta tACS affected spectral power in theta and alpha frequency bands. In addition, active theta tACS improved performance on tests of fluid intelligence. This influence was more pronounced in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left parietal area than in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left frontal area. Left parietal tACS increased performance on the difficult test items of both tests (RAPM and PF&C) whereas left frontal tACS increased performance only on the easy test items of one test (RAPM). The observed behavioral tACS influences were also accompanied by changes in neuroelectric activity. The behavioral and neuroelectric data tentatively support the P-FIT neurobiological model of intelligence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective Entrainment of Theta Oscillations in the Dorsal Stream Causally Enhances Auditory Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Weiss, Aurélien; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2017-04-05

    The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants' manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli. Rhythmic TMS entrained theta oscillation and boosted participants' accuracy. TMS-induced oscillatory entrainment scaled with behavioral enhancement, and both gains varied with participants' baseline abilities. These effects were not seen for a melody-comparison control task and were not observed for arrhythmic TMS. These data establish theta activity in the dorsal stream as causally related to memory manipulation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  7. Is EEG-biofeedback an effective treatment in autism spectrum disorders? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E J; van Schie, Hein T; Gerrits, Berrie J L; Buitelaar, Jan K; de Moor, Jan M H

    2013-03-01

    EEG-biofeedback has been reported to reduce symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in several studies. However, these studies did not control for nonspecific effects of EEG-biofeedback and did not distinguish between participants who succeeded in influencing their own EEG activity and participants who did not. To overcome these methodological shortcomings, this study evaluated the effects of EEG-biofeedback in ASD in a randomized pretest-posttest control group design with blinded active comparator and six months follow-up. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated to the EEG-biofeedback, skin conductance (SC)-biofeedback or waiting list group. EEG- and SC-biofeedback sessions were similar and participants were blinded to the type of feedback they received. Assessments pre-treatment, post-treatment, and after 6 months included parent ratings of symptoms of ASD, executive function tasks, and 19-channel EEG recordings. Fifty-four percent of the participants significantly reduced delta and/or theta power during EEG-biofeedback sessions and were identified as EEG-regulators. In these EEG-regulators, no statistically significant reductions of symptoms of ASD were observed, but they showed significant improvement in cognitive flexibility as compared to participants who managed to regulate SC. EEG-biofeedback seems to be an applicable tool to regulate EEG activity and has specific effects on cognitive flexibility, but it did not result in significant reductions in symptoms of ASD. An important finding was that no nonspecific effects of EEG-biofeedback were demonstrated.

  8. Machine learning identification of EEG features predicting working memory performance in schizophrenia and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jason K.; Bi, Jinbo; Jiang, Ruhua; Kenney, Joshua G.; Chen, Chi-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background With millisecond-level resolution, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording provides a sensitive tool to assay neural dynamics of human cognition. However, selection of EEG features used to answer experimental questions is typically determined a priori. The utility of machine learning was investigated as a computational framework for extracting the most relevant features from EEG data empirically. Methods Schizophrenia (SZ; n = 40) and healthy community (HC; n = 12) subjects completed a Sternberg Working Memory Task (SWMT) during EEG recording. EEG was analyzed to extract 5 frequency components (theta1, theta2, alpha, beta, gamma) at 4 processing stages (baseline, encoding, retention, retrieval) and 3 scalp sites (frontal-Fz, central-Cz, occipital-Oz) separately for correctly and incorrectly answered trials. The 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) method was used to build EEG classifiers of SWMT trial accuracy (correct vs. incorrect; Model 1) and diagnosis (HC vs. SZ; Model 2). External validity of SVM models was examined in relation to neuropsychological test performance and diagnostic classification using conventional regression-based analyses. Results SWMT performance was significantly reduced in SZ (p < .001). Model 1 correctly classified trial accuracy at 84 % in HC, and at 74 % when cross-validated in SZ data. Frontal gamma at encoding and central theta at retention provided highest weightings, accounting for 76 % of variance in SWMT scores and 42 % variance in neuropsychological test performance across samples. Model 2 identified frontal theta at baseline and frontal alpha during retrieval as primary classifiers of diagnosis, providing 87 % classification accuracy as a discriminant function. Conclusions EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma’s role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. Tests of model performance and cross

  9. Machine learning identification of EEG features predicting working memory performance in schizophrenia and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Jason K; Bi, Jinbo; Jiang, Ruhua; Kenney, Joshua G; Chen, Chi-Ming A

    With millisecond-level resolution, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording provides a sensitive tool to assay neural dynamics of human cognition. However, selection of EEG features used to answer experimental questions is typically determined a priori. The utility of machine learning was investigated as a computational framework for extracting the most relevant features from EEG data empirically. Schizophrenia (SZ; n = 40) and healthy community (HC; n = 12) subjects completed a Sternberg Working Memory Task (SWMT) during EEG recording. EEG was analyzed to extract 5 frequency components (theta1, theta2, alpha, beta, gamma) at 4 processing stages (baseline, encoding, retention, retrieval) and 3 scalp sites (frontal-Fz, central-Cz, occipital-Oz) separately for correctly and incorrectly answered trials. The 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) method was used to build EEG classifiers of SWMT trial accuracy (correct vs. incorrect; Model 1) and diagnosis (HC vs. SZ; Model 2). External validity of SVM models was examined in relation to neuropsychological test performance and diagnostic classification using conventional regression-based analyses. SWMT performance was significantly reduced in SZ (p < .001). Model 1 correctly classified trial accuracy at 84 % in HC, and at 74 % when cross-validated in SZ data. Frontal gamma at encoding and central theta at retention provided highest weightings, accounting for 76 % of variance in SWMT scores and 42 % variance in neuropsychological test performance across samples. Model 2 identified frontal theta at baseline and frontal alpha during retrieval as primary classifiers of diagnosis, providing 87 % classification accuracy as a discriminant function. EEG features derived by SVM are consistent with literature reports of gamma's role in memory encoding, engagement of theta during memory retention, and elevated resting low-frequency activity in schizophrenia. Tests of model performance and cross-validation support the stability and

  10. The utility of EEG band power analysis in the study of infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Saby, Joni N; Marshall, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Research employing electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques with infants and young children has flourished in recent years due to increased interest in understanding the neural processes involved in early social and cognitive development. This review focuses on the functional characteristics of the alpha, theta, and gamma frequency bands in the developing EEG. Examples of how analyses of EEG band power have been applied to specific lines of developmental research are also discussed. These examples include recent work on the infant mu rhythm and action processing, frontal alpha asymmetry and approach-withdrawal tendencies, and EEG power measures in the study of early psychosocial adversity.

  11. The Utility of EEG Band Power Analysis in the Study of Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Joni N.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Research employing electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques with infants and young children has flourished in recent years due to increased interest in understanding the neural processes involved in early social and cognitive development. This review focuses on the functional characteristics of the alpha, theta, and gamma frequency bands in the developing EEG. Examples of how analyses of EEG band power have been applied to specific lines of developmental research are also discussed. These examples include recent work on the infant mu rhythm and action processing, frontal alpha asymmetry and approach-withdrawal tendencies, and EEG power measures in the study of early psychosocial adversity. PMID:22545661

  12. Perception-related EEG is more sensitive to Alzheimer's disease effects than resting EEG.

    PubMed

    Barzegaran, Elham; van Damme, Bart; Meuli, Reto; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on cortical functional connectivity in perception, we analyzed interhemispheric lagged synchronization (ILS) in the source space of high-density EEG recorded in aged controls and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD while they viewed collinear and noncollinear bilateral moving gratings. Beta-band ILS was lower in aMCI and AD compared with controls in a large region centered on BA39. As previously reported, in young adults, collinear iso-oriented gratings versus noncollinear gratings synchronizes EEG reflecting perceptual grouping. Only aged controls showed the expected beta-band ILS increase originating in the dorsal visual stream (BA18). The aMCI group only showed a theta-band increase in an adjacent region (BA19). In AD patients, there was no ILS increase. Regression analysis revealed that the posterior callosal area and EEG slowing predict reduction of beta but not emergence of theta ILS response. Considering that we found no between-group differences in resting ILS, perception-related EEG appears to be more sensitive to AD effects, including ILS signs of neurodegeneration and compensation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Theta/beta ratio (NEBA) in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Palencia-Avendaño, M Luisa; Mogollón-Rincón, Carolina; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2014-02-24

    In July 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of NEBA as the first device for the complementary evaluation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is based on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and includes the standardised theta/beta ratio, the results of which were consistent with both the medical and psychological clinical evaluation. Likewise, it has proved to be a useful tool for determining whether the ADHD is primary, secondary or comorbid to another pathology. Yet, to date no publications have specified whether it is a total theta/beta ratio or theta/beta-1 and theta/beta-2. Additionally, no data are provided to be able to discriminate between diagnostic subtypes of ADHD. To quantify the theta/beta ratios, by means of qEEG, in a sample of patients from the Rio de la Plata area with a main confirmed diagnosis of ADHD, in order to compare the neurophysiological patterns according to the diagnostic subtypes. We used a randomised stratified sample of 62 subjects of both sexes, with ages between 8 and 17 years, distributed into two groups, depending on the diagnostic subtype: attention deficit subtype of ADHD (n = 31) and the combined subtype of ADHD (n = 31). High theta/beta-1 and theta/beta-2 ratios were confirmed in the Cz region, being higher than the ratios in the C3 and C4 areas. Moderate and statistically significant differences were found between the two subtypes only in the beta-1 band in the occipital regions. The analysis of the interhemispheric coherence suggests an association of the power peak crossed with the diagnostic subtype, which is the fastest peak (10 Hz) for the combined subtype. No important differences are found on analysing the phase spectra or the theta/beta ratios. Although the scientific literature, especially the NEBA system, highlights the importance of the theta/beta ratio in the differential diagnosis of ADHD in control samples and other neurodevelopmental disorders, a distinction must be

  14. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  15. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  16. Reliability of quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Rex L; Baldwin, Debora R; Shaw, Tiffany L; Diloreto, Dominic J; Phillips, Sherman M; Scruggs, Annie M; Riehl, Timothy C

    2012-06-14

    There is a growing interest for using quantitative EEG and LORETA current source density in clinical and research settings. Importantly, if these indices are to be employed in clinical settings then the reliability of these measures is of great concern. Neuroguide (Applied Neurosciences) is sophisticated software developed for the analyses of power, and connectivity measures of the EEG as well as LORETA current source density. To date there are relatively few data evaluating topographical EEG reliability contrasts for all 19 channels and no studies have evaluated reliability for LORETA calculations. We obtained 4 min eyes-closed and eyes-opened EEG recordings at 30-day intervals. The EEG was analyzed in Neuroguide and FFT power, coherence and phase was computed for traditional frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) and LORETA current source density was calculated in 1 Hz increments and summed for total power in eight regions of interest (ROI). In order to obtain a robust measure of reliability we utilized a random effects model with an absolute agreement definition. The results show very good reproducibility for total absolute power and coherence. Phase shows lower reliability coefficients. LORETA current source density shows very good reliability with an average 0.81 for ECB and 0.82 for EOB. Similarly, the eight regions of interest show good to very good agreement across time. Implications for future directions and use of qEEG and LORETA in clinical populations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EEG activity in children with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Adam R; Barry, Robert J; Indraratna, Amrit; Dupuy, Franca E; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the EEG power and coherence of children with Asperger's Syndrome. Twenty boys with Asperger's Syndrome, aged 7-12 years, and an age and sex matched control group, participated in this study. The EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting condition from 19 electrode sites, which were clustered into nine regions prior to analysis. One minute of trace was analysed using Fourier transformations to obtain both absolute and relative power estimates in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Wave-shape coherence was calculated for 8 intrahemispheric and 8 interhemispheric electrode pairs. The Asperger's group had a global increase in absolute delta and an anterior increase in relative delta. Both absolute and relative theta were globally increased and relative alpha was globally decreased. Subjects with Asperger's Syndrome exhibited a broad pattern of reduced hemispheric asymmetry in intrahemispheric coherence. Reduced anterior interhemispheric coherence in the alpha and beta bands was also found in the Asperger's Syndrome group. These results suggest the existence of frontal lobe abnormalities in children with Asperger's Syndrome, and possible abnormalities in normal CNS maturational processes. This is the first major study to investigate EEG power and coherence anomalies in children with Asperger's Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational Study of Hippocampal-Septal Theta Rhythm Changes Due to Beta-Amyloid-Altered Ionic Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xin; Coyle, Damien; Wong-Lin, KongFatt; Maguire, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephagraphy (EEG) of many dementia patients has been characterized by an increase in low frequency field potential oscillations. One of the characteristics of early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an increase in theta band power (4–7 Hz). However, the mechanism(s) underlying the changes in theta oscillations are still unclear. To address this issue, we investigate the theta band power changes associated with β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptide (one of the main markers of AD) using a computational model, and by mediating the toxicity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We use an established biophysical hippocampal CA1-medial septum network model to evaluate four ionic channels in pyramidal neurons, which were demonstrated to be affected by Aβ. They are the L-type Ca2+ channel, delayed rectifying K+ channel, A-type fast-inactivating K+ channel and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. Our simulation results demonstrate that only the Aβ inhibited A-type fast-inactivating K+ channel can induce an increase in hippocampo-septal theta band power, while the other channels do not affect theta rhythm. We further deduce that this increased theta band power is due to enhanced synchrony of the pyramidal neurons. Our research may elucidate potential biomarkers and therapeutics for AD. Further investigation will be helpful for better understanding of AD-induced theta rhythm abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits. PMID:21720560

  19. Pentaquark spectroscopy: exotic {theta} baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Giannini, M.M.; Santopinto, E.

    2004-09-13

    We propose a collective stringlike model of q4q-bar pentaquarks with the geometry of an equilateral tetrahedron in which the four quarks are located at the four corners and the antiquark in its center. The nonplanar equilibrium configuration is a consequence of the permutation symmetry of the four quarks. In an application to the spectrum of exotic {theta} baryons, we find that the ground state pentaquark has angular momentum and parity Jp 1/2- and a small magnetic moment of 0.382 {mu}N. The decay width is suppressed by the spatial overlap with the decay products.

  20. Low-frequency theta oscillations in the human hippocampus during real-world and virtual navigation

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Véronique D.; Copara, Milagros S.; Gotman, Jean; Ekstrom, Arne D.

    2017-01-01

    Low-Frequency Oscillations (LFO) in the range of 7–9 Hz, or theta rhythm, has been recorded in rodents ambulating in the real world. However, intra-hippocampus EEG recordings during virtual navigation in humans have consistently reported LFO that appear to predominate around 3–4 Hz. Here we report clear evidence of 7–9 Hz rhythmicity in raw intra-hippocampus EEG traces during real as well as virtual movement. Oscillations typically occur at a lower frequency in virtual than real world navigation. This study highlights the possibility that human and rodent hippocampal EEG activity are not as different as previously reported and this difference may arise, in part, due to the lack of actual movement in previous human navigation studies, which were virtual. PMID:28195129

  1. Low-frequency theta oscillations in the human hippocampus during real-world and virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, Véronique D; Copara, Milagros S; Gotman, Jean; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2017-02-14

    Low-Frequency Oscillations (LFO) in the range of 7-9 Hz, or theta rhythm, has been recorded in rodents ambulating in the real world. However, intra-hippocampus EEG recordings during virtual navigation in humans have consistently reported LFO that appear to predominate around 3-4 Hz. Here we report clear evidence of 7-9 Hz rhythmicity in raw intra-hippocampus EEG traces during real as well as virtual movement. Oscillations typically occur at a lower frequency in virtual than real world navigation. This study highlights the possibility that human and rodent hippocampal EEG activity are not as different as previously reported and this difference may arise, in part, due to the lack of actual movement in previous human navigation studies, which were virtual.

  2. Mathematically gifted adolescents mobilize enhanced workspace configuration of theta cortical network during deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H

    2015-03-19

    Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process.

  3. Index of Alpha/Theta Ratio of the Electroencephalogram: A New Marker for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Magali T.; Kanda, Paulo A. M.; Basile, Luis F. H.; da Silva Lopes, Helder Frederico; Baratho, Regina; Demario, Jose L. C.; Jorge, Mario S.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio; Ianof, Jéssica N.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Anghinah, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated quantitative EEG measures to determine a screening index to discriminate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients from normal individuals. Methods: Two groups of individuals older than 50 years, comprising a control group of 57 normal volunteers and a study group of 50 patients with probable AD, were compared. EEG recordings were obtained from subjects in a wake state with eyes closed at rest for 30 min. Logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Spectral potentials of the alpha and theta bands were computed for all electrodes and the alpha/theta ratio calculated. Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the mean potential of the C3 and O1 electrodes was carried out. A formula was calculated to aid the diagnosis of AD yielding 76.4% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity for AD with an area under the ROC curve of 0.92. Conclusion: Logistic regression of alpha/theta of the spectrum of the mean potential of EEG represents a good marker discriminating AD patients from normal controls. PMID:24130529

  4. Brief executive function training for individuals with severe mental illness: Effects on EEG synchronization and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Best, Michael W; Gale, Daniel; Tran, Tanya; Haque, Mashal K; Bowie, Christopher R

    2017-09-18

    Executive Functioning (EF) is an important factor for community functioning for people with severe mental illness. Cognitive remediation programs often improve EF, but do so by using multiple therapeutic techniques. Little is known regarding how individual treatment elements promote cognitive improvement. Oscillatory brain activity is a potential neurophysiological mechanism that may change as a result of targeted training on computerized exercises. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a brief EF training program on EEG and neurocognitive measures. 25 people with severe mental illness were randomized to either 2weeks of computerized EF training or control training. Training consisted of 1h training sessions 3 times per week and 40min of daily home training. Assessments examined EEG theta and alpha band oscillatory power during EF tasks and neurocognitive measures of EF. EF training resulted in greater frontal theta power and reduced posterior alpha power during computerized EF tasks than control training. Power in the alpha frequency band over frontal electrode sites did not significantly differ between the two groups as a result of training. Additionally, participants in the EF training experienced significantly greater improvement in EF ability as measured by neurocognitive tests than the control condition. Two weeks of EF training is sufficient to produce neurophysiological and neurocognitive change. Frontal theta power and posterior alpha power may be important neurophysiological markers to consider in cognitive remediation studies, and the addition of a brief executive function training procedure to other psychosocial interventions is worth examining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient ischemic attacks: electrophysiological (conventional and topographic EEG) and radiological (CCT) evaluation.

    PubMed

    Madkour, O; Elwan, O; Hamdy, H; Elwan, H; Abbas, A; Taher, M; Abdel-Kader, A

    1993-10-01

    The value of electrophysiological tests: conventional electroencephalography (EEG), topographic EEG analysis as well as computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and evaluation of 25 patients with manifestations of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in the domain of the carotid system was assessed. Normal CT was the rule in TIA patients except in 8% of the cases, where nonspecific changes of brain atrophy were described. Conventional EEG, topographic EEG and spectral analysis could detect abnormalities in 48%, 80% and 64% of TIA cases respectively. None of the abnormal EEG records could be missed by topographic EEG analysis. 32% of the records were diagnosed as abnormal by topographic EEG, while conventional EEG failed to detect abnormalities. Spectral analysis of the EEG results revealed a significant decrease regarding mean high limit alpha percent power, and a significant increase regarding mean low and high limit theta percent power, as well as a significant increase of the mean high limit of the slow activities (delta + theta)/fast activities (alpha + beta) percent power ratio in the TIA group as compared to the normal control group.

  6. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butler, James L; Mendonça, Philipe R F; Robinson, Hugh P C; Paulsen, Ole

    2016-04-13

    Gamma oscillations (30-120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channel rhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65-75 Hz at 32 °C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal-interneuron circuit mechanism. This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. Copyright © 2016 Butler et al.

  7. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James L.; Mendonça, Philipe R. F.; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma oscillations (30–120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo. The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65–75 Hz at 32°C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal–interneuron circuit mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. PMID:27076416

  8. Topographic differences in the adolescent maturation of the slow wave EEG during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Irwin; de Bie, Evan; Davis, Nicole M; Campbell, Ian G

    2011-03-01

    Our ongoing longitudinal study has shown that NREM delta (1-4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) power measured at C3 and C4 decrease by more than 60% between ages 11 and 17 years. Here, we investigate the age trajectories of delta and theta power at frontal, central, and occipital electrodes. Baseline sleep EEG was recorded twice yearly for 6 years in 2 cohorts, spanning ages 9-18 years, with overlap at 12-15 years. Sleep EEG was recorded in the subjects' homes with ambulatory recorders. Sixty-seven subjects in 2 cohorts, one starting at age 9 (n = 30) and one at age 12 years (n = 37). Sleep EEG recorded from Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and O1 was referred to mastoids. Visual scoring and artifact elimination was followed by FFT power analysis. Delta and theta EEG power declined steeply across this age range. The maturational trajectories of delta power showed a "back to front" pattern, with O1 delta power declining earliest and Fz delta power declining latest. Theta EEG power did not show this topographic difference in the timing of its decline. Delta, and to a lesser extent, theta power became frontally dominant in early adolescence. We maintain our interpretation that the adolescent decline in EEG power reflects a widespread brain reorganization driven by synaptic pruning. The late decline in frontally recorded delta power indicates that plasticity is maintained in these circuits until a later age. Although delta and theta have similar homeostatic properties, they have different age and topographic patterns that imply different functional correlates.

  9. EEG activity during cognitive performance in women.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J; Corsi-Cabrera, M; Guevara, M A; Arce, C

    1993-01-01

    EEG activity of 20 female volunteers was monopolarly recorded at P3, P4, C3 and C4 during four resting periods and three series of cognitive tasks: one analytic, one spatial and one demanding analytical and spatial processing or mixed task. Relative power and inter and intrahemispheric correlations were analysed. Beta relative power was significantly higher during the resting periods at the right parietal and the same pattern of asymmetry was maintained during the three series of tasks. Alpha relative power decreased and theta increased during the three series of tasks regardless of their cognitive nature as compared to baseline. Interhemispheric correlation for theta frequencies, and intrahemispheric correlation for the full band were significantly different during task solution. There were no significant differences between left and right intrahemispheric correlations.

  10. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > EEG (Electroencephalogram) A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Electroencefalograma (EEG) What It Is An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a ...

  12. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > EEG (Electroencephalogram) Print A A A What's in this ... Child If You Have Questions en español Electroencefalograma (EEG) What It Is An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a ...

  13. Individualising EEG frequency bands for sleep deprivation studies.

    PubMed

    Henelius, Andreas; Korpela, Jussi; Huotilainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining individualised frequency bands from electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectral density (PSD) plots is presented. EEG was collected during the performance of a computerised multitask test from 21 healthy male subjects, of which an experimental group of 14 subjects underwent sleep deprivation and 7 subjects formed the control group. EEG PSD plots were compared between the groups and were used to determine individual theta, alpha and beta bands for the subjects by studying the points of intersection between the individual subjects' normalised spectra and the normalised average spectrum of the control group. The results show that the frontal and occipital locations are best suited for the determination of individualised frequency bands. The proposed method can be used to enhance EEG spectral analysis of task-induced cognitive effort during sleep deprivation.

  14. Phase-locked theta activity evoked in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities upon hearing own names.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kaori; Karube, Chihiro; Mizuba, Takaaki; Matsufuji, Mayumi; Takashima, Sachio; Iramina, Keiji

    2015-09-01

    Severe motor and intellectual disability (SMID) patients cannot express their feelings with language. Understanding what they are thinking about or how they feel is thus difficult. This study focused on brain responses to hearing their own names to clarify the situation in these patients. We performed and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) for six patients with SMID and eleven healthy subjects. All subjects were presented with auditory stimuli including calling the subject's own name (SON) and reading words. EEG was analyzed by time-frequency analysis, event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) to detect EEG power changes caused by EEG amplitude, and inter-trial coherence (ITC) to investigate phase-locked changes. ERSP results from healthy subjects showed significant theta power increases as a specific response to SON. While we could not identify a similar pattern in the responses of patients with SMID, analysis of ITC revealed that theta phase-locked activity increased in response to SON not only in all healthy subjects, but also in four patients. These results indicate that theta phase-locked activity in some patients with SMID was strongly associated with SON, as in healthy subjects. Our study suggests the existence of specific neural markers that signal an attentional shift in patients upon hearing SON. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hippocampal, amygdala, and neocortical synchronization of theta rhythms is related to an immediate recall during rey auditory verbal learning test.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Mirabella, Giovanni; Buttiglione, Maura; Sebastiano, Fabio; Picardi, Angelo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier P; Grammaldo, Liliana G; Buffo, Paola; Esposito, Vincenzo; Manfredi, Mario; Cantore, Giampaolo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that theta rhythms (3-8 Hz) are the fingerprint of hippocampus, and that neural activity accompanying encoding of words differs according to whether the items are later remembered or forgotten ["subsequent memory effect" (SME)]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that temporal synchronization of theta rhythms among hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex is related to immediate memorization of repeated words. To address this issue, intracerebral electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded in five subjects with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), under presurgical monitoring routine. During the recording of the intracerebral EEG activity, the subjects performed a computerized version of Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), a popular test for the clinical evaluation of the immediate and delayed memory. They heard the same list of 15 common words for five times. Each time, immediately after listening the list, the subjects were required to repeat as many words as they could recall. Spectral coherence of the intracerebral EEG activity was computed in order to assess the temporal synchronization of the theta (about 3-8 Hz) rhythms among hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal-occipital neocortex. We found that theta coherence values between amygdala and hippocampus, and between hippocampus and occipital-temporal cortex, were higher in amplitude during successful than unsuccessful immediate recall. A control analysis showed that this was true also for a gamma band (40-45 Hz). Furthermore, these theta and gamma effects were not observed in an additional (control) subject with drug-resistant TLE and a wide lesion to hippocampus. In conclusion, a successful immediate recall to the RAVLT was associated to the enhancement of temporal synchronization of the theta (gamma) rhythms within a cerebral network including hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal-occipital neocortex. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. EEG spectral power and negative symptoms in at-risk individuals predict transition to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ronan; Gschwandtner, Ute; Wilhelm, Frank H; Pflueger, Marlon O; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Fuhr, Peter

    2010-11-01

    EEG power in the delta, theta and beta1 bands has been shown to be positively correlated with negative symptoms in first episode psychotic patients. The present study investigates this correlation in an "at risk mental state for psychosis" (ARMS) with the aim to improve prediction of transition to psychosis. Thirteen ARMS patients with later transition to psychosis (ARMS-T) and fifteen without (follow-up period of at least 4 years) (ARMS-NT) were investigated using spectral resting EEG data (of 8 electrodes over the fronto-central scalp area placed according to the 10-20 system) and summary score of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Linear regressions were used to evaluate the correlation of SANS and EEG power in seven bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3) in both ARMS groups and logistic regressions were used to predict transition to psychosis. Potentially confounding factors were controlled. ARMS-T and ARMS-NT showed differential correlations of EEG power and SANS in delta, theta, and beta1 bands (p<.05): ARMS-T showed positive and ARMS-NT negative correlations. Logistic regressions showed that neither SANS score nor EEG spectral power alone predicted transition to psychosis. However, SANS score in combination with power in the delta, theta, beta1, and beta2 bands, respectively, predicted transition significantly (p<.03). ARMS-T and ARMS-NT show differential correlations of SANS summary score and EEG power in delta, theta, and beta bands. Prediction of transition to psychosis is possible using combined information from a negative symptom scale and EEG spectral data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and imaging correlates of EEG patterns in hospitalized patients with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Raoul; Stevens, Robert D; Kaplan, Peter W

    2013-04-01

    To identify the relationship between pathologic electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, clinical and neuroradiological abnormalities, and outcome in hospitalized patients with acute encephalopathy. This 5-year cohort study was performed at an academic tertiary care center. EEGs in 154 patients with altered mental status were classified according to five predefined patterns: Isolated continuous slowing of background activity (theta, theta/delta, and delta activity) and patterns with slowing background activity with episodic transients [i.e., triphasic waves (TWs) or frontal intermittent delta activity (FIRDA)]. Clinical characteristics, blood tests and neuroimaging were compared among groups. Associations between EEG patterns and structural and non-structural abnormalities were calculated. Glasgow Outcome Score >3 at discharge was defined as favorable and 1-3 as unfavorable outcome. In multivariable analyses, theta was associated with brain atrophy (OR 2.6, p = 0.020), theta/delta with intracerebral hemorrhages (OR 6.8, p = 0.005), FIRDA with past cerebrovascular accidents (OR 2.7, p = 0.004), TWs with liver or multi-organ failure (OR 6, p = 0.004; OR 4, p = 0.039), and delta activity with alcohol/drug abuse with or without intoxication, and HIV infection (OR 3.8, p = 0.003; OR 9, p = 0.004). TWs were associated with death (OR 4.5, p = 0.005); theta/delta with unfavorable outcomes (OR 2.5, p = 0.033), while patients with FIRDA had favorable outcomes (OR 4.8, p = 0.004). In encephalopathic patients, well-defined EEG patterns are associated with specific pathological conditions and outcomes, suggesting that mechanistic hypotheses underlie these abnormal EEG patterns. To clarify the respective contributions of non-structural and structural abnormalities to encephalopathy reflected in specific EEG patterns, prospective studies using continuous EEG monitoring during the acute onset of encephalopathy are needed.

  18. Local Experience-Dependent Changes in the Wake EEG after Prolonged Wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of “local sleep” in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Design: Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: 16 healthy participants (7 females). Interventions: Two extended wake periods. Measurements and Results: Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Conclusions: Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas. Citation: Hung CS; Sarasso S

  19. Coupling between Theta Oscillations and Cognitive Control Network during Cross-Modal Visual and Auditory Attention: Supramodal vs Modality-Specific Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wuyi; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Lee, Taraz; Grafton, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical theta band oscillations (4–8 Hz) in EEG signals have been shown to be important for a variety of different cognitive control operations in visual attention paradigms. However the synchronization source of these signals as defined by fMRI BOLD activity and the extent to which theta oscillations play a role in multimodal attention remains unknown. Here we investigated the extent to which cross-modal visual and auditory attention impacts theta oscillations. Using a simultaneous EEG-fMRI paradigm, healthy human participants performed an attentional vigilance task with six cross-modal conditions using naturalistic stimuli. To assess supramodal mechanisms, modulation of theta oscillation amplitude for attention to either visual or auditory stimuli was correlated with BOLD activity by conjunction analysis. Negative correlation was localized to cortical regions associated with the default mode network and positively with ventral premotor areas. Modality-associated attention to visual stimuli was marked by a positive correlation of theta and BOLD activity in fronto-parietal area that was not observed in the auditory condition. A positive correlation of theta and BOLD activity was observed in auditory cortex, while a negative correlation of theta and BOLD activity was observed in visual cortex during auditory attention. The data support a supramodal interaction of theta activity with of DMN function, and modality-associated processes within fronto-parietal networks related to top-down theta related cognitive control in cross-modal visual attention. On the other hand, in sensory cortices there are opposing effects of theta activity during cross-modal auditory attention. PMID:27391013

  20. The neurophysiological bases of EEG and EEG measurement: a review for the rest of us.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alice F; Bolger, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the EEG signal and its measurement is necessary to produce high quality data and to draw accurate conclusions from those data. However, publications that discuss relevant topics are written for divergent audiences with specific levels of expertise: explanations are either at an abstract level that leaves readers with a fuzzy understanding of the electrophysiology involved, or are at a technical level that requires mastery of the relevant physics to understand. A clear, comprehensive review of the origin and measurement of EEG that bridges these high and low levels of explanation fills a critical gap in the literature and is necessary for promoting better research practices and peer review. The present paper addresses the neurophysiological source of EEG, propagation of the EEG signal, technical aspects of EEG measurement, and implications for interpretation of EEG data.

  1. Transcranial Electrical Currents to Probe EEG Brain Rhythms and Memory Consolidation during Sleep in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Lisa; Kirov, Roumen; Brade, Julian; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previously the application of a weak electric anodal current oscillating with a frequency of the sleep slow oscillation (∼0.75 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) sleep boosted endogenous slow oscillation activity and enhanced sleep-associated memory consolidation. The slow oscillations occurring during NonREM sleep and theta oscillations present during REM sleep have been considered of critical relevance for memory formation. Here transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) oscillating at 5 Hz, i.e., within the theta frequency range (theta-tDCS) is applied during NonREM and REM sleep. Theta-tDCS during NonREM sleep produced a global decrease in slow oscillatory activity conjoint with a local reduction of frontal slow EEG spindle power (8–12 Hz) and a decrement in consolidation of declarative memory, underlining the relevance of these cortical oscillations for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In contrast, during REM sleep theta-tDCS appears to increase global gamma (25–45 Hz) activity, indicating a clear brain state-dependency of theta-tDCS. More generally, results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies. PMID:21340034

  2. Modification of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity in autobiographical memory: a sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.

  3. Traveling Theta Waves in the Human Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honghui

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal theta oscillation is strongly correlated with behaviors such as memory and spatial navigation, but we do not understand its specific functional role. One hint of theta's function came from the discovery in rodents that theta oscillations are traveling waves that allow parts of the hippocampus to simultaneously exhibit separate oscillatory phases. Because hippocampal theta oscillations in humans have different properties compared with rodents, we examined these signals directly using multielectrode recordings from neurosurgical patients. Our findings confirm that human hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, but also show that these oscillations appear at a broader range of frequencies compared with rodents. Human traveling waves showed a distinctive pattern of spatial propagation such that there is a consistent phase spread across the hippocampus regardless of the oscillations' frequency. This suggests that traveling theta oscillations are important functionally in humans because they coordinate phase coding throughout the hippocampus in a consistent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time in humans that hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, moving along the length of the hippocampus in a posterior–anterior direction. The existence of these traveling theta waves is important for understanding hippocampal neural coding because they cause neurons at separate positions in the hippocampus to experience different theta phases simultaneously. The theta phase that a neuron measures is a key factor in how that cell represents behavioral information. Therefore, the existence of traveling theta waves indicates that, to fully understand how a hippocampal neuron represents information, it is vital to also account for that cell's location in addition to conventional measures of neural activity. PMID:26354915

  4. Emotion classification using single-channel scalp-EEG recording.

    PubMed

    Jalilifard, Amir; Brigante Pizzolato, Ednaldo; Kafiul Islam, Md

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have found evidence for corticolimbic Theta electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation in the neural processing of visual stimuli perceived as fear or threatening scene. Recent studies showed that neural oscillations' patterns in Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma sub-bands play a main role in brain's emotional processing. The main goal of this study is to classify two different emotional states by means of EEG data recorded through a single-electrode EEG headset. Nineteen young subjects participated in an EEG experiment while watching a video clip that evoked three emotional states: neutral, relaxation and scary. Following each video clip, participants were asked to report on their subjective affect by giving a score between 0 to 10. First, recorded EEG data were preprocessed by stationary wavelet transform (SWT) based denoising to remove artifacts. Afterward, the distribution of power in time-frequency space was obtained using short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and then, the mean value of energy was calculated for each EEG sub-band. Finally, 46 features, as the mean energy of frequency bands between 4 and 50 Hz, containing 689 instances - for each subject -were collected in order to classify the emotional states. Our experimental results show that EEG dynamics induced by horror and relaxing movies can be classified with average classification rate of 92% using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We also compared the performance of SVM to K-nearest neighbors (K-NN). The results show that K-NN achieves a better classification rate by 94% accuracy. The findings of this work are expected to pave the way to a new horizon in neuroscience by proving the point that only single-channel EEG data carry enough information for emotion classification.

  5. Effect of diazepam on EEG power and coherent activity: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Romano-Torres, M; Borja-Lascurain, E; Chao-Rebolledo, C; del-Río-Portilla, Y; Corsi-Cabrera, M

    2002-10-01

    Benzodiazepine-steroid interactions and sex differences in brain and circulating levels of gonadal steroids, lead to hypothesized differential effects of DZ on EEG in women and men. Coherent activity has been shown to be relevant for binding information into global percepts therefore diazepam effects on EEG correlation and sex differences were assessed in a double-blind crossover study. Healthy males (9) and females (9) received a single-dose (5 mg) of diazepam or placebo. EEG was recorded with eyes open (FP1, FP2, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2) before and 2 h after drug administration in two counterbalanced sessions. DZ selectively increased delta and theta EEG correlation among frontal regions and decreased it between right parieto-occipital (theta) and fronto-central regions (alpha2) in addition to an increase in beta2 interhemispheric correlation in men and women. Men showed increased beta1 interhemispheric correlation, decreased alpha1 and increased beta power; women showed in addition, decreased theta and alpha2 power. theta rhythm was more sensitive to DZ in women, whereas interhemispheric correlation was more affected in men. DZ had a sexually dimorphic effect on waking EEG and a disrupting effect on coherent activity, increasing balance among frontal regions and decreasing temporal coupling between anterior-posterior regions. These sex differences might be related to differences in brain organization and activational effects of female gonadal steroids which are higher in women than in men.

  6. Working memory performance inversely predicts spontaneous delta and theta-band scaling relations.

    PubMed

    Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E

    2016-04-15

    Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Memory load and display polarity in visual search performance and EEG response.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tam; Hsu, Hsin-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Electroencephalogram measures have frequently been shown to be highly sensitive to variations in task conditions; however, research on the effects of memory load on EEG response and Visual Display Terminal (VDT) performance is lacking. Data from 19 college students were analyzed for effects of memory load and polarity on VDT performance. Included also were modulation of the EEG distribution around the cerebrum, the inferred source of operation of working memory and comprehension. Analyses indicated that the effects of memory load on finish time were statistically significant. The theta band at FP1 and FP2 had larger change in power than at T6, showing a large effect between memory load and frontal lobe function. This experiment on polarity and EEG response indicated the power change in the theta band was stronger for positive contrast than negative; however, the polarity of the display had no statistically significant effect on EEG response.

  8. Event-related EEG time-frequency analysis and the Orienting Reflex to auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Steiner, Genevieve Z; De Blasio, Frances M

    2012-06-01

    Sokolov's classic works discussed electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha desynchronization as a measure of the Orienting Reflex (OR). Early studies confirmed that this reduced with repeated auditory stimulation, but without reliable stimulus-significance effects. We presented an auditory habituation series with counterbalanced indifferent and significant (counting) instructions. Time-frequency analysis of electrooculogram (EOG)-corrected EEG was used to explore prestimulus levels and the timing and amplitude of event-related increases and decreases in 4 classic EEG bands. Decrement over trials and response recovery were substantial for the transient increase (in delta, theta, and alpha) and subsequent desynchronization (in theta, alpha, and beta). There was little evidence of dishabituation and few effects of counting. Expected effects in stimulus-induced alpha desynchronization were confirmed. Two EEG response patterns over trials and conditions, distinct from the full OR pattern, warrant further research.

  9. EEG in adolescent anorexia nervosa: impact of refeeding and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Ainslie; Madden, Sloane; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Touyz, Stephen; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2011-01-01

    To examine resting awake EEG in adolescent AN participants before and after refeeding to determine if EEG abnormalities in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are reversible. In 37 adolescent first admission AN patients and 45 healthy controls, EEG was recorded during short duration "eyes open" and "eyes closed" awake resting conditions. Repeat testing occurred in 28 AN participants after refeeding and subsequent weight gain. In "eyes open," underweight AN participants exhibit reduced relative alpha power and increased beta power in frontal brain regions. A significant increase in alpha, and decrease in beta and delta power was observed within participants after refeeding. In "eyes closed", underweight AN participants had elevated theta in parietal-occipital regions which remained after refeeding. EEG abnormalities (reduced alpha/increased beta power) in AN normalizes with refeeding, while increased theta power persists in parietal-occipital regions in an eyes closed context. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. EEG based image encryption via quantum walks.

    PubMed

    Rawat, N; Shin, Y; Balasingham, I

    2016-08-01

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) based image encryption combined with Quantum walks (QW) is encoded in Fresnel domain. The computational version of EEG randomizes the original plaintext whereas QW can serve as an excellent key generator due to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. First, a spatially coherent monochromatic laser beam passes through an SLM, which introduces an arbitrary EEG phase-only mask. The modified beam is collected by a CCD. Further, the intensity is multiply with the QW digitally. EEG shows high sensitivity to system parameters and capable of encrypting and transmitting the data whereas QW has unpredictability, stability and non-periodicity. Only applying the correct keys, the original image can be retrieved successfully. Simulations and comparisons show the proposed method to be secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. The proposed method opens the door towards introducing EEG and quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between our approach and image processing.

  11. EEG manifestations of nondual experiences in meditators.

    PubMed

    Berman, Amanda E; Stevens, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The holistic experiential benefits of meditation among a widely ranging population have been well established within the empirical literature. What remain less clear are the underlying mechanisms of the meditative process. A large impediment to this clarity is attributable to the lack of a unified and comprehensive taxonomy, as well as to the absence of clear differentiation within the literature between method of practice and resulting state. The present study discusses and then attempts to identify within our sample a theoretically universal culminating meditative state known as Nondual Awareness, which is differentiated from the method or practice state. Participants completed an in-lab meditation, during which neurological patterns were analyzed using electroencephalography (EEG). Analyses indicated significantly higher EEG power among slower wave frequencies (delta, theta, alpha) during the reported nondual events. These events appear neurologically distinct from meditation sessions as a whole, which interestingly demonstrated significant elevation within the gamma range.

  12. Reduction Formulae for Products of Theta Functions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    In four cases it is already known that the product of two distinct Jacobian theta functions having the same variable z and the same nome q is a multiple of a single Jacobian theta function, with the multiple independent of z. The main purpose of the present note is to show that this property also applies in the remaining two cases. PMID:26900529

  13. Photographic observations of Theta-1 Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Gull, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    Photographic observations of the eclipsing binary Theta-1 Ori A suggest a secondary minimum near phase 0.64 of its 65.43233-day period. This minimum may be wavelength dependent. The star Theta-1 Ori E is suspected of being variable.

  14. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  15. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  16. Prognostic value of EEG in different etiological types of coma.

    PubMed

    Khaburzania, M; Beridze, M

    2013-06-01

    Study aimed at evaluation of prognostic value of standard EEG in different etiology of coma and the influence of etiological factor on the EEG patterns and coma outcome. Totally 175 coma patients were investigated. Patients were evaluated by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), clinically and by 16 channel electroencephalography. Auditory evoked potentials studied by EEG -regime for evoked potentials in patients with vegetative state (VS). Patients divided in 8 groups according to coma etiology. All patients were studied for photoreaction, brainstem reflexes, localization of sound and pain, length of coma state and outcome. Brain injury visualized by conventional CT. Outcome defined as death, VS, recovery with disability and without disability. Disability was rated by Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Recovered patients assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. From 175 coma patients 55 patients died, 23 patients found in VS, 97 patients recovered with and without disability. In all etiological groups of coma the background EEG patterns were established. Correspondence analysis of all investigated factors revealed that sound localization had the significant association with EEG delta and theta rhythms and with recovery from coma state (Chi-sqr. =31.10493; p= 0.000001). Among 23 VS patients 9 patients had the signs of MCS and showed the long latency waves (p300) after binaural stimulation. The high amplitude theta frequencies in frontal and temporal lobes significantly correlated with prolongation of latency of cognitive evoked potentials (r=+0.47; p<0.01). Etiological factor had the significant effect on EEG patterns' association with coma outcome only in hemorrhagic and traumatic coma (chi-sqr.=12.95; p<0.005; chi-sqr.=7.92; p<0.03 respectively). Significant correlations established between the delta and theta EEG patterns and coma outcome. Low amplitude decreased power delta and theta frequencies correlated with SND in survived

  17. Sex differences between the combined and inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Franca E; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences between the EEGs of Combined and Inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) within boys and girls aged 8-12 years. Subject groups included 80 AD/HD Combined type (40 boys and 40 girls), 80 AD/HD Inattentive type (40 boys and 40 girls) and 80 controls (40 boys and 40 girls). An eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands, as well as total power and the theta/beta ratio. The boy AD/HD groups, compared with boy controls, had greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, reduced absolute and relative alpha, and reduced absolute and relative beta. The girl AD/HD groups, compared with girl controls, had greater absolute delta, greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, greater total power, and reduced relative delta and relative beta. Between AD/HD types, Combined type boys had globally greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, and less relative alpha than Inattentive type boys. While topographical differences emerged, there were no significant global differences between AD/HD types in girls. That is, EEG differences between AD/HD types are dissimilar in boys and girls. Different EEG maturational patterns between boys and girls also obscure AD/HD-related EEG abnormalities. These results have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD in girls. Ignoring such sex differences may have compromised the value of previous AD/HD investigations, and these sex differences should be recognised in future research.

  18. The effect of a single session of short duration heart rate variability biofeedback on EEG: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Gabriell E; Rauch, H G Laurie; Karpul, David; Derman, Wayne E

    2013-03-01

    This pilot study examines the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on measures of electroencephalogram (EEG) during and immediately after biofeedback. Eighteen healthy males exposed to work-related stress, were randomised into an HRV biofeedback (BIO) or a comparative group (COM). EEG was recorded during the intervention and during rest periods before and after the intervention. Power spectral density in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands and theta/beta ratios were calculated. During the intervention, the BIO group had higher relative theta power [Fz and Pz (p < 0.01), Cz (p < 0.05)], lower fronto-central relative beta power (p < 0.05), and higher theta/beta [Fz and Cz (p < 0.01), Pz (p < 0.05)] than the COM group. The groups showed different responses after the intervention with increased posterior theta/beta (p < 0.05) in the BIO group and altered posterior relative theta (p < 0.05), central relative beta (p = 0.06) and central-posterior theta/beta (p < 0.01) in the post-intervention rest period. The findings of this study suggest that a single session of HRV biofeedback after a single training session was associated with changes in EEG suggestive of increased internal attention and relaxation both during and after the intervention. However, the comparative intervention was associated with changes suggestive of increased mental effort and possible anxiety during and after the intervention.

  19. A comparison of the power spectral density of scalp EEG and subjacent electrocorticograms.

    PubMed

    Petroff, Ognen A; Spencer, Dennis D; Goncharova, Irina I; Zaveri, Hitten P

    2016-02-01

    Our study investigated the effects of the intact skull on background EEG rhythms recorded simultaneously by subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) and scalp EEG. We performed a retrospective analysis of twenty patients undergoing intracranial EEG monitoring. EEG and ECoG were recorded simultaneously from the central and occipital scalp and subjacent subdural electrodes removed (median 46 mm, interquartile 27-65) from the craniotomy. The power spectral density (PSD) of artifact-free EEG and ECoG segments and ratio of the scalp EEG to subjacent ECoG PSD was calculated. Overall both ECoG and scalp EEG power decreased by over three orders of magnitude from delta to gamma frequency band with an empirical inverse power relationship. The ratio of scalp EEG to ECoG PSD decreased across the delta and theta frequency bands, remained the same across the alpha, beta and low gamma bands, but increased at the higher frequency bands. EEG PSD mirrored changes in ECoG PSD across the frequency bands. As ECoG power continued to decrease above 42 Hz, extracranial voltage sources contributed to a greater fraction of scalp EEG power. Monitoring the gamma frequency band using scalp EEG was limited by low power on ECoG and masking by extracranial voltage sources. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Go-Eun; Yun, Jong-Min; Yang, Seung-Bum; Kang, Yeonseok; Kang, Hyung-Won; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Junbeom; Kwon, O Sang; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jae-Hyo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the "closed-eye" state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS).

  1. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the “closed-eye” state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:28484506

  2. Concurrent working memory task decreases the Stroop interference effect as indexed by the decreased theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tang, D; Hu, L; Zhang, L; Hitchman, G; Wang, L; Chen, A

    2014-03-14

    Working memory (WM) tasks may increase or decrease the interference effect of concurrently performed cognitive control tasks. However, the neural oscillatory correlates of this modulation effect of WM on the Stroop task are still largely unknown. In the present study, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 32 healthy participants during their performance of the single Stroop task and the same task with a concurrent WM task. We observed that the Stroop interference effect represented in both response times (RTs) and theta-band event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) magnitude reduced under the dual-task condition compared with the single-task condition. The reduction of interference in theta-band ERSP was further positively correlated with interference reduction in RTs, and was mainly explained by the source in the left middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the effect of concurrent WM tasks on the reduction of the Stroop interference effect can be indexed by EEG oscillations in theta-band rhythm in the centro-frontal regions and this modulation was mediated by the reduced cognitive control under the concurrent WM task. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EEG and ERP assessment of normal aging.

    PubMed

    Polich, J

    1997-05-01

    EEG was recorded from 120 normal adult subjects who ranged in age from 20 to 80+ years in separate eyes open/closed conditions. The P3(00) event-related brain potential (ERP) was elicited with auditory and visual stimuli in separate conditions in the same subjects. Spectral analysis indicated that overall EEG power decreased as subject age increased. P3 amplitude decreased and peak latency increased for both the auditory and visual stimulus conditions as subject age increased. Few age-related differences were observed for the N1, P2, or N2 components. Spectral power from the delta, theta, and alpha bands correlated positively with P3 amplitude across subject age, but mean band frequency demonstrated only weak associations with P3 latency. No strong relationships were found between EEG and the other ERP component variables. The results suggest that age contributes to EEG power shifts, and that such changes significantly affect age-related variability of the P3 ERP component.

  4. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory.

  5. EEG coherence: topography and frequency structure.

    PubMed

    Chorlian, David Balin; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2009-09-01

    Topographical patterns of bipolar EEG coherence are frequency specific, indicating the presence of diverse neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors in EEG production. Bipolar EEG coherence values were calculated at 50 frequency bins ranging from 3 to 28 Hz for 39 coherence pairs. Data were derived from 4.25 min of resting EEG obtained from 106 healthy adult male subjects and analyzed in 0.5 Hz bins by Fourier transform methods. Frequency bands were clearly separated at 8.5 and 13 Hz, with a less distinct separations at 6 and 20 Hz. Within pair (non-topographic) and across pair (topographic), measures gave similar patterns of separation. Significant pathways were primarily anterior-posterior interhemispheric or perpendicular to the anterior-posterior axis. There was little difference between left and right for comparable pairs. Theta band coherent activity involves distinct midline and temporal sources, with temporal sources showing anterior/posterior differentiation. In contrast, alpha activity has a distinct posterior focus, while beta activity shows no clear global structure. A spatially homogeneous model based on characteristics of thalamocortical connectivity accounts for much of the data, but departures from the model indicate the contribution of other neural factors to coherence.

  6. Electroencephalograph (EEG) study on self-contemplating image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2016-05-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the most widely used electrophysiological monitoring methods and plays a significant role in studies of human brain electrical activities. Default mode network (DMN), is a functional connection of brain regions that are activated while subjects are not in task positive state or not focused on the outside world. In this study, EEG was used for human brain signals recording while all subjects were asked to sit down quietly on a chair with eyes closed and thinking about some parts of their own body, such as left and right hands, left and right ears, lips, nose, and the images of faces that they were familiar with as well as doing some simple mathematical calculation. The time is marker when the image is formed in the subject's mind. By analyzing brain activity maps 300ms right before the time marked instant for each of the 4 wave bands, Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta waves. We found that for most EEG datasets during this 300ms, Delta wave activity would mostly locate at the frontal lobe or the visual cortex, and the change and movement of activities are slow. Theta wave activity tended to rotate along the edge of cortex either clockwise or counterclockwise. Beta wave behaved like inquiry types of oscillations between any two regions spread over the cortex. Alpha wave activity looks like a mix of the Theta and Beta activities but more close to Theta activity. From the observation we feel that Beta and high Alpha are playing utility role for information inquiry. Theta and low Alpha are likely playing the role of binding and imagination formation in DMN operations.

  7. EEG and functional ultrasound imaging in mobile rats

    PubMed Central

    Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Tiran, Elodie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Cohen, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated experimental framework which extends the brain exploration capabilities of functional ultrasound imaging to awake/mobile animals. In addition to hemodynamic data, this method further allows parallel access to EEG recordings of neuronal activity. This approach is illustrated with two proofs of concept: first, a behavioral study, concerning theta rhythm activation in a maze running task and, second, a disease-related study concerning spontaneous epileptic seizures. PMID:26237228

  8. Dynamics of EEG functional connectivity during statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Janacsek, Karolina; Takács, Ádám; Kóbor, Andrea; Zavecz, Zsófia; Nemeth, Dezso

    2017-10-01

    Statistical learning is a fundamental mechanism of the brain, which extracts and represents regularities of our environment. Statistical learning is crucial in predictive processing, and in the acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Although previous studies have revealed competitive neurocognitive processes underlying statistical learning, the neural communication of the related brain regions (functional connectivity, FC) has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating FC networks that promote statistical learning in humans. Young adults (N=28) performed a statistical learning task while 128-channels EEG was acquired. The task involved probabilistic sequences, which enabled to measure incidental/implicit learning of conditional probabilities. Phase synchronization in seven frequency bands was used to quantify FC between cortical regions during the first, second, and third periods of the learning task, respectively. Here we show that statistical learning is negatively correlated with FC of the anterior brain regions in slow (theta) and fast (beta) oscillations. These negative correlations increased as the learning progressed. Our findings provide evidence that dynamic antagonist brain networks serve a hallmark of statistical learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wavelet entropy analysis of event-related potentials indicates modality-independent theta dominance.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Rosso, Osvaldo A; Schürmann, Martin; Sakowitz, Oliver W; Ozgören, Murat; Basar, Erol

    2002-05-30

    Sensory/cognitive stimulation elicits multiple electroencephalogram (EEG)-oscillations that may be partly or fully overlapping over the time axis. To evaluate co-existent multi-frequency oscillations, EEG responses to unimodal (auditory or visual) and bimodal (combined auditory and visual) stimuli were analyzed by applying a new method called wavelet entropy (WE). The method is based on the wavelet transform (WT) and quantifies entropy of short segments of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For each modality, a significant transient decrease of WE emerged in the post-stimulus EEG epoch indicating a highly-ordered state in the ERP. WE minimum was always determined by a prominent dominance of theta (4-8 Hz) ERP components over other frequency bands. Event-related 'transition to order' was most pronounced and stable at anterior electrodes, and after bimodal stimulation. Being consistently observed across different modalities, a transient theta-dominated state may reflect a processing stage that is obligatory for stimulus evaluation, during which interfering activations from other frequency networks are minimized.

  10. Nicotine induction of theta frequency oscillations in rodent hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, C B; Henderson, Z

    2010-03-10

    The hippocampus is an area important for learning and memory and exhibits prominent and behaviourally relevant theta (4-12 Hz) and gamma (30-100 Hz) frequency oscillations in vivo. Hippocampal slices produce similar types of oscillatory activity in response to bath-application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists. The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) provides both a cholinergic and GABAergic projection to the hippocampus, and although it plays a major role in the generation and maintenance of the hippocampal theta rhythm in vivo, there is evidence for intrinsic theta generation mechanisms in the hippocampus, especially in area CA3. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) in the induction of oscillatory field activity in the in vitro preparation of the rat hippocampus. Bath-application of a low concentration of nicotine (1 muM) to transversely-cut hippocampal slices produced persistent theta-frequency oscillations in area CA3 of the hippocampus. These oscillations were reduced by both GABA(A) receptor antagonists and ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, indicating the involvement of local GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the production of the rhythmic theta activity. The nicotine-induced theta activity was inhibited by non-selective nAChR antagonists and partially by an alpha7* nAChR antagonist. The induction of theta frequency oscillations in CA3 by nicotine was mimicked alpha7* nAChR agonists but not by non-alpha7* nAChR agonists. In conclusion, theta activity in the hippocampus may be promoted by tonic stimulation of alpha7* nAChRs, possibly via selective stimulation of theta-preferring interneurons in the hippocampus that express post-synaptic alpha7* nAChRs.

  11. An Alpha and Theta Intensive and Short Neurofeedback Protocol for Healthy Aging Working-Memory Training

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Portugal, Ana Maria; Fernandes, Luís; Afonso, Nuno; Pereira, Mariana; Sousa, Nuno; Dias, Nuno S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the effects of an intensive and short alpha and theta neurofeedback (NF) protocol in working memory (WM) performance in a healthy elder population and explored the effects of a multimodal approach, by supplementing NF with cognitive tasks. Participants were allocated to four groups: NF (N = 9); neurofeedback supplemented with cognitive training (NFCT) (N = 8); cognitive training (CT) (N = 7) and sham neurofeedback (Sham-NF) (N = 6). The intervention consisted in 30-min sessions for 8 days. The NF group presented post intervention increases of alpha and theta relative power as well as performance in the matrix rotation task. In addition, a successful up training of frontal theta showed positive correlation with an improvement of post-training alpha and a better performance in the matrix rotation task. The results presented herein suggest that an intensive and short NF protocol enables elders to learn alpha and theta self-modulation and already presents moderate improvements in cognition and basal EEG. Also, CT group showed moderate performance gains on the cognitive tasks used during the training sessions but no clear improvements on neurophysiology and behavioral measurements were observed. This study represents a first attempt to study the effects of an intensive and short NF protocol in WM performance of elders. The evidence presented here suggests that an intensive and short NF intervention could be a valid alternative for introduction of older populations to NF methodologies. PMID:27458369

  12. An Alpha and Theta Intensive and Short Neurofeedback Protocol for Healthy Aging Working-Memory Training.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Portugal, Ana Maria; Fernandes, Luís; Afonso, Nuno; Pereira, Mariana; Sousa, Nuno; Dias, Nuno S

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the effects of an intensive and short alpha and theta neurofeedback (NF) protocol in working memory (WM) performance in a healthy elder population and explored the effects of a multimodal approach, by supplementing NF with cognitive tasks. Participants were allocated to four groups: NF (N = 9); neurofeedback supplemented with cognitive training (NFCT) (N = 8); cognitive training (CT) (N = 7) and sham neurofeedback (Sham-NF) (N = 6). The intervention consisted in 30-min sessions for 8 days. The NF group presented post intervention increases of alpha and theta relative power as well as performance in the matrix rotation task. In addition, a successful up training of frontal theta showed positive correlation with an improvement of post-training alpha and a better performance in the matrix rotation task. The results presented herein suggest that an intensive and short NF protocol enables elders to learn alpha and theta self-modulation and already presents moderate improvements in cognition and basal EEG. Also, CT group showed moderate performance gains on the cognitive tasks used during the training sessions but no clear improvements on neurophysiology and behavioral measurements were observed. This study represents a first attempt to study the effects of an intensive and short NF protocol in WM performance of elders. The evidence presented here suggests that an intensive and short NF intervention could be a valid alternative for introduction of older populations to NF methodologies.

  13. Reduced Parahippocampal Theta Activity During Spatial Navigation in Low, but Not in High Elderly Performers.

    PubMed

    Lithfous, Ségolène; Dufour, André; Bouix, Cloé; Pebayle, Thierry; Després, Olivier

    2017-06-29

    Cognitive aging varies widely among individuals. Whereas optimal cognitive agers show highly preserved cognitive functions throughout life, other subjects experience cognitive deficits in various cognitive domains. Among them, elderly individuals frequently report difficulties in spatial navigation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether elderly participants with different cognitive profiles would perform differently at a navigation task, and explore underlying medial hippocampal activity. Two groups of elderly subjects were selected, high- and low-performing (HP and LP, respectively), based on their performance on a detailed neuropsychological examination. A group of young adults was recruited as controls. Cerebral activity was recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) during a virtual navigation task in which participants had 3 trials to find their way in mazes. We analyzed theta activity during navigation in the mazes and performed source reconstruction analyses. The LP group was less accurate than the HP group during the navigation task. Theta activity during navigation was greater in HP subjects compared with controls, whereas that theta activity was reduced in LP subjects. Moreover, theta activity in the left parahippocampal gyrus increased across trials in HP, but not in LP, subjects. Elderly participants performed differently at a navigation task according to their cognitive profile: elderly with cognitive deficits seem to have greater difficulties in spatial navigation than HP elderly. Navigational difficulties in elderly with cognitive deficits might be related to functional alteration of the parahippocampal gyrus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  15. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  16. Electroencephalograph (EEG) study of brain bistable illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2015-05-01

    Bistable illusion reflects two different kinds of interpretations for a single image, which is currently known as a competition between two groups of antagonism of neurons. Recent research indicates that these two groups of antagonism of neurons express different comprehension, while one group is emitting a pulse, the other group will be restrained. On the other hand, when this inhibition mechanism becomes weaker, the other antagonism neurons group will take over the interpretation. Since attention plays key roles controlling cognition, is highly interesting to find the location and frequency band used by brain (with either top-down or bottom-up control) to reach deterministic visual perceptions. In our study, we used a 16-channel EEG system to record brain signals from subjects while conducting bistable illusion testing. An extra channel of the EEG system was used for temporal marking. The moment when subjects reach a perception switch, they click the channel and mark the time. The recorded data were presented in form of brain electrical activity map (BEAM) with different frequency bands for analysis. It was found that the visual cortex in the on the right side between parietal and occipital areas was controlling the switching of perception. In the periods with stable perception, we can constantly observe all the delta, theta, alpha and beta waves. While the period perception is switching, almost all theta, alpha, and beta waves were suppressed by delta waves. This result suggests that delta wave may control the processing of perception switching.

  17. Neural mechanisms of infant learning: differences in frontal theta activity during object exploration modulate subsequent object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Begus, Katarina; Southgate, Victoria; Gliga, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Investigating learning mechanisms in infancy relies largely on behavioural measures like visual attention, which often fail to predict whether stimuli would be encoded successfully. This study explored EEG activity in the theta frequency band, previously shown to predict successful learning in adults, to directly study infants' cognitive engagement, beyond visual attention. We tested 11-month-old infants (N = 23) and demonstrated that differences in frontal theta-band oscillations, recorded during infants' object exploration, predicted differential subsequent recognition of these objects in a preferential-looking test. Given that theta activity is modulated by motivation to learn in adults, these findings set the ground for future investigation into the drivers of infant learning. PMID:26018832

  18. Effects of organophosphates on rabbit pyramidal cells firing pattern and hippocampal theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Nio, J; Breton, P

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) antagonist paraoxon (Px) on hippocampal neurophysiology were investigated and compared to those of physostigmine in urethane-anaesthetized rabbits. Hippocampal CA1 EEG signals were analyzed by power spectra. Following intracarotid administration, the two drugs induced a similar fundamental low-frequency theta power peak while the appearance of a second theta harmonic was commonly found under Px. Again, inhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells firing was significantly more pronounced after Px injection than after physostigmine. A potent inhibitory action was also described following local Px iontophoretic application. However, a discrepancy appeared between the effects of Px and the classical cholinergic drugs (acetylcholine, physostigmine). The results indicate that Px and physostigmine have a rather similar influence on the septo-hippocampal pathway and support suggestions that Px could act within local hippocampal circuitry through other systems than the cholinergic system exclusively.

  19. Altered resting-state EEG source functional connectivity in schizophrenia: the effect of illness duration

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Daverio, Andrea; Ferrentino, Fabiola; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Ciabattini, Fabio; Monaco, Leonardo; Lisi, Giulia; Barone, Ylenia; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Niolu, Cinzia; Seri, Stefano; Siracusano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome, studies of resting-state EEG Source Functional Connectivity (EEG-SFC) in people affected by schizophrenia are sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate resting-state EEG-SFC in 77 stable, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared to 78 healthy volunteers (HV). In order to study the effect of illness duration, SCZ were divided in those with a short duration of disease (SDD; n = 25) and those with a long duration of disease (LDD; n = 52). Resting-state EEG recordings in eyes closed condition were analyzed and lagged phase synchronization (LPS) indices were calculated for each ROI pair in the source-space EEG data. In delta and theta bands, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC than HV; a higher theta band connectivity in frontal regions was observed in LDD compared with SDD. In the alpha band, SCZ showed lower frontal EEG-SFC compared with HV whereas no differences were found between LDD and SDD. In the beta1 band, SCZ had greater EEG-SFC compared with HVs and in the beta2 band, LDD presented lower frontal and parieto-temporal EEG-SFC compared with HV. In the gamma band, SDD had greater connectivity values compared with LDD and HV. This study suggests that resting state brain network connectivity is abnormally organized in schizophrenia, with different patterns for the different EEG frequency components and that EEG can be a powerful tool to further elucidate the complexity of such disordered connectivity. PMID:25999835

  20. Early reduction in prefrontal theta QEEG cordance value predicts response to venlafaxine treatment in patients with resistant depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bares, Martin; Brunovsky, Martin; Kopecek, Miloslav; Novak, Tomas; Stopkova, Pavla; Kozeny, Jiri; Sos, Peter; Krajca, Vladimir; Höschl, Cyril

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies of patients with unipolar depression have shown that early decrease of prefrontal EEG cordance in theta band can predict clinical response to various antidepressants. We have now examined whether decrease of prefrontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance value after 1 week of venlafaxine treatment predicts clinical response to venlafaxine in resistant patients. We analyzed 25 inpatients who finished 4-week venlafaxine treatment. EEG data were monitored at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. QEEG cordance was computed at three frontal electrodes in theta frequency band. Depressive symptoms and clinical status were assessed using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-S) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Eleven of 12 responders (reduction of MADRS >or=50%) and only 5 of 13 non-responders had decreased prefrontal QEEG cordance value after the first week of treatment (p=0.01). The decrease of prefrontal cordance after week 1 in responders was significant (p=0.03) and there was no significant change in non-responders. Positive and negative predictive values of cordance reduction for response were 0.7 and 0.9, respectively. The reduction of prefrontal theta QEEG cordance value after first week of treatment might be helpful in the prediction of response to venlafaxine.

  1. Hippocampal theta sequences reflect current goals.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal information processing is discretized by oscillations, and the ensemble activity of place cells is organized into temporal sequences bounded by theta cycles. Theta sequences represent time-compressed trajectories through space. Their forward-directed nature makes them an intuitive candidate mechanism for planning future trajectories, but their connection to goal-directed behavior remains unclear. As rats performed a value-guided decision-making task, the extent to which theta sequences projected ahead of the animal's current location varied on a moment-by-moment basis depending on the rat's goals. Look-ahead extended farther on journeys to distant goals than on journeys to more proximal goals and was predictive of the animal's destination. On arrival at goals, however, look-ahead was similar regardless of where the animal began its journey from. Together, these results provide evidence that hippocampal theta sequences contain information related to goals or intentions, pointing toward a potential spatial basis for planning.

  2. Coherence in resting-state EEG as a predictor for the recovery from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Bender, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    We investigated differences of EEG coherence within (short-range), and between (long-range) specified brain areas as diagnostic markers for different states in disorders of consciousness (DOC), and their predictive value for recovery from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). EEGs of 73 patients and 24 controls were recorded and coma recovery scale- revised (CRS-R) scores were assessed. CRS-R of UWS patients was collected after 12 months and divided into two groups (improved/unimproved). Frontal, parietal, fronto-parietal, fronto-temporal, and fronto-occipital coherence was computed, as well as EEG power over frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal areas. Minimally conscious patients (MCS) and UWS patients could not be differentiated based on their coherence patterns or on EEG power. Fronto-parietal and parietal coherence could positively predict improvement of UWS patients, i.e. recovery from UWS to MCS. Parietal coherence was significantly higher in delta and theta frequencies in the improved group, as well as the coherence between frontal and parietal regions in delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies. High parietal delta and theta, and high fronto-parietal theta and alpha coherence appear to provide strong early evidence for recovery from UWS with high predictive sensitivity and specificity. Short and long-range coherence can have a diagnostic value in the prognosis of recovery from UWS.

  3. Quantitative EEG power and asymmetry increase 36 h before a migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Bjørk, Mh; Sand, T

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to estimate ictal, pre- and postictal brain function changes in migraine in a blinded paired quantitative EEG (QEEG) study. EEG recordings (n = 119) from 40 migraineurs were retrospectively classified as ictal, interictal, preictal or postictal. delta, theta, alpha and beta power, and hemispheric asymmetry in frontocentral, temporal and occipitoparietal regions were calculated from artefact-free EEG. Power and power asymmetry were calculated for two time-windows, 36 and 72 h before/after the attack, and compared with the interictal values. Frontocentral delta power increased (P = 0.03), whereas frontocentral theta and alpha power tended to increase (P < 0.09) within 36 h before the next attack compared with the interictal period. Occipitoparietal (alpha and theta) and temporal (alpha) power were more asymmetric before the attack compared with the interictal baseline (P < 0.04). Ictal posterior alpha power increased slightly (P = 0.01). Postictal power and power asymmetry were not significantly different from interictal baseline. EEG activity seems to change shortly before the attack. This suggests that migraineurs are most susceptible to attack when anterior QEEG delta power and posterior alpha and theta asymmetry values are high. Changed activity patterns in cholinergic brainstem or basal forebrain nuclei and thalamo-cortical connections before the migraine attack are hypothesized.

  4. Signal Quality Assessment Model for Wearable EEG Sensor on Prediction of Mental Stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Peng, Hong; Zhao, Qinglin; Hu, Bo; Majoe, Dennis; Zheng, Fang; Moore, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in E-healthcare systems, especially in the mental healthcare area, where constant and unobtrusive monitoring is desirable. In the context of OPTIMI project, a novel, low cost, and light weight wearable EEG sensor has been designed and produced. In order to improve the performance and reliability of EEG sensors in real-life settings, we propose a method to evaluate the quality of EEG signals, based on which users can easily adjust the connection between electrodes and their skin. Our method helps to filter invalid EEG data from personal trials in both domestic and office settings. We then apply an algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) which has been designed to remove ocular artifacts (OA) from the EEG signal. DWT is applied to obtain a reconstructed OA signal as a reference while ANC, based on recursive least squares, is used to remove the OA from the original EEG data. The newly produced sensors were tested and deployed within the OPTIMI framework for chronic stress detection. EEG nonlinear dynamics features and frontal asymmetry of theta, alpha, and beta bands have been selected as biological indicators for chronic stress, showing relative greater right anterior EEG data activity in stressful individuals. Evaluation results demonstrate that our EEG sensor and data processing algorithms have successfully addressed the requirements and challenges of a portable system for patient monitoring, as envisioned by the EU OPTIMI project.

  5. Delta and Theta oscillations as risk markers in Adolescent Offspring of Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Jones, Kevin A.; Porjesz, Bernice; Chorlian, David B.; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Kamarajan, Chella; Kuperman, Samuel; Rohrbaugh, John; O’Connor, Sean J.; Bauer, Lance O.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Begleiter., Henri

    2007-01-01

    Background Visual P300 is consistently lower in alcohol dependent individuals, their offspring and subjects at risk. Delta and theta event related oscillations (ERO) are the major contributors to the P300 signal. The total and evoked power in delta and theta bands in the 300 to 700 millisecond post-stimulus window (corresponding to the zone of P3 maxima) was compared between adolescent offspring of alcoholics (high-risk) and age-matched normal controls (low-risk), to assess the utility of the risk markers. Methods EEG was recorded during the performance of visual oddball task. The S-Transform algorithm decomposed the EEG signals into different frequency bands and the group differences in total and evoked power in the oscillatory responses during the P300 time window (300 to 700 ms) were analyzed using a multivariate design. Similar analysis was performed on P300 peak amplitudes for the target. Results The high-risk group showed significantly lower parietal post-stimulus evoked and total power in the delta band for targets. A decrease in total power was seen centrally and parietally in theta band. The P300 peak amplitude in the parietal electrodes was also significantly lower in the high-risk group. Conclusions The decreased total theta power and total and evoked delta power for visual targets in high risk individuals may serve as an endophenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and other disinhibitory disorders. The differences seen between the offspring of alcoholics and controls may have a cholinergic basis. The ERO measures appear to be more robust than the P300 amplitude in differentiating the groups. PMID:17129626

  6. Movement Enhances the Nonlinearity of Hippocampal Theta

    PubMed Central

    Sheremet, Alex; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear, metastable dynamics of the brain are essential for large-scale integration of smaller components and for the rapid organization of neurons in support of behavior. Therefore, understanding the nonlinearity of the brain is paramount for understanding the relationship between brain dynamics and behavior. Explicit quantitative descriptions of the properties and consequences of nonlinear neural networks, however, are rare. Because the local field potential (LFP) reflects the total activity across a population of neurons, nonlinearites of the nervous system should be quantifiable by examining oscillatory structure. We used high-order spectral analysis of LFP recorded from the dorsal and intermediate regions of the rat hippocampus to show that the nonlinear character of the hippocampal theta rhythm is directly related to movement speed of the animal. In the time domain, nonlinearity is expressed as the development of skewness and asymmetry in the theta shape. In the spectral domain, nonlinear dynamics manifest as the development of a chain of harmonics statistically phase coupled to the theta oscillation. This evolution was modulated across hippocampal regions, being stronger in the dorsal CA1 relative to more intermediate areas. The intensity and timing of the spiking activity of pyramidal cells and interneurons was strongly correlated to theta nonlinearity. Because theta is known to propagate from dorsal to ventral regions of the hippocampus, these data suggest that the nonlinear character of theta decreases as it travels and supports a hypothesis that activity dissipates along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe the first explicit quantification regarding how behavior enhances the nonlinearity of the nervous system. Our findings demonstrate uniquely how theta changes with increasing speed due to the altered underlying neuronal dynamics and open new directions of research on the relationship between single

  7. Lattice theta constants vs Riemann theta constants and NSR superstring measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, P.; Morozov, A.; Sleptsov, A.

    2009-10-01

    We discuss relations between two different representations of hypothetical holomorphic NSR measures, based on two different ways of constructing the semi-modular forms of weight 8. One of these ways is to build forms from the ordinary Riemann theta constants and another — from the lattice theta constants. We discuss unexpectedly elegant relations between lattice theta constants, corresponding to 16-dimensional self-dual lattices, and Riemann theta constants and present explicit formulae expressing the former ones through the latter. Starting from genus 5 the modular-form approach to construction of NSR measures is clearly sick and it seems to fail completely already at genus 6.

  8. An EEG-Based Fatigue Detection and Mitigation System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; King, Jung-Tai; Wang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Research has indicated that fatigue is a critical factor in cognitive lapses because it negatively affects an individual's internal state, which is then manifested physiologically. This study explores neurophysiological changes, measured by electroencephalogram (EEG), due to fatigue. This study further demonstrates the feasibility of an online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation system that detects physiological change and can thereby prevent fatigue-related cognitive lapses. More importantly, this work compares the efficacy of fatigue detection and mitigation between the EEG-based and a nonEEG-based random method. Twelve healthy subjects participated in a sustained-attention driving experiment. Each participant's EEG signal was monitored continuously and a warning was delivered in real-time to participants once the EEG signature of fatigue was detected. Study results indicate suppression of the alpha- and theta-power of an occipital component and improved behavioral performance following a warning signal; these findings are in line with those in previous studies. However, study results also showed reduced warning efficacy (i.e. increased response times (RTs) to lane deviations) accompanied by increased alpha-power due to the fluctuation of warnings over time. Furthermore, a comparison of EEG-based and nonEEG-based random approaches clearly demonstrated the necessity of adaptive fatigue-mitigation systems, based on a subject's cognitive level, to deliver warnings. Analytical results clearly demonstrate and validate the efficacy of this online closed-loop EEG-based fatigue detection and mitigation mechanism to identify cognitive lapses that may lead to catastrophic incidents in countless operational environments.

  9. Genetic and Disorder-Specific Aspects of Resting State EEG Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Bernat, Edward M.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether abnormal frequency composition of the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in schizophrenia was associated with genetic liability for the disorder by studying first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. The study included a data-driven method for defining EEG frequency components and determined the specificity of resting state EEG frequency abnormalities by assessing schizophrenia patients, bipolar disorder patients, and relatives of both patient groups. Schizophrenia patients and their relatives, but not bipolar patients or their relatives, exhibited increased high-frequency activity (beta) providing evidence for disturbances in resting state brain activity being specific to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented low-frequency EEG activity (delta, theta), while bipolar disorder patients and the 2 groups of relatives generally failed to manifest similar low-frequency EEG abnormalities. The Val158Met polymorphism for the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene was most strongly associated with delta and theta activity in schizophrenia patients. Met homozygote schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented activity for the 2 low-frequency bands compared with control subjects. Excessive high-frequency EEG activity over frontal brain regions may serve as an endophenotype that reflects cortical expression of genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Low-frequency resting state EEG anomalies in schizophrenia may relate to disorder-specific pathophysiology in schizophrenia and the influence of the COMT gene on tonic dopamanergic function. PMID:18381357

  10. Chemotherapy disrupts learning, neurogenesis and theta activity in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Anderson, Megan L; Shors, Tracey J

    2012-12-01

    Chemotherapy, especially if prolonged, disrupts attention, working memory and speed of processing in humans. Most cancer drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier also decrease adult neurogenesis. Because new neurons are generated in the hippocampus, this decrease may contribute to the deficits in working memory and related thought processes. The neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits are generally unknown. A possible mediator is hippocampal oscillatory activity within the theta range (3-12 Hz). Theta activity predicts and promotes efficient learning in healthy animals and humans. Here, we hypothesised that chemotherapy disrupts learning via decreases in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity. Temozolomide was administered to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in a cyclic manner for several weeks. Treatment was followed by training with different types of eyeblink classical conditioning, a form of associative learning. Chemotherapy reduced both neurogenesis and endogenous theta activity, as well as disrupted learning and related theta-band responses to the conditioned stimulus. The detrimental effects of temozolomide only occurred after several weeks of treatment, and only on a task that requires the association of events across a temporal gap and not during training with temporally overlapping stimuli. Chemotherapy did not disrupt the memory for previously learned associations, a memory independent of (new neurons in) the hippocampus. In conclusion, prolonged systemic chemotherapy is associated with a decrease in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity that may explain the selective deficits in processes of learning that describe the 'chemobrain'.

  11. Correlation of invasive EEG and scalp EEG.

    PubMed

    Ramantani, Georgia; Maillard, Louis; Koessler, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the implementation of invasive EEG recordings in the clinical setting, it has been perceived that a considerable proportion of epileptic discharges present at a cortical level are missed by routine scalp EEG recordings. Several in vitro, in vivo, and simulation studies have been performed in the past decades aiming to clarify the interrelations of cortical sources with their scalp and invasive EEG correlates. The amplitude ratio of cortical potentials to their scalp EEG correlates, the extent of the cortical area involved in the discharge, as well as the localization of the cortical source and its geometry have been each independently linked to the recording of the cortical discharge with scalp electrodes. The need to elucidate these interrelations has been particularly imperative in the field of epilepsy surgery with its rapidly growing EEG-based localization technologies. Simultaneous multiscale EEG recordings with scalp, subdural and/or depth electrodes, applied in presurgical epilepsy workup, offer an excellent opportunity to shed some light to this fundamental issue. Whereas past studies have considered predominantly neocortical sources in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, current investigations have included deep sources, as in mesial temporal epilepsy, as well as extratemporal sources. Novel computational tools may serve to provide surrogates for the shortcomings of EEG recording methodology and facilitate further developments in modern electrophysiology.

  12. Theta event-related synchronization is a biomarker for a morbid effect of alcoholism on the brain that may partially resolve with extended abstinence.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Casey S; Fein, George

    2012-11-01

    Analyzing the induced (non-stimulus-phase-locked) EEG activity elicited by targets in a three-condition visual oddball task, Fein and colleagues have shown increased theta band event-related synchronization (ERS) in two different samples of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) compared with age- and gender-comparable controls. The theta ERS effect in alcoholics was also shown to be independent of, and opposite in direction to, the reduced amplitude evoked (stimulus-phase-locked) activity typically found in alcoholics and those at genetic risk of developing alcoholism. This study extends these findings by applying time-frequency analysis to target stimulus event-related EEG to compare evoked and induced theta activity in 43 LTAA and 72 nonalcoholic controls with a group of 31 alcoholics who just recently initiated abstinence from alcohol (between 6- and 15-week abstinent; referred to as short-term abstinent alcoholics, STAA). Results demonstrated that (1) evoked theta power was reduced to the same degree in STAA and LTAA compared with nonalcoholic control participants, while (2) induced theta activity, measured by theta ERS, was increased in both STAA and LTAA relative to controls, but was also increased in STAA relative to LTAA. The STAA and LTAA groups did not differ on measures of alcohol use severity or family history of alcohol problems. These results, coupled with previous findings that show a relationship between stronger theta ERS and increased memory load and attention allocation, suggest that increased theta ERS may be a biomarker for a detrimental effect of chronic alcohol abuse on the brain - a detriment that may recover, at least partially, with extended abstinence.

  13. Externally and internally controlled attention in infants: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-11-01

    This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during 'anticipatory' phase of the peek-a-boo game (Internally Controlled Attention); and (3) 'reappearance' phase of the peek-a-boo game when the experimenter talked and smiled to an infant (reappearance). The relative power (RP) in 4-5 single-Hz theta sub-band increased under both phases of the peek-a-boo game. The reactive changes of 4-5 single-Hz RP at prefrontal and frontal leads under the Internally Controlled Attention condition positively correlated with the total time during which an infant was able to maintain ICA. The RP in 5-6 single-Hz theta sub-band significantly increased only under the Internally Controlled Attention condition and did not correlate with the total time of this type of attention. The results support the concept of 'Diffuse Theta-Response System' that is active during expectancy and effortfully focused attention. In contrast to theta, the RP in 6-7, 7-8, and 8-9 single-Hz bands decreased during both phases of the game. The decrease was maximal at precentral leads and most probably reflected blockage of the sensorimotor (mu) rhythm due to higher motility and muscular tension in the game situation. It is concluded that EEG is an adequate vehicle for investigation of brain mechanisms of attention and voluntary control in infants.

  14. High amplitude theta wave bursts: a novel electroencephalographic feature of rem sleep and cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Lo Martire, Viviana Carmen; Bastianini, Stefano; Berteotti, Chiara; Silvani, Alessandro; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    High amplitude theta wave bursts (HATs) were originally described during REMS and cataplexy in ORX-deficient mice as a novel neurophysiological correlate of narcolepsy (Bastianini et al., 2012). This finding was replicated the following year by Vassalli et al. in both ORX-deficient narcoleptic mice and narcoleptic children during cataplexy episodes (Vassalli et al., 2013). The relationship between HATs and narcolepsy-cataplexy in mice and patients indicates that the lack of ORX peptides is responsible for this abnormal EEG activity, the physiological meaning of which is still unknown. This review aimed to explore different phasic EEG events previously described in the published literature in order to find analogies and differences with HATs observed in narcoleptic mice and patients. We found similarities in terms of morphology, frequency and duration between HATs and several physiological (mu and wicket rhythms, sleep spindles, saw-tooth waves) or pathological (SWDs, HVSs, bursts of polyphasic complexes EEG complexes reported in a mouse model of CJD, and BSEs) EEG events. However, each of these events also shows significant differences from HATs, and thus cannot be equaled to them. The available evidence thus suggests that HATs are a novel neurophysiological phenomenon. Further investigations on HATs are required in order to investigate their physiological meaning, to individuate their brain structure(s) of origin, and to clarify the neural circuits involved in their manifestation.

  15. EEG slow waves in traumatic brain injury: Convergent findings in mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Modarres, Mo; Kuzma, Nicholas N.; Kretzmer, Tracy; Pack, Allan I.; Lim, Miranda M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence from previous studies suggests that greater sleep pressure, in the form of EEG-based slow waves, accumulates in specific brain regions that are more active during prior waking experience. We sought to quantify the number and coherence of EEG slow waves in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods We developed a method to automatically detect individual slow waves in each EEG channel, and validated this method using simulated EEG data. We then used this method to quantify EEG-based slow waves during sleep and wake states in both mouse and human subjects with mTBI. A modified coherence index that accounts for information from multiple channels was calculated as a measure of slow wave synchrony. Results Brain-injured mice showed significantly higher theta:alpha amplitude ratios and significantly more slow waves during spontaneous wakefulness and during prolonged sleep deprivation, compared to sham-injured control mice. Human subjects with mTBI showed significantly higher theta:beta amplitude ratios and significantly more EEG slow waves while awake compared to age-matched control subjects. We then quantified the global coherence index of slow waves across several EEG channels in human subjects. Individuals with mTBI showed significantly less EEG global coherence compared to control subjects while awake, but not during sleep. EEG global coherence was significantly correlated with severity of post-concussive symptoms (as assessed by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scale). Conclusion and implications Taken together, our data from both mouse and human studies suggest that EEG slow wave quantity and the global coherence index of slow waves may represent a sensitive marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of mTBI and post-concussive symptoms. PMID:28018987

  16. EEG slow waves in traumatic brain injury: Convergent findings in mouse and man.

    PubMed

    Modarres, Mo; Kuzma, Nicholas N; Kretzmer, Tracy; Pack, Allan I; Lim, Miranda M

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from previous studies suggests that greater sleep pressure, in the form of EEG-based slow waves, accumulates in specific brain regions that are more active during prior waking experience. We sought to quantify the number and coherence of EEG slow waves in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We developed a method to automatically detect individual slow waves in each EEG channel, and validated this method using simulated EEG data. We then used this method to quantify EEG-based slow waves during sleep and wake states in both mouse and human subjects with mTBI. A modified coherence index that accounts for information from multiple channels was calculated as a measure of slow wave synchrony. Brain-injured mice showed significantly higher theta:alpha amplitude ratios and significantly more slow waves during spontaneous wakefulness and during prolonged sleep deprivation, compared to sham-injured control mice. Human subjects with mTBI showed significantly higher theta:beta amplitude ratios and significantly more EEG slow waves while awake compared to age-matched control subjects. We then quantified the global coherence index of slow waves across several EEG channels in human subjects. Individuals with mTBI showed significantly less EEG global coherence compared to control subjects while awake, but not during sleep. EEG global coherence was significantly correlated with severity of post-concussive symptoms (as assessed by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scale). Taken together, our data from both mouse and human studies suggest that EEG slow wave quantity and the global coherence index of slow waves may represent a sensitive marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of mTBI and post-concussive symptoms.

  17. Power spectral analysis of hippocampal and cortical EEG activity following severe prenatal protein malnutrition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Morgane, P J; Austin, K; Siok, C; LaFrance, R; Bronzino, J D

    1985-10-01

    We have studied the effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on development of the hippocampal and frontal cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Using power spectral analyses in rats of several age groups we found that protein malnutrition, instituted prenatally and continued postnatally, produces marked alterations in power spectral measures, i.e., alterations in peak theta frequency in the hippocampus during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Peak theta frequency was found to be significantly retarded in malnourished animals, especially during the preweaning period of development. Protein malnutrition, therefore, appears to affect mechanisms responsible for generating the tonic component of theta activity.

  18. Mobile EEG in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative to these recordings, their use is still not introduced everywhere. We surveyed Dutch neurologists and patients and evaluated a novel mobile EEG device (Mobita, TMSi). Key specifications were compared with three other current mobile EEG devices. We shortly discuss algorithms to assist in the review process. Thirty percent (33 out of 109) of Dutch neurologists reported that home EEG recordings are used in their hospital. The majority of neurologists think that mobile EEG can have additional value in investigation of unclear paroxysms, but not in the initial diagnosis after a first seizure. Poor electrode contacts and signal quality, limited recording time and absence of software for reliable and effective assistance in the interpretation of EEGs have been important constraints for usage, but in recent devices discussed here, many of these problems have been solved. The majority of our patients were satisfied with the home EEG procedure and did not think that our EEG device was uncomfortable to wear, but they did feel uneasy wearing it in public.

  19. Review of neonatal EEG.

    PubMed

    Husain, Aatif M

    2005-03-01

    Neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) presents some of the most difficult challenges in EEG interpretation. It differs significantly in many ways from EEG of older children and adults. Technologically, acquisition of a neonatal EEG is significantly more difficult and different than an adult EEG. There are numerous features that are age-specific and change almost week-to-week in the preterm infant. Some features may be normal at one age and abnormal if they persist for several weeks. Many of these features also have different implications in neonates as compared to older individuals. These issues mandate a different approach to neonatal EEG interpretation. In this article an overview of neonatal EEG is presented. After a brief discussion of relevant technical issues, various normal EEG features encountered in neonates are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the ontogeny of EEG, starting from the age of viability to the first few months of life. A description of various abnormalities follows. Finally, an approach to analysis of a neonatal EEG is presented.

  20. Resting State EEG in Children With Learning Disabilities: An Independent Component Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical

  1. Association between EEG modulation, psychotic-like experiences and cognitive performance in the general population.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; de Azua, Sonia Ruiz; Haidar, Mahmoud Karim; Gallardo, Ricardo; Poza, Jesús; Hornero, Roberto; Molina, Vicente

    2016-03-18

    An association between deficit of electroencephalographic (EEG) modulation during an odd-ball task and psychotic symptoms has been described in clinical samples, in agreement with the proposed role for altered salience in psychosis. To discard the possible influence of medication, the relationship between psychotic-like experiences and EEG modulation in the general population was explored. EEG and psychotic-like experiences were assessed in 194 healthy subjects during a P300 paradigm. EEG modulation was assessed as changes from pre-stimulus to response windows in spectral entropy (SE, a measurement of signal irregularity), median frequency (MF, a quantifier of the frequency distribution of oscillatory activity) and theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma relative power (RP, a summary of the distribution of spectral components). A significant widespread decrease in SE and MF from baseline to response was found, with a significant increase in RP for theta and a decrease for higher frequency bands, supporting an increase in EEG regularity and a slowing of brain oscillations during the response. Furthermore, a significant association was found between SE modulation and distress of negative psychotic-like experiences, as well as between verbal memory and RP modulation for beta-1. Performance in verbal fluency was associated with the increase in theta RP during the response. EEG irregularity of healthy subjects decreased at the expense of a larger contribution of theta RP and a decreased contribution of fast frequency bands. Subjects with smaller modulation showed poorer cognitive scores and greater distress of negative psychotic-like experiences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. EEG correlates of working memory performance in females.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Yuri G; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2017-02-13

    The study investigates oscillatory brain activity during working memory (WM) tasks. The tasks employed varied in two dimensions. First, they differed in complexity from average to highly demanding. Second, we used two types of tasks, which required either only retention of stimulus set or retention and manipulation of the content. We expected to reveal EEG correlates of temporary storage and central executive components of WM and to assess their contribution to individual differences. Generally, as compared with the retention condition, manipulation of stimuli in WM was associated with distributed suppression of alpha1 activity and with the increase of the midline theta activity. Load and task dependent decrement of beta1 power was found during task performance. Beta2 power increased with the increasing WM load and did not significantly depend on the type of the task. At the level of individual differences, we found that the high performance (HP) group was characterized by higher alpha rhythm power. The HP group demonstrated task-related increment of theta power in the left anterior area and a gradual increase of theta power at midline area. In contrast, the low performance (LP) group exhibited a drop of theta power in the most challenging condition. HP group was also characterized by stronger desynchronization of beta1 rhythm over the left posterior area in the manipulation condition. In this condition, beta2 power increased in the HP group over anterior areas, but in the LP group over posterior areas. WM performance is accompanied by changes in EEG in a broad frequency range from theta to higher beta bands. The most pronounced differences in oscillatory activity between individuals with high and low WM performance can be observed in the most challenging WM task.

  3. Extraversion and fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient: an independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V

    2012-02-01

    Several studies show that the fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient is a stable individual characteristic related to personality. Whether this characteristic is specifically related to agentic extraversion and theta band of frequencies or is associated with a broader set of personality traits and frequency bands is a matter of debate, as well as the specific cortical regions contributing to this effect. To clarify these questions, we used group independent component analysis (ICA) and source localization techniques. Agentic extraversion was associated with higher theta activity in the default mode network's (DMN) posterior hub and lower theta activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Regression analyses showed that theta activity predicted agentic extraversion better than other frequency bands and agentic extraversion predicted posterior versus frontal activity better than other personality dimensions. These results are taken to indicate higher tonic activity in OFC and lower activity in DMN in extraverts as compared to introverts.

  4. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  5. Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Antonio I; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Brunetti, Antonio; Lizio, Roberta; Tattoli, Giacomo; Cassano, Fabio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Barulli, Maria R; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Orzi, Francesco; Buttinelli, Carla; Giubilei, Franco; Del Percio, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification.

  6. Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Triggiani, Antonio I.; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Brunetti, Antonio; Lizio, Roberta; Tattoli, Giacomo; Cassano, Fabio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Barulli, Maria R.; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Orzi, Francesco; Buttinelli, Carla; Giubilei, Franco; Del Percio, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8–10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5–13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification. PMID:28184183

  7. Learning alters theta amplitude, theta-gamma coupling and neuronal synchronization in inferotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background How oscillatory brain rhythms alone, or in combination, influence cortical information processing to support learning has yet to be fully established. Local field potential and multi-unit neuronal activity recordings were made from 64-electrode arrays in the inferotemporal cortex of conscious sheep during and after visual discrimination learning of face or object pairs. A neural network model has been developed to simulate and aid functional interpretation of learning-evoked changes. Results Following learning the amplitude of theta (4-8 Hz), but not gamma (30-70 Hz) oscillations was increased, as was the ratio of theta to gamma. Over 75% of electrodes showed significant coupling between theta phase and gamma amplitude (theta-nested gamma). The strength of this coupling was also increased following learning and this was not simply a consequence of increased theta amplitude. Actual discrimination performance was significantly correlated with theta and theta-gamma coupling changes. Neuronal activity was phase-locked with theta but learning had no effect on firing rates or the magnitude or latencies of visual evoked potentials during stimuli. The neural network model developed showed that a combination of fast and slow inhibitory interneurons could generate theta-nested gamma. By increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor sensitivity in the model similar changes were produced as in inferotemporal cortex after learning. The model showed that these changes could potentiate the firing of downstream neurons by a temporal desynchronization of excitatory neuron output without increasing the firing frequencies of the latter. This desynchronization effect was confirmed in IT neuronal activity following learning and its magnitude was correlated with discrimination performance. Conclusions Face discrimination learning produces significant increases in both theta amplitude and the strength of theta-gamma coupling in the inferotemporal cortex which are correlated with

  8. Measuring Theta_13 at Daya Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kwong

    2014-03-14

    We measured the neutrino mixing angle, theta13, presumably related to the preponderance of matter over antimatter in our universe with high precision. We determined theta13 by measuring the disappearance of neutrinos from a group of six nuclear reactors. The target, located inside a mountain at about 2 km from the reactors, is 80 tons of liquid scintillator doped with trace amount of Gadolinium to increase its neutron detection efficiency. The neutrino flux is measured by the inverse beta-decay reaction where the final-state particles are detected by the liquid scintillator. The measured value of theta13, based on data collected over 3 years, is large, around 8 degrees, rendering the measurement of the parameter related to matter-antimatter asymmetry in future long baseline neutrino experiments easier.

  9. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.

  10. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress. PMID:25941479

  11. The Brain of Binge Drinkers at Rest: Alterations in Theta and Beta Oscillations in First-Year College Students with a Binge Drinking Pattern

    PubMed Central

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Cadaveira, Fernando; Correas, Angeles; Crego, Alberto; Maestú, Fernando; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported anomalous resting brain activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of alcoholics, often reflected as increased power in the beta and theta frequency bands. The effects of binge drinking, the most common pattern of excessive alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth, on brain activity at rest is still poorly known. In this study, we sought to assess the pattern of resting-state EEG oscillations in college-aged binge drinkers (BDs). Methods: Resting-state brain activity during eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was recorded from 60 channels in 80 first-year undergraduate students (40 controls and 40 BDs). Cortical sources activity of EEG rhythms was estimated using exact Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (eLORETA) analysis. Results: EEG-source localization analysis revealed that BDs showed, in comparison with controls, significantly higher intracranial current density in the beta frequency band over the right temporal lobe (parahippocampal and fusiform gyri) during eyes-open resting state as well as higher intracranial current density in the theta band over the bilateral occipital cortex (cuneus and lingual gyrus) during eyes-closed resting condition. Conclusions: These findings are in line with previous results observing increased beta and/or theta power following chronic or heavy alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent subjects and BDs. Increased tonic beta and theta oscillations are suggestive of an augmented cortical excitability and of potential difficulties in the information processing capacity in young BDs. Furthermore, enhanced EEG power in these frequency bands may respond to a neuromaturational delay as a result of excessive alcohol consumption during this critical brain developmental period. PMID:28959193

  12. EEG and Coma.

    PubMed

    Ardeshna, Nikesh I

    2016-03-01

    Coma is defined as a state of extreme unresponsiveness, in which a person exhibits no voluntary movement or behavior even to painful stimuli. The utilization of EEG for patients in coma has increased dramatically over the last few years. In fact, many institutions have set protocols for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring for patients in coma due to potential causes such as subarachnoid hemorrhage or cardiac arrest. Consequently, EEG plays an important role in diagnosis, managenent, and in some cases even prognosis of coma patients.

  13. Building an EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph: A Concurrent EEG-fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qingbao; Wu, Lei; Bridwell, David A; Erhardt, Erik B; Du, Yuhui; He, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Liu, Peng; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-01-01

    The topological architecture of brain connectivity has been well-characterized by graph theory based analysis. However, previous studies have primarily built brain graphs based on a single modality of brain imaging data. Here we develop a framework to construct multi-modal brain graphs using concurrent EEG-fMRI data which are simultaneously collected during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states. FMRI data are decomposed into independent components with associated time courses by group independent component analysis (ICA). EEG time series are segmented, and then spectral power time courses are computed and averaged within 5 frequency bands (delta; theta; alpha; beta; low gamma). EEG-fMRI brain graphs, with EEG electrodes and fMRI brain components serving as nodes, are built by computing correlations within and between fMRI ICA time courses and EEG spectral power time courses. Dynamic EEG-fMRI graphs are built using a sliding window method, versus static ones treating the entire time course as stationary. In global level, static graph measures and properties of dynamic graph measures are different across frequency bands and are mainly showing higher values in eyes closed than eyes open. Nodal level graph measures of a few brain components are also showing higher values during eyes closed in specific frequency bands. Overall, these findings incorporate fMRI spatial localization and EEG frequency information which could not be obtained by examining only one modality. This work provides a new approach to examine EEG-fMRI associations within a graph theoretic framework with potential application to many topics.

  14. Building an EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph: A Concurrent EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qingbao; Wu, Lei; Bridwell, David A.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Du, Yuhui; He, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Liu, Peng; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    The topological architecture of brain connectivity has been well-characterized by graph theory based analysis. However, previous studies have primarily built brain graphs based on a single modality of brain imaging data. Here we develop a framework to construct multi-modal brain graphs using concurrent EEG-fMRI data which are simultaneously collected during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states. FMRI data are decomposed into independent components with associated time courses by group independent component analysis (ICA). EEG time series are segmented, and then spectral power time courses are computed and averaged within 5 frequency bands (delta; theta; alpha; beta; low gamma). EEG-fMRI brain graphs, with EEG electrodes and fMRI brain components serving as nodes, are built by computing correlations within and between fMRI ICA time courses and EEG spectral power time courses. Dynamic EEG-fMRI graphs are built using a sliding window method, versus static ones treating the entire time course as stationary. In global level, static graph measures and properties of dynamic graph measures are different across frequency bands and are mainly showing higher values in eyes closed than eyes open. Nodal level graph measures of a few brain components are also showing higher values during eyes closed in specific frequency bands. Overall, these findings incorporate fMRI spatial localization and EEG frequency information which could not be obtained by examining only one modality. This work provides a new approach to examine EEG-fMRI associations within a graph theoretic framework with potential application to many topics. PMID:27733821

  15. Aberrant EEG functional connectivity and EEG power spectra in resting state post-traumatic stress disorder: a sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Onofri, Antonio; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Lepore, Marta; Gnoni, Valentina; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5min of RS. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5-7.5Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8-12.5Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients.

  16. Cerebellar theta oscillations are synchronized during hippocampal theta-contingent trace conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Loren C.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus and cerebellum are critically involved in trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). The mechanisms underlying the hippocampal-cerebellar interaction during this task are not well-understood, although hippocampal theta (3–7 Hz) oscillations are known to reflect a favorable state for EBCC. Two groups of rabbits received trace EBCC in which a brain-computer interface administered trials in either the explicit presence or absence of naturally occurring hippocampal theta. A high percentage of robust theta led to a striking enhancement of learning accompanied by rhythmic theta-band (6–7 Hz) oscillations in the interpositus nucleus (IPN) and cerebellar cortex that were time-locked both to hippocampal rhythms and sensory stimuli during training. Rhythmic oscillations were absent in the cerebellum of the non-theta group. These data strongly suggest a beneficial impact of theta-based coordination of hippocampus and cerebellum and, importantly, demonstrate that hippocampal theta oscillations can be used to index, and perhaps modulate, the functional properties of the cerebellum. PMID:19940240

  17. An EEG Finger-Print of fMRI deep regional activation.

    PubMed

    Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Kinreich, Sivan; Podlipsky, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

    2014-11-15

    This work introduces a general framework for producing an EEG Finger-Print (EFP) which can be used to predict specific brain activity as measured by fMRI at a given deep region. This new approach allows for improved EEG spatial resolution based on simultaneous fMRI activity measurements. Advanced signal processing and machine learning methods were applied on EEG data acquired simultaneously with fMRI during relaxation training guided by on-line continuous feedback on changing alpha/theta EEG measure. We focused on demonstrating improved EEG prediction of activation in sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala. Our analysis shows that a ridge regression model that is based on time/frequency representation of EEG data from a single electrode, can predict the amygdala related activity significantly better than a traditional theta/alpha activity sampled from the best electrode and about 1/3 of the times, significantly better than a linear combination of frequencies with a pre-defined delay. The far-reaching goal of our approach is to be able to reduce the need for fMRI scanning for probing specific sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala as the basis for brain-training procedures. On the other hand, activity in those regions can be characterized with higher temporal resolution than is obtained by fMRI alone thus revealing additional information about their processing mode.

  18. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M.; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K.

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an “EEG-element connectivity” methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the

  19. Transient Global Amnesia Deteriorates the Network Efficiency of the Theta Band

    PubMed Central

    Yi, SangHak; Lim, Jae-Sung; Jang, Jae-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Acute perturbation of the hippocampus, one of the connector hubs in the brain, is a key step in the pathophysiological cascade of transient global amnesia (TGA). We tested the hypothesis that network efficiency, meaning the efficiency of information exchange over a network, is impaired during the acute stage of TGA. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state EEG data collected from 21 patients with TGA. The EEG data were obtained twice, once during the acute stage (< 24 hours after symptom onset) and once during the resolved stage (> 2 months after symptom onset) of TGA. Characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients of functional networks constructed using phase-locking values were computed and normalized as a function of the degree in the delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma frequency bands of the EEG. We investigated whether the normalized characteristic path length (nCPL) and normalized clustering coefficients (nCC) differed significantly between the acute and resolved stages of TGA at each frequency band using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For networks where the nCPL or nCC differed significantly between the two stages, we also evaluated changes in the connections of the brain networks. During the acute stage of TGA, the nCPL of the theta band networks with mean degrees of 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 significantly increased (P < 0.05). During the acute stage, the lost edges for these networks were mostly found between the anterior (frontal and anterior temporal) and posterior (parieto-occipital and posterior temporal) brain regions, whereas newly developed edges were primarily found between the left and right frontotemporal regions. The nCC of the theta band with a mean degree of 5.5 significantly decreased during the acute stage (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that TGA deteriorates the network efficiency of the theta frequency band. This effect might be related to the desynchronization between the anterior and posterior brain areas

  20. Modulation of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power.

    PubMed

    Solís-Ortiz, Silvia; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Gutiérrez-Muñoz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine (DA) levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4), parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4) and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz) was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition. A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

  1. Hippocampal atrophy and EEG markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moretti, D V; Miniussi, C; Frisoni, G B; Geroldi, C; Zanetti, O; Binetti, G; Rossini, P M

    2007-12-01

    The present study evaluates the potential relationship between hippocampal atrophy and EEG brain rhythmicity, as assessed by relative band power and alpha frequency indices in a cohort of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Eighty-eight subjects falling within the definition of MCI patients were enrolled. All subjects underwent EEG recording and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volumetric morphometry estimates of the hippocampal region were computed. Individual EEG frequencies were indexed by the theta/alpha transition frequency (TF) and the individual alpha frequency (IAF). The relative power was separately computed for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2 and alpha3 frequency bands. The MCI cohort was classified into four subgroups, based on the mean and standard deviations of the hippocampal volume of a normal elderly control sample. The group with moderate hippocampal atrophy showed the highest increase in the theta power on frontal regions, and of the alpha2 and alpha3 powers on frontal and temporo-parietal areas. The analysis of the individual alpha frequency markers showed that the values for the alpha markers were highest in the group with the smallest hippocampal volume, whereas in the group with moderate hippocampal atrophy, these values were lower than in the group with severe atrophy. The relationship between hippocampal atrophy and EEG activity changes in MCI subjects is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy. Therefore, EEG markers could represent a new tool for differential diagnosis. The hippocampal atrophy induces different brain synchronization/desynchronization patterns. EEG changes model the brain activity induced by a discrete change of the hippocampal volume. The changes in the EEG rhythmicity differ greatly from those in MCI patients with subcortical vascular damage.

  2. Event-Related Theta Power during Lexical-Semantic Retrieval and Decision Conflict is Modulated by Alcohol Intoxication: Anatomically Constrained MEG

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rosen, Burke Q.; Cox, Brendan; Kovacevic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Language processing is commonly characterized by an event-related increase in theta power (4–7 Hz) in scalp EEG. Oscillatory brain dynamics underlying alcohol’s effects on language are poorly understood despite impairments on verbal tasks. To investigate how moderate alcohol intoxication modulates event-related theta activity during visual word processing, healthy social drinkers (N = 22, 11 females) participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. They performed a double-duty lexical decision task as they detected real words among non-words. An additional requirement to respond to all real words that also referred to animals induced response conflict. High density whole-head MEG signals and midline scalp EEG data were decomposed for each trial with Morlet wavelets. Each person’s reconstructed cortical surface was used to constrain noise-normalized distributed minimum norm inverse solutions for theta frequencies. Alcohol intoxication increased reaction time and marginally affected accuracy. The overall spatio-temporal pattern is consistent with the left-lateralized fronto-temporal activation observed in language studies applying time-domain analysis. Event-related theta power was sensitive to the two functions manipulated by the task. First, theta estimated to the left-lateralized fronto-temporal areas reflected lexical-semantic retrieval, indicating that this measure is well suited for investigating the neural basis of language functions. While alcohol attenuated theta power overall, it was particularly deleterious to semantic retrieval since it reduced theta to real words but not pseudowords. Second, a highly overlapping prefrontal network comprising lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex was sensitive to decision conflict and was also affected by intoxication, in agreement with previous studies indicating that executive functions are especially vulnerable to

  3. The effect of pharmacological inactivation of the mammillary body and anterior thalamic nuclei on hippocampal theta rhythm in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Żakowski, Witold; Zawistowski, Piotr; Braszka, Łukasz; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2017-08-24

    The mammillary body (MB) and the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are closely related structures, which take part in learning and memory processes. However, the exact role of these structures has remained unclear. In both structures neurons firing according to hippocampal theta rhythm have been found, mainly in the medial mammillary nucleus (MM) and anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV). These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation and are thought to convey theta rhythm back to the hippocampus (HP). We argue that the MB-ATN axis not only relays theta signal, but may also modulate it. To examine it, we performed a pharmacological inactivation of the MM and AV by local infusion of procaine, and measured changes in theta activity in selected structures of the extended hippocampal system in urethane-anesthetized rats. The inactivation of the MM resulted in decrease in EEG power in the HP and AV, the most evidently in the lower theta frequency bands, i.e. 3-5Hz in the HP (down to 9.2% in 3- to 4-Hz band and 37.6% in 4- to 5-Hz band, in comparison to the power in the control conditions) and 3-4Hz in the AV (down to 24.9%). After the AV inactivation, hippocampal EEG power decreased in theta frequency bands of 3-8Hz (down to 61.6% in 6- to 7-Hz band and 69.4% in 7- to 8-Hz band). Our results suggest that the role of the MB-ATN axis in regulating theta rhythm signaling may be much more important than has been speculated so far. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical Substrate and Scalp EEG Markers are Correlated in Subjects with Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Davide V; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Binetti, Giuliano; Zanetti, Orazio

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is a syndromic diagnosis, encompassing various stage of severity and different anatomo-physiological substrates. The hippocampus is one of the first and most affected brain regions affected by both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is one of the major risk factor for developing dementia. Recent studies have demonstrated different relationship between the anatomical substrate and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) markers. Indeed, modifications of EEG rhythmicity is not proportional to the hippocampal atrophy, whereas changes in EEG activity are directly proportional to the load of subcortical CVD. The computation of the EEG spectral power and the analysis of the functional coupling of brain areas, through linear coherence, are two of the most known processing methods in EEG research. Two specific EEG markers, theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 frequency ratio have been reliable associated to the atrophy of amygdalo-hippocampal complex. Moreover, theta/gamma ratio has been related to MCI conversion in dementia and alpha3/alpha2 ratio has been specifically related to MCI conversion in AD. The functional coupling of brain areas is also modulated by hippocampal atrophy. In the MCI subjects, hippocampal atrophy is linked to an increase of interhemispheric coherence seen on frontal and temporal regions whereas subcortical CVD is linked to a decrease of coherence in fronto-parietal regions. In the present study the most significant results of recent studies on correlation between scalp EEG, cognitive decline, and anatomical substrate have been reviewed, with particular attention to the relationships between EEG changes and hippocampal atrophy. The following review is not intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature. Rather it identifies and discusses selected studies that are designed to find the specific correlation between scalp EEG markers and anatomo-pathological substrate

  5. Distributed analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI time-series: modeling and interpretation issues.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Aragri, Adriana; Piccoli, Tommaso; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Goebel, Rainer; Di Salle, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) represent brain activity in terms of a reliable anatomical localization and a detailed temporal evolution of neural signals. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings offer the possibility to greatly enrich the significance and the interpretation of the single modality results because the same neural processes are observed from the same brain at the same time. Nonetheless, the different physical nature of the measured signals by the two techniques renders the coupling not always straightforward, especially in cognitive experiments where spatially localized and distributed effects coexist and evolve temporally at different temporal scales. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the combination of simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI signals exploiting the principles of EEG distributed source modeling. We define a common source space for fMRI and EEG signal projection and gather a conceptually unique framework for the spatial and temporal comparative analysis. We illustrate this framework in a graded-load working-memory simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment based on the n-back task where sustained load-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during continuous item memorization co-occur with parametric changes in the EEG theta power induced at each single item. In line with previous studies, we demonstrate on two single-subject cases how the presented approach is capable of colocalizing in midline frontal regions two phenomena simultaneously observed at different temporal scales, such as the sustained negative changes in BOLD activity and the parametric EEG theta synchronization. We discuss the presented approach in relation to modeling and interpretation issues typically arising in simultaneous EEG-fMRI studies.

  6. Concurrent information affects response inhibition processes via the modulation of theta oscillations in cognitive control networks.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Mückschel, Moritz; Dippel, Gabriel; Beste, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Inhibiting responses is a challenge, where the outcome (partly) depends on the situational context. In everyday situations, response inhibition performance might be altered when irrelevant input is presented simultaneously with the information relevant for response inhibition. More specifically, irrelevant concurrent information may either brace or interfere with response-relevant information, depending on whether these inputs are redundant or conflicting. The aim of this study is to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms and the network underlying such modulations using EEG beamforming as method. The results show that in comparison to a baseline condition without concurrent information, response inhibition performance can be aggravated or facilitated by manipulating the extent of conflict via concurrent input. This depends on whether the requirement for cognitive control is high, as in conflicting trials, or whether it is low, as in redundant trials. In line with this, the total theta frequency power decreases in a right hemispheric orbitofrontal response inhibition network including the SFG, MFG, and SMA, when concurrent redundant information facilitates response inhibition processes. Vice versa, theta activity in a left-hemispheric response inhibition network (i.e., SFG, MFG, and IFG) increases, when conflicting concurrent information compromises response inhibition processes. We conclude that concurrent information bi-directionally shifts response inhibition performance and modulates the network architecture underlying theta oscillations which are signaling different levels of the need for cognitive control.

  7. Theta oscillations are affected by amnestic mild cognitive impairment and cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Tarrant D R; Broughton, Megan; Finnigan, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is classified primarily via substantial episodic memory deficits in the absence of a dementia diagnosis. To investigate the potential neurophysiological correlates of such deficits we compared QEEG power between 12 participants with aMCI and 12 healthy matched controls. EEG was acquired during performance of a modified Sternberg word recognition task with low and high memory load conditions. While recognition accuracy of aMCI participants was lower than that of controls, this difference was not significant. Nevertheless the aMCI group demonstrated significantly lower theta power at a number of electrode sites and significant correlations were observed between power at these sites and neuropsychological assessment scores. Furthermore in the aMCI sample only, theta power was significantly lower under high versus low memory load. Given current interpretations of the neural generator(s), as well as the role(s), of theta oscillations in cognitive processes, the present data indicate that aMCI may be associated with disruptions in the operation of neurocognitive networks (e.g., MTL-neocortical), particularly under high cognitive load.

  8. Age effects on EEG correlates of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno S; Ferreira, Daniela; Reis, Joana; Jacinto, Luís R; Fernandes, Luís; Pinho, Francisco; Festa, Joana; Pereira, Mariana; Afonso, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C; Cerqueira, João J; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Body and brain undergo several changes with aging. One of the domains in which these changes are more remarkable relates with cognitive performance. In the present work, electroencephalogram (EEG) markers (power spectral density and spectral coherence) of age-related cognitive decline were sought whilst the subjects performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Considering the expected age-related cognitive deficits, WCST was applied to young, mid-age and elderly participants, and the theta and alpha frequency bands were analyzed. From the results herein presented, higher theta and alpha power were found to be associated with a good performance in the WCST of younger subjects. Additionally, higher theta and alpha coherence were also associated with good performance and were shown to decline with age and a decrease in alpha peak frequency seems to be associated with aging. Additionally, inter-hemispheric long-range coherences and parietal theta power were identified as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance. In summary, these data reveals age-dependent as well as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance that contribute to the understanding of brain aging and related cognitive deficits. PMID:26216431

  9. The default mode network and EEG regional spectral power: a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Irene; Arrubla, Jorge; Werner, Cornelius J; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an "electrophysiological signature" of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the "status quo" in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed "ongoing activity" during "resting state" in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  10. The Default Mode Network and EEG Regional Spectral Power: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Cornelius J.; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an “electrophysiological signature” of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the “status quo” in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed “ongoing activity” during “resting state” in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  11. The characteristics of EEG power spectra changes after ACL rupture

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xin; Huang, Hongshi; Hu, Xiaoqing; Li, Dai; Yu, Yuanyuan; Ao, Yingfang

    2017-01-01

    Background Reestablishing knee stability is the core of the treatment of ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) injury. Some patients still have a feeling of instability of the knee after ACL injury treatment. This unstable feeling may be caused by central nervous system changes after ACL rupture. Methods To identify the central changes after ACL rupture, EEG spectra were recorded to compare ACL patients and healthy controls when they were walking, jogging, and landing. Results There was a significant increase in delta, theta, alpha and beta band power during walking, jogging and landing in ACL patients. We also found an asymmetry phenomenon of EEG only in the ACL patients, mainly in the frontal area and central-parietal area. The asymmetry of beta band power extended to the frontal and the central area during jogging and landing task. Conclusions There were significant differences in EEG power spectra between the ACL patients and healthy people. ACL patients showed high EEG band power activities and an asymmetry phenomenon. EEG power changes were affected by movements, the asymmetry extended when performing more complicated movements. PMID:28182627

  12. Brain Oscillations in Sport: Toward EEG Biomarkers of Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cheron, Guy; Petit, Géraldine; Cheron, Julian; Leroy, Axelle; Cebolla, Anita; Cevallos, Carlos; Petieau, Mathieu; Hoellinger, Thomas; Zarka, David; Clarinval, Anne-Marie; Dan, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The non-invasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP) in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu), and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding) in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG) and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators. PMID:26955362

  13. Sustained Attention in Real Classroom Settings: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Li-Wei; Komarov, Oleksii; Hairston, W David; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2017-01-01

    Sustained attention is a process that enables the maintenance of response persistence and continuous effort over extended periods of time. Performing attention-related tasks in real life involves the need to ignore a variety of distractions and inhibit attention shifts to irrelevant activities. This study investigates electroencephalography (EEG) spectral changes during a sustained attention task within a real classroom environment. Eighteen healthy students were instructed to recognize as fast as possible special visual targets that were displayed during regular university lectures. Sorting their EEG spectra with respect to response times, which indicated the level of visual alertness to randomly introduced visual stimuli, revealed significant changes in the brain oscillation patterns. The results of power-frequency analysis demonstrated a relationship between variations in the EEG spectral dynamics and impaired performance in the sustained attention task. Across subjects and sessions, prolongation of the response time was preceded by an increase in the delta and theta EEG powers over the occipital region, and decrease in the beta power over the occipital and temporal regions. Meanwhile, implementation of the complex attention task paradigm into a real-world classroom setting makes it possible to investigate specific mutual links between brain activities and factors that cause impaired behavioral performance, such as development and manifestation of classroom mental fatigue. The findings of the study set a basis for developing a system capable of estimating the level of visual attention during real classroom activities by monitoring changes in the EEG spectra.

  14. Sustained Attention in Real Classroom Settings: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Li-Wei; Komarov, Oleksii; Hairston, W. David; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2017-01-01

    Sustained attention is a process that enables the maintenance of response persistence and continuous effort over extended periods of time. Performing attention-related tasks in real life involves the need to ignore a variety of distractions and inhibit attention shifts to irrelevant activities. This study investigates electroencephalography (EEG) spectral changes during a sustained attention task within a real classroom environment. Eighteen healthy students were instructed to recognize as fast as possible special visual targets that were displayed during regular university lectures. Sorting their EEG spectra with respect to response times, which indicated the level of visual alertness to randomly introduced visual stimuli, revealed significant changes in the brain oscillation patterns. The results of power-frequency analysis demonstrated a relationship between variations in the EEG spectral dynamics and impaired performance in the sustained attention task. Across subjects and sessions, prolongation of the response time was preceded by an increase in the delta and theta EEG powers over the occipital region, and decrease in the beta power over the occipital and temporal regions. Meanwhile, implementation of the complex attention task paradigm into a real-world classroom setting makes it possible to investigate specific mutual links between brain activities and factors that cause impaired behavioral performance, such as development and manifestation of classroom mental fatigue. The findings of the study set a basis for developing a system capable of estimating the level of visual attention during real classroom activities by monitoring changes in the EEG spectra. PMID:28824396

  15. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Resembling Clinical Absence with Atypical EEG Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Channaiah Srikanth; Zabad, Rana; Bertoni, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), both presenting with altered mental status (AMS) and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS), with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity. A diagnosis of NCSE with clinical features of AS was made based on both clinical and EEG features. There was significant clinical and electrographic improvement with administration of levetiracetam for both patients in addition to sodium valproate and Solumedrol for the SREAT patient. Both patients continued to be seizure free on follow-up few months later. Conclusions. This is a report of two cases of atypical AS, with atypical EEG, in patients with different neurological conditions. Prompt clinical and EEG recovery occurred following appropriate medical treatment. We think that this condition might be underreported and could significantly benefit from prompt treatment when appropriately diagnosed. PMID:28203468

  16. Maternal dexamethasone and EEG hyperactivity in preterm fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Joanne O; Quaedackers, Josine S L T; George, Sherly A; Gunn, Alistair Jan; Bennet, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Maternal treatment with synthetic corticosteroids such as dexamethasone (DEX) significantly reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality, but its effects on the fetal brain remain unclear. In this study we evaluated the effects of DEX on EEG activity in preterm fetal sheep. Ewes at 103 days gestation received two intramuscular injections of DEX (12 mg, n = 8) or saline vehicle (n = 7) 24 h apart. Fetal EEG activity was recorded from 6 h before until 120 h after the first injection (DEX-1). DEX-1 was associated with a marked transient rise in total EEG power, maximal at 12 h (P < 0.001), with a relative increase in delta and reduced theta, alpha and beta activity, resolving by 24 h. Continuous EEG records showed a shift to larger but less frequent transient waveforms (P < 0.001). Unexpectedly, evolving epileptiform activity, consistent with electrographic and clinical seizures, developed from 178 ± 44 min after DEX-1. Similar but smaller changes were seen after the second injection. Following the injections, total power returned to control values, but the proportion of alpha activity progressively increased vs. controls (P < 0.001), with reduced interburst interval duration and number (P < 0.001). No histological neural injury or microglial activation was seen. In summary, exposure to maternal dexamethasone was associated with dramatic, evolving low-frequency hyperactivity on fetal cortical EEG recordings, followed by sustained changes consistent with maturation of fetal sleep architecture. We postulate that these effects may contribute to improved neonatal outcomes. PMID:21646408

  17. (No) time for control: Frontal theta dynamics reveal the cost of temporally guided conflict anticipation.

    PubMed

    van Driel, Joram; Swart, Jennifer C; Egner, Tobias; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X

    2015-12-01

    During situations of response conflict, cognitive control is characterized by prefrontal theta-band (3- to 8-Hz) activity. It has been shown that cognitive control can be triggered proactively by contextual cues that predict conflict. Here, we investigated whether a pretrial preparation interval could serve as such a cue. This would show that the temporal contingencies embedded in the task can be used to anticipate upcoming conflict. To this end, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from 30 human subjects while they performed a version of a Simon task in which the duration of a fixation cross between trials predicted whether the next trial would contain response conflict. Both their behavior and EEG activity showed a consistent but unexpected pattern of results: The conflict effect (increased reaction times and decreased accuracy on conflict as compared to nonconflict trials) was stronger when conflict was cued, and this was associated with stronger conflict-related midfrontal theta activity and functional connectivity. Interestingly, intervals that predicted conflict did show a pretarget increase in midfrontal theta power. These findings suggest that temporally guided expectations of conflict do heighten conflict anticipation, but also lead to less efficiently applied reactive control. We further explored this post-hoc interpretation by means of three behavioral follow-up experiments, in which we used nontemporal cues, semantically informative cues, and neutral cues. Together, this body of results suggests that the counterintuitive cost of conflict cueing may not be uniquely related to the temporal domain, but may instead be related to the implicitness and validity of the cue.

  18. Brain oscillatory activity during spatial navigation: theta and gamma activity link medial temporal and parietal regions.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two of these cortical sources were found to exhibit significant spectral power differences during navigation with respect to a resting eyes open condition and were subject to source localization using sLORETA. These two sources were localized as a right parietal component with gamma activation and a right medial-temporal-parietal component with activation in theta and gamma bandwidths. The parietal gamma activity was thought to reflect visuospatial processing associated with the task. The medial-temporal-parietal activity was thought to be more specific to the navigational processing, representing the integration of ego- and allo-centric representations of space required for successful navigation, suggesting theta and gamma oscillations may have a role in integrating information from parietal and medial-temporal regions. Theta activity on this medial-temporal-parietal source was positively correlated with more efficient navigation performance. Results are discussed in light of the depth and proposed closed field structure of the hippocampus and potential implications for scalp EEG data. The findings of the present study suggest that appropriate BSS methods are ideally suited to minimizing the effects of volume conduction in noninvasive recordings, allowing more accurate exploration of deep brain processes.

  19. Holomorphic projections and Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

    PubMed

    Imamoğlu, Özlem; Raum, Martin; Richter, Olav K

    2014-03-18

    We use spectral methods of automorphic forms to establish a holomorphic projection operator for tensor products of vector-valued harmonic weak Maass forms and vector-valued modular forms. We apply this operator to discover simple recursions for Fourier series coefficients of Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

  20. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms.

  1. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms. PMID:26942169

  2. Better than sleep: theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Miriam; Rozengurt, Roman; Barnea, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Consistent empirical results showed that both night and day sleep enhanced memory consolidation. In this study we explore processes of consolidation of memory during awake hours. Since theta oscillations have been shown to play a central role in exchange of information, we hypothesized that elevated theta during awake hours will enhance memory consolidation. We used a neurofeedback protocol, to enhance the relative power of theta or beta oscillations. Participants trained on a tapping task, were divided into three groups: neurofeedback theta; neurofeedback beta; control. We found a significant improvement in performance in the theta group, relative to the beta and control groups, immediately after neurofeedback. Performance was further improved after night sleep in all groups, with a significant advantage favoring the theta group. Theta power during training was correlated with the level of improvement, indicating a clear relationship between memory consolidation, and theta neurofeedback.

  3. Human brain networks in cognitive decline: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Marra, Camillo; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuronal network characteristics in physiological and pathological brain aging. A database of 378 participants divided in three groups was analyzed: Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal elderly (Nold) subjects. Through EEG recordings, cortical sources were evaluated by sLORETA software, while graph theory parameters (Characteristic Path Length λ, Clustering coefficient γ, and small-world network σ) were computed to the undirected and weighted networks, obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA software. EEG cortical sources from spectral analysis showed significant differences in delta, theta, and alpha 1 bands. Furthermore, the analysis of eLORETA cortical connectivity suggested that for the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) the pattern differences between normal cognition and dementia were observed in the theta band (MCI subjects are find similar to healthy subjects), while for the normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) a significant increment was found for AD group in delta, theta, and alpha 1 bands; finally, the small world (σ) parameter presented a significant interaction between AD and MCI groups showing a theta increase in MCI. The fact that AD patients respect the MCI subjects were significantly impaired in theta but not in alpha bands connectivity are in line with the hypothesis of an intermediate status of MCI between normal condition and overt dementia.

  4. Motor Cortex Theta and Gamma Architecture in Young Adult APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lundt, Andreas; Wormuth, Carola; Ginde, Varun Raj; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Xie, Kan; Haenisch, Britta; Ehninger, Dan; Weiergräber, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder leading to progressive memory loss and eventually death. In this study, an APPswePS1dE9 AD mouse model has been analyzed for motor cortex theta, beta and gamma frequency alterations using computerized 3D stereotaxic electrode positioning and implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry to perform long-term M1 recordings from both genders considering age, circadian rhythm and activity status of experimental animals. We previously demonstrated that APPswePS1dE9 mice exibit complex alterations in hippocampal frequency power and another recent investigation reported a global increase of alpha, beta and gamma power in APPswePS1dE9 in females of 16–17 weeks of age. In this cortical study in APPswePS1dE9 mice we did not observe any changes in theta, beta and particularly gamma power in both genders at the age of 14, 15, 18 and 19 weeks. Importantly, no activity dependence of theta, beta and gamma activity could be detected. These findings clearly point to the fact that EEG activity, particularly gamma power exhibits developmental changes and spatial distinctiveness in the APPswePS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:28072877

  5. Higher theta and alpha1 coherence when listening to Vedic recitation compared to coherence during Transcendental Meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi; Shrivastava, Amrita

    2017-03-01

    This study compared subjective experiences and EEG patterns in 37 subjects when listening to live Vedic recitation and when practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM). Content analysis of experiences when listening to Vedic recitation yielded three higher-order code. Experiences during Vedic recitation were: (1) deeper than during TM practice; (2) experienced as an inner process; and (3) characterized by lively silence. EEG patterns support these higher-order codes. Theta2 and alpha1 frontal, parietal, and frontal-parietal coherence were significantly higher when listening to Vedic recitation, than during TM practice. Theta2 coherence is seen when attending to internal mental processes. Higher theta2 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that the Vedic recitations were "not external sounds but internal vibrations." Alpha1 coherence is reported during pure consciousness experiences during TM practice. Higher alpha1 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that they "experienced a depth of experience, rarely experienced even during deep TM practice." These data support the utility of listening to Vedic recitation to culture deep inner experiences.

  6. [Parameters of the spatial of organization of EEG in persons with various individual characteristics].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M

    2000-01-01

    The relationships between some characteristics of EEG topographic maps and personality traits (extraversion-introversion, sensation-intuition, thinking-feeling, judging-impulsiveness) by the Keirsey's Type Inventory were studied in 46 17-20-year-old men). The most considerable distinctions in the spatial organization of the EEG were observed between the functions sensation and intuition. The high-sensation responders were characterized by higher EEG power in the theta 1, 2 and alpha 1-bands in all derivations and higher coherence (especially in the theta 1, 2 bands most expressed in the frontoparietal areas) as compared with the high-intuition responders. The expression of extraversion was positively correlated with coherence values in the theta 1, 2 and negatively correlated with coherence in the alpha 1, 2 bands. Characteristic EEG patterns for other types of personality traits were also described. The results suggest that some characteristics of brain maps reflect the individual psychological features determined on the basis of Jung's typology.

  7. Association between quantitative EEG and neurocognition in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Kalechstein, Ari D; Hardy, David J; Cook, Ian A; Nestor, Liam; Ling, Walter; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to methamphetamine is associated with long-lasting reductions in markers for dopaminergic neurons in preclinical models and in humans. These changes may be associated with alterations in brain electrical activity and in cognition. The sample included 9 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 10 non-drug-using volunteers. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects were hospitalized for 4 days to document abstinence; non-drug-using volunteers were studied as outpatients. EEGs were recorded in the eyes-closed resting state, and absolute EEG power in each frequency band (0.5-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-12 Hz, and 12-20 Hz) was measured using a fast Fourier transform. EEG power was log-transformed prior to analysis. Cognition was measured using computerized reaction time tasks. Within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, increased theta quantitative EEG (QEEG) power correlated significantly with reaction time on tasks that were more difficult or that were degraded by fatigue. Increased theta QEEG power also correlated with reduced accuracy on a working memory task. Increased QEEG power in the theta band is associated with worse performance on reaction time tasks in the methamphetamine-dependent sample but not in the non-drug-using volunteers. Methamphetamine dependence is associated with pathological alterations in brain electrical activity and in cognitive performance. QEEG appears to provide a sensitive measure of methamphetamine-associated alterations in brain function.

  8. Hippocampal theta, gamma, and theta-gamma coupling: effects of aging, environmental change, and cholinergic activation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Tara K.; Howe, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Brandy; Hinman, James R.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations coordinate the timing of multiple inputs to hippocampal neurons and have been linked to information processing and the dynamics of encoding and retrieval. One major influence on hippocampal rhythmicity is from cholinergic afferents. In both humans and rodents, aging is linked to impairments in hippocampus-dependent function along with degradation of cholinergic function. Cholinomimetics can reverse some age-related memory impairments and modulate oscillations in the hippocampus. Therefore, one would expect corresponding changes in these oscillations and possible rescue with the cholinomimetic physostigmine. Hippocampal activity was recorded while animals explored a familiar or a novel maze configuration. Reexposure to a familiar situation resulted in minimal aging effects or changes in theta or gamma oscillations. In contrast, exploration of a novel maze configuration increased theta power; this was greater in adult than old animals, although the deficit was reversed with physostigmine. In contrast to the theta results, the effects of novelty, age, and/or physostigmine on gamma were relatively weak. Unrelated to the behavioral situation were an age-related decrease in the degree of theta-gamma coupling and the fact that physostigmine lowered the frequency of theta in both adult and old animals. The results indicate that age-related changes in gamma and theta modulation of gamma, while reflecting aging changes in hippocampal circuitry, seem less related to aging changes in information processing. In contrast, the data support a role for theta and the cholinergic system in encoding and that hippocampal aging is related to impaired encoding of new information. PMID:23303862

  9. Self-generated theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Romain; Jackson, Jesse; Williams, Sylvain

    2009-12-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is crucial for spatial memory and is thought to be generated by extrinsic inputs. In contrast, using a complete rat hippocampus in vitro, we found several intrinsic, atropine-resistant theta generators in CA1. These oscillators were organized along the septotemporal axis and arose independently from CA3. Our results suggest that CA1 theta rhythm can emerge from the coupling of multiple autonomous hippocampal theta oscillators.

  10. Theta-burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters the Functional Topography of the Cortical Motor Network

    PubMed Central

    NOH, Nor Azila; FUGGETTA, Giorgio; MANGANOTTI, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool that is able to modulate the electrical activity of the brain depending upon its protocol of stimulation. Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a high-frequency TMS protocol that is able to induce prolonged plasticity changes in the brain. The induction of plasticity-like effects by TBS is useful in both experimental and therapeutic settings; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of this modulation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous TBS (cTBS) on the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric functional connectivity of the resting and active brain. Methods: A total of 26 healthy humans were randomly divided into two groups that received either real cTBS or sham (control) over the left primary motor cortex. Surface electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to quantify the changes of neural oscillations after cTBS at rest and after a choice reaction time test. The cTBS-induced EEG oscillations were computed using spectral analysis of event-related coherence (ERCoh) of theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–9.5 Hz), high alpha (10–12.5 Hz), low beta (13–19.5 Hz), and high beta (20–30 Hz) brain rhythms. Results: We observed a global decrease in functional connectivity of the brain in the cTBS group when compared to sham in the low beta brain rhythm at rest and high beta brain rhythm during the active state. In particular, EEG spectral analysis revealed that high-frequency beta, a cortically generated brain rhythm, was the most sensitive band that was modulated by cTBS. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that cTBS, a TMS protocol that mimics the mechanism of long-term depression of synaptic plasticity, modulates motor network oscillations primarily at the cortical level and might interfere with cortical information coding. PMID:27006636

  11. Quantitative analysis of EEG effects following experimental marginal magnesium and boron deprivation.

    PubMed

    Penland, J G

    1995-12-01

    Magnesium (115 and 315 mg/d) and boron (0.23 and 3.23 mg/d) were fed in a double-blind Latin squares design to 13 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 50-78 years) living on a metabolic unit. An eight-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the last week of each of four 6-week dietary periods. Power and coherence measures were determined for each of four EEG frequency bands: delta (1-3 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-18 Hz). Compared to high dietary magnesium, the low magnesium intake increased total power in the frontal regions and right temporal and parietal regions and resulted in frequency-specific increases in left occipital delta power, theta power in all but the left temporal region, alpha power in the right frontal and right temporal regions, and beta power in the frontal regions. The proportion of theta to total power in the parietal regions also increased with the low magnesium intake. While magnesium effects were observed primarily during eyes-closed conditions, effects of dietary boron on EEG power were found only during eyes-open conditions. Relative to high dietary boron, the low boron intake increased delta power in the left parietal and left occipital regions, increased the proportion of delta to total power in the frontal regions, and decreased relative right frontal theta, right frontal alpha, and left frontal beta power. Additional magnesium and boron effects were evident in the measures of EEG coherence. Thus relatively short periods of marginal magnesium and boron deprivation can affect brain function in healthy older women. The findings extend previous qualitative observations of increased CNS activity following severe magnesium deprivation and deficiency to cases of experimentally induced marginal magnesium deficiency, and verify CNS hyperexcitability by quantitative analysis of the EEG.

  12. EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children.

    PubMed

    Fernández, T; Herrera, W; Harmony, T; Díaz-Comas, L; Santiago, E; Sánchez, L; Bosch, J; Fernández-Bouzas, A; Otero, G; Ricardo-Garcell, J; Barraza, C; Aubert, E; Galán, L; Valdés, R

    2003-07-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) is an operant conditioning procedure, by which the subject learns to control his/her EEG activity. On one hand, Learning Disabled (LD) children have higher values of theta EEG absolute and relative power than normal children, and on the other hand, it has been shown that minimum alpha absolute power is necessary for adequate performance. Ten LD children were selected with higher than normal ratios of theta to alpha absolute power (theta/alpha). The Test Of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was applied. Children were divided into two groups in order to maintain similar IQ values, TOVA values, socioeconomical status, and gender for each group. In the experimental group, NFB was applied in the region with highest ratio, triggering a sound each time the ratio fell below a threshold value. Noncontingent reinforcement was given to the other group. Twenty half-hour sessions were applied, at a rate of 2 per week. At the end of the 20 sessions, TOVA, WISC and EEG were obtained. There was significant improvement in WISC performance in the experimental group that was not observed in the control group. EEG absolute power decreased in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the experimental group. Control children only showed a decrease in relative power in the delta band. All changes observed in the experimental group and not observed in the control group indicate better cognitive performance and the presence of greater EEG maturation in the experimental group, which suggests that changes were due not only to development but also to NFB treatment.

  13. EEG from a single-channel dry-sensor recording device.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stuart J; Blackman, Russell; Bruggemann, Jason M

    2012-04-01

    While a laboratory setting and research-grade electroencephalogram (EEG) equipment allow control of variables and high-quality multiple-channel EEG recording, there are situations and populations for which this is not suitable. The present studies examined the validity of a new method of single-channel EEG measurement that is portable and uses dry-sensor technology. In study 1, EEG was recorded simultaneously from the portable device and 4 standard EEG electrodes from a research system, during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting conditions, with 20 adult participants. Average correlations with the research system frequency spectra were highest at site F3 for portable device data processed onboard of the device (r = .90), and for device data processed in a standard manner (r = .89). Further, predictable variations in EO versus EC comparisons were observed. In study 2, twenty-three healthy children had EEGs recorded from the portable device during EO and EC resting conditions, and 3 EO active conditions (ie, relaxation, attention, and cognitive load). Absolute and relative EEG band power differed between conditions in predicted ways, including a reduction in relative theta power and an increase in relative alpha power in EC compared to EO resting conditions. Overall, the results suggest that, while limited in terms of scalp recording locations, the portable device has potential utility in certain EEG recording situations where ease of use is a priority.

  14. Cross-correlation of EEG frequency bands and heart rate variability for sleep apnoea classification.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Haslaile; Maddage, Namunu C; Cosic, Irena; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    Sleep apnoea is a sleep breathing disorder which causes changes in cardiac and neuronal activity and discontinuities in sleep pattern when observed via electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Using both statistical analysis and Gaussian discriminative modelling approaches, this paper presents a pilot study of assessing the cross-correlation between EEG frequency bands and heart rate variability (HRV) in normal and sleep apnoea clinical patients. For the study we used EEG (delta, theta, alpha, sigma and beta) and HRV (LF(nu), HF(nu) and LF/HF) features from the spectral analysis. The statistical analysis in different sleep stages highlighted that in sleep apnoea patients, the EEG delta, sigma and beta bands exhibited a strong correlation with HRV features. Then the correlation between EEG frequency bands and HRV features were examined for sleep apnoea classification using univariate and multivariate Gaussian models (UGs and MGs). The MG outperformed the UG in the classification. When EEG and HRV features were combined and modelled with MG, we achieved 64% correct classification accuracy, which is 2 or 8% improvement with respect to using only EEG or ECG features. When delta and acceleration coefficients of the EEG features were incorporated, then the overall accuracy improved to 71%.

  15. Are There Any Specific EEG Findings in Autoimmune Epilepsies?

    PubMed

    Baysal-Kirac, Leyla; Tuzun, Erdem; Altindag, Ebru; Ekizoglu, Esme; Kinay, Demet; Bilgic, Basar; Tekturk, Pinar; Baykan, Betul

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the EEG findings of patients whose seizures were associated with a possible autoimmune etiology. Our aim was to find clues to distinguish patients with antineuronal antibodies (Ab) through EEG studies. We reviewed our database and identified antineuronal Ab positive epilepsy patients with or without autoimmune encephalitis. These patients had Abs to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (n = 5), glycine receptor (GLY-R) (n = 5), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR-2) (n = 4), uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antigens (n = 2), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (n = 2), Hu (n = 1), and amphiphysin (n = 1). The control group consisted of 21 seronegative epilepsy or encephalopathy patients with similar clinical features. EEG findings were compared between the groups in a blindfolded design. We did not find any significant difference in EEG findings between antineuronal Ab positive epilepsy patients and seronegative control group. It was remarkable that four seropositive but none of the seronegative patients presented with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) or focal motor status epilepticus. Continuous theta and delta rhythms were observed in 5 (71%) seropositive patients with autoimmune encephalitis and 2 (25%) seronegative patients. Eight (40 %) seropositive patients showed a frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) pattern as opposed to 5 (24%) seronegative patients. Two patients with NMDAR Ab positivity showed rhythmic delta waves superimposed with beta frequency activity resembling "delta brush" pattern. EEG seems as a limited diagnostic tool in differentiating epilepsy and/or encephalopathy patients with a possible autoimmune etiology from those without. However, antineuronal Abs associated with encephalitis should be considered in the etiology of status epilepticus forms. A possible autoimmune etiology for seizures may be considered in the presence of continuous slow waves, FIRDA, and

  16. Spatial Mnemonic Encoding: Theta Power Decreases and Medial Temporal Lobe BOLD Increases Co-Occur during the Usage of the Method of Loci.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Marie-Christin; Volberg, Gregor; Wimber, Maria; Goldhacker, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The method of loci is one, if not the most, efficient mnemonic encoding strategy. This spatial mnemonic combines the core cognitive processes commonly linked to medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity: spatial and associative memory processes. During such processes, fMRI studies consistently demonstrate MTL activity, while electrophysiological studies have emphasized the important role of theta oscillations (3-8 Hz) in the MTL. However, it is still unknown whether increases or decreases in theta power co-occur with increased BOLD signal in the MTL during memory encoding. To investigate this question, we recorded EEG and fMRI separately, while human participants used the spatial method of loci or the pegword method, a similarly associative but nonspatial mnemonic. The more effective spatial mnemonic induced a pronounced theta power decrease source localized to the left MTL compared with the nonspatial associative mnemonic strategy. This effect was mirrored by BOLD signal increases in the MTL. Successful encoding, irrespective of the strategy used, elicited decreases in left temporal theta power and increases in MTL BOLD activity. This pattern of results suggests a negative relationship between theta power and BOLD signal changes in the MTL during memory encoding and spatial processing. The findings extend the well known negative relation of alpha/beta oscillations and BOLD signals in the cortex to theta oscillations in the MTL.

  17. Spatial Mnemonic Encoding: Theta Power Decreases and Medial Temporal Lobe BOLD Increases Co-Occur during the Usage of the Method of Loci

    PubMed Central

    Volberg, Gregor; Goldhacker, Markus; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The method of loci is one, if not the most, efficient mnemonic encoding strategy. This spatial mnemonic combines the core cognitive processes commonly linked to medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity: spatial and associative memory processes. During such processes, fMRI studies consistently demonstrate MTL activity, while electrophysiological studies have emphasized the important role of theta oscillations (3–8 Hz) in the MTL. However, it is still unknown whether increases or decreases in theta power co-occur with increased BOLD signal in the MTL during memory encoding. To investigate this question, we recorded EEG and fMRI separately, while human participants used the spatial method of loci or the pegword method, a similarly associative but nonspatial mnemonic. The more effective spatial mnemonic induced a pronounced theta power decrease source localized to the left MTL compared with the nonspatial associative mnemonic strategy. This effect was mirrored by BOLD signal increases in the MTL. Successful encoding, irrespective of the strategy used, elicited decreases in left temporal theta power and increases in MTL BOLD activity. This pattern of results suggests a negative relationship between theta power and BOLD signal changes in the MTL during memory encoding and spatial processing. The findings extend the well known negative relation of alpha/beta oscillations and BOLD signals in the cortex to theta oscillations in the MTL. PMID:28101523

  18. Thalamic Bursts Down-regulate Cortical Theta and Nociceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Brian W; Cross, Brent; Smith, Kelsey A; Roach, Catherine; Xia, Jimmy; Chao, Yu-Chieh; Levitt, Joshua; Koyama, Suguru; Moore, Christopher I; Saab, Carl Y

    2017-05-30

    We tested the relation between pain behavior, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations in somatosensory cortex and burst firing in thalamic neurons in vivo. Optically-induced thalamic bursts attenuated cortical theta and mechanical allodynia. It is proposed that thalamic bursts are an adaptive response to pain that de-synchronizes cortical theta and decreases sensory salience.

  19. Slow EEG-power spectra correlate with haemodynamic changes during laryngoscopy and intubation following induction with fentanyl or sufentanil.

    PubMed

    Freye, E; Dehnen-Seipel, H; Latasch, L; Behler, M; Wilder-Smith, O H

    1999-01-01

    We studied nociception-associated arousal following laryngoscopy and intubation in patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery, using EEG power spectra and hemodynamics. Either fentanyl (7 micrograms/kg; n = 30) or sufentanil (1 microgram/kg; n = 30) were given in a randomized fashion to induce anesthesia in heavily premedicated patients, followed by pancuronium bromide (100 micrograms/kg). EEG-power spectra (delta, theta, alpha, beta) as well as mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HF) were measured at the following end-points: before the induction of anesthesia (control), 1 and 10 minutes after laryngoscopy and intubation (L & I). Linear regression analysis was computed to determine which of the EEG power spectra was most sensitive to detect insufficient blockade of nociceptive-related arousal when correlated with haemodynamics. In the fentanyl group the change in HF closely correlated with the decrease of power in the slow delta- and theta-domain (r2 = 0.98 and r2 = 0.89 respectively) of the EEG. The change in MAP also closely correlated with a decrease in the slow delta- and theta-domain (r2 = 0.97 and r2 = 0.99 respectively). There was little correlation in regard to spectral edge frequency (SEF) and HF and MAP changes (r2 = 0.36 and r2 = 0.12 respectively). In the sufentanil group the change in HF correlated closely with an increase of power in the fast alpha and a decrease in the slow theta-domain (r2 = 0.91 and r2 = 0.98 respectively) of the EEG. The changes in MAP closely correlated with an increase in the fast alpha-band a decrease in the slow theta-domain (r2 = 0.98 and r2 = 0.73 respectively). Also there was little correlation of SEF with HF and MAP changes (r2 = 0.09 and r2 = 0.02 respectively). Among the EEG-spectra, reduction of power in the slow delta- and theta-bands are the most sensitive parameters to determine insufficient antinociception of opioids commonly used for the induction in cardiac anesthesia. Increase of power in

  20. Gender differences in the EEG during cognitive activity.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Ramos, J; Guevara, M A; Arce, C; Gutiérrez, S

    1993-10-01

    EEG activity of 16 adult volunteers. 8 male and 8 females was monopolarly recorded at P3 and P4 at rest and during solution of three series of tasks: one analytic, one spatial and one mixed demanding both kinds of processing. The following main effects were observed: Men showed significantly higher beta relative power than women, while women showed significantly higher alpha relative power than men during all conditions. Alpha relative power decreased, while theta relative power increased during tasks solution in both sexes. Beta relative power was significantly higher at the left parietal only in men. Interparietal correlation was significantly higher in women than in men during all conditions and bands. For the theta band it increased from baseline values during tasks solution in men, while in women it decreased during the analytic task.

  1. Topography, Power and Current Source Density of Theta Oscillations during Reward Processing as Markers for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task which involved outcomes of either loss or gain of an amount (10¢ or 50¢) that was bet. Event-related theta band (3.0–7.0 Hz) power following each outcome stimulus was computed using the S-transform method. Theta power at the time window of the outcome-related negativity (ORN) and positivity (ORP) (200–500 ms) was compared across groups and outcome conditions. Additionally, behavioral data of impulsivity and task performance were analyzed. The alcoholic group showed significantly decreased theta power during reward processing compared to controls. Current Source Density (CSD) maps of alcoholics revealed weaker and diffuse source activity for all conditions and weaker bilateral prefrontal sources during the Loss 50 condition as compared to controls who manifested stronger and focused midline sources. Further, alcoholics exhibited increased impulsivity and risk-taking on the behavioral measures. A strong association between reduced anterior theta power and impulsive task-performance was observed. It is suggested that decreased power and weaker and diffuse CSD in alcoholics may be due to dysfunctional neural reward circuitry. The relationship among alcoholism, theta oscillations, reward processing and impulsivity could offer clues to understand brain circuitries that mediate reward processing and inhibitory control. PMID:21520344

  2. Theta/beta neurofeedback in children with ADHD: Feasibility of a short-term setting and plasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jessica; Heinrich, Hartmut; Bezold, Mareile; Reuter, Nina; Kratz, Oliver; Horndasch, Stefanie; Berking, Matthias; Ros, Tomas; Gevensleben, Holger; Moll, Gunther H; Studer, Petra

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is increasingly used as a therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however behavioral improvements require 20 plus training sessions. More economic evaluation strategies are needed to test methodological optimizations and mechanisms of action. In healthy adults, neuroplastic effects have been demonstrated directly after a single session of NF training. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility of short-term theta/beta NF in children with ADHD and to learn more about the mechanisms underlying this protocol. Children with ADHD conducted two theta/beta NF sessions. In the first half of the sessions, three NF trials (puzzles as feedback animations) were run with pre- and post-reading and picture search tasks. A significant decrease of the theta/beta ratio (TBR), driven by a decrease of theta activity, was found in the NF trials of the second session demonstrating rapid and successful neuroregulation by children with ADHD. For pre-post comparisons, children were split into good vs. poor regulator groups based on the slope of their TBR over the NF trials. For the reading task, significant EEG changes were seen for the theta band from pre- to post-NF depending on individual neuroregulation ability. This neuroplastic effect was not restricted to the feedback electrode Cz, but appeared as a generalized pattern, maximal over midline and right-hemisphere electrodes. Our findings indicate that short-term NF may be a valuable and economical tool to study the neuroplastic mechanisms of targeted NF protocols in clinical disorders, such as theta/beta training in children with ADHD.

  3. Frontal-posterior theta oscillations reflect memory retrieval during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lars; Grigutsch, Maren; Schmuck, Noura; Gaston, Phoebe; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Successful working-memory retrieval requires that items be retained as distinct units. At the neural level, it has been shown that theta-band oscillatory power increases with the number of to-be-distinguished items during working-memory retrieval. Here we hypothesized that during sentence comprehension, verbal-working-memory retrieval demands lead to increased theta power over frontal cortex, supposedly supporting the distinction amongst stored items during verbal-working-memory retrieval. Also, synchronicity may increase between the frontal cortex and the posterior cortex, with the latter supposedly supporting item retention. We operationalized retrieval by using pronouns, which refer to and trigger the retrieval of antecedent nouns from a preceding sentence part. Retrieval demand was systematically varied by changing the pronoun antecedent: Either, it was non-embedded in the preceding main clause, and thus easy-to-retrieve across a single clause boundary, or embedded in the preceding subordinate clause, and thus hard-to-retrieve across a double clause boundary. We combined electroencephalography (EEG), scalp-level time-frequency analysis, source localization, and source-level coherence analysis, observing a frontal-midline and broad left-hemispheric theta-power increase for embedded-antecedent compared to non-embedded-antecedent retrieval. Sources were localized to left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices. Coherence analyses suggested synchronicity between left-frontal and left-parietal and between left-frontal and right-inferior-temporal cortices. Activity of an array of left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices may thus assist retrieval during sentence comprehension, potentially indexing the orchestration of item distinction, verbal working memory, and long-term memory. Our results extend prior findings by mapping prior knowledge on the functional role of theta oscillations onto processes genuine to human

  4. Autonomic and EEG correlates of emotional imagery in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, L; Simoni, A; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Santarcangelo, E L

    2003-04-15

    The autonomic and EEG correlates of the response to a cognitive unpleasant stimulation (US) verbally administered to awake hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects were studied. They were compared with the values obtained during a resting condition immediately preceding the stimulus and with those produced by a cognitive neutral stimulation (NS), also administered after a basal resting period. Results showed hypnotic trait effects on skin resistance, heart and respiratory rate as well as on EEG theta, alpha, beta and gamma relative power changes. The autonomic and EEG patterns observed indicated different strategies in the task execution for hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects and a discrepancy between the autonomic and EEG changes associated to the US in susceptible subjects. Results support dissociation theories of hypnosis and suggest for hypnotizable persons an active mechanism of protection against cardiac hazard.

  5. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  6. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Smith, M E; Gevins, A; Brown, H; Karnik, A; Du, R

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  7. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  8. Impaired Neural Synchrony in the Theta Frequency Range in Adolescents at Familial Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Donkers, Franc C. L.; Schwikert, Shane R.; Evans, Anna M.; Cleary, Katherine M.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the maturation of the fronto-limbic and fronto-striate brain circuits responsible for executive function and affective processing. Puberty also coincides with the emergence of the prodromal signs of schizophrenia, which may indicate an association between these two processes. Time-domain analysis and wavelet based time–frequency analysis was performed on electroencephalographic (EEG) data of 30 healthy control (HC) subjects and 24 individuals at familial risk (FR) for schizophrenia. All participants were between the ages of 13 and 18 years and were carefully matched for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and Tanner Stage. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from 32 EEG channels while participants performed a visual oddball task, where they identified rare visual targets among standard “scrambled” images and rare aversive and neutral distracter pictures. The time-domain analysis showed that during target processing the FR group showed smaller event-related potentials in the P2 and P3 range as compared to the HC group. In addition, EEG activity in the theta (4–8 Hz) frequency range was significantly reduced during target processing in the FR group. Inefficient cortical information processing during puberty may be an early indicator of altered brain function in adolescents at FR for schizophrenia and may represent a vulnerability marker for illness onset. Longitudinal assessments will have to determine their predictive value for illness onset in populations at FR for psychotic illness. PMID:21991257

  9. Changes of EEG Spectra and Functional Connectivity during an Object-Location Memory Task in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuliang; Wang, Kai; Jia, Jianjun; Wu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Object-location memory is particularly fragile and specifically impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was utilized to objectively measure memory impairment for memory formation correlates of EEG oscillatory activities. We aimed to construct an object-location memory paradigm and explore EEG signs of it. Two groups of 20 probable mild AD patients and 19 healthy older adults were included in a cross-sectional analysis. All subjects took an object-location memory task. EEG recordings performed during object-location memory tasks were compared between the two groups in the two EEG parameters (spectral parameters and phase synchronization). The memory performance of AD patients was worse than that of healthy elderly adults The power of object-location memory of the AD group was significantly higher than the NC group (healthy elderly adults) in the alpha band in the encoding session, and alpha and theta bands in the retrieval session. The channels-pairs the phase lag index value of object-location memory in the AD group was clearly higher than the NC group in the delta, theta, and alpha bands in encoding sessions and delta and theta bands in retrieval sessions. The results provide support for the hypothesis that the AD patients may use compensation mechanisms to remember the items and episode.

  10. Absolute Theta Power in the Frontal Cortex During a Visuomotor Task: The Effect of Bromazepam on Attention.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Mariana; Peressuti, Caroline; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Bromazepam is a benzodiazepine, which has been widely employed in the treatment of anxiety. We investigated the electrophysiological changes in absolute theta power within the frontal cortex when individuals performed a visuomotor task under bromazepam. The sample of 17 healthy individuals was randomized into 2 experimental conditions, under which bromazepam 6 mg and placebo were administered on different days. All subjects were right -handed, with no mental or physical illness and were not using any psychoactive or psychotropic substance during the entire period of the study. We found an increase in reaction time under bromazepam compared with placebo . With regard to the electrophysiological variable, we found a lower theta power value in the prefrontal cortex prior to task execution, compared with after. We therefore suggested that this could be an increase of neural activity in this region, because of the subjects' readiness to perform the task, that is, because of their higher alertness. The right lateral frontal region showed lower theta power under bromazepam for pre- and post-finger movement. This could have occurred because of more effort to execute the task. In the left frontal region: premovement did not demonstrate any difference between conditions, possibly because the proposed task was simple to execute. In conclusion, theta power plays an important role in the analysis of visuomotor performance, assuming that bromazepam causes impairment on sustained attention and sensory perception. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  11. Interactions between different EEG frequency bands and their effect on alpha-fMRI correlations.

    PubMed

    de Munck, J C; Gonçalves, S I; Mammoliti, R; Heethaar, R M; Lopes da Silva, F H

    2009-08-01

    In EEG/fMRI correlation studies it is common to consider the fMRI BOLD as filtered version of the EEG alpha power. Here the question is addressed whether other EEG frequency components may affect the correlation between alpha and BOLD. This was done comparing the statistical parametric maps (SPMs) of three different filter models wherein either the free or the standard hemodynamic response functions (HRF) were used in combination with the full spectral bandwidth of the EEG. EEG and fMRI were co-registered in a 30 min resting state condition in 15 healthy young subjects. Power variations in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands were extracted from the EEG and used as regressors in a general linear model. Statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were computed using three different filter models, wherein either the free or the standard hemodynamic response functions (HRF) were used in combination with the full spectral bandwidth of the EEG. Results show that the SPMs of different EEG frequency bands, when significant, are very similar to that of the alpha rhythm. This is true in particular for the beta band, despite the fact that the alpha harmonics were discarded. It is shown that inclusion of EEG frequency bands as confounder in the fMRI-alpha correlation model has a large effect on the resulting SPM, in particular when for each frequency band the HRF is extracted from the data. We conclude that power fluctuations of different EEG frequency bands are mutually highly correlated, and that a multi frequency model is required to extract the SPM of the frequency of interest from EEG/fMRI data. When no constraints are put on the shapes of the HRFs of the nuisance frequencies, the correlation model looses so much statistical power that no correlations can be detected.

  12. Estimation of the propagation direction and spectral properties of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia using Directed Transfer Function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Kaminski, Maciej; Marciniak, Radoslaw; Byrczek, Tomasz; Stasiowski, Michal; Jalowiecki, Przemyslaw; Sobieszek, Aleksander; Zmyslowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate spectral properties and propagation of the EEG signals registered during sevoflurane anaesthesia between individual EEG recording channels. The intensities of activity flows were calculated for delta, theta, alpha and beta waves using the Directed Transfer Function integration procedure. It was found that delta waves played the dominant role in the EEG signal propagation during anesthesia and it was suggested that theta and alpha waves propagation could be related to the processes participating in the wakefulness control. Data obtained with DTF method were compared with data received from the analysis of cerebral blood flow with the use of PET in other laboratory. This study showed that analysis of the EEG signal propagation is useful for better understanding and thus safer induction of anaesthesia procedure.

  13. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  14. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  15. Frontal midline theta in the pre-shot phase of rifle shooting: differences between experts and novices.

    PubMed

    Doppelmayr, M; Finkenzeller, T; Sauseng, P

    2008-04-01

    In the present study the time course of frontal midline theta (Fmtheta) during the aiming period in rifle shooting was investigated. Experts (n=8) and novices (n=10) had to shoot repeatedly while EEG was recorded, and the time course of Fmtheta during the aiming period was significantly different between the two groups, showing a steady increase of power for the last 3s before the shot only for experts, but not for novices. Source analysis (LORETA) indicated a significantly stronger theta activity for experts strictly located at the anterior cingulate area and medial frontal cortex, locations well known for focused attention. The results suggest that experts and novices use different strategies during the aiming period. While novices keep a relatively constant amount of attention to the target, experts are able to increase attention exactly to the time point of the trigger pull.

  16. Electroencephalographical study of the Rett syndrome with special reference to the monorhythmic theta activities in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A

    1992-05-01

    The long-term course of the EEG in the Rett syndrome is documented with reference to past studies. The monorhythmic theta activities in the waking state which were characteristically seen in adults with the Rett syndrome were investigated in patients aged between 27 and 28, using auto power spectra. They were often suppressed when the patients were excited or strained. Then the suppression was thought to elevate their conscious levels. The theta activities were often suppressed by calling, but not easily suppressed by other stimuli, especially the somatosensory stimuli of pain and touch. There were also abnormal findings in the ABR and blink reflexes. In the Rett syndrome we, therefore, suspect there are disturbances in the brain stem functions especially in the ascending reticular activating system which is related to elevation of the conscious level.

  17. Parvalbumin Interneurons of Hippocampus Tune Population Activity at Theta Frequency.

    PubMed

    Amilhon, Bénédicte; Huh, Carey Y L; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Nichol, Heather; Adamantidis, Antoine; Williams, Sylvain

    2015-06-03

    Hippocampal theta rhythm arises from a combination of recently described intrinsic theta oscillators and inputs from multiple brain areas. Interneurons expressing the markers parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) are leading candidates to participate in intrinsic rhythm generation and principal cell (PC) coordination in distal CA1 and subiculum. We tested their involvement by optogenetically activating and silencing PV or SOM interneurons in an intact hippocampus preparation that preserves intrinsic connections and oscillates spontaneously at theta frequencies. Despite evidence suggesting that SOM interneurons are crucial for theta, optogenetic manipulation of these interneurons modestly influenced theta rhythm. However, SOM interneurons were able to strongly modulate temporoammonic inputs. In contrast, activation of PV interneurons powerfully controlled PC network and rhythm generation optimally at 8 Hz, while continuously silencing them disrupted theta. Our results thus demonstrate a pivotal role of PV but not SOM interneurons for PC synchronization and the emergence of intrinsic hippocampal theta.

  18. Septal serotonin depletion in rats facilitates working memory in the radial arm maze and increases hippocampal high-frequency theta activity.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; López-Loeza, Elisa; Lajud Ávila, Naima; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Reyes, Yoana Estrada; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2014-07-05

    Hippocampal theta activity, which is strongly modulated by the septal medial/Broca׳s diagonal band neurons, has been linked to information processing of the hippocampus. Serotonin from the medial raphe nuclei desynchronises hippocampal theta activity, whereas inactivation or a lesion of this nucleus induces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. Hippocampal serotonin depletion produces an increased expression of high-frequency theta activity concurrent with the facilitation of place learning in the Morris maze. The medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS/DBB) has been proposed as a key structure in the serotonin modulation of theta activity. We addressed whether serotonin depletion of the MS/DBB induces changes in the characteristics of hippocampal theta activity and whether the depletion is associated with learning in a working memory spatial task in the radial arm maze. Sprague Dawley rats were depleted of 5HT with the infusion of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT) in MS/DBB and were subsequently trained in the standard test (win-shift) in the radial arm, while the CA1 EEG activity was simultaneously recorded through telemetry. The MS/DBB serotonin depletion induced a low level of expression of low-frequency (4.5-6.5Hz) and a higher expression of high-frequency (6.5-9.5Hz) theta activity concomitant to a minor number of errors committed by rats on the working memory test. Thus, the depletion of serotonin in the MS/DBB caused a facilitator effect on working memory and a predominance of high-frequency theta activity.

  19. Monitoring kidney patients by syntactometric EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández Sande, C; Arias Rodríguez, J E

    1985-10-01

    The EEG of seriously ill kidney patients reflects changes in their condition which can be measured quantitatively by a syntactic pattern recognition technique. 128 s of an EEG were sampled at 100 Hz and segmented into 4 sec blocks, each of which was labelled D (or d), T (or t), N (or n), S (or s), or B (or b) depending on the position of its main peak in the power spectrum: delta band (0-4 Hz), theta band (4-8 Hz), alpha band (8-12 Hz), sigma band (12-14 Hz) or beta band (over 14 Hz). The use of capital or small letters depends on the size of the peak A refinement of the method also takes into account the second largest peak. The distance of the resulting 32-character 'sentences' from a pattern is calculated using a string-to-string metric based on weighted insertions, deletions and substitutions (insertions and deletions are included to allow for artefacts detected in the signal). Elementary weights have been assigned on empirical medical grounds taking into account the neurological significance of the various spectral bands and their correlation with the levels of creatinine and urea in the bloodstream.

  20. Optimization of EEG frequency bands for improved diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Vialatte, Francois; Cichocki, Andrzej; Latchoumane, Charles; Jeong, Jaesung; Dauwels, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that electroencephalograms (EEG) of Alzheimer patients (AD) often have an abnormal power spectrum. In this paper a frequency band analysis of AD EEG signals is presented, with the aim of improving the diagnosis of AD from EEG signals. Relative power in different EEG frequency bands is used as features to distinguish between AD patients and healthy control subjects. Many different frequency bands between 4 and 30 Hz are systematically tested, besides the traditional frequency bands, e.g., theta band (4-8 Hz). The discriminative power of the resulting spectral features is assessed through statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, linear discriminant analysis is conducted with those spectral features. The optimized frequency ranges (4-7 Hz, 8-15 Hz, 19-24 Hz) yield substantially better classification performance than the traditional frequency bands (4-8 Hz, 8-12 Hz, 12-30 Hz); the frequency band 4-7 Hz is the optimal frequency range for detecting AD, which is similar to the classical theta band. The frequency bands were also optimized as features through leave-one-out crossvalidation, resulting in error-free classification. The optimized frequency bands may improve existing EEG based diagnostic tools for AD. Additional testing on larger AD datasets is required to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Maturational changes in automated EEG spectral power analysis in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Jennekens, Ward; Pasman, Jaco W; Katgert, Titia; Van Pul, Carola; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; Kramer, Boris W; Zimmermann, Luc J; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Our study aimed at automated power spectral analysis of the EEG in preterm infants to identify changes of spectral measures with maturation. Weekly (10-20 montage) 4-h EEG recordings were performed in 18 preterm infants with GA <32 wk and normal neurological follow-up at 2 y, resulting in 79 recordings studied from 27(+4) to 36(+3) wk of postmenstrual age (PMA, GA + postnatal age). Automated spectral analysis was performed on 4-h EEG recordings. The frequency spectrum was divided in delta 1 (0.5-1 Hz), delta 2 (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) band. Absolute and relative power of each frequency band and spectral edge frequency were calculated. Maturational changes in spectral measures were observed most clearly in the centrotemporal channels. With advancing PMA, absolute powers of delta 1 to 2 and theta decreased. With advancing PMA, relative power of delta 1 decreased and relative powers of alpha and beta increased, respectively. In conclusion, with maturation, spectral analysis of the EEG showed a significant shift from the lower to the higher frequencies. Computer analysis of EEG will allow an objective and reproducible analysis for long-term prognosis and/or stratification of clinical treatment.

  2. Relative Power of Specific EEG Bands and Their Ratios during Neurofeedback Training in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615

  3. Assessing transient cross-frequency coupling in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X

    2008-03-15

    Synchronization of oscillatory EEG signals across different frequency bands is receiving waxing interest in cognitive neuroscience and neurophysiology, and cross-frequency coupling is being increasingly linked to cognitive and perceptual processes. Several methods exist to examine cross-frequency coupling, although each has its limitations, typically by being flexible only over time or over frequency. Here, a method for assessing transient cross-frequency coupling is presented, which allows one to test for the presence of multiple, dynamic, and flexible cross-frequency coupling structure over both time and frequency. The method is applied to intracranial EEG data, and strong coupling between gamma ( approximately 40-80 Hz) and upper theta ( approximately 7-9 Hz) was observed. This method might have useful applications in uncovering the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive processes.

  4. Arousing feedback rectifies lapse in performance and corresponding EEG power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Jian-Ann; Ko, Li-Wei; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and behavioral changes in response to arousing auditory signals presented to individuals experiencing momentary cognitive lapses. Arousing auditory feedback was delivered to the subjects in half of the non-responded lane-deviation events during a sustained-attention driving task, which immediately agitated subject's responses to the events. The improved behavioral performance was accompanied by concurrent power suppression in the theta- and alpha-bands in the lateral occipital cortices. This study further explores the feasibility of estimating the efficacy of arousing feedback presented to the drowsy subjects by monitoring the changes in EEG power spectra.

  5. Neural Correlates of Phrase Rhythm: An EEG Study of Bipartite vs. Rondo Sonata Form.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodrigo, Arturo; Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Latorre, José Miguel; Moncho-Bogani, José; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the neural correlates of phrase rhythm. In short, phrase rhythm is the rhythmic aspect of phrase construction and the relationships between phrases. For the sake of establishing the neural correlates, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to phrase rhythm. Brain activity is monitored through electroencephalography (EEG) by using a brain-computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. Our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands in the phrase rhythm variations of two classical sonatas, one in bipartite form and the other in rondo form.

  6. Increased wakefulness, motor activity and decreased theta activity after blockade of the 5-HT2B receptor by the subtype-selective antagonist SB-215505

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Sandor; Jakus, Rita; Balogh, Brigitta; Benko, Anita; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2004-01-01

    Serotonin-2 receptor antagonists, like ritanserin, greatly enhance deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2) and low-frequency EEG power in humans and rodents. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors may be involved in these effects, but the role of the 5-HT2B receptor is still unclear.To investigate the role of the 5-HT2B receptor in regulation of the sleep–wake cycle, the subtype-selective antagonist SB-215505 (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg−1 i.p.) was administered to Sprague–Dawley rats at light onset (beginning of passive phase). EEG, EMG and motor activity were recorded during the subsequent 8 h.SB-215505 dose-dependently increased wakefulness (W) at the expense of the intermediate stage of sleep, paradoxical sleep (PS) and SWS-2 in the first hour. Parallel to increased W, significantly increased motor activity was found. Spectral analysis of the EEG in W showed a dose-dependent decrease in power density in the 3–8 Hz frequency range (maximum effect at 6 Hz). In light slow wave sleep and SWS-2, the drug reduced low-frequency (<8 Hz) EEG power, suggesting decreased sleep intensity after SB-215505 treatment. In PS, the drug dose-dependently decreased EEG power solely in the theta (6–9 Hz) band, primarily affecting the peak power value (7 Hz).The well-known SWS-2 enhancing effect of 5-HT2 receptor antagonists is mediated by 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2C receptors. In contrast, blockade of 5-HT2B receptors increases motor activity and W along with decreased theta activity during W and PS. Activation of 5-HT2B receptors may contribute to initiation of sleep and to theta generation during W and PS under physiological conditions. PMID:15265808

  7. [The EEG and thinking].

    PubMed

    Petsche, H

    1990-12-01

    The on-going EEG contains information on thinking strategies during cognitive and creative tasks and during listening to music. This was demonstrated by a method taking use of the fact that both the amount of local current production and the degree of electric coupling of brain regions is characteristically changed by mental tasks. In groups of volunteers the significant changes of absolute power and coherence caused by different mental tasks are computed and entered into schematic brain maps (EEG probability maps). The results indicate the existence of general brain strategies even in mental activities as specific as those referred to above. Moreover, several relationships between EEG, psychological test scores, degree of special education and intelligence were found. Studies with extreme value validation according to intelligence and creativity test scores yielded significant differences between the groups of the best and the poorest performers during a creative task in the EEG. The EEG thus can be conceived of as deterministic chaos with different degrees of organization according to its information content. In this context, the question arises as to a possible function of the EEG for the optimization of thinking processes.

  8. Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Qi, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown that stimulating the parietal lobe, which plays a role in memory storage, can enhance performance during the “retention” process of working memory (WM). However, the mechanism of rTMS effect during this phase is still unclear. In this study, we stimulated the superior parietal lobe (SPL) using 5-Hz rTMS in 26 participants and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed a delayed-recognition WM task. The analyses included the comparisons of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) value variations in theta (4–7 Hz) and alpha (8–14 Hz) band frequencies between conditions (rTMS vs. sham), as well as the correlations between different brain areas. Following rTMS, the ERSP values of theta-band oscillations were significantly increased in the parietal and occipital-parietal brain areas (P < 0.05*), whereas the ERSP values of alpha-band oscillations were significantly decreased in the parietal area (P < 0.05*). The ERSP value variations of theta-band oscillations between the two conditions in the left parietal and left prefrontal areas were positively correlated with the response time (RT) variations (by using rTMS, the more subject RT decreased, the more ERSP value of theta oscillation increased). The ERSP value variations of alpha-band oscillations in the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were negatively correlated with RT variations (by using rTMS, the more RT of the subject decreased, the more ERSP value of alpha oscillation decreased). Inter-sites phase synchronization of theta-band EEG between the left parietal and left prefrontal areas, as well as alpha-band EEG between the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were enhanced by rTMS. These results indicated that activities of both parietal and prefrontal areas were required for information storage, and these activities were related to the behavioral responses. Moreover, the connectivity between these

  9. Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Qi, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown that stimulating the parietal lobe, which plays a role in memory storage, can enhance performance during the "retention" process of working memory (WM). However, the mechanism of rTMS effect during this phase is still unclear. In this study, we stimulated the superior parietal lobe (SPL) using 5-Hz rTMS in 26 participants and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed a delayed-recognition WM task. The analyses included the comparisons of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) value variations in theta (4-7 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) band frequencies between conditions (rTMS vs. sham), as well as the correlations between different brain areas. Following rTMS, the ERSP values of theta-band oscillations were significantly increased in the parietal and occipital-parietal brain areas (P < 0.05*), whereas the ERSP values of alpha-band oscillations were significantly decreased in the parietal area (P < 0.05*). The ERSP value variations of theta-band oscillations between the two conditions in the left parietal and left prefrontal areas were positively correlated with the response time (RT) variations (by using rTMS, the more subject RT decreased, the more ERSP value of theta oscillation increased). The ERSP value variations of alpha-band oscillations in the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were negatively correlated with RT variations (by using rTMS, the more RT of the subject decreased, the more ERSP value of alpha oscillation decreased). Inter-sites phase synchronization of theta-band EEG between the left parietal and left prefrontal areas, as well as alpha-band EEG between the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were enhanced by rTMS. These results indicated that activities of both parietal and prefrontal areas were required for information storage, and these activities were related to the behavioral responses. Moreover, the connectivity between these two

  10. Event-related EEG time-frequency PCA and the orienting reflex to auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M; Bernat, Edward M; Steiner, Genevieve Z

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported an auditory habituation series with counterbalanced indifferent and significant (counting) instructions. Time-frequency (t-f) analysis of electrooculogram-corrected EEG was used to explore event-related synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) in four EEG bands using arbitrarily selected time epochs and traditional frequency ranges. ERS in delta, theta, and alpha, and subsequent ERD in theta, alpha, and beta, showed substantial decrement over trials, yet effects of stimulus significance (count vs. no-task) were minimal. Here, we used principal components analysis (PCA) of the t-f data to investigate the natural frequency and time combinations involved in such stimulus processing. We identified four ERS and four ERD t-f components: six showed decrement over trials, four showed count > no-task effects, and six showed Significance × Trial interactions. This increased sensitivity argues for the wider use of our data-driven t-f PCA approach.

  11. Tobacco Smoking and the Resting Maternal Brain: A Preliminary Study of Frontal EEG

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Haley E.; Von Mohr, Mariana; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Rutherford, Helena J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has been attributed to a wide range of detrimental health consequences for both women and their children. In addition to its known physical health effects, smoking may also impact maternal neural responses and subsequent caregiving behavior. To begin investigating this issue, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine resting neural oscillations of tobacco-smoking mothers (n = 35) and non-smoking mothers (n = 35). We examined seven EEG frequency bands recorded from frontal electrode sites (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma). While no between-group differences were present in high-frequency bands (alpha2, beta, gamma), smokers showed greater spectral power in low-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1) compared to non-smokers. This increased power in low-frequency bands of tobacco-smoking mothers is consistent with a less aroused state and may be one mechanism through which smoking might affect the maternal brain and caregiving behavior. PMID:27354838

  12. Progressive Fracture of [0/90/ + or - Theta]s Composite Structure Under Uniform Pressure Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Christos K.; Mouratidis, Ericos

    2007-01-01

    S-Glass/epoxy [0/90/plus or minus theta]s for theta =45 deg., 60 deg., and 75 deg. laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate was simulated to investigated for damage and fracture progression under uniform pressure. An integrated computer code was augmented for the simulation of the damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture and to structural collapse. Results show in detail the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. Damage through the thickness of the laminate initiated first at [0/90/plus or minus 45]s at 15.168 MPa (2200 psi), followed by [0/90/plus or minus 60]s at 16.96 MPa (2460 psi) and finally by [0/90/plus or minus 75]s at 19.3 MPa (2800 psi). After damage initiation happened the cracks propagate rapidly to structural fracture.

  13. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Jiang, Joe-Air; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chang, Yang-Chyuan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  14. EEG Signatures of Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity States.

    PubMed

    Allen, E A; Damaraju, E; Eichele, T; Wu, L; Calhoun, V D

    2017-02-22

    The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects. Whether these connectivity states correspond to meaningful electrophysiological signatures was not clear. In this study, using a dataset with concurrent EEG and resting state functional imaging data acquired during eyes open and eyes closed states, we demonstrate the replicability of previous findings in an independent sample, and identify EEG spectral signatures associated with these functional network connectivity changes. Eyes open and eyes closed conditions show common and different connectivity patterns that are associated with distinct EEG spectral signatures. Certain connectivity states are more prevalent in the eyes open case and some occur only in eyes closed state. Both conditions exhibit a state of increased thalamocortical anticorrelation associated with reduced EEG spectral alpha power and increased delta and theta power possibly reflecting drowsiness. This state occurs more frequently in the eyes closed state. In summary, we find a link between dynamic connectivity in fMRI data and concurrently collected EEG data, including a large effect of vigilance on functional connectivity. As demonstrated with EEG and fMRI, the stationarity of connectivity cannot be assumed, even for relatively short periods.

  15. Developmental Changes in the Human Sleep EEG During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tarokh, Leila; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To use time-frequency analysis to characterize developmental changes in the human sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) across early adolescence. Design: Sleep EEG was recorded when children were 9/10 years old and 1 to 3 years later after sleeping at home on a fixed schedule for at least one week. Setting: A 4-bed sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen (5 girls) healthy children ages 9/10 (mean = 10.13, SD = ± 0.51) years at initial and 11 to 13 (mean = 12.28, SD = ± 0.62) years at follow-up. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All-night polysomnography was performed at each assessment and sleep stages were scored with Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria. Slow wave sleep minutes decreased from the initial to the follow-up session by 29%, while minutes of stage 2 increased by 17%. NREM and REM sleep EEG spectra from two central and two occipital leads were examined for developmental changes. All-night analyses showed a significant decrease of EEG power from the initial to follow-up session across a range of frequencies during NREM and REM sleep. This decline occurred across leads and states in the delta/theta bands (3.8 – 7 Hz). Time-frequency analyses indicated that this effect was consistent across the night. The decline in power with age was most pronounced in the left central and right occipital leads. The frequency of greatest power in the sigma band (11 – 16 Hz) was significantly higher at follow-up. Conclusions: This longitudinal analysis highlights asymmetrical frequency-specific declines in sleep EEG spectral power with early adolescent maturation, which may reflect early signs of the cortical synaptic pruning in the healthy adolescent. Citation: Tarokh L; Carskadon MA. Developmental changes in the human sleep EEG during early adolescence. SLEEP 2010;33(6):801-809. PMID:20550021

  16. Respiratory cycle-related EEG changes: response to CPAP.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Ronald D; Shelgikar, Anita Valanju; Burns, Joseph W

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC) quantify statistically significant synchrony between respiratory cycles and EEG spectral power, vary to some extent with work of breathing, and may help to predict sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This study was designed to assess the acute response of RCREC to relief of upper airway obstruction by positive airway pressure (PAP). Comparison of RCREC between baseline diagnostic polysomnograms and PAP titration studies. Accredited academic sleep disorders center. Fifty adults referred for suspected sleep disordered breathing. For each recording, the RCREC in specific physiologic EEG frequency ranges were computed as previously described for the last 3 h of sleep not occupied by apneic events. The sample included 27 women; mean age was 47 ± 11 (SD) years; and median respiratory disturbance index at baseline was 24 (inter-quartile range 15-43). Decrements in RCREC, from baseline to PAP titration, reached 43%, 24%, 14%, 22%, and 31% for delta (P = 0.0004), theta (P = 0.01), alpha (P = 0.10), sigma (P = 0.08), and beta (P = 0.01) EEG frequency ranges, respectively. Within each specific sleep stage, these reductions from baseline to PAP studies in synchrony between EEG power and respiratory cycles still reached significance (P < 0.05) for one or more EEG frequency ranges and for all frequency ranges during REM sleep. RCREC tends to diminish acutely with alleviation of upper airway obstruction by PAP. These data in combination with previous observations support the hypothesis that RCREC reflect numerous, subtle, brief, but consequential inspiratory microarousals.

  17. The Hippocampus and Cortex Together Generate the Scalp EEG Ictal Discharge in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vossler, David G; Kraemer, Diana L; Bell, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    The scalp EEG ictal discharge in temporal lobe epilepsy is reportedly visible only after the intracranial discharge becomes well synchronized and present over 10 to 30 cm of cortex. We investigated the role of the hippocampal formation in the generation of the scalp EEG ictal discharge. Intracranial EEG video monitors were recorded using simultaneous scalp, stereotaxic depth, and subdural strip electrodes in 19 subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy. The location, frequency, morphology, and timing of the initial ictal discharge, and subsequent ictal patterns, were examined in hippocampal formation, medial paleocortex, and lateral temporal neocortex electrocorticographic and scalp temporal EEG recordings. In every subject, a scalp ictal discharge was visible only after the intracranial ictal discharge had spread to involve the whole temporal lobe (hippocampal formation, medial paleocortex, and lateral temporal neocortex). Beta/gamma frequency and decremental electrocorticographic ictal discharges were never visualized in the EEG. The scalp EEG ictal discharge frequency was 2.4 to 10 Hz and appeared a median of 18 seconds after a faster frequency electrocorticographic initial ictal discharge, once the intracranial discharge slowed to an alpha, theta, or delta frequency. In temporal lobe epilepsy, an ictal pattern is not readily visible in the scalp EEG until the intracranial ictal discharge is ≤10 Hz and has propagated from its site of onset to involve the hippocampus, medial paleocortex, and lateral temporal neocortex.

  18. Studying the default mode and its mindfulness-induced changes using EEG functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2014-10-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been largely studied by imaging, but not yet by neurodynamics, using electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity (FC). mindfulness meditation (MM), a receptive, non-elaborative training is theorized to lower DMN activity. We explored: (i) the usefulness of EEG-FC for investigating the DMN and (ii) the MM-induced EEG-FC effects. To this end, three MM groups were compared with controls, employing EEG-FC (-MPC, mean phase coherence). Our results show that: (i) DMN activity was identified as reduced overall inter-hemispheric gamma MPC during the transition from resting state to a time production task and (ii) MM-induced a state increase in alpha MPC as well as a trait decrease in EEG-FC. The MM-induced EEG-FC decrease was irrespective of expertise or band. Specifically, there was a relative reduction in right theta MPC, and left alpha and gamma MPC. The left gamma MPC was negatively correlated with MM expertise, possibly related to lower internal verbalization. The trait lower gamma MPC supports the notion of MM-induced reduction in DMN activity, related with self-reference and mind-wandering. This report emphasizes the possibility of studying the DMN using EEG-FC as well as the importance of studying meditation in relation to it.

  19. The spatiospectral characterization of brain networks: fusing concurrent EEG spectra and fMRI maps.

    PubMed

    Bridwell, David A; Wu, Lei; Eichele, Tom; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-04-01

    Different imaging modalities capture different aspects of brain activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals intrinsic networks whose BOLD signals have periods from 100 s (0.01 Hz) to about 10s (0.1 Hz). Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, in contrast, commonly reflect cortical electrical fluctuations with periods up to 20 ms (50 Hz) or above. We examined the correspondence between intrinsic fMRI and EEG network activity at rest in order to characterize brain networks both spatially (with fMRI) and spectrally (with EEG). Brain networks were separately identified within the concurrently recorded fMRI and EEG at the aggregate group level with group independent component analysis and the association between spatial fMRI and frequency by spatial EEG sources was examined by deconvolving their component time courses. The two modalities are considered linked if the estimated impulse response function (IRF) is significantly non-zero at biologically plausible delays. We found that negative associations were primarily present within two of five alpha components, which highlights the importance of considering multiple alpha sources in EEG-fMRI. Positive associations were primarily present within the lower (e.g. delta and theta) and higher (e.g. upper beta and lower gamma) spectral regions, sometimes within the same fMRI components. Collectively, the results demonstrate a promising approach to characterize brain networks spatially and spectrally, and reveal that positive and negative associations appear within partially distinct regions of the EEG spectrum.

  20. Different Resting State EEG Features in Children from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Nsreen; Evdokimov, Sergey A.; Kropotov, Yury (Juri); Müller, Andreas M.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research field concerned with studying the influences of different cultures on brain anatomy and function. In this study, we examined whether different cultural or genetic influences might influence the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in young children (mean age 10 years) from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. Methods: Resting state EEG recordings were obtained from relatively large groups of healthy children (95 healthy Swiss children and 102 Saudi Arabian children). These EEG data were analyzed using group independent components analyses (gICA) and conventional analyses of spectral data, together with estimations of the underlying intracortical sources, using LORETA software. Results: We identified many similarities, but also some substantial differences with respect to the resting state EEG data. For Swiss children, we found stronger delta band power values in mesial frontal areas and stronger power values in three out of four frequency bands in occipital areas. For Saudi Arabian children, we uncovered stronger alpha band power over the sensorimotor cortex. The additionally measured theta/beta ratio (TBR) was similar for Swiss and Saudi Arabian children. Conclusions: The different EEG resting state features identified, are discussed in the context of different cultural experiences and possible genetic influences. In addition, we emphasize the importance of using appropriate EEG databases when comparing resting state EEG features between groups. PMID:27853430

  1. Different types of theta rhythmicity are induced by social and fearful stimuli in a network associated with social memory

    PubMed Central

    Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic activity in the theta range is thought to promote neuronal communication between brain regions. In this study, we performed chronic telemetric recordings in socially behaving rats to monitor electrophysiological activity in limbic brain regions linked to social behavior. Social encounters were associated with increased rhythmicity in the high theta range (7–10 Hz) that was proportional to the stimulus degree of novelty. This modulation of theta rhythmicity, which was specific for social stimuli, appeared to reflect a brain-state of social arousal. In contrast, the same network responded to a fearful stimulus by enhancement of rhythmicity in the low theta range (3–7 Hz). Moreover, theta rhythmicity showed different pattern of coherence between the distinct brain regions in response to social and fearful stimuli. We suggest that the two types of stimuli induce distinct arousal states that elicit different patterns of theta rhythmicity, which cause the same brain areas to communicate in different modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03614.001 PMID:25686218

  2. Multivariate genetic determinants of EEG oscillations in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder from the BSNIP study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10 422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development. PMID:26101851

  3. Music therapy modulates fronto-temporal activity in rest-EEG in depressed clients.

    PubMed

    Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction.

  4. EEG Brain Activity in Dynamic Health Qigong Training: Same Effects for Mental Practice and Physical Training?

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. PMID:28223957

  5. EEG Brain Activity in Dynamic Health Qigong Training: Same Effects for Mental Practice and Physical Training?

    PubMed

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state.

  6. Multivariate genetic determinants of EEG oscillations in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder from the BSNIP study.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D

    2015-06-23

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10,422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development.

  7. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  8. Understanding the pathophysiology of reflex epilepsy using simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, Manglore; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Panda, Rajanikant; Chandra, S R; Kumar, Naveen; George, Lija; Thamodharan, A; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Satishchandra, P

    2014-03-01

    Measuring neuro-haemodynamic correlates in the brain of epilepsy patients using EEG-fMRI has opened new avenues in clinical neuroscience, as these are two complementary methods for understanding brain function. In this study, we investigated three patients with drug-resistant reflex epilepsy using EEG-fMRI. Different types of reflex epilepsy such as eating, startle myoclonus, and hot water epilepsy were included in the study. The analysis of EEG-fMRI data was based on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges on scalp EEG. The convolution of onset time and duration of these epilepsy spikes was estimated, and using these condition-specific effects in a general linear model approach, we evaluated activation of fMRI. Patients with startle myoclonus epilepsy experienced epilepsy in response to sudden sound or touch, in association with increased delta and theta activity with a spike-and-slow-wave pattern of interictal epileptiform discharges on EEG and fronto-parietal network activation pattern on SPECT and EEG-fMRI. Eating epilepsy was triggered by sight or smell of food and fronto-temporal discharges were noted on video-EEG (VEEG). Similarly, fronto-temporo-parietal involvement was noted on SPECT and EEG-fMRI. Hot water epilepsy was triggered by contact with hot water either in the bath or by hand immersion, and VEEG showed fronto-parietal involvement. SPECT and EEG fMRI revealed a similar fronto-parietal-occipital involvement. From these results, we conclude that continuous EEG recording can improve the modelling of BOLD changes related to interictal epileptic activity and this can thus be used to understand the neuro-haemodynamic substrates involved in reflex epilepsy.

  9. Desynchronization of Theta-Phase Gamma-Amplitude Coupling during a Mental Arithmetic Task in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Jaewon; Na, Chul; Kee, Baik Seok; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) measurement has recently received attention as a feasible method of assessing brain functions such as neuronal interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG) study is to understand the mechanisms underlying the deficits in attentional control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Methods Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD) from a camp for hyperactive children under two conditions (rest and task performance). The EEG power spectra and the TGC data were analyzed. Correlation analyses between the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA) continuous performance test (CPT) scores and EEG parameters were performed. Results No significant difference in the power spectra was detected between the groups at rest and during task performance. However, TGC was reduced during the arithmetic task in the ADHD group compared with the normal group (F = 16.70, p < 0.001). The TGC values positively correlated with the IVA CPT scores but negatively correlated with theta power. Conclusions Our findings suggest that desynchronization of TGC occurred during the arithmetic task in ADHD children. TGC in ADHD children is expected to serve as a promising neurophysiological marker of network deactivation during attention-demanding tasks. PMID:26930194

  10. Reconciling the different faces of hippocampal theta: The role of theta oscillations in cognitive, emotional and innate behaviors.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Monaghan, Caitlin K; Poulter, Steven L; Cacucci, Francesca; Wills, Tom; Hasselmo, Michael E; Lever, Colin

    2017-09-05

    The theta oscillation (5-10Hz) is a prominent behavior-specific brain rhythm. This review summarizes studies showing the multifaceted role of theta rhythm in cognitive functions, including spatial coding, time coding and memory, exploratory locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. We describe how activity of hippocampal theta rhythm generators - medial septum, nucleus incertus and entorhinal cortex, links theta with specific behaviors. We review evidence for functions of the theta-rhythmic signaling to subcortical targets, including lateral septum. Further, we describe functional associations of theta oscillation properties - phase, frequency and amplitude - with memory, locomotion and anxiety, and outline how manipulations of these features, using optogenetics or pharmacology, affect associative and innate behaviors. We discuss work linking cognition to the slope of the theta frequency to running speed regression, and emotion-sensitivity (anxiolysis) to its y-intercept. Finally, we describe parallel emergence of theta oscillations, theta-mediated neuronal activity and behaviors during development. This review highlights a complex interplay of neuronal circuits and synchronization features, which enables an adaptive regulation of multiple behaviors by theta-rhythmic signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    PubMed Central

    Melgari, Jean-Marc; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Salomone, Gaetano; Trotta, Laura; Tombini, Mario; di Biase, Lazzaro; Scrascia, Federica; Fini, Rita; Fabrizio, Emma; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods: We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD). Each patient underwent Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-part-III evaluation before and 60 min after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores) and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation) were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre and Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results: Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia). A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions: Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients. PMID:25452725

  12. Ramanujan’s mock theta functions

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michael; Ono, Ken; Rolen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. Recent work by Zwegers [Zwegers S (2001) Contemp Math 291:268–277 and Zwegers S (2002) PhD thesis (Univ of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands)] has elucidated the theory encompassing these examples. They are holomorphic parts of special harmonic weak Maass forms. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan’s original definition. Here, we prove that Ramanujan’s examples do indeed satisfy his original definition. PMID:23536292

  13. Cognitive-neural effects of brush writing of chinese characters: cortical excitation of theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Kao, Henry S R; Zhang, Manlin; Lam, Stewart P W; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner's body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy.

  14. Cognitive-Neural Effects of Brush Writing of Chinese Characters: Cortical Excitation of Theta Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Kao, Henry S. R.; Zhang, Manlin; Lam, Stewart P. W.; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner's body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy. PMID:23533532

  15. Correlation of Visuospatial Ability and EEG Slowing in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Antonia; Chaturvedi, Menorca; Hatz, Florian; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Background. Visuospatial dysfunction is among the first cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is often predictive for PD-dementia. Furthermore, cognitive status in PD-patients correlates with quantitative EEG. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the correlation between EEG slowing and visuospatial ability in nondemented PD-patients. Methods. Fifty-seven nondemented PD-patients (17 females/40 males) were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and a high-resolution 256-channel EEG was recorded. A median split was performed for each cognitive test dividing the patients sample into either a normal or lower performance group. The electrodes were split into five areas: frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital. A linear mixed effects model (LME) was used for correlational analyses and to control for confounding factors. Results. Subsequently, for the lower performance, LME analysis showed a significant positive correlation between ROCF score and parietal alpha/theta ratio (b = .59, p = .012) and occipital alpha/theta ratio (b = 0.50, p = .030). No correlations were found in the group of patients with normal visuospatial abilities. Conclusion. We conclude that a reduction of the parietal alpha/theta ratio is related to visuospatial impairments in PD-patients. These findings indicate that visuospatial impairment in PD-patients could be influenced by parietal dysfunction. PMID:28348918

  16. EEG functional network properties related to visually induced unrecognized spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaoning; Yang, Yang; Li, Jing; Hao, Chenru; Li, Minggao; Pu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Unrecognized spatial disorientation (SD) which is intimately linked with brain cognitive function is always a fatal issue for the safety of pilots. To explore its effects on human brain cognitive functions, electroencephalography (EEG) functional network analysis methods were adopted to examine topological changes in the connection of cognitive regions when experiencing unrecognized SD. Twelve male pilots participated in the study. They were subjected to a SD scene, namely visual rotation, which evoked unrecognized SD. For the main EEG frequency intervals, the phase lag index (PLI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) were calculated to quantify the EEG data. Then weighted connectivity networks were constructed and their properties were characterized in terms of an average clustering coefficient and global efficiency. A T-test was performed to compare PLI, NMI and network measures under unrecognized SD and non-SD conditions. It indicated a weak functional connectivity level in the theta band under unrecognized SD based on the significant decrease of mean values of PLI and NMI (p<0.05). Meanwhile, both the average clustering coefficient and global efficiency in the theta band reduced under the unrecognized SD condition. The decrease of the average clustering coefficient and global efficiency demonstrates a lack of small-world characteristics and a decline in processing efficiency of brain cognitive regions. All the experimental results show that unrecognized SD may have a negative effect on brain functional networks in the theta band.

  17. Changes in EEG current sources induced by neurofeedback in learning disabled children. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Thalía; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro; Otero, Gloria; Bosch, Jorge; Galán, Lídice; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Aubert, Eduardo; García-Martínez, Fabiola

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to explore Neurofeedback (NFB) effects on EEG current sources in Learning Disabled (LD) children, and to corroborate its beneficial consequences on behavioral and cognitive performance. NFB was given in twenty 30-min sessions to 11 LD children to reduce their abnormally high theta/alpha ratios (Experimental Group). Another five LD children with the same characteristics received a placebo treatment (Control Group). In the Control Group no changes in behavior or EEG current source were observed. In the Experimental Group, immediately after treatment children showed behavioral and cognitive improvements, but current source analysis showed few modifications; however, 2 months after treatment many changes occurred: a decrease in current of frequencies within the theta band, mainly in left frontal and cingulate regions, and enhancement in current of frequencies within the alpha band, principally in the right temporal lobe and right frontal regions, and of frequencies within the beta band, mainly in left temporal, right frontal and cingulate cortex regions. In conclusion, NFB is a possibly efficacious treatment for LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio in any lead. The changes observed in EEG current sources may reflect the neurophysiological bases of the improvement that children experienced in their behavioral and cognitive activities.

  18. Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Cao, Hongbao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Wang, Xiaolu; Chen, Runge; Zhou, Peng

    2014-12-01

    When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1 Hz), theta band (5 Hz), alpha band (10 Hz) and beta band (20 Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John

    2009-02-01

    Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and

  20. Distinguishing Acute Encephalopathy with Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion from Prolonged Febrile Seizures by Acute Phase EEG Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Masayoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Fukuda, Chisako; Kishi, Kazuko; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Lee, Sooyoung; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Kaji, Shunsaku; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Okanishi, Toru; Tomita, Yutaka; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background To differentiate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) after status epileptics in febrile children with final diagnosis of either febrile seizure (FS) or acute encephalopathy for an early diagnosis. Methods We retrospectively collected data from 68 children who had status epilepticus and for whom EEGs were recorded within 120 h. These included subjects with a final diagnosis of FS (n = 20), epileptic status (ES; n = 11), acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n = 18), mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n = 7), other febrile encephalopathies (n = 10), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (n = 1), and intracranial bleeding (n = 1). Initially, all EEGs were visually assessed and graded, and correlation with outcome was explored. Representative EEG epochs were then selected for quantitative analyses. Furthermore, data from AESD (n = 7) and FS (n = 16) patients for whom EEG was recorded within 24 h were also compared. Results Although milder and most severe grades of EEG correlated with neurological outcome, the outcome of moderate EEG severity group was variable and was not predictable from usual inspection. Frequency band analysis revealed that solid delta power was not significantly different among the five groups (AESD, MERS, FS, ES and control), and that MERS group showed the highest theta band power. The ratios of delta/alpha and (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) band powers were significantly higher in the AESD group than in other groups. The alpha and beta band powers in EEGs within 24 h from onset were significantly lower in the AESD group. The band powers and their ratios showed earlier improvement towards 24 h in FS than in AESD. Conclusion Sequential EEG recording up to 24 h from onset appeared to be helpful for distinction of AESD from FS before emergence of the second phase of AESD. PMID:27046946

  1. Distinguishing Acute Encephalopathy with Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion from Prolonged Febrile Seizures by Acute Phase EEG Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Masayoshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Fukuda, Chisako; Kishi, Kazuko; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Lee, Sooyoung; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Kaji, Shunsaku; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro; Okanishi, Toru; Tomita, Yutaka; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    To differentiate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) after status epileptics in febrile children with final diagnosis of either febrile seizure (FS) or acute encephalopathy for an early diagnosis. We retrospectively collected data from 68 children who had status epilepticus and for whom EEGs were recorded within 120 h. These included subjects with a final diagnosis of FS (n = 20), epileptic status (ES; n = 11), acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n = 18), mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n = 7), other febrile encephalopathies (n = 10), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (n = 1), and intracranial bleeding (n = 1). Initially, all EEGs were visually assessed and graded, and correlation with outcome was explored. Representative EEG epochs were then selected for quantitative analyses. Furthermore, data from AESD (n = 7) and FS (n = 16) patients for whom EEG was recorded within 24 h were also compared. Although milder and most severe grades of EEG correlated with neurological outcome, the outcome of moderate EEG severity group was variable and was not predictable from usual inspection. Frequency band analysis revealed that solid delta power was not significantly different among the five groups (AESD, MERS, FS, ES and control), and that MERS group showed the highest theta band power. The ratios of delta/alpha and (delta + theta)/(alpha + beta) band powers were significantly higher in the AESD group than in other groups. The alpha and beta band powers in EEGs within 24 h from onset were significantly lower in the AESD group. The band powers and their ratios showed earlier improvement towards 24 h in FS than in AESD. Sequential EEG recording up to 24 h from onset appeared to be helpful for distinction of AESD from FS before emergence of the second phase of AESD.

  2. Invasive EEG explorations.

    PubMed

    Taussig, D; Montavont, A; Isnard, J

    2015-03-01

    The Wada test was adapted from the procedure described by Wada in 1964. It still has a role in the prognostic evaluation of memory disorders after mesial temporal lobectomy. The test consists of injecting a short-acting anesthetic into one hemisphere, under continuous EEG monitoring and during carotid catheterization, to verify the function of contralateral structures. Intracranial EEG recordings deliver signals with few artifacts, and which are quite specific of the zone explored. Three types of electrodes are in common use: (a) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes: electrodes can be inserted directly, without any stereotactic procedure, to provide easy and comparative EEG recordings of the lower and middle portions of the temporal lobe close to the hippocampus. These allow validation of the temporal lobe origin of seizures using FO electrodes recording coupled with scalp EEG; (b): subdural strip or grip electrodes. This relatively aggressive technique carries infectious and hemorrhagic risks and does not allow the exploration of deep cortical structures. However, it permits precise functional cortical mapping via electrical stimulation because of dense and regular positioning of electrodes over the cortical convexity; (c) stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography [SEEG]). Electrodes are individually planned and inserted within the brain parenchyma through small burr holes. This technique is less aggressive than subdural grid exploration. However it offers relatively limited spatial sampling that may be less well adapted to precise functional evaluation. It allows recording from deep cortical structures and can be argued to be the gold standard of presurgical EEG exploration.

  3. Reduced event-related low frequency EEG activity in patients with early onset schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Simmonite, Molly; Bates, Alan Thomas; Groom, Madeleine; Hollis, Chris; Liddle, Peter Francis

    2015-04-30

    Low-frequency oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been found to be abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear, however, whether these abnormalities are related to severity of illness or are a marker for risk. This study investigated total and evoked theta and delta activity in schizophrenia patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls (HCs). EEG data were recorded whilst 24 individuals with schizophrenia, 26 unaffected siblings of individuals with schizophrenia and 26 healthy control participants completed a Go/No-Go task. Event-related total activity and evoked theta and delta activity were calculated for correct hits (CH), failed inhibitions (FI) and correct inhibitions (CI) trials. Patients displayed significantly less total delta, evoked delta, total theta and evoked theta activity when compared with healthy controls. Unaffected siblings displayed abnormalities of evoked delta, but other measures were similar to those in control participants. The findings of this study add to evidence that abnormal low-frequency EEG oscillations contribute to impairments in information processing seen in schizophrenia. These findings also suggest abnormal evoked delta oscillations are associated with an increased familial risk of developing the disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The relationship between brain oscillations and BOLD signal during memory formation: a combined EEG-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Volberg, Gregor; Wimber, Maria; Raabe, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2011-11-02

    Previous studies demonstrated that increases in the theta frequency band with concomitant decreases in the alpha/beta frequency band indicate successful memory formation. However, little is known about the brain regions and the cognitive processes that underlie these encoding-related oscillatory memory effects. We investigated this relationship using simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings in humans during long-term memory encoding. In line with prior studies, we demonstrate that a decrease in beta power and an increase in theta power positively predict subsequent recall. In fMRI, stronger activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus correlated with successful memory formation. EEG source localization revealed that the subsequent memory effect in the beta band was localized in the left inferior prefrontal cortex, whereas the effect in the theta band was localized in medial temporal lobe regions. Trial-by-trial correlations between EEG and BOLD activity showed that beta power correlated negatively with left inferior prefrontal cortex activity. This correlation was more pronounced for items that could later be successfully recalled compared to items later forgotten. Based on these findings, we suggest that beta oscillations in the left inferior prefrontal cortex indicate semantic encoding processes, whereas theta oscillations in the medial temporal lobe reflect the binding of an item to its spatiotemporal context.

  5. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response

    PubMed Central

    Gwin, Joseph T.; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4–7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12–30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments. PMID:23926037

  6. Loss of balance during balance beam walking elicits a multifocal theta band electrocortical response.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Amy R; Gwin, Joseph T; Makeig, Scott; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-11-01

    Determining the neural correlates of loss of balance during walking could lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment for individuals predisposed to falls. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) to study loss of balance during human walking. We examined 26 healthy young subjects performing heel-to-toe walking on a treadmill-mounted balance beam as well as walking on the treadmill belt (both at 0.22 m/s). ICA identified clusters of electrocortical EEG sources located in or near anterior cingulate, anterior parietal, superior dorsolateral-prefrontal, and medial sensorimotor cortex that exhibited significantly larger mean spectral power in the theta band (4-7 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. Left and right sensorimotor cortex clusters produced significantly less power in the beta band (12-30 Hz) during walking on the balance beam compared with treadmill walking. For each source cluster, we also computed a normalized mean time/frequency spectrogram time locked to the gait cycle during loss of balance (i.e., when subjects stepped off the balance beam). All clusters except the medial sensorimotor cluster exhibited a transient increase in theta band power during loss of balance. Cluster spectrograms demonstrated that the first electrocortical indication of impending loss of balance occurred in the left sensorimotor cortex at the transition from single support to double support prior to stepping off the beam. These findings provide new insight into the neural correlates of walking balance control and could aid future studies on elderly individuals and others with balance impairments.

  7. Classification of Single Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Individuals from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio I; Lizio, Roberta; Cordone, Susanna; Tattoli, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Millán-Calenti, José C; Buján, Ana; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Del Percio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in groups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz) were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e., 70%). Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i) central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii) central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii) frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv) occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v) occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi) parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%). These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  8. Classification of Single Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Individuals from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Babiloni, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio I.; Lizio, Roberta; Cordone, Susanna; Tattoli, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Millán-Calenti, José C.; Buján, Ana; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; del Percio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in groups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz), beta 1 (13–20 Hz), beta 2 (20–30 Hz), and gamma (30–40 Hz) were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e., 70%). Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i) central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii) central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii) frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv) occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v) occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi) parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%). These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%. PMID:26941594

  9. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks.

  10. Aesthetic preference recognition of 3D shapes using EEG.

    PubMed

    Chew, Lin Hou; Teo, Jason; Mountstephens, James

    2016-04-01

    Recognition and identification of aesthetic preference is indispensable in industrial design. Humans tend to pursue products with aesthetic values and make buying decisions based on their aesthetic preferences. The existence of neuromarketing is to understand consumer responses toward marketing stimuli by using imaging techniques and recognition of physiological parameters. Numerous studies have been done to understand the relationship between human, art and aesthetics. In this paper, we present a novel preference-based measurement of user aesthetics using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals for virtual 3D shapes with motion. The 3D shapes are designed to appear like bracelets, which is generated by using the Gielis superformula. EEG signals were collected by using a medical grade device, the B-Alert X10 from advance brain monitoring, with a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and resolution of 16 bits. The signals obtained when viewing 3D bracelet shapes were decomposed into alpha, beta, theta, gamma and delta rhythm by using time-frequency analysis, then classified into two classes, namely like and dislike by using support vector machines and K-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifiers respectively. Classification accuracy of up to 80 % was obtained by using KNN with the alpha, theta and delta rhythms as the features extracted from frontal channels, Fz, F3 and F4 to classify two classes, like and dislike.

  11. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration.

    PubMed

    Bodala, Indu P; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using "challenge integration," a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case). Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05). Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case). From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean reaction

  12. EEG and Eye Tracking Demonstrate Vigilance Enhancement with Challenge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Bodala, Indu P.; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish V.; Al-Nashash, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining vigilance is possibly the first requirement for surveillance tasks where personnel are faced with monotonous yet intensive monitoring tasks. Decrement in vigilance in such situations could result in dangerous consequences such as accidents, loss of life and system failure. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to enhance vigilance or sustained attention using “challenge integration,” a strategy that integrates a primary task with challenging stimuli. A primary surveillance task (identifying an intruder in a simulated factory environment) and a challenge stimulus (periods of rain obscuring the surveillance scene) were employed to test the changes in vigilance levels. The effect of integrating challenging events (resulting from artificially simulated rain) into the task were compared to the initial monotonous phase. EEG and eye tracking data is collected and analyzed for n = 12 subjects. Frontal midline theta power and frontal theta to parietal alpha power ratio which are used as measures of engagement and attention allocation show an increase due to challenge integration (p < 0.05 in each case). Relative delta band power of EEG also shows statistically significant suppression on the frontoparietal and occipital cortices due to challenge integration (p < 0.05). Saccade amplitude, saccade velocity and blink rate obtained from eye tracking data exhibit statistically significant changes during the challenge phase of the experiment (p < 0.05 in each case). From the correlation analysis between the statistically significant measures of eye tracking and EEG, we infer that saccade amplitude and saccade velocity decrease with vigilance decrement along with frontal midline theta and frontal theta to parietal alpha ratio. Conversely, blink rate and relative delta power increase with vigilance decrement. However, these measures exhibit a reverse trend when challenge stimulus appears in the task suggesting vigilance enhancement. Moreover, the mean

  13. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  14. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level. PMID:27514985

  15. Reduced ERPs and theta oscillations underlie working memory deficits in Toxoplasma gondii infected seniors.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread infections in humans. Recent studies give evidence for memory deficits in infected older adults. To investigate working memory dysfunction in infected elderly, a double-blinded electrophysiological study was conducted. 84 persons derived from a sample of 131 healthy participants with the mean age of 70 years were assigned to two groups of 42 non-infected and 42 infected individuals. The outcome measures were behavioral performance, target and response-related ERPs, and time-frequency wavelets during performance in a n-back working-memory task. The infected individuals showed a reduced rate of detected targets and diminished P3b amplitude both in target-locked as well as response-locked data compared to the non-infected group. Time-frequency decomposition of the EEG-signals revealed lower evoked power in the theta frequency range in the target-locked as well as in the response-locked data in infected individuals. The reported effects were comparable with differences between healthy young and old adults described previously. Taking together, the reduced working-memory performance accompanied by an attenuated P3b and frontal theta activity may suggest neurotransmitter imbalance like dopamine and norepinephrine in T. gondii infected individuals. In face of a high prevalence of T. gondii infection and the increasing ratio of older population their accelerated memory decline may have substantial socioeconomic consequences.

  16. Frontal midline theta connectivity is related to efficiency of WM maintenance and is affected by aging.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kardos, Zsófia; File, Bálint; Boha, Roland; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Molnár, Márk

    2014-10-01

    Representations in working memory (WM) are temporary, but can be refreshed for longer periods of time through maintenance mechanisms, thereby establishing their availability for subsequent memory tests. Frontal brain regions supporting WM maintenance operations undergo anatomical and functional changes with advancing age, leading to age related decline of memory functions. The present study focused on age-related functional connectivity changes of the frontal midline (FM) cortex in the theta band (4-8 Hz), related to WM maintenance. In the visual delayed-match-to-sample WM task young (18-26 years, N=20) and elderly (60-71 years N=16) adults had to memorize sample stimuli consisting of 3 or 5 items while 33 channel EEG recording was performed. The phase lag index was used to quantify connectivity strength between cortical regions. The low and high memory demanding WM maintenance periods were classified based on whether they were successfully maintained (remembered) or unsuccessfully maintained (unrecognized later). In the elderly reduced connectivity strength of FM brain region and decreased performance were observed. The connectivity strength between FM and posterior sensory cortices was shown to be sensitive to both increased memory demands and memory performance regardless of age. The coupling of frontal regions (midline and lateral) and FM-temporal cortices characterized successfully maintained trials and declined with advancing age. The findings provide evidence that a FM neural circuit of theta oscillations that serves a possible basis of active maintenance process is especially vulnerable to aging.

  17. Frontal theta activation associated with error detection in toddlers: influence of familial socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ángela; Guerra, Sonia; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rueda, M Rosario

    2016-12-15

    Error detection is one of the functions of the executive attention network, a brain system involved in executive control that includes the anterior cingulate cortex and other prefrontal regions. Despite the key role of this function in a wide range of life outcomes, very limited research has examined the early development of the network and whether its functional efficacy is related to environmental factors. Electrophysiological studies with adults have shown oscillatory activity in theta (4-7 Hz) range arising from medial frontal cortex that follows the detection of self-committed or observed errors. In the current study, we designed a novel experimental procedure that involved a familiarization phase with simple three-pieces puzzles followed by an experimental phase in which toddlers observed the puzzles being formed either correctly or incorrectly. Observation of incorrect configurations produced increased potentials in midline channels and greater power theta activity for both toddlers (n = 56) and adults (n = 14). In addition, socioeconomic status of the family in general, and parental education in particular, contributed to individual differences in the amplitude of the error-related signal and associated theta power in toddlers, indicating that children raised in lower SES families show poorer activation of the executive attention network. These data demonstrate the influence of environmental factors at the earliest stages of development of the executive attention network. Importantly, the results show that error-detection EEG signals can be used as neural markers of the initial development of executive attention, which can be of great help for the early detection of risk for developmental disorders involving deficits in this function.

  18. Kinesthetic motor imagery training modulates frontal midline theta during imagination of a dart throw.

    PubMed

    Weber, E; Doppelmayr, M

    2016-12-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a frequently used and effective method for motor learning in sports as well as in other domains. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicated that experts within a certain sport exhibit a more pronounced brain activity during MI as compared to novices. Similar to the execution, during MI the motor sequence has to be planned. Thus, the frontal attentional system, in part represented by the frontal midline theta (4-7Hz), is closely related to these processes and presumably plays a major role in MI as well. In this study, a MI dart training and its impact on frontal midline theta activity (fmt) during MI are examined. 53 healthy subjects with no prior dart experience were randomly allocated to a kinesthetic training group (KinVis) or to a control group (Control). Both groups performed 15 training sessions. While in the KinVis group dart throwing was accompanied by MI, the Control group trained without MI. Dart performance and fmt activity during MI within the first and the 15th session were compared. As expected, the performance increase was more pronounced in the KinVis group. Furthermore, frontal theta amplitude was significantly increased in the KinVis group during MI in the 15th training session as compared to the baseline. These results confirm the effectivity of MI. The enhanced fmt activity in the KinVis group can be interpreted as a better allocation of the requested resources in the frontal attentional network after MI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of semantic relatedness on age-related associative memory deficits: the role of theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2012-07-16

    Growing evidence suggests that age-related deficits in associative memory are alleviated when the to-be-associated items are semantically related. Here we investigate whether this beneficial effect of semantic relatedness is paralleled by spatio-temporal changes in cortical EEG dynamics during incidental encoding. Young and older adults were presented with faces at a particular spatial location preceded by a biographical cue that was either semantically related or unrelated. As expected, automatic encoding of face-location associations benefited from semantic relatedness in the two groups of age. This effect correlated with increased power of theta oscillations over medial and anterior lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in both groups. But better-performing elders also showed increased brain-behavior correlation in the theta band over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as compared to young adults. Semantic relatedness was, however, insufficient to fully eliminate age-related differences in associative memory. In line with this finding, poorer-performing elders relative to young adults showed significant reductions of theta power in the left IFG that were further predictive of behavioral impairment in the recognition task. All together, these results suggest that older adults benefit less than young adults from executive processes during encoding mainly due to neural inefficiency over regions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). But this associative deficit may be partially compensated for by engaging preexistent semantic knowledge, which likely leads to an efficient recruitment of attentional and integration processes supported by the left PPC and left anterior PFC respectively, together with neural compensatory mechanisms governed by the right VLPFC.

  20. Event-related theta synchronization predicts deficit in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that abnormalities in the synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons in schizophrenia may lead to impaired neural activation and temporal coding and thus lead to neurocognitive dysfunctions, such as deficits in facial affect recognition. To gain an insight into the neurobiological processes linked to facial affect recognition, we investigated both induced and evoked oscillatory activity by calculating the Event Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP) and the Inter Trial Coherence (ITC) during facial affect recognition. Fearful and neutral faces as well as nonface patches were presented to 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls while EEG was recorded. The participants' task was to recognize facial expressions. Because previous findings with healthy controls showed that facial feature decoding was associated primarily with oscillatory activity in the theta band, we analyzed ERSP and ITC in this frequency band in the time interval of 140-200 ms, which corresponds to the N170 component. Event-related theta activity and phase-locking to facial expressions, but not to nonface patches, predicted emotion recognition performance in both controls and patients. Event-related changes in theta amplitude and phase-locking were found to be significantly weaker in patients compared with healthy controls, which is in line with previous investigations showing decreased neural synchronization in the low frequency bands in patients with schizophrenia. Neural synchrony is thought to underlie distributed information processing. Our results indicate a less effective functioning in the recognition process of facial features, which may contribute to a less effective social cognition in schizophrenia. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. A Matter of Time: The Influence of Recording Context on EEG Spectral Power in Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kitsune, Glenn L; Cheung, Celeste H M; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-07-01

    Elevated theta or theta/beta ratio is often reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the consistency across studies and the relation to hypoarousal are increasingly questioned. Reports of elevated delta related to maturational lag and of attenuated beta activity are less well replicated. Some critical inconsistencies could relate to differences in recording context. We examined if resting-state EEG power or global field synchronization (GFS) differed between recordings made at the beginning and end of a 1.5 h testing session in 76 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, and 85 controls. In addition, we aimed to examine the effect of IQ on any potential group differences. Both regional and midline electrodes yielded group main effects for delta, trends in theta, but no differences in alpha or theta/beta ratio. An additional group difference in beta was detected when using regions. Group by time interactions in delta and theta became significant when controlling for IQ. The ADHD group had higher delta and theta power at time-1, but not at time-2, whereas beta power was elevated only at time-2. GFS did not differ between groups or condition. We show some ADHD-control differences on EEG spectral power varied with recording time within a single recording session, with both IQ and electrode selection having a small but significant influence on observed differences. Our findings demonstrate the effect of recording context on resting-state EEG, and highlight the importance of accounting for these variables to ensure consistency of results in future studies.

  2. EEG Theta and Alpha Responses Reveal Qualitative Differences in Processing Taxonomic versus Thematic Semantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…

  3. Acute single channel EEG predictors of cognitive function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Anna; Rogers, Jeffrey M; Johnstone, Stuart J; Middleton, Sandy; Wilson, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of factors that predict post-stroke cognitive outcome is important to set realistic targets for rehabilitation and to guide patients and their families accordingly. However, behavioral measures of cognition are difficult to obtain in the acute phase of recovery due to clinical factors (e.g. fatigue) and functional barriers (e.g. language deficits). The aim of the current study was to test whether single channel wireless EEG data obtained acutely following stroke could predict longer-term cognitive function. Resting state Relative Power (RP) of delta, theta, alpha, beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR), and delta/theta ratio (DTR) were obtained from a single electrode over FP1 in 24 participants within 72 hours of a first-ever stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was administered at 90-days post-stroke. Correlation and regression analyses were completed to identify relationships between 90-day cognitive function and electrophysiological data, neurological status, and demographic characteristics at admission. Four acute qEEG indices demonstrated moderate to high correlations with 90-day MoCA scores: DTR (r = -0.57, p = 0.01), RP theta (r = 0.50, p = 0.01), RP delta (r = -0.47, p = 0.02), and DAR (r = -0.45, p = 0.03). Acute DTR (b = -0.36, p < 0.05) and stroke severity on admission (b = -0.63, p < 0.01) were the best linear combination of predictors of MoCA scores 90-days post-stroke, accounting for 75% of variance. Data generated by a single pre-frontal electrode support the prognostic value of acute DAR, and identify DTR as a potential marker of post-stroke cognitive outcome. Use of single channel recording in an acute clinical setting may provide an efficient and valid predictor of cognitive function after stroke.

  4. Functional connectivity among multi-channel EEGs when working memory load reaches the capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Huipo; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-15

    Evidence from behavioral studies has suggested a capacity existed in working memory. As the concept of functional connectivity has been introduced into neuroscience research in the recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the functional connectivity in the brain when working memory load reaches the capacity. 32-channel electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded for 16 healthy subjects, while they performed a visual working memory task with load 1-6. Individual working memory capacity was calculated according to behavioral results. Short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the principal frequency band (theta band) related to working memory. The functional connectivity among EEGs was measured by the directed transform function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal analysis. The capacity was 4 calculated from the behavioral results. The power was focused in the frontal midline region. The strongest connectivity strengths of EEG theta components from load 1 to 6 distributed in the frontal midline region. The curve of DTF values vs load numbers showed that DTF increased from load 1 to 4, peaked at load 4, then decreased after load 4. This study finds that the functional connectivity between EEGs, described quantitatively by DTF, became less strong when working memory load exceeded the capacity.

  5. Trait anxiety impact on posterior activation asymmetries at rest and during evoked negative emotions: EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory.

  6. Prestimulus EEG amplitude determinants of ERP responses in a habituation paradigm.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Frances M; Barry, Robert J; Steiner, Genevieve Z

    2013-09-01

    Evidence for the nature and extent of the prestimulus EEG contributions to ERP determination has been mounting, and we have recently mapped these within an equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task. Here we examined if the pattern of relationships in the Go/NoGo would generalise to an auditory habituation paradigm. Count and No-task conditions were assessed, and we predicted broadly corresponding effects between Go and Count, and NoGo and No-task conditions. Single-trial data were obtained at the midline sites (Fz, Cz, Pz). Prestimulus EEG in each of the traditional bands was quantified using a sliding FFT window, and five ERP components were manually identified. The corresponding EEG and ERP data were then correlated across subjects, sites, and trials, separately for each ERP component measure (amplitude, latency), task condition (Count, No-task), and EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, beta). Despite the substantial paradigm and methodological differences, 10 of the 17 expected prestimulus EEG-ERP directional relationships (i.e., direct or inverse effects) were confirmed across the traditional bands and ERP components, and only one was in the opposite direction. Importantly, 18 additional relationships reached significance here; these occurred across the EEG bands, and ERP components. Together these findings confirm the significant contributions of prestimulus EEG to subsequent ERP responses. These appear to be at least partially independent of the paradigm and EEG methodology employed, suggesting that there is merit in mapping these contributions further. Our findings also indicate the improved sensitivity of the statistical approach used here in detecting such EEG-ERP relationships.

  7. Variability of model-free and model-based quantitative measures of EEG.

    PubMed

    Van Albada, Sacha J; Rennie, Christopher J; Robinson, Peter A

    2007-06-01

    Variable contributions of state and trait to the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal affect the stability over time of EEG measures, quite apart from other experimental uncertainties. The extent of intraindividual and interindividual variability is an important factor in determining the statistical, and hence possibly clinical significance of observed differences in the EEG. This study investigates the changes in classical quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures, as well as of parameters obtained by fitting frequency spectra to an existing continuum model of brain electrical activity. These parameters may have extra variability due to model selection and fitting. Besides estimating the levels of intraindividual and interindividual variability, we determined approximate time scales for change in qEEG measures and model parameters. This provides an estimate of the recording length needed to capture a given percentage of the total intraindividual variability. Also, if more precise time scales can be obtained in future, these may aid the characterization of physiological processes underlying various EEG measures. Heterogeneity of the subject group was constrained by testing only healthy males in a narrow age range (mean = 22.3 years, sd = 2.7). Eyes-closed EEGs of 32 subjects were recorded at weekly intervals over an approximately six-week period, of which 13 subjects were followed for a year. QEEG measures, computed from Cz spectra, were powers in five frequency bands, alpha peak frequency, and spectral entropy. Of these, theta, alpha, and beta band powers were most reproducible. Of the nine model parameters obtained by fitting model predictions to experiment, the most reproducible ones quantified the total power and the time delay between cortex and thalamus. About 95% of the maximum change in spectral parameters was reached within minutes of recording time, implying that repeat recordings are not necessary to capture the bulk of the variability in EEG spectra.

  8. Handedness leads to interhemispheric EEG asymmetry during sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, V V; Tobler, I

    2008-02-01

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity is increased after wakefulness and decreases during sleep. Regional sleep EEG differences are thought to be a consequence of activation of specific cortical neuronal circuits during waking. We investigated the relationship between handedness and interhemispheric brain asymmetry. Bilateral EEG recordings were obtained from the frontal and occipital cortex in rats with a clear paw preference in a food-reaching task (right, n = 5; left, n = 5). While still naïve to the task, no waking or sleep EEG asymmetry was present. During the food-reaching task, the waking EEG showed significant, substantial power increases in the frontal hemisphere contralateral to the dominant paw in the low theta range (4.5-6.0 Hz). Moreover, the non-REM sleep EEG following feeding bouts was markedly asymmetric, with significantly higher power in the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred paw in frequencies >1.5 Hz. No asymmetry was evident in the occipital EEG. Correlation analyses revealed a positive association between the hemispheric asymmetry during sleep and the degree of preferred use of the contralateral paw during waking in frequencies <9.0 Hz. Our findings show that handedness is reflected in specific, regional EEG asymmetry during sleep. Neuronal activity induced by preferential use of a particular forelimb led to a local enhancement of EEG power in frequencies within the delta and sigma ranges, supporting the hypothesis of use-dependent local sleep regulation. We conclude that inherent laterality is manifested when animals are exposed to complex behavioral tasks, and sleep plays a role in consolidating the hemispheric dominance of the brain.

  9. [Post-radiation effect on the interhemispheric asymmetry in EEG and thermography characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkova, L A; Gabova, A V; Kuznetsova, G D; Sel'skiĭ, A G; Pasechnik, V I; Kholodova, N B; Ianovich, A V

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis of EEG and thermographic parameters carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 34 patients, Chernobyl clean-up participants revealed a correlation between EEG and brain temperature changes in the baseline state and during mental arithmetic. During cognitive activity the maximal increase in the average EEG coherence and temperature shifts in healthy subjects were observed in the left frontotemporal and right parietotemporal areas. In patients changes in both parameters under study were most pronounced, the interhemispheric relations were impaired. The visual analysis revealed "flat" and "hypersynchronous" EEG types in patients. The dominant pathologic activity in the betal range indicative of mediobasal and oral brainstem lesions was characteristic of the flat EEG. This type of activity was observed in 60% of patients. In these cases, a general decrease in EEG coherence and temperature was most pronounced in the left hemisphere. The hypersynchronou EEG type (40% patients) was characterized by paroxysmal activity in the theta and alpha ranges suggesting diencephalic brain lesions. In these cases, EEG coherence and temperature were more variable; changes in the right hemisphere were significant, be it increase or decrease. Our complex approach to investigation of brain activity in different aspects seems to be promising in estimation of the brain functional state both in healthy persons and patients in remote terms after exposure to radiation. The specific hemispheric temperature changes revealed in Chernobyl patients especially during cognitive activity can be the sequels of postradiation disorders of vascular neuro-circulation. The EEG findings suggest subcortical disorders at different levels (diencephalic or brainstem) and functional failure of the right or left hemispheres in remote terms after exposure to radiation.

  10. Oscillatory theta activity during memory formation and its impact on overnight consolidation: a missing link?

    PubMed

    Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Schabus, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote memory consolidation driven by certain oscillatory patterns, such as sleep spindles. However, sleep does not consolidate all newly encoded information uniformly but rather "selects" certain memories for consolidation. It is assumed that such selection depends on salience tags attached to the new memories before sleep. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes reflecting presleep memory tagging. The current study sought to address the question of whether event-related changes in spectral theta power (theta ERSP) during presleep memory formation could reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Twenty-four participants memorized 160 word pairs before sleep; in a separate laboratory visit, they performed a nonlearning control task. Memory performance was tested twice, directly before and after 8 hr of sleep. Results indicate that participants who improved their memory performance overnight displayed stronger theta ERSP during the memory task in comparison with the control task. They also displayed stronger memory task-related increases in fast sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, presleep theta activity was directly linked to fast sleep spindle activity, indicating that processes during memory formation might indeed reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Interestingly, our results further indicate that the suggested relation between sleep spindles and overnight performance change is not as direct as once believed. Rather, it appears to be mediated by processes beginning during presleep memory formation. We conclude that theta ERSP during presleep memory formation reflects cortico-hippocampal interactions that lead to a better long-term accessibility by tagging memories for sleep spindle-related reprocessing.

  11. [EEG and ischemic stroke in full-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Selton, D; André, M; Hascoët, J M

    2003-06-01

    The aims of this study were to describe EEG anomalies in unilateral neonatal ischemic stroke without hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and to determine possible links between these abnormalities and long-term outcome. In 6 full-term newborns without severe fetal distress ischemic stroke was confirmed by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty EEGs were recorded during the neonatal period, 5 in acute stage and 15 later. The duration of the follow-up ranged from 3 to 9 years. All newborns developed unilateral clonic seizures, right-sided (5 cases) or left-sided (1 case); seizures began between 14 and 48 h of life. At follow-up, 3 children were normal at 2 and 6 years of age, while the 3 others had sequelae: epilepsy at 9 years of age in one, and unilateral mild cerebral palsy in the 2 others (3 and 4 years of age), with behavioral problems in one of them. Critical EEG discharges, rhythmic sharp waves and/or slow waves were recorded on the injured side. Abnormalities of interictal activity were excess of alpha or theta rhythms, transitory EEG discontinuity or low voltage. The 2 children with cerebral palsy had numerous unilateral post-ictal positive rolandic slow sharp waves (PRSSWs), which were similar to the positive rolandic sharp waves of premature infants; the child with behavioral problems had numerous positive left-sided temporal fast sharp waves. PRSSWs could be associated with contralateral motor sequelae, while positive left temporal fast sharp waves were associated with long term behavioral problems. These findings may be used for future prospective studies aimed at specifying the relation between EEG abnormalities and long-term outcome.

  12. Neuroelectric assessment of HIV: EEG, ERP, and viral load.

    PubMed

    Polich, J; Ilan, A; Poceta, J S; Mitler, M M; Darko, D F

    2000-10-01

    The effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the central nervous system function were studied with electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory event-related brain potentials (EPRs) in patients infected with HIV and unaffected young adult control subjects (n=10/group). All subjects were assessed once every 15 min for four trial blocks at the same time of day to assess EEG/ERP changes with time on task-induced fatigue. Spectral analysis was applied to the pre- and post-stimulus EEG segments. ERP values were evaluated with respect to group differences for component amplitude and latency measures. Spectral analysis demonstrated that HIV patients evinced greater pre-stimulus delta power over frontal areas compared to control subjects, and less post-stimulus spectral power for the delta, theta, and alpha bands over the central/parietal areas. P300 amplitude was smaller, and latency was marginally longer for the HIV patients compared to control subjects. P300 latency correlated positively with increases in the patient HIV viral load. Time-on-task generally did not affect EEG or ERP measures for either group other than contributing to an overall decrease in neuroelectric responsivity. Group spectral power effects were consistent with differences in arousal/fatigue level. P300 group differences were consistent with declines in cognitive capability, and P300 latency increased with increased viral load. HIV infection negatively affected central nervous system function as measured by EEG and cognitive ERPs in a manner that suggests decreased arousal and increased fatigue in HIV patients.

  13. An automatic detector of drowsiness based on spectral analysis and wavelet decomposition of EEG records.

    PubMed

    Garces Correa, Agustina; Laciar Leber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm to detect automatically drowsiness episodes has been developed. It uses only one EEG channel to differentiate the stages of alertness and drowsiness. In this work the vectors features are building combining Power Spectral Density (PDS) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The feature extracted from the PSD of EEG signal are: Central frequency, the First Quartile Frequency, the Maximum Frequency, the Total Energy of the Spectrum, the Power of Theta and Alpha bands. In the Wavelet Domain, it was computed the number of Zero Crossing and the integrated from the scale 3, 4 and 5 of Daubechies 2 order WT. The classifying of epochs is being done with neural networks. The detection results obtained with this technique are 86.5 % for drowsiness stages and 81.7% for alertness segment. Those results show that the features extracted and the classifier are able to identify drowsiness EEG segments.

  14. Drug-induced EEG pattern predicts effectiveness of ketamine in treating refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maysaa M; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Shah, Aashit K

    2015-04-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) can lack overt clinical manifestation and is usually treated with continuous infusion of intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), where the use of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) is imperative. Ketamine has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of RSE. We retrospectively review a cohort of 11 patients receiving ketamine as part of their treatment regimen for RSE. We report on the presence of a characteristic EEG rhythm consisting of a generalized archiform theta to beta rhythms (7-20 Hz) appearing after ketamine administration. This pattern was seen in five patients, four of whom achieved successful resolution of RSE. Ketamine-induced EEG pattern may serve as a biomarker predictive of successful treatment outcome in RSE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Combination of frequency bands in EEG for feature reduction in mental task classification.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Farnaz; Motie-Nasrabadi, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces require online processing of electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Therefore, speed of signal processing is of great importance in BCI systems. We present a method of feature reduction by combining frequency band powers of EEG, in order to speed up processing and meanwhile avoid classifier overfitting. As a result a linear combination of power spectrum of EEG frequency bands (alpha, beta, gamma, delta & theta) was found that reduces the dimension of feature vector by a factor of 5. This method gives a total correct classification rate of 91.71% comparing to 87.96% achieved from direct use of frequency band powers and 85.54% achieved from PCA feature reduction method applied to the same feature vector with 14 components.

  16. Sentential Negation Might Share Neurophysiological Mechanisms with Action Inhibition. Evidence from Frontal Theta Rhythm.

    PubMed

    de Vega, Manuel; Morera, Yurena; León, Inmaculada; Beltrán, David; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    According to the literature, negations such as "not" or "don't" reduce the accessibility in memory of the concepts under their scope. Moreover, negations applied to action contents (e.g., "don't write the letter") impede the activation of motor processes in the brain, inducing "disembodied" representations. These facts provide important information on the behavioral and neural consequences of negations. However, how negations themselves are processed in the brain is still poorly understood. In two electrophysiological experiments, we explored whether sentential negation shares neural mechanisms with action monitoring or inhibition. Human participants read action-related sentences in affirmative or negative form ("now you will cut the bread" vs "now you will not cut the bread") while performing a simultaneous Go/NoGo task. The analysis of the EEG rhythms revealed that theta oscillations were significantly reduced for NoGo trials in the context of negative sentences compared with affirmative sentences. Given the fact that theta oscillations are often considered as neural markers of response inhibition processes, their modulation by negative sentences strongly suggests that negation uses neural resources of response inhibition. We propose a new approach that views the syntactic operator of negation as relying on the neural machinery of high-order action-monitoring processes. Previous studies have shown that linguistic negation reduces the accessibility of the negated concepts and suppresses the activation of specific brain regions that operate in affirmative statements. Although these studies focus on the consequences of negation on cognitive and neural processes, the proper neural mechanisms of negation have not yet been explored. In the present EEG study, we tested the hypothesis that negation uses the neural network of action inhibition. Using a Go/NoGo task embedded in a sentence comprehension task, we found that negation in the context of NoGo trials modulates

  17. [Computerized EEG and personality].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Pérez, A; Martínez López-Coterilla, M; Fajardo López, A; Lardelli Claret, A

    1989-01-01

    The ordinary EEG, on only showing qualitative malfunction of abnormal graphoelements in the tracings, proves itself insufficient to go into the analysis of psychological and psycho-pathological problems. Since computerised studies of EEG permit quantitative comparisons, we tried to apply them in correlation with the characteristics of the personality classified also with quantitative criteria, such as those offered in the personality inventory 16 PF; from which have been chosen the so-called factors of the second order, and the subjectivity-objectivity factors. The test was carried out on 100 voluntary subjects from Almeria (Spain), all with High School grades, between 18 and 40 years of age, of both sexes, all right-handed, without neuro-psychiatric history, and with normal ordinary EEGs. From the statistical analysis of the results one could deduce that there are significant specific relationships from the computerised EEG, with those secondary polar values of 16 PF: high and low anxiety, extroversion-introversion. Subjects with low anxiety presented a significant increase of the alpha band opposed to the subjects with high anxiety. There is a significant differences in power of the frontal areas between extrovert and introvert subjects. The extroverted subjects have a greater power of the right side and the introverted subjects a greater power of the left.

  18. EEG synchronization and migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

  19. Flexible electroencephalogram (EEG) headband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Headband incorporates sensors which are embedded in sponges and are exposed only on surface that touches skin. Electrode sponge system is continually fed electrolyte through forced feed vacuum system. Headband may be used for EEG testing in hospitals, clinical laboratories, rest homes, and law enforcement agencies.

  20. Treatment Effects on Neonatal EEG.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rawad; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-10-01

    Conventional EEG and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography are used in neonates to assess prognosis and significant changes in brain activity. Neuroactive medications and hypothermia can influence brain activity and therefore alter EEG interpretation. There are limited studies on the effect of these therapies on neonatal EEG background activity. Medication effects on the EEG or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography include increased interburst interval duration, voltage suppression, and sleep disruption. The effect is transient in term newborns but can be persistent in premature newborns. Although therapeutic hypothermia does not produce significant changes in EEG activity, it does change the time point at which EEG can accurately predict neurodevelopmental outcome. It is important to account for these effects on the EEG to avoid inaccurate interpretation that may affect prognostication.

  1. Theoretical analysis on relationship between the neural activity and the EEG.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Y; Hiraoka, N; Ueta, H; Ogura, H; Yamamoto, K; Seto, K; Saito, H

    1983-10-21

    Firstly, a collective oscillation mode of the neural activity is derived from the neural network system by using the multicompartment equation and the projection operator technique. This technique takes into account higher order interactions among neurons. The solution of the equation gives a chain structure with an infinite number of circuit loops in which each of them is only composed of four neurons. The obtained eigenvalues are quite similar to the spectrum of frequencies of the EEG. Secondly, the time-dependent behavior of the observed EEG is simulated by starting from the elementary process of action potential trains of neurons, which includes the effect of the collective oscillation mode mentioned above. This gives a comprehensive derivation of the EEG from the neural activity of action potentials. The simulation assumes that information of the action potential trains can be transmitted to the EEG through the intermediate states of the postsynaptic potential trains and the slow waves. The paper reports that a slightly modulated activity of a relatively small amount of neurons can cause a strong influence on the shape of the global EEG and that the calculated results reproduce the characteristic features of the EEG in a rat such as the theta rhythm, the spindle wave and the arousal wave.

  2. Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-10-01

    This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG. Eleven healthy subjects participated in sustained-attention driving experiments. The driving task required participants to maintain their cruising position and compensate for randomly induced lane deviations using the steering wheel, while their EEG and driving performance were continuously monitored. The arousing warning signal was delivered to participants who experienced momentary behavioral lapses, failing to respond rapidly to lane-departure events (specifically the reaction time exceeded three times the alert reaction time). The results of our previous studies revealed that arousing feedback immediately reversed deteriorating driving performance, which was accompanied by concurrent EEG theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further proposes a feedback efficacy assessment system to accurately estimate the efficacy of arousing warning signals delivered to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra immediately thereafter. The classification accuracy was up 77.8% for determining the need for triggering additional warning signals. The findings of this study, in conjunction with previous studies on EEG correlates of behavioral lapses, might lead to a practical closed-loop system to predict, monitor and rectify behavioral lapses of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  3. BLINKER: Automated Extraction of Ocular Indices from EEG Enabling Large-Scale Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kleifges, Kelly; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Kerick, Scott E; Robbins, Kay A

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs). To illustrate the use of our approach, we have applied the pipeline to a large corpus of EEG data (comprising more than 2000 datasets acquired at eight different laboratories) in order to characterize variability of certain ocular indicators across subjects. We also investigate dependence of ocular indices on task in a shooter study. We have implemented our algorithms in a freely available MATLAB toolbox called BLINKER. The toolbox, which is easy to use and can be applied to collections of data without user intervention, can automatically discover which channels or ICs capture blinks. The tools extract blinks, calculate common ocular indices, generate a report for each dataset, dump labeled images of the individual blinks, and provide summary statistics across collections. Users can run BLINKER as a script or as a plugin for EEGLAB. The toolbox is available at https://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Blinks. User documentation and examples appear at http://vislab.github.io/EEG-Blinks/.

  4. BLINKER: Automated Extraction of Ocular Indices from EEG Enabling Large-Scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kleifges, Kelly; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Kerick, Scott E.; Robbins, Kay A.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a platform for studying the relationships between behavioral measures, such as blink rate and duration, with neural correlates of fatigue and attention, such as theta and alpha band power. Further, the existence of EEG studies covering a variety of subjects and tasks provides opportunities for the community to better characterize variability of these measures across tasks and subjects. We have implemented an automated pipeline (BLINKER) for extracting ocular indices such as blink rate, blink duration, and blink velocity-amplitude ratios from EEG channels, EOG channels, and/or independent components (ICs). To illustrate the use of our approach, we have applied the pipeline to a large corpus of EEG data (comprising more than 2000 datasets acquired at eight different laboratories) in order to characterize variability of certain ocular indicators across subjects. We also investigate dependence of ocular indices on task in a shooter study. We have implemented our algorithms in a freely available MATLAB toolbox called BLINKER. The toolbox, which is easy to use and can be applied to collections of data without user intervention, can automatically discover which channels or ICs capture blinks. The tools extract blinks, calculate common ocular indices, generate a report for each dataset, dump labeled images of the individual blinks, and provide summary statistics across collections. Users can run BLINKER as a script or as a plugin for EEGLAB. The toolbox is available at https://github.com/VisLab/EEG-Blinks. User documentation and examples appear at http://vislab.github.io/EEG-Blinks/. PMID:28217081

  5. Complexity of resting-state EEG activity in the patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the abnormal brain activities in the early stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded with 20 channels from non-dementia PD patients (18 patients, 8 females) and age matched healthy controls (18 subjects, 8 females) during the resting state. Two methods based on the ordinal patterns of the recorded series, i.e., permutation entropy (PE) and order index (OI), were introduced to characterize the complexity of the cortical activities for two groups. It was observed that the resting-state EEG of PD patients showed lower PE and higher OI than healthy controls, which indicated that the early-stage PD caused the reduced complexity of EEG. We further applied two methods to determine the complexity of EEG rhythms in five sub-bands. The results showed that the gamma, beta and alpha rhythms of PD patients were characterized by lower PE and higher OI, i.e., reduced complexity, than healthy subjects. No significant differences were observed in theta or delta rhythms between two groups. The findings suggested that PE and OI were promising methods to detect the abnormal changes in the dynamics of EEG signals associated with early-stage PD. Further, such changes in EEG complexity may be the early markers of the cortical or subcortical dysfunction caused by PD.

  6. Discovering frequency sensitive thalamic nuclei from EEG microstate informed resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Morishima, Yosuke; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2015-09-01

    Microstates (MS), the fingerprints of the momentarily and time-varying states of the brain derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are associated with the resting state networks (RSNs). However, using MS fluctuations along different EEG frequency bands to model the functional MRI (fMRI) signal has not been investigated so far, or elucidated the role of the thalamus as a fundamental gateway and a putative key structure in cortical functional networks. Therefore, in the current study, we used MS predictors in standard frequency bands to predict blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. We discovered that multivariate modeling of BOLD-fMRI using six EEG-MS classes in eight frequency bands strongly correlated with thalamic areas and large-scale cortical networks. Thalamic nuclei exhibited distinct patterns of correlations for individual MS that were associated with specific EEG frequency bands. Anterior and ventral thalamic nuclei were sensitive to the beta frequency band, medial nuclei were sensitive to both alpha and beta frequency bands, and posterior nuclei such as the pulvinar were sensitive to delta and theta frequency bands. These results demonstrate that EEG-MS informed fMRI can elucidate thalamic activity not directly observable by EEG, which may be highly relevant to understand the rapid formation of thalamocortical networks.

  7. Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Objective. This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG. Approach. Eleven healthy subjects participated in sustained-attention driving experiments. The driving task required participants to maintain their cruising position and compensate for randomly induced lane deviations using the steering wheel, while their EEG and driving performance were continuously monitored. The arousing warning signal was delivered to participants who experienced momentary behavioral lapses, failing to respond rapidly to lane-departure events (specifically the reaction time exceeded three times the alert reaction time). Main results. The results of our previous studies revealed that arousing feedback immediately reversed deteriorating driving performance, which was accompanied by concurrent EEG theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further proposes a feedback efficacy assessment system to accurately estimate the efficacy of arousing warning signals delivered to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra immediately thereafter. The classification accuracy was up 77.8% for determining the need for triggering additional warning signals. Significance. The findings of this study, in conjunction with previous studies on EEG correlates of behavioral lapses, might lead to a practical closed-loop system to predict, monitor and rectify behavioral lapses of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  8. Hippocampo-cerebellar theta band phase synchrony in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wikgren, J; Nokia, M S; Penttonen, M

    2010-02-17

    Hippocampal functioning, in the form of theta band oscillation, has been shown to modulate and predict cerebellar learning of which rabbit eyeblink conditioning is perhaps the most well-known example. The contribution of hippocampal neural activity to cerebellar learning is only possible if there is a functional connection between the two structures. Here, in the context of trace eyeblink conditioning, we show (1) that, in addition to the hippocampus, prominent theta oscillation also occurs in the cerebellum, and (2) that cerebellar theta oscillation is synchronized with that in the hippocampus. Further, the degree of phase synchrony (PS) increased both as a response to the conditioning stimuli and as a function of the relative power of hippocampal theta oscillation. However, the degree of PS did not change as a function of either training or learning nor did it predict learning rate as the hippocampal theta ratio did. Nevertheless, theta band synchronization might reflect the formation of transient neural assemblies between the hippocampus and the cerebellum. These findings help us understand how hippocampal function can affect eyeblink conditioning, during which the critical plasticity occurs in the cerebellum. Future studies should examine cerebellar unit activity in relation to hippocampal theta oscillations in order to discover the detailed mechanisms of theta-paced neural activity.

  9. A statistical comparison of EEG time- and time-frequency domain representations of error processing.

    PubMed

    Munneke, Gert-Jan; Nap, Tanja S; Schippers, Eveline E; Cohen, Michael X

    2015-08-27

    Successful behavior relies on error detection and subsequent remedial adjustment of behavior. Researchers have identified two electrophysiological signatures of error processing: the time-domain error-related negativity (ERN), and the time-frequency domain increased power in the delta/theta frequency bands (~2-8 Hz). The relationship between these two signatures is not entirely clear: on the one hand they occur after the same type of event and with similar latency, but on the other hand, the time-domain ERP component contains only phase-locked activity whereas the time-frequency response additionally contains non-phase-locked dynamics. Here we examined the ERN and error-related delta/theta activity in relation to each other, focusing on within-subject analyses that utilize single-trial data. Using logistic regression, we constructed three statistical models in which the accuracy of each trial was predicted from the ERN, delta/theta power, or both. We found that both the ERN and delta/theta power worked roughly equally well as predictors of single-trial accuracy (~70% accurate prediction). Furthermore, a model including both measures provided a stronger overall prediction compared to either model alone. Based on these findings two conclusions are drawn: first, the phase-locked part of the EEG signal appears to be roughly as predictive of single-trial response accuracy as the non-phase-locked part; second, the single-trial ERP and delta/theta power contain both overlapping and independent information.

  10. Synchronization of fronto-parietal beta and theta networks as a signature of visual awareness in neglect.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Heide, Wolfgang; Grumbt, Michael; Schürmann, Martin

    2017-02-01

    In the neglect syndrome, the perceptual deficit for contra-lesional hemi-space is increasingly viewed as a dysfunction of fronto-parietal cortical networks, the disruption of which has been described in neuroanatomical and hemodynamic studies. Here we exploit the superior temporal resolution of electroencephalography (EEG) to study dynamic transient connectivity of fronto-parietal circuits at early stages of visual perception in neglect. As reflected by inter-regional phase synchronization in a full-field attention task, two functionally distinct fronto-parietal networks, in beta (15-25Hz) and theta (4-8Hz) frequency bands, were related to stimulus discrimination within the first 200 ms of visual processing. Neglect pathology was specifically associated with significant suppressions of both beta and theta networks engaging right parietal regions. These connectivity abnormalities occurred in a pattern that was distinctly different from what was observed in right-hemisphere lesion patients without neglect. Also, both beta and theta abnormalities contributed additively to visual awareness decrease, quantified in the Behavioural Inattention Test. These results provide evidence for the impairment of fast dynamic fronto-parietal interactions during early stages of visual processing in neglect pathology. Also, they reveal that different modes of fronto-parietal dysfunction contribute independently to deficits in visual awareness at the behavioural level.

  11. Study on EEG power and coherence in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory task.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng-yan

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) power and coherence at rest and during a working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-five patients (17 males, 18 females; 52-71 years old) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls (17 males, 17 females; 51-63 years old) were recruited in the present study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 35 patients with MCI and 34 normal controls revealed that the scores of MCI patients did not differ significantly from those of normal controls (P>0.05). Then, EEGs at rest and during working memory task with three levels of working memory load were recorded. The EEG power was computed over 10 channels: right and left frontal (F3, F4), central (C3, C4), parietal (P3, P4), temporal (T5, T6) and occipital (O1, O2); inter-hemispheric coherences were computed from five electrode pairs of F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6 and O1-O2 for delta (1.0-3.5 Hz), theta (4.0-7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (8.0-10.0 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5 -13.0 Hz), beta-1 (13.5-18.0 Hz) and beta-2 (18.5-30.0 Hz) frequency bands. All values of the EEG power of MCI patients were found to be higher than those of normal controls at rest and during working memory tasks. Furthermore, the values of EEG power in the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands of patients with MCI were significantly high (P<0.05) in comparison with those of normal controls. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the EEG powers and MMSE scores. In addition, during working memory tasks, the EEG coherences in all bands were significantly higher in the MCI group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in EEG coherences between two groups at rest. These findings comprise evidence that MCI patients have higher EEG power at rest, and higher EEG power and coherence during working conditions. It suggests that MCI may be associated with compensatory processes at rest and during working

  12. High-amplitude theta wave bursts characterizing narcoleptic mice and patients are also produced by histamine deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Bastianini, Stefano; Lo Martire, Viviana; Berteotti, Chiara; Silvani, Alessandro; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2016-10-01

    Histamine and orexins are wake promoters released by hypothalamic neurons. The activity of histamine neurons is increased by orexin neurons. Recently, it has been shown that orexin deficiency entails high-amplitude theta wave bursts during rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy in narcoleptic mice. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether histamine system is involved in high-amplitude theta wave burst generation during rapid eye movement sleep. The secondary aim was to assess the effects of combined histamine and orexin deficiency on high-amplitude theta wave bursts during rapid eye movement sleep in mice. Twelve histidine-decarboxylase knockout mice with congenital histamine deficiency, seven double mutant mice with combined deficiency of orexin neurons and histamine, and 11 wild-type control mice were studied with electrodes for sleep recordings and a telemetric blood pressure transducer. High-amplitude theta wave bursts during rapid eye movement sleep were detected in each of the histidine-decarboxylase knockout and double mutant mice, whereas only one burst was found in a wild-type control mouse. High-amplitude theta wave bursts occurred significantly more often and were significantly longer in double mutant than in histidine-decarboxylase knockout mice. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that, similarly to orexin, the chronic impairment of histamine entailed high-amplitude theta wave bursts during rapid eye movement sleep. The current data also suggested a synergistic role of orexin and histamine signalling on high-amplitude theta wave bursts during rapid eye movement sleep in mice. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Reversal of theta rhythm flow through intact hippocampal circuits.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jesse; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Goutagny, Romain; Bott, Jean-Bastien; Manseau, Frédéric; Kortleven, Christian; Bressler, Steven L; Williams, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    Activity flow through the hippocampus is thought to arise exclusively from unidirectional excitatory synaptic signaling from CA3 to CA1 to the subiculum. Theta rhythms are important for hippocampal synchronization during episodic memory processing; thus, it is assumed that theta rhythms follow these excitatory feedforward circuits. To the contrary, we found that theta rhythms generated in the rat subiculum flowed backward to actively modulate spike timing and local network rhythms in CA1 and CA3. This reversed signaling involved GABAergic mechanisms. However, when hippocampal circuits were physically limited to a lamellar slab, CA3 outputs synchronized CA1 and the subiculum using excitatory mechanisms, as predicted by classic hippocampal models. Finally, analysis of in vivo recordings revealed that this reversed theta flow was most prominent during REM sleep. These data demonstrate that communication between CA3, CA1 and the subiculum is not exclusively unidirectional or excitatory and that reversed inhibitory theta signaling also contributes to intrahippocampal synchrony.

  14. Time course of reaction time and EEG while performing a vigilance task during total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Arce, C; Ramos, J; Lorenzo, I; Guevara, M A

    1996-09-01

    Nine young adult male (23-30 years old) paid volunteers were subjected to total sleep deprivation (TSD), after two consecutive nights in the laboratory, for 40 hours (from 0800 hours on the first day to 2400 hours on the following day). Oral temperature (OT), reaction time (RT) in a visual vigilance task, and electroencephalogram (EEG; C3, C4, T3, and T4) while performing the task were recorded every 2 hours during TSD and after recovery sleep. One second of EEG, before target and non-target stimuli for every subject and condition was visually inspected, and artifact-free epochs were Fourier transformed. Absolute power (AP) was calculated for 4-20 Hz (full band) and for theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 1. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs), with TSD and time-of-day as factors, showed the following significant results. TSD induced an increase in RT and AP of the full band at C3 and C4, of all bands at C3, of theta at T3, and of beta 1 at T4 (p < 0.009 for all comparisons). No time-of-day effects nor interactions were found. OT was not affected by TSD. All variables returned to baseline values after recovery sleep. RT and EEG power showed a linear increase with accumulating hours of wakefulness. The increment in RT also correlated with the increase in EEG power. The results demonstrate that the increment in RT is associated with the increase in AP, particularly in the left central cortex; that the EEG may be used to identify sleepiness; and that EEG during task performance is more sensitive to TSD than during relaxed wakefulness.

  15. Combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation: a novel approach for neuroplasticity induction.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Yang, Ruiting; Pitcher, Julia B; Ridding, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation can induce functionally relevant plasticity in the human cortex, making it potentially useful as a therapeutic tool. However, the induced changes are highly variable between individuals, potentially limiting research and clinical utility. One factor that might contribute to this variability is the level of cortical inhibition at the time of stimulation. The alpha rhythm (~ 8-13 Hz) recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) is thought to reflect pulsatile cortical inhibition; therefore, targeting non-invasive brain stimulation to particular phases of the alpha rhythm may provide an approach to enhance plasticity induction. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to entrain cortical oscillations in a frequency-specific manner. We investigated whether the neuroplastic response to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was enhanced by timing bursts of stimuli to the peak or the trough of a tACS-imposed alpha rhythm. While motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were unaffected when cTBS was applied in-phase with the peak of the tACS-imposed oscillation, MEP depression was enhanced when cTBS was applied in-phase with the trough. This enhanced MEP depression was dependent on the individual peak frequency of the endogenous alpha rhythm recorded with EEG prior to stimulation, and was strongest in those participants classified as non-responders to standard cTBS. These findings suggest that tACS may be used in combination with cTBS to enhance the plasticity response. Furthermore, the peak frequency of endogenous alpha, as measured with EEG, may be used as a simple marker to pre-select those individuals likely to benefit from this approach. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An integrative model of the intrinsic hippocampal theta rhythm

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal theta oscillations (4–12 Hz) are consistently recorded during memory tasks and spatial navigation. Despite several known circuits and structures that generate hippocampal theta locally in vitro, none of them were found to be critical in vivo, and the hippocampal theta rhythm is severely attenuated by disruption of external input from medial septum or entorhinal cortex. We investigated these discrepancies that question the sufficiency and robustness of hippocampal theta generation using a biophysical spiking network model of the CA3 region of the hippocampus that included an interconnected network of pyramidal cells, inhibitory basket cells (BC) and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells. The model was developed by matching biological data characterizing neuronal firing patterns, synaptic dynamics, short-term synaptic plasticity, neuromodulatory inputs, and the three-dimensional organization of the hippocampus. The model generated theta power robustly through five cooperating generators: spiking oscillations of pyramidal cells, recurrent connections between them, slow-firing interneurons and pyramidal cells subnetwork, the fast-spiking interneurons and pyramidal cells subnetwork, and non-rhythmic structured external input from entorhinal cortex to CA3. We used the modeling framework to quantify the relative contributions of each of these generators to theta power, across different cholinergic states. The largest contribution to theta power was that of the divergent input from the entorhinal cortex to CA3, despite being constrained to random Poisson activity. We found that the low cholinergic states engaged the recurrent connections in generating theta activity, whereas high cholinergic states utilized the OLM-pyramidal subnetwork. These findings revealed that theta might be generated differently across cholinergic states, and demonstrated a direct link between specific theta generators and neuromodulatory states. PMID:28787026

  17. To Know or Not to Know? Theta and Delta Reflect Complementary Information about an Advanced Cue before Feedback in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhaofeng; Peng, Xiaozhe; Yang, Tiantian; Li, Peng; Cong, Fengyu; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate brain activity during the reinforcement learning process in social contexts is a topic of increasing research interest. Previous studies have mainly focused on using electroencephalograms (EEGs) for feedback evaluation in reinforcement learning tasks by measuring event-related potentials. Few studies have investigated the time–frequency (TF) profiles of a cue that manifested whether a following feedback is available or not after decision-making. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the TF profiles of the cue interact with different agents to whom the feedback related. In this study we used the TF approach to test EEG oscillations of the cue stimuli in three agents (‘Self’, ‘Other’, and ‘Computer’) conditions separately. The results showed that the increased central-posterior delta power was elicited by the feedback unavailable cues more so than with the feedback available cue within 200–350 ms after the onset of the cue, but only in the self-condition. Moreover, a frontal-central theta oscillation had enhanced power when following the feedback unavailable cue as opposed to the feedback available cue across three agencies. These findings demonstrated that the cue for knowing an outcome produced reward prediction error-like signals, which were mirrored by the delta and theta oscillations during decision-making. More importantly, the present study demonstrated that the theta and delta oscillations reflected separable components of the advanced cue processing before the feedback in decision-making. PMID:27766090

  18. White matter vascular lesions are related to parietal-to-frontal coupling of EEG rhythms in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Pievani, Michela; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Geroldi, Cristina; Salinari, Serenella; Ferri, Raffaele; Fracassi, Claudia; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo M

    2008-12-01

    Do cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions represent additive factors in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a putative preclinical stage of AD? Here we tested the hypothesis that directionality of fronto-parietal functional coupling of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms is relatively preserved in amnesic MCI subjects in whom the cognitive decline is mainly explained by white-matter vascular load. Resting EEG was recorded in 40 healthy elderly (Nold) and 78 amnesic MCI. In the MCI subjects, white-matter vascular load was quantified based on magnetic resonance images (0-30 visual rating scale). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Directionality of fronto-parietal functional coupling of EEG rhythms was estimated by directed transfer function software. As main results, (i) fronto-parietal functional coupling of EEG rhythms was higher in magnitude in the Nold than in the MCI subjects; (ii) more interestingly, that coupling was higher at theta, alpha1, alpha2, and beta1 in MCI V+ (high vascular load; N = 42; MMSE = 26) than in MCI V- group (low vascular load; N = 36; MMSE= 26.7). These results are interpreted as supporting the additive model according to which MCI state would result from the combination of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative lesions.

  19. Dual Roles for DNA Polymerase Theta in Alternative End-Joining Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by multiple mechanisms that are roughly grouped into the categories of homology-directed repair and non-homologous end joining. End-joining repair can be further classified as either classical non-homologous end joining, which requires DNA ligase 4, or “alternative” end joining, which does not. Alternative end joining has been associated with genomic deletions and translocations, but its molecular mechanism(s) are largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster DNA polymerase theta (pol theta), encoded by the mus308 gene and previously implicated in DNA interstrand crosslink repair, plays a crucial role in DNA ligase 4-independent alternative end joining. In the absence of pol theta, end joining is impaired and residual repair often creates large deletions flanking the break site. Analysis of break repair junctions from flies with mus308 separation-of-function alleles suggests that pol theta promotes the use of long microhomologies during alternative end joining and increases the likelihood of complex insertion events. Our results establish pol theta as a key protein in alternative end joining in Drosophila and suggest a potential mechanistic link between alternative end joining and interstrand crosslink repair. PMID:20617203

  20. Subtractive fuzzy classifier based driver distraction levels classification using EEG.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction.

  1. [Gender differences in resting EEG related to Eysenk's Personality Traits].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M

    2004-01-01

    EEG mapping was used to study gender differences in hemispheric organization related to personality (40 male and 42 female subjects, the students 17-20 ages). The results showed, that each clearly defined personality trait (neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticizm and social conformity) characterized by special EEG pattern differenced on men and women groups. At the same time, more close interaction of gender and neuroticism was observed, but gender and extraversion were less connected. Neuroticism related patterns of coherence in the alpha2- and beta2-bands were associated with an activity changes in anterior cortex in men but posterior--in women, at that the positive correlations were observed in the beta2-band in the former case and negative ones in the second. There are two opposing tendencies of the interaction between extraversion and gender in a modulation of the resting theta-rhythm: an increase of cortex connections in men and decrease ones in women. The specificity of spatial-temporal EEG patterns in men associated mostly with a psychoticizm value but in women--with a social conformism. In either case these personality traits related to activity of frontal cortex in the left hemisphere.

  2. Learning curves of theta/beta neurofeedback in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Tieme W P; Bink, Marleen; Weeda, Wouter D; Geladé, Katleen; van Mourik, Rosa; Maras, Athanasios; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-05-01

    Neurofeedback is widely applied as non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of ADHD, even though efficacy has not been unequivocally established. Neuronal changes during the neurofeedback intervention that resemble learning can provide crucial evidence for the feasibility and specificity of this intervention. A total of 38 children (aged between 7 and 13 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD, completed on average 29 sessions of theta (4-8 Hz)/beta (13-20 Hz) neurofeedback training. Dependent variables included training-related measures as well as theta and beta power during baseline and training runs for each session. Learning effects were analyzed both within and between sessions. To further specify findings, individual learning curves were explored and correlated with behavioral changes in ADHD symptoms. Over the course of the training, there was a linear increase in participants' mean training level, highest obtained training level and the number of earned credits (range b = 0.059, -0.750, p < 0.001). Theta remained unchanged over the course of the training, while beta activity increased linearly within training sessions (b = 0.004, 95% CI = [0.0013-0.0067], p = 0.005) and over the course of the intervention (b = 0.0052, 95% CI = [0.0039-0.0065], p < 0.001). In contrast to the group analyses, significant individual learning curves were found for both theta and beta over the course of the intervention in 39 and 53%, respectively. Individual learning curves were not significantly correlated with behavioral changes. This study shows that children with ADHD can gain control over EEG states during neurofeedback, although a lack of behavioral correlates may indicate insufficient transfer to daily functioning, or to confounding reinforcement of electromyographic activity. This trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov, ref. no: NCT01363544); https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01363544 .

  3. Motion-related artefacts in EEG predict neuronally plausible patterns of activation in fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marije; White, Thomas P; Mullinger, Karen J; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Gowland, Penny A; Francis, Susan T; Bowtell, Richard; Liddle, Peter F

    2012-01-02

    The simultaneous acquisition and subsequent analysis of EEG and fMRI data is challenging owing to increased noise levels in the EEG data. A common method to integrate data from these two modalities is to use aspects of the EEG data, such as the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) or oscillatory EEG activity, to predict fluctuations in the fMRI data. However, this relies on the acquisition of high quality datasets to ensure that only the correlates of neuronal activity are being studied. In this study, we investigate the effects of head-motion-related artefacts in the EEG signal on the predicted T2*-weighted signal variation. We apply our analyses to two independent datasets: 1) four participants were asked to move their feet in the scanner to generate small head movements, and 2) four participants performed an episodic memory task. We created T2*-weighted signal predictors from indicators of abrupt head motion using derivatives of the realignment parameters, from visually detected artefacts in the EEG as well as from three EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha and beta). In both datasets, we found little correlation between the T2*-weighted signal and EEG predictors that were not convolved with the canonical haemodynamic response function (cHRF). However, all convolved EEG predictors strongly correlated with the T2*-weighted signal variation in various regions including the bilateral superior temporal cortex, supplementary motor area, medial parietal cortex and cerebellum. The finding that movement onset spikes in the EEG predict T2*-weighted signal intensity only when the time course of movements is convolved with the cHRF, suggests that the correlated signal might reflect a BOLD response to neural activity associated with head movement. Furthermore, the observation that broad-spectral EEG spikes tend to occur at the same time as abrupt head movements, together with the finding that abrupt movements and EEG spikes show similar correlations with the T2

  4. Impact of alcohol use on EEG dynamics of response inhibition: a cotwin control analysis.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jeremy; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2016-11-18

    Research indicates that alcohol misuse is associated with behavioral disinhibition, but the neurophysiological mechanisms governing this relationship remain largely unknown. Recent work suggests that successful inhibition and cognitive control involve electrophysiological theta-band dynamics, including medial frontal cortex (MFC) power enhancement and functional connectivity between the MFC and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) regions, which may be disrupted by alcohol misuse. In addition, research suggests that, compared to men, women are at heightened risk of experiencing the negative physical and neurocognitive correlates of drinking. The present study tested the hypothesis that alcohol misuse has a deleterious effect on theta-band response inhibition EEG dynamics in a sample of 300 24-year-old same-sex twins. A cotwin control (CTC) design was used to disentangle premorbid risk for alcohol use from the causal effects of alcohol exposure. Drinking was negatively associated with theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC connectivity during response inhibition, and this effect was stronger among women. The CTC analysis suggested that, for women, reduced nogo-related theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC connectivity were both consistent with the potential deleterious causal effects of alcohol exposure. These findings suggest that diminished theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC connectivity may be neurophysiological mechanisms underlying alcohol-related disinhibition. Although preliminary, these results suggest that normative levels of alcohol use during emerging adulthood have potential sex-specific causal effects on response inhibition EEG dynamics, and thus have potentially significant public health implications. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Affective pictures processing is reflected by an increased long-distance EEG connectivity.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Femir, Banu; Gölbaşı, Bilge Turp; Tülay, Elif; Başar, Erol

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of affective picture processing by means of EEG has invaded the literature. The methodology of event-related EEG coherence is one of the essential methods used to analyze functional connectivity. The aims of the present study are to find out the long range EEG connectivity changes in perception of different affective pictures and analyze gender differences in these long range connected networks. EEGs of 28 healthy subjects (14 female) were recorded at 32 locations. The participants passively viewed emotional pictures (IAPS, unpleasant, pleasant, neutral). The long-distance intra-hemispheric event-related coherence was analyzed for delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), and alpha (8-13 Hz) frequency ranges for F3-T7, F4-T8, F3-TP7, F4-TP8, F3-P3, F4-P4, F3-O1, F4-O2, C3-O1, C4-O2 electrode pairs. Unpleasant pictures elicited significantly higher delta coherence values than neutral pictures (p < 0.05), over fronto-parietal, fronto-occipital, and centro-occipital electrode pairs. Furthermore, unpleasant pictures elicited higher theta coherence values than pleasant (p < 0.05) and neutral pictures (p < 0.05). The present study showed that female subjects had higher delta (p < 0.05) and theta (p < 0.05) coherence values than male subjects. This difference was observed more for emotional pictures than for neutral pictures. This study showed that the brain connectivity was higher during emotional pictures than neutral pictures. Females had higher connectivity between different parts of the brain than males during emotional processes. According to these results, we may comment that increased valence and arousal caused increased brain activity. It seems that not just single sources but functional networks were also activated during perception of emotional pictures.

  6. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation and power spectral parameters: a tDCS/EEG co-registration study

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Anna L.; Pirini, Marco; Cappello, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivers low electric currents to the brain through the scalp. Constant electric currents induce shifts in neuronal membrane excitability, resulting in secondary changes in cortical activity. Concomitant electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring during tDCS can provide valuable information on the tDCS mechanisms of action. This study examined the effects of anodal tDCS on spontaneous cortical activity in a resting brain to disclose possible modulation of spontaneous oscillatory brain activity. EEG activity was measured in ten healthy subjects during and after a session of anodal stimulation of the postero-parietal cortex to detect the tDCS-induced alterations. Changes in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma power bands were investigated. Three main findings emerged: (1) an increase in theta band activity during the first minutes of stimulation; (2) an increase in alpha and beta power during and after stimulation; (3) a widespread activation in several brain regions. PMID:25147519

  8. Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zehong; Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Lai, Kuan-Lin; Yang, Albert C; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-12-01

    Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases. We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence of delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12.5 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) bands were calculated in the frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Fifty patients with episodic migraine (1-5 headache days/month) and 20 HCs completed the study. Patients were classified into inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal phases (n = 22, 12, 8, 8, respectively), using 36-h criteria. Compared to HCs, inter-ictal and ictal patients, but not pre- or post-ictal patients, had lower EEG power and coherence, except for a higher effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network in inter-ictal patients (p < .05). Compared to data obtained from the inter-ictal group, EEG power and coherence were increased in the pre-ictal group, with the exception of a lower effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network (p < .05). Inter-ictal and ictal patients had decreased EEG power and coherence relative to HCs, which were "normalized" in the pre-ictal or post-ictal groups. Resting-state EEG power density and effective connectivity differ between migraine phases and provide an insight into the complex neurophysiology of migraine.

  9. Blockade of the metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2) modulates arousal through vigilance states transitions: evidence from sleep-wake EEG in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; Ver Donck, L; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2014-08-15

    Accumulating data continue to support the therapeutic potential of glutamate metabotropic (mGluR2) receptors for treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. Glutamate neurotransmission is an integral component of sleep-wake mechanisms, which have translational relevance to assess on-target activity of drugs. Here, we investigated the influence of mGluR2 inactivation upon sleep-wake electroencephalogram (EEG) in rodents. Rats were administered with vehicle, the specific mGluR2 antagonist LY341495 (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg) or negative allosteric modulator (NAM) Ro-4491533 (2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg) at lights onset. mGluR2 (-/-) mice were used to confirm the selectivity of functional response. Both LY341495 and Ro-4491533 induced an immediate and endured desynchronized cortical activity during 3-6h associated with enhanced theta and gamma oscillations and depressed slow oscillations during sleep. The arousal-promoting effect is consistent with the marked lengthening of sleep onset latency, an increased number of state transitions from light sleep to waking and the gradual increase in homeostatic compensatory sleep. The arousal response to mGluR2 blockade was not accompanied by sharp rebound hypersomnolence as found with the classical psycho-stimulant amphetamine. mGluR2 (-/-) mice and their WT littermates exhibited similar sleep-wake phenotype, while Ro-4491533 (40 mg/kg) enhanced waking associated with increased locomotor activity and body temperature in WT but not in mGluR2 (-/-) mice, which confirm the role of mGluR2 inactivation in the arousal response. Our results lend support for a role of mGluR2 blockade in promoting cortical arousal associated with theta/gamma oscillations as well as high thresholds transitions from sleep to waking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EEG epochs with less alpha rhythm improve discrimination of mild Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Paulo A M; Oliveira, Eliezyer F; Fraga, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Eyes-closed-awake electroencephalogram (EEG) is a useful tool in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's. However, there is eyes-closed-awake EEG with dominant or rare alpha rhythm. In this paper, we show that random selection of EEG epochs disregarding the alpha rhythm will lead to bias concerning EEG-based Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis. We compared EEG epochs with more than 30% and with less than 30% alpha rhythm of mild Alzheimer's Disease patients and healthy elderly. We classified epochs as dominant alpha scenario and rare alpha scenario according to alpha rhythm (8-13 Hz) percentage in O1, O2 and Oz channels. Accordingly, we divided the probands into four groups: 17 dominant alpha scenario controls, 15 mild Alzheimer's patients with dominant alpha scenario epochs, 12 rare alpha scenario healthy elderly and 15 mild Alzheimer's Disease patients with rare alpha scenario epochs. We looked for group differences using one-way ANOVA tests followed by post-hoc multiple comparisons (p < 0.05) over normalized energy values (%) on the other four well-known frequency bands (delta, theta, beta and gamma) using two different electrode configurations (parieto-occipital and central). After carrying out post-hoc multiple comparisons, for both electrode configurations we found significant differences between mild Alzheimer's patients and healthy elderly on beta- and theta-energy (%) only for the rare alpha scenario. No differences were found for the dominant alpha scenario in any of the five frequency bands. This is the first study of Alzheimer's awake-EEG reporting the influence of alpha rhythm on epoch selection, where our results revealed that, contrarily to what was most likely expected, less synchronized EEG epochs (rare alpha scenario) better discriminated mild Alzheimer's than those presenting abundant alpha (dominant alpha scenario). In addition, we find out that epoch selection is a very sensitive issue in qEEG research. Consequently, for Alzheimer's studies dealing with

  11. Age-related effects on verbal and visuospatial memory are mediated by theta and alpha II rhythms.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Johanna Louise; Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Both electrical brain activity during rest and memory functions change across the lifespan. Moreover, electrical brain activity is associated with memory functions. However, the interplay between all these effects has been investigated only scarcely. The present study investigated the extent to which the power of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies mediates the impact of aging on verbal and visuospatial memory. Seventy healthy participants with 22 to 83years of age completed a visuospatial and verbal learning and memory test and provided eyes-open and eyes-closed resting-state EEG data. Robust age-related effects on behavioral and EEG data were observed. Mediation analyses showed that the relative power of the theta (4-8Hz) frequency band in fronto-central locations partly explained the negative age-related effect on delayed recall in the verbal memory task. The relative power of the alpha II (10-12Hz) frequency band in mainly parietal locations partly explained the negative impact of age on immediate and delayed recall in the visuospatial task. Results indicate that spontaneous brain activity carries specific information about aging processes and predicts the level of competence in verbal and visuospatial memory tasks.

  12. [General Features of the Formation of EEG Wave Structure in Children and Adolescents Living in Northern European Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Bekshaev, S S; Rozhkov, V P; Nagornova, Zh V; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of EEG wave structure formation in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years living under severe conditions of the North. The approaches developed in discrete mathematics (the graph theory, the theory of network flows) were used to assess the time-frequency transformations of EEG patterns. We evaluated conditional probabilities of reciprocal transitions between the components of six frequency bands of E EG (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2). We described age- and sex-related features as well as regional specificities of the EEG wave structure. We defined the age periods of reorganization of diffuse EEG activities into the main EEG rhythms; the role of distinct rhythms in the maintenance of the EEG wave structure and its dynamic rearrangements was also discussed. The age-related changes of the structure of EEG patterns form some general picture of the morphofunctional development of brain in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe climate and socio-economic conditions of the North.

  13. The frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm is modulated on a circadian period and is entrained by food availability.

    PubMed

    Munn, Robert G K; Tyree, Susan M; McNaughton, Neil; Bilkey, David K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in the generation of episodic memory. While the encoding of the spatial and contextual components of memory have been extensively studied, how the hippocampus encodes temporal information, especially at long time intervals, is less well understood. The activity of place cells in hippocampus has previously been shown to be modulated at a circadian time-scale, entrained by a behavioral stimulus, but not entrained by light. The experimental procedures used in the previous study of this phenomenon, however, necessarily conflated two alternative entraining stimuli, the exposure to the recording environment and the availability of food, making it impossible to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of theta-band hippocampal EEG varies with a circadian period in freely moving animals and that this periodicity mirrors changes in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Theta activity serves, therefore, as a proxy of circadian-modulated hippocampal neuronal activity. We then demonstrate that the frequency of hippocampal theta driven by stimulation of the reticular formation also varies with a circadian period. Because this effect can be observed without having to feed the animal to encourage movement we were able to identify what stimulus entrains the circadian oscillation. We show that with reticular-activated recordings started at various times of the day the frequency of theta varies quasi-sinusoidally with a 25 h period and phase-aligned when referenced to the animal's regular feeding time, but not the recording start time. Furthermore, we show that theta frequency consistently varied with a circadian period when the data obtained from repeated recordings started at various times of the day were referenced to the start of food availability in the recording chamber. This pattern did not occur when data were referenced to the start of the recording session or to the actual time of day

  14. The frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm is modulated on a circadian period and is entrained by food availability

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Robert G. K.; Tyree, Susan M.; McNaughton, Neil; Bilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in the generation of episodic memory. While the encoding of the spatial and contextual components of memory have been extensively studied, how the hippocampus encodes temporal information, especially at long time intervals, is less well understood. The activity of place cells in hippocampus has previously been shown to be modulated at a circadian time-scale, entrained by a behavioral stimulus, but not entrained by light. The experimental procedures used in the previous study of this phenomenon, however, necessarily conflated two alternative entraining stimuli, the exposure to the recording environment and the availability of food, making it impossible to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of theta-band hippocampal EEG varies with a circadian period in freely moving animals and that this periodicity mirrors changes in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Theta activity serves, therefore, as a proxy of circadian-modulated hippocampal neuronal activity. We then demonstrate that the frequency of hippocampal theta driven by stimulation of the reticular formation also varies with a circadian period. Because this effect can be observed without having to feed the animal to encourage movement we were able to identify what stimulus entrains the circadian oscillation. We show that with reticular-activated recordings started at various times of the day the frequency of theta varies quasi-sinusoidally with a 25 h period and phase-aligned when referenced to the animal’s regular feeding time, but not the recording start time. Furthermore, we show that theta frequency consistently varied with a circadian period when the data obtained from repeated recordings started at various times of the day were referenced to the start of food availability in the recording chamber. This pattern did not occur when data were referenced to the start of the recording session or to the actual time of

  15. Analysis of the energetic parameters of a theta pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, G. H.; Farias, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    This work is devoted to study experimentally the performance of a theta pinch when the number of capacitors and turns of magnetic coil and the diameter of the glass tube are changed. To model the theta pinch a simple RLC circuit is used and the measurement of energy transmission from the bank of capacitors to the plasma is made using few experimental resources. In this work it was analyzed more than 2500 curves with a nonlinear procedure. Our results show that it is possible to design an optimized theta pinch making the appropriated choice of energetic parameters and therefore to reduce the stress of the system.

  16. Estimating brain load from the EEG.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anu; Lukander, Kristian; Korpela, Jussi; Sallinen, Mikael; Müller, Kiti M I

    2009-07-14

    Modern work requires cognitively demanding multitasking and the need for sustained vigilance, which may result in work-related stress and may increase the possibility of human error. Objective methods for estimating cognitive overload and mental fatigue of the brain on-line, during work performance, are needed. We present a two-channel electroencephalography (EEG)-based index, theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio, potentially implementable into a compact wearable device. The index reacts to both acute external and cumulative internal load. The index increased with the number of tasks to be performed concurrently (p = 0.004) and with increased time awake, both after normal sleep (p = 0.002) and sleep restriction (p = 0.004). Moreover, the increase of the index was more pronounced in the afternoon after sleep restriction (p = 0.006). As a measure of brain state and its dynamics, the index can be considered equivalent to the heartbeat, an indicator of the cardiovascular state, thus inspiring the name "brainbeat".

  17. Memory load effect in auditory-verbal short-term memory task: EEG fractal and spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Miodrag; Milovanović, Dragan; Ljubisavljević, Miloš R; Nenadović, Vanja; Čukić, Milena

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to quantify changes in complexity of EEG using fractal dimension (FD) alongside linear methods of spectral power, event-related spectral perturbations, coherence, and source localization of EEG generators for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-23 Hz) frequency bands due to a memory load effect in an auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) task for words. We examined 20 healthy individuals using the Sternberg's paradigm with increasing memory load (three, five, and seven words). The stimuli were four-letter words. Artifact-free 5-s EEG segments during retention period were analyzed. The most significant finding was the increase in FD with the increase in memory load in temporal regions T3 and T4, and in parietal region Pz, while decrease in FD with increase in memory load was registered in frontal midline region Fz. Results point to increase in frontal midline (Fz) theta spectral power, decrease in alpha spectral power in parietal region-Pz, and increase in beta spectral power in T3 and T4 region with increase in memory load. Decrease in theta coherence within right hemisphere due to memory load was obtained. Alpha coherence increased in posterior regions with anterior decrease. Beta coherence increased in fronto-temporal regions. Source localization delineated theta activity increase in frontal midline region, alpha decrease in superior parietal region, and beta increase in superior temporal gyrus with increase in memory load. In conclusion, FD as a nonlinear measure may serve as a sensitive index for quantifying dynamical changes in EEG signals during AVSTM tasks.

  18. Theta Pinch Coil Design for SSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrock, J. E.; Han, J.; Kaur, M.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the essential physics and design parameters behind a theta pinch coil used on SSX. The coil is used as an accelerator to drive flux behind a Taylor plume traveling about 30 km/sec. Operating between 25 and 40 kV on a time scale < 10 μs , the design focuses on minimizing the quarter cycle rise time (π/2√{ LC }) of the coil while maintaining the necessary precautions for working at high voltage. Our design works with 1.1 and 3.3 μF capacitors and a maximum stored electrical energy of U =1/2 CV2 = 880 J (at the lower capacitance). This electrical energy is converted into kinetic energy in the plume. Each plume has a mass greater than 30 μg , giving an initial kinetic energy of at least 14 J . At perfect efficiency, the upper bound of the plume velocity will be 240 km/sec using the lower capacitance circuit. Work supported by DOE OFES and ARPA-E ALPHA programs.

  19. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network

    PubMed Central

    Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M.; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined EEG+MEG analysis compared with separate EEG or MEG analyses for the source mean power, functional correlation, effective connectivity for both EO and EC. The network of coherent sources and the spatial resolution were similar for both the EEG and MEG data if they were analyzed separately. Results indicate that the combined approach has several advantages over the separate analyses of both EEG and MEG. Moreover, by a direct comparison of EEG and MEG, EEG was characterized by significantly higher values in all measured parameters in both sensor and source level. All the above conclusions are specific to the resting state task and the specific analysis used in this study to have general

  20. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Moliadze, Vera; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined