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Sample records for promotes efficient handover

  1. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  2. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  3. Developing a community mental health nursing handover form.

    PubMed

    Burleton, Laurie

    While nursing handovers are predominantly used in ward settings, this essential form of communication is also used by community mental health teams to promote continuity of care. A community mental health nursing handover form was developed to overcome poor communication of patient information. It is expected that the form will increase efficiency and reduce handover time by focusing on pertinent and current patient information. Implementation of a community mental health nursing handover form requires the willingness of staff to be proactive and embrace change. The involvement of nurse leaders is essential to implement successful change, overcome barriers and motivate staff.

  4. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Based on Light-Weight Diffie-Hellman on Mobile Node in FMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeduck; Jung, Souhwan

    This letter proposes a secure and efficient handover authentication scheme that requires a light-weight Diffie-Hellman operation at mobile nodes. Our scheme provides more enhanced securities like the PFS, PBS, and so on than the existing security-context-transfer schemes. Also, the mobile node delegates the exponent operation for the DH to the access router to reduce computational cost on it.

  5. Improving medical handover at the weekend: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Emma; Patel, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years medical handover has been identified as an increasingly important area for hospitals to improve upon, in light of the changes in shift patterns for doctors. Significant changes to weekday handover had recently been successfully introduced at Broomfield hospital. Weekend handover remained a concern, with an electronic and paper system being used simultaneously. Our objectives were to introduce a new electronic handover system for weekend handover at Broomfield Hospital and improve the organisation of the weekend handover meeting to promote patient safety. Doctors involved in weekend handover were surveyed using a questionnaire, to establish insufficiencies in the weekend handover process; where both the electronic ExtraMed system and paper were being used inconsistently. A new weekend handover system was introduced together with a new user-friendly electronic handover database, addressing the identified difficulties in the current system. These changes met the medical handover guidelines set by the Royal College of Physicians. Three months after the launch of the new system, doctors were re-surveyed using a modified questionnaire to assess the impact our changes had made. Before changes were implemented only 12% of doctors surveyed used the electronic system for weekend. Eighty-nine percent found sorting through jobs time consuming and 67% were handed jobs to them meant for a different grade of doctor. Only 41% were aware who to hand weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of safety was 3.18 out of 5. The electronic system was felt to be time consuming and complicated. After execution of the new weekend handover process, 100% of doctors reported using the electronic system for weekend handover. Only 47% of doctors felt sorting through jobs was time consuming and 89% of doctors were aware who to handover weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of the safety of weekend handover improved to 3.84 out of 5. Informal interviews on the ward

  6. Knapsack - TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay. PMID:26237221

  7. Knapsack--TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network.

    PubMed

    Malathy, E M; Muthuswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay.

  8. “It's like two worlds apart”: an analysis of vulnerable patient handover practices at discharge from hospital

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Raluca Oana; Orrego, Carola; Suñol, Rosa; Barach, Paul; Groene, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background Handover practices at hospital discharge are relatively under-researched, particularly as regards the specific risks and additional requirements for handovers involving vulnerable patients with limited language, cognitive and social resources. Objective To explore handover practices at discharge and to focus on the patients’ role in handovers and on the potential additional risks for vulnerable patients. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with patients, hospital professionals and primary care professionals in two hospitals and their associated primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain. Results We identified handover practices at discharge that potentially put patients at risk. Patients did not feel empowered in the handover but were expected to transfer information between care providers. Professionals identified lack of medication reconciliation at discharge, loss of discharge information, and absence of plans for follow-up care in the community as quality and safety problems for discharge handovers. These occurred for all patients, but appeared to be more frequent and have a greater negative effect in patients with limited language comprehension and/or lack of family and social support systems. Conclusions Discharge handovers are often haphazard. Healthcare professionals do not consider current handover practices safe, with patients expected to transfer information without being empowered to understand and act on it. This can lead to misinformation, omission or duplication of tests or interventions and, potentially, patient harm. Vulnerable patients may be at greater risk given their limited language, cognitive and social resources. Patient safety at discharge could benefit from strategies to enhance patient education and promote empowerment. PMID:23112285

  9. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.

    2007-06-01

    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  10. Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    AOA097 06 ARMY POCUREMNT RESARCH OFFICE FORT LEE VA F/B 5/I PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS AND PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY.(U) MAR 81 R W NICK, 6 A...08 0.5 FINAL PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS MD PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY MARCH 1981 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited APRO iU. ANIr...DRXMC-PRO 2 April 1981 SUBJECT: Army Procurement Research Office Report APRO 80-08, Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency SEE

  11. A survey of cancer patients’ unmet information and coordination needs in handovers – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The care responsibilities for cancer patients are frequently handed over from one healthcare professional to another. These handovers are known to pose a threat to the safety of patients and the efficiency of the healthcare system. Little is known about specific needs of cancer patients in handovers. The objectives of this study were to examine cancer patients’ unmet needs for information and coordination in handovers and to analyse the association between patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and unmet information and coordination needs. Methods Cancer patients treated in an oncology and a surgery outpatient setting completed a questionnaire developed to examine unmet information and coordination needs of cancer patients in handovers. Associations between unmet needs and comorbidity, treatment type, time since diagnosis, gender, age, and education in various handover situations were analysed. Results Of 250 eligible patients 131 participated (response rate of 52%). Overall, 18% of patients had unmet coordination needs and 18% had unmet information needs. Hospital discharge was the type of handover where patients most frequently reported unmet information needs (18%). Unmet coordination needs were most frequently reported in handovers between different hospitals (19%) and in handovers between hospital and general practice (18%). In general, age and education were statistically significantly associated with reporting unmet needs, where patients younger than 60 years and patients with a higher education were more likely to express unmet needs. Conclusions The findings indicate room for improvements regarding exchange of information and coordination between healthcare professionals, and between healthcare professionals and patients. PMID:24066725

  12. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  13. SCTPmx: An SCTP Fast Handover Mechanism Using a Single Interface Based on a Cross-Layer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yunsop; Teraoka, Fumio

    Recently, SCTP is attracting attention to support mobility in the Internet because it does not require additional equipment such as the Home Agent of Mobile IP. This paper focuses on an SCTP fast handover mechanism using a single interface because it is assumed that small mobile devices have a single interface per communication medium such as IEEE802.11b due to hardware limitations. The proposed mechanism called SCTPmx employs a cross layer control information exchange system called LIESto predict handover. LIES was originally designed to achieve network layer fast handover and then it was extended by adding the network layer primitives for efficient interaction among the link layer, the network layer, and the transport layer. Prior to handover, SCTPmx can generate a new address that will be used after handover and can execute duplicate address detection of IPv6. SCTPmx can suppress the delay caused by channel scanning at the link layer by employing selective background scanning mechanism which allows to continue data communication during channel scanning. In addition, SCTPmx can notify the correspondent node of the new address before handover. SCTPmx was implemented on FreeBSD. SCTPmx achieved better than 25 times lower handover latency (100msec) and 2 times higher throughput than previous proposals.

  14. Improving the quality of handover by addressing handover culture and introducing a new, multi-disciplinary, team-based handover meeting.

    PubMed

    Walton, Henry; Munro, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Handover is a "major preventable cause of patient harm"[1] and this project aims to improve the quality of night handover within a teaching hospitals general medicine department, resulting in the safe transfer of patient care to the night team. Quality of handover was assessed both qualitatively, via structured qualitative interviews with trainees and a baseline survey assessing doctor's opinions of night handover, and quantitatively through the collection of a data set during regular observation of night handover. The initial intervention instituted a new handover meeting with a set time and new location and invited the night nurse practitioner to attend. A prompt card, standardised documentation, defined leadership, and an attendance register were also introduced. Successive PDSA cycles introduced technology to the intervention, enabled the nurse night practitioners to actually attend and re-branded the prompt card as an agenda. Results show a sustained reduction in length of handover from 70 minutes (n=7) to 34 minutes (n=13) post-intervention as well as a reduction in the number of distractions occurring during each handover from a mean of 14 to a mean of 8.5. An improved quality of handover was also demonstrated with an overall increase in the percentage of task handovers containing hospital number, an admitting diagnosis, comorbidities and a time allocated for the task to be performed of at least 10%. When trainees were surveyed post-implementation they unanimously identified the new handover system as safer than the previous handover process (n=30). This project demonstrates that replacing an ad-hoc system of handover with a multi-disciplinary, team based approach to handover improves handover quality. In addition it provides a useful guide to introducing a new handover meeting to a department and contains useful lessons on how to combat cultural barriers to change within a department.

  15. Efficient promotion strategies in hierarchical organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea; Garofalo, Cesare

    2011-10-01

    The Peter principle has recently been investigated by means of an agent-based simulation, and its validity has been numerically corroborated. It has been confirmed that, within certain conditions, it can really influence in a negative way the efficiency of a pyramidal organization adopting meritocratic promotions. It was also found that, in order to bypass these effects, alternative promotion strategies should be adopted, as for example a random selection choice. In this paper, within the same line of research, we study promotion strategies in a more realistic hierarchical and modular organization, and we show the robustness of our previous results, extending their validity to a more general context. We also discuss why the adoption of these strategies could be useful for real organizations.

  16. Need for a hands-on approach to hand-offs: A study of nursing handovers in an Indian Neurosciences Center

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parmeshwar; Jithesh, Vishwanathan; Vij, Aarti; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Standardized nursing handovers have been known to improve outcome, reduce error, and enhance communication. Few, if any, studies on nursing handovers have been conducted in the India. Aim: The aim was to study nursing handover practices in a Neurosciences Center in India. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted in a 200 bedded public sector Neurosciences Center in New Delhi, to assess nursing handover practices across five wards, all shifts, weekdays, and weekends using a pretested checklist. Ten elements were observed under the categories of time, duration, process, nurse interaction, and patient communication. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance, Z-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Totally, 525 nursing handovers revealed varying compliance levels among (63%) time, place (76%), process (82%), staff interaction (53%), and patient communication (44%) related elements. Poorer compliance was seen in morning shifts and weekends; the difference being statistically significant. Bedside handovers were more frequent during weekends and night shifts and were positively correlated with increased staff interaction and patient communication and negatively related to handover duration. Though nurses showed better adherence to process related elements, background patient information, and assessment was explained less frequently. Differences between wards were insignificant except in categories of nurse interaction and patient communication which was better in the neurosurgery than neurology wards. Conclusion: Study revealed a need for a system change and standardization of handovers. Greater administrative commitment, use of technology, training, and leadership development will aid in continuity of care, promote patient safety, and ensure better outcomes. PMID:26889281

  17. Cardio-thoracic surgical patients' experience on bedside nursing handovers: Findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lupieri, Giulia; Creatti, Chiara; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of postoperative cardio-thoracic surgical patients experiencing nursing bedside handover. A descriptive qualitative approach was undertaken. A purposeful sampling technique was adopted, including 14 patients who went through cardio-thoracic surgery and witnessed at least two bedside handovers. The study was performed in a Cardio-thoracic ICU localised in a Joint Commission International accredited Academic Hospital in north-eastern Italy from August to November 2014. The experience of patients participating at the bedside handover is based on four main themes: (1) 'discovering a new nursing identity', (2) 'being apparently engaged in a bedside handover', (3) 'experiencing the paradox of confidentiality' and (4) 'having the situation under control'. With the handover performed at the bedside in a postoperative setting, two interconnected potential effects may be achieved with regard to patients, nurses and the nursing profession. Nurses have a great opportunity to express their closeness to patients and to promote awareness of the important growth that nursing has achieved over the years as a profession and discipline. Therefore, patients may better perceive nursing competence and feel safer during the postoperative care pathway. They can appreciate nurses' humanity in caring and trust their competence and professionalism.

  18. Improving the quality of patient handover on a surgical ward.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive means safe patient hand over is imperative. It is the responsibility of every doctor and an issue of patient safety and clinical governance [1]. The aims of this project were to improve the quality of patient handover between combined assessment unit (CAU) and surgical ward FY1 doctors. The Royal College of Surgeons England (RCSEng) guidelines on surgical patient handover [1] were used as the standard. Data was collected throughout November 2013. A handover tool was then introduced and attached to the front of patient notes when a patient was transferred from CAU to the surgical ward. The doctor handing over the patient and the ward doctor receiving the handover signed this document. Policy was also changed so that handover should take place once the patient had received senior review on the CAU and was deemed appropriate for transfer to the surgical ward. Data from the handover tool was collated and checked against the list of surgical admission for February 2014. The number of patients handed over improved from 15 % to 45%. The quality of patient handover also improved. 0 patient handovers in November 2013 included all of the information recommended by the RCSEng guidelines. 100% of the patient handovers in February 2014 contained all the recommended information. Introduction of a handover tool and formalisation of timing of patient handover helped to improve quality and number of patients being handed over. Further work needs to be done to improve safe handover of surgical patients, particularly out of hours.

  19. Clinical handover improvement in context: exploring tensions between user-centred approaches and standardisation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2013-01-01

    User-centred approaches in the development and evaluation of health information systems promote the importance of involving users and understanding their social contexts to optimise the quality and safety of these systems for patient care. Simultaneously, the standardisation of clinical practices has also been advocated to improve the quality and safety of patient care. In the context of clinical handover improvement within three different departments in one tertiary teaching hospital, this paper highlights the potential for tensions between these two approaches and explores their implications. Based on a user-centred approach, the paper reports on the unique requirements identified within each of the three departments for an information system to support improved clinical handover. Each department had clinical practices, work cultures and user requirements that needed to be considered and accommodated. This led to the project developing distinct minimum data sets for each of the three departments that posed challenges for efforts to standardise handover practices across the hospital and for building an integrated information system. While on the one hand accommodating unique departmental user requirements was valuable, they revealed the potential for the introduction of quality and safety risks at the organisational level. To resolve these tensions, the project team developed an approach called flexible standardisation that has now been embedded in Australia' s national guidelines on clinical handover improvement.

  20. Development of an orthopedic surgery trauma patient handover checklist

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Justin; Donnon, Tyrone; Hutchison, Carol; Duffy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background In surgery, preoperative handover of surgical trauma patients is a process that must be made as safe as possible. We sought to determine vital clinical information to be transferred between patient care teams and to develop a standardized handover checklist. Methods We conducted standardized small-group interviews about trauma patient handover. Based on this information, we created a questionnaire to gather perspectives from all Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) members about which topics they felt would be most important on a handover checklist. We analyzed the responses to develop a standardized handover checklist. Results Of the 1106 COA members, 247 responded to the questionnaire. The top 7 topics felt to be most important for achieving patient safety in the handover were comorbidities, diagnosis, readiness for the operating room, stability, associated injuries, history/mechanism of injury and outstanding issues. The expert recommendations were to have handover completed the same way every day, all appropriate radiographs available, adequate time, all appropriate laboratory work and more time to spend with patients with more severe illness. Conclusion Our main recommendations for safe handover are to use standardized checklists specific to the patient and site needs. We provide an example of a standardized checklist that should be used for preoperative handovers. To our knowledge, this is the first checklist for handover developed by a group of experts in orthopedic surgery, which is both manageable in length and simple to use. PMID:24461220

  1. Improving junior doctor handover between jobs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is one of the most important issues in healthcare. In recent years there has been much focus on “Black Wednesday”; the day that Foundation doctors start their first jobs. Great efforts have been made to ensure that patient safety on this day has improved, with the main example being that newly qualified doctors now use some of their free time between medical school and starting their first job to shadow their outgoing counterparts. However, because Foundation doctors start a brand new job approximately every four months for two years, subsequent job changeovers were identified as a time of potential problems and increased patient risk. It is not practical to shadow prior to every job because junior doctors are needed in their current post right up until changeover day, so a simple way to smooth this transition was needed. A handover lunch seemed to be a feasible solution. The day before Foundation doctors change jobs, an hour is dedicated for Foundation Year 1 doctors (F1's) to sit down together over lunch (provided by the mess) and take a formal handover of all relevant information about their forthcoming job and discuss current inpatients. Results showed that 100% of those surveyed mentioned face to face handover as essential, 93.75% said it was either helpful or extremely helpful to have a dedicated time for F1's to handover, and 12.5% said they would not have sought a face to face handover otherwise. Apart from being extremely simple and cheap, it was very popular with the F1's in the trust. It enables effective working from day one and is a great team building activity. PMID:27493740

  2. Investigation of a new handover approach in LTE and WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.

  3. Investigation of a New Handover Approach in LTE and WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms. PMID:25379524

  4. Handover procedures in integrated satellite and terrestrial mobile systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corazza, G. E.; Ruggieri, M.; Santucci, F.; Vatalaro, F.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of satellite and terrestrial mobile systems is investigated in terms of the strategies for handover across the integrated cellular coverage. The handover procedure is subdivided into an initialization phase, where the need for issuing a handover request must be identified, and an execution phase, where the request must be satisfied, if possible, according to a certain channel assignment strategy. A modeling approach that allows the design of the parameters that influence the performance of the overall handover procedure is presented, along with a few numerical results.

  5. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.’s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.’s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client’s privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay. PMID:27171160

  6. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  7. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    PubMed

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  8. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    stockholder of the newspaper, Robert Kuok Hock Nien; and in 2004, the hosts of the radio shows “Smoke Signals” (Fung Yin), “Teacup in a Tempest” (Fung Bor...35 For a description of the pre-Handover Hong Kong economic network, see Hong Hong Advantage, by Michael Enright , Edith Scott, and David Dodwell...Hong Kong & the Pearl River Delta: The Economic Interaction, by Michael J. Enright , Chang Ka Mun, Edith Scott, and Zhu Wen Hui, sponsored by the 2022

  9. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  10. A standard operating protocol (SOP) and minimum data set (MDS) for nursing and medical handover: considerations for flexible standardization in developing electronic tools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2009-01-01

    As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover.

  11. MIPv6 seamless handover with light home agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yaling; Ojima, Masahiro; Niu, Zhisheng; Yano, Masashi

    2004-03-01

    Mobile IPv6 enables network nodes to roam in the IPv6 Internet. It is the main protocol for mobile Internet. Supported by Mobile IPv6, the Internet node can roam regardless of its changing of IP address. However during Mobile IPv6 handover procedure, the Internet node has a period of communication interruption. Thus the mobile Internet system has handover latency and packet loss. Also because Home Agent (HA) is in charge of registration of Mobile Node (MN) and tunneling packets for MN, it potentially has overflow problem. These three problems are especially obvious in multimedia networks with many users. So in this article, we propose a new Mobile IPv6 handover method to reduce handover latency and packet loss, and to overcome overflow of HA. We have evaluated the proposed handover method over IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN system by using NS2 simulation platform, and confirmed the effectiveness of the new method.

  12. Managing change in the nursing handover from traditional to bedside handover - a case study from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Kassean, Hemant K; Jagoo, Zaheda B

    2005-01-28

    BACKGROUND: The shift handover forms an important part of the communication process that takes place twice within the nurses' working day in the gynaecological ward. This paper addresses the topic of implementing a new system of bedside handover, which puts patients central to the whole process of managing care and also addresses some of the shortcomings of the traditional handover system. METHODS: A force field analysis in terms of the driving forces had shown that there was dissatisfaction with the traditional method of handover which had led to an increase in the number of critical incidents and complaints from patients, relatives and doctors. The restraining forces identified were a fear of accountability, lack of confidence and that this change would lead to more work. A 3 - step planned change model consisting of unfreezing, moving and refreezing was used to guide us through the change process. Resistance to change was managed by creating a climate of open communication where stakeholders were allowed to voice opinions, share concerns, insights, and ideas thereby actively participating in decision making. RESULTS: An evaluation had shown that this process was successfully implemented to the satisfaction of patients, and staff in general. CONCLUSION: This successful change should encourage other nurses to become more proactive in identifying areas for change management in order to improve our health care system.

  13. Living for the weekend: electronic documentation improves patient handover.

    PubMed

    Govier, Matthew; Medcalf, Pippa

    2012-04-01

    With increasing shift work the importance of effective handover is becoming more widely recognised, resulting in the production of guidelines on written handover documentation. A particular area of poor compliance was handover from the week to weekend teams for medical inpatients, as shown through an audit cycle. Full implementation of any guidelines can be time and financially costly. However, a simple, minimal cost, electronic-based list improved the quantitative measures of written handover, particularly in areas of patient location, resuscitation status and investigations. Qualitative data showed multiple benefits, but also problems with logistics in computer terminals, networks and access. Solutions to such problems are discussed, with the importance of carefully implemented longer-term changes being emphasised.

  14. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  15. Opportunistically discovering usability requirements for a clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, David; Parry, David; Carlsen, Victoria; Carter, Philip; Parry, Emma; Westbrook, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Handover in hospital is a process that can cause a major risk to patients, and be inefficient and time-consuming for staff. Software designed to support such processes needs to be used in a demanding and fast-moving environment. This work formulated Usability Design Requirements for such a handover software system. The requirements have been derived from a usability evaluation at Auckland City Hospital, where the handover was observed in two different environments during a handover improvement process. The requirements were produced using a multi-method, triangulated approach and they may be able to inform the design of systems to support clinical handover. The physical environment and the protocols adopted for handover were changed during this process, with software changes waiting for a larger project. Periods of change in work practice may be particularly favourable times to perform such studies, even if major software changes are not implemented. Staff engagement with the process may also be improved during times of change.

  16. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    SciTech Connect

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  17. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  18. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  19. Enhanced Predictive Handover for Fast Proxy Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seil; Kang, Namhi; Kim, Younghan

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) has been proposed in order to overcome the limitations of host-based mobility management in IPv6 networks. However, packet losses during doing handover are still a problem. To solve this issue, several schemes have been developed, and can be classified into two approaches: predictive and reactive handover. Both approaches commonly use bi-directional tunnel between mobile access gateways (MAGs). In predictive schemes especially, mobility support for a mobile node (MN) is triggered by simplified link signal strength. Thereafter, the MN sends handover notification to its serving MAG, and is then able to initiate packet forwarding. Therefore, if the MN moves toward an unexpected MAG that does not have any pre-established tunnel with the serving MAG, it may lead to packet losses. In this paper, we define this problem as Early Packet Forwarding (EPF). As a solution, we propose an enhanced PMIPv6 scheme using two-phase tunnel control based on the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH).

  20. Passing the Baton: An Experimental Study of Shift Handover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Hobbs, Alan; Kanki, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Shift handovers occur in many safety-critical environments, including aviation maintenance, medicine, air traffic control, and mission control for space shuttle and space station operations. Shift handovers are associated with increased risk of communication failures and human error. In dynamic industries, errors and accidents occur disproportionately after shift handover. Typical shift handovers involve transferring information from an outgoing shift to an incoming shift via written logs, or in some cases, face-to-face briefings. The current study explores the possibility of improving written communication with the support modalities of audio and video recordings, as well as face-to-face briefings. Fifty participants participated in an experimental task which mimicked some of the critical challenges involved in transferring information between shifts in industrial settings. All three support modalities, face-to-face, video, and audio recordings, reduced task errors significantly over written communication alone. The support modality most preferred by participants was face-to-face communication; the least preferred was written communication alone.

  1. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  2. One size fits all? Challenges faced by physicians during shift handovers in a hospital with high sender/recipient ratio

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi Jessie; Park, Taezoon; Siah, Tien Ho Kewin; Ang, Bee Leng Sophia; Donchin, Yoel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of the present study was to investigate the challenges faced by physicians during shift handovers in a university hospital that has a high handover sender/recipient ratio. METHODS We adopted a multifaceted approach, comprising recording and analysis of handover information, rating of handover quality, and shadowing of handover recipients. Data was collected at the general medical ward of a university hospital in Singapore for a period of three months. Handover information transfer (i.e. senders’ and recipients’ verbal communication, and recipients’ handwritten notes) and handover environmental factors were analysed. The relationship between ‘to-do’ tasks and information transfer, handover quality and handover duration was examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS Verbal handovers for 152 patients were observed. Handwritten notes on 102 (67.1%) patients and handover quality ratings for 98 (64.5%) patients were collected. Although there was good task prioritisation (information transfer: p < 0.005, handover duration: p < 0.01), incomplete information transfer and poor implementation of non-modifiable identifiers were observed. The high sender/recipient ratio of the hospital made face-to-face and/or bedside handover difficult to implement. Although the current handover method (i.e. use of telephone communication) allowed for interactive communication, it resulted in systemic information loss due to the lack of written information. The handover environment was chaotic in the high sender/recipient ratio setting, and the physicians had no designated handover time or location. CONCLUSION Handovers in high sender/recipient ratio settings are challenging. Efforts should be made to improve the handover processes in such situations, so that patient care is not compromised. PMID:25532519

  3. A Cross-Layer User Centric Vertical Handover Decision Approach Based on MIH Local Triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, Maaz; Yousaf, Muhammad; Qayyum, Amir; Malik, Shahzad

    Vertical handover decision algorithm that is based on user preferences and coupled with Media Independent Handover (MIH) local triggers have not been explored much in the literature. We have developed a comprehensive cross-layer solution, called Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) approach, which consists of three parts viz. mechanism for collecting and storing user preferences, Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) algorithm and the MIH Function (MIHF). MIHF triggers the VHOD algorithm which operates on user preferences to issue handover commands to mobility management protocol. VHOD algorithm is an MIH User and therefore needs to subscribe events and configure thresholds for receiving triggers from MIHF. In this regard, we have performed experiments in WLAN to suggest thresholds for Link Going Down trigger. We have also critically evaluated the handover decision process, proposed Just-in-time interface activation technique, compared our proposed approach with prominent user centric approaches and analyzed our approach from different aspects.

  4. An Improved Cross-Layering Design for IPv6 Fast Handover with IEEE 802.16m Entry Before Break Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ronny Yongho; Jung, Inuk; Kim, Young Yong

    IEEE 802.16m is an advanced air interface standard which is under development for IMT-Advanced systems, known as 4G systems. IEEE 802.16m is designed to provide a high data rate and a Quality of Service (QoS) level in order to meet user service requirements, and is especially suitable for mobilized environments. There are several factors that have great impact on such requirements. As one of the major factors, we mainly focus on latency issues. In IEEE 802.16m, an enhanced layer 2 handover scheme, described as Entry Before Break (EBB) was proposed and adopted to reduce handover latency. EBB provides significant handover interruption time reduction with respect to the legacy IEEE 802.16 handover scheme. Fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in order to provide reduced handover interruption time from IP layer perspective. Since FMIPv6 utilizes link layer triggers to reduce handover latency, it is very critical to jointly design FMIPv6 with its underlying link layer protocol. However, FMIPv6 based on new handover scheme, EBB has not been proposed. In this paper, we propose an improved cross-layering design for FMIPv6 based on the IEEE 802.16m EBB handover. In comparison with the conventional FMIPv6 based on the legacy IEEE 802.16 network, the overall handover interruption time can be significantly reduced by employing the proposed design. Benefits of this improvement on latency reduction for mobile user applications are thoroughly investigated with both numerical analysis and simulation on various IP applications.

  5. Efficient chimeric promoters derived from full-length and sub-genomic transcript promoters of Figwort mosaic virus (FMV).

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Patro, Sunita; Kumari, Sangeeta; Kumar, Deepak; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu B

    2011-03-10

    Addition of multiple repeats of the FS3 upstream activation sequence (FS3-UAS, -270 to -60) intra-molecularly to the TATA containing core-domain of the FS3 (-151 to +31) promoter resulted in 2-3-folds enhanced promoter activity. The chimeric promoter, FS3-UAS-3X with maximum activity, showed 3.31 times stronger activity in root vascular tissue compared to FS3 promoter and could be used efficiently in translational research.

  6. Improving residents' handovers through just-in-time training for structured communication.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Liam; Amin, Aditi; Boyington, Curtiss; Ao, Peter; Frolova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent quality assurance project we learned that nearly half of the handovers we examined were characterized as unsatisfactory by our residents, who provided examples in which their anxiety had been piqued and patient care had been affected. These reports substantiated a growing body of literature on the relationship between the quality of handover and the quality of patient care, so we sought to improve the quality and consistency of the in-hosptial handovers undertaken by our internal medicine residents. Senior residents attended morning report for three consecutive month long blocks and evaluated the quality of the handovers using an observational protocol comprised of 16 aspects of effective handover. During the first block, the resident observed a median of eight of the 16 practices occurring across the 46 handovers, and a large amount of variability. At the beginning of the subsequent block we presented a concise introduction to a structured handover procedure (SBARR). The median quality of the subsequent 33 handovers rose to 11, and the variability decreased considerably. In the next block we refined the SBARR orientation to focus on the errors observed in the previous blocks, and the improvement in the quality and variability was sustained. The minor change, which requires few resources to sustain, had a favourable impact on the quality of our residents' in-hospital handovers.

  7. Improving residents' handovers through just-in-time training for structured communication

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Liam; Amin, Aditi; Boyington, Curtiss; Ao, Peter; Frolova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent quality assurance project we learned that nearly half of the handovers we examined were characterized as unsatisfactory by our residents, who provided examples in which their anxiety had been piqued and patient care had been affected. These reports substantiated a growing body of literature on the relationship between the quality of handover and the quality of patient care, so we sought to improve the quality and consistency of the in-hosptial handovers undertaken by our internal medicine residents. Senior residents attended morning report for three consecutive month long blocks and evaluated the quality of the handovers using an observational protocol comprised of 16 aspects of effective handover. During the first block, the resident observed a median of eight of the 16 practices occurring across the 46 handovers, and a large amount of variability. At the beginning of the subsequent block we presented a concise introduction to a structured handover procedure (SBARR). The median quality of the subsequent 33 handovers rose to 11, and the variability decreased considerably. In the next block we refined the SBARR orientation to focus on the errors observed in the previous blocks, and the improvement in the quality and variability was sustained. The minor change, which requires few resources to sustain, had a favourable impact on the quality of our residents' in-hospital handovers. PMID:26893890

  8. STRONTIUM AS AN EFFICIENT PROMOTER FOR SUPPORTED PALLADIUM HYDROGENATION CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of strontium promotion is studied for a series of supported palladium catalysts such as Pd/zeolite-β, Pd/Al2O3, Pd/SiO2, Pd/hydrotalcite and Pd/MgO. Strontium is found to be an effective promoter for enhancing the metal area, perce...

  9. Use of Mobile Applications for Hospital Discharge Letters: Improving Handover at Point of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Bridget; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Hoare, Cathal; Sorensen, Humphrey; Lezcano, Leonardo; Henn, Pat; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Handover of patient care is a time of particular risk and it is important that accurate and relevant information is clearly communicated. The hospital discharge letter is an important part of handover. However, the quality of hospital discharge letters is variable and letters frequently omit important information. The Cork Letter-Writing…

  10. Fragmentation of Patient Safety Research: A Critical Reflection of Current Human Factors Approaches to Patient Handover

    PubMed Central

    Manser, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The integration of human factors science in research and interventions aimed at increased patient safety has led to considerable improvements. However, some challenges to patient safety persist and may require human factors experts to critically reflect upon their predominant approaches to research and improvement. This paper is a call to start a discussion of these issues in the area of patient handover. Briefly reviewing recent handover research shows that while these studies have provided valuable insights into the communication practices for a range of handover situations, the predominant research strategy of studying isolated handover episodes replicates the very problem of fragmentation of care that the studies aim to overcome. Thus, there seems to be a need for a patient-centred approach to handover research that aims to investigate the interdependencies of handover episodes during a series of transitions occurring along the care path. Such an approach may contribute to novel insights and help to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve handover. Significance for public health While much of public health research has a preventive focus, health services research is generally concerned with the ways in which care is provided to those requiring treatment. This paper calls for a patient-centred approach to research on patient handover; a significant contributor to adverse events in healthcare. It is argued that this approach has the potential to improve our understanding of handover processes along the continuum of care. Thus, it can provide a scientific foundation for effective improvements in handover that are likely to reduce patient harm and help to maintain patient safety. PMID:25170504

  11. Understanding how clinical judgement and communicative practices interact with the use of an electronic clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Clinical handover is a high risk scenario involving the transfer of information, responsibility and accountability for patient care. Many strategies have been proposed to improve clinical handover and reduce risks it can pose to the safety and quality of patient care. The development and implementation of electronic tools provides one mechanism for structuring and streamlining information transfer to support more standardised handover practices. However, clinical judgement remains a valued, fundamental aspect of clinical practice and its communication during handover is open to variation in ways that may compromise patient safety. This research examines these issues based on evidence generated from a user-centred approach involving clinicians in the development and implementation of an electronic clinical handover system. The paper highlights how clinical judgements and communicative practices interact with an electronic clinical handover system, and discusses their potential implications for patient safety as part of a broader clinical handover improvement project.

  12. Efficient chimeric plant promoters derived from plant infecting viral promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sefali; Ranjan, Rajiv; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed a set of three chimeric/hybrid promoters namely FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt incorporating different important domains of Figwort Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FSgt, -270 to -60), Mirabilis Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt, -306 to -125) and Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus full-length transcript promoter (PFlt-, -353 to +24 and PFlt-UAS, -353 to -49). We demonstrated that these chimeric/hybrid promoters can drive the expression of reporter genes in different plant species including tobacco, Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and spinach. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 4.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times stronger GUS activities compared to the activity of the CaMV35S promoter, respectively, in tobacco protoplasts. Protoplast-derived recombinant promoter driven GFP showed enhanced accumulation compared to that obtained under the CaMV35S promoter. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 3.0, 1.3 and 1.0 times stronger activities than the activity of the CaMV35S² (a modified version of the CaMV35S promoter with double enhancer domain) promoter, respectively, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN). Alongside, we observed a fair correlation between recombinant promoter-driven GUS accumulation with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical (X-gluc) staining of whole transgenic seedlings and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated floral parts expressing the GUS under the control of recombinant promoters also support above findings. Furthermore, we confirmed that these chimeric promoters are inducible in the presence of 150 μM salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Taken altogether, we propose that SA/ABA inducible chimeric/recombinant promoters could be used for strong expression of gene(s) of interest in crop plants.

  13. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. S.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes and mudflats. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through vegetation's influence on the cohesive strength of channel banks. Understanding the morphology of a tidal channel network is thus essential to understanding both the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and the topographic signature of life. A critical measure of the morphology of a channel network is the unchanneled path length, which is characteristic of the efficiency with which a network dissects the marsh platform. However, the processes which control the formation and maintenance of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we show that an unvegetated marsh platform (Estero La Ramada, Baja California, Mexico) is dissected by a less efficient channel network than a vegetated one (Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States). The difference in geometric efficiency reflects a difference in the branching and meandering characteristics of the network, characteristics controlled by the density of vegetation on the channel banks. Our results suggest a feedback between network geometry and vegetation, mediated by fluxes of nutrients and salinity through the channel network, maintains the observed network geometries. An efficient network can support a denser vegetation community which stabilizes channel banks, leading to an efficient meandering geometry.

  14. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks.

    PubMed

    Kearney, William S; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-07-19

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh.

  15. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, William S.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh. PMID:27430165

  16. Heterogeneous delivering capability promotes traffic efficiency in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan-Bo; Guan, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Traffic is one of the most fundamental dynamical processes in networked systems. With the homogeneous delivery capability of nodes, the global dynamic routing strategy proposed by Ling et al. [Phys. Rev. E81, 016113 (2010)] adequately uses the dynamic information during the process and thus it can reach a quite high network capacity. In this paper, based on the global dynamic routing strategy, we proposed a heterogeneous delivery allocation strategy of nodes on scale-free networks with consideration of nodes degree. It is found that the network capacity as well as some other indexes reflecting transportation efficiency are further improved. Our work may be useful for the design of more efficient routing strategies in communication or transportation systems.

  17. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  18. New Vertical Handover Method to Optimize Utilization of Wireless Local Area Network in High-Speed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Supriyanto, Eko; Hau, Yuan Wen

    2016-01-01

    In heterogeneous wireless networks, wireless local area network (WLAN) is highly preferred by mobile terminals (MTs) owing to its high transmission bandwidth and low access cost. However, in high-speed environment, handover from a cellular network to a WLAN cell will lead to a high number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers due to the WLAN coverage limitation and will become worse at high speed. A new vertical handover method is proposed to minimize the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover while maximizing the usage of WLAN in high-speed environment. The simulation results show that the proposed method kept the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover below 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the proposed method reduced the number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers up to 80.0% and 97.7%, respectively, while the MT is highly mobile. Using the proposed prediction method, the MT can benefit high bandwidth and low network access cost from the WLAN with minimum interruption regardless of speed. PMID:27814388

  19. New Vertical Handover Method to Optimize Utilization of Wireless Local Area Network in High-Speed Environment.

    PubMed

    Yew, Hoe Tung; Supriyanto, Eko; Satria, Muhammad Haikal; Hau, Yuan Wen

    2016-01-01

    In heterogeneous wireless networks, wireless local area network (WLAN) is highly preferred by mobile terminals (MTs) owing to its high transmission bandwidth and low access cost. However, in high-speed environment, handover from a cellular network to a WLAN cell will lead to a high number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers due to the WLAN coverage limitation and will become worse at high speed. A new vertical handover method is proposed to minimize the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover while maximizing the usage of WLAN in high-speed environment. The simulation results show that the proposed method kept the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover below 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the proposed method reduced the number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers up to 80.0% and 97.7%, respectively, while the MT is highly mobile. Using the proposed prediction method, the MT can benefit high bandwidth and low network access cost from the WLAN with minimum interruption regardless of speed.

  20. The equity imperative in tertiary education: Promoting fairness and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-06-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.

  1. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures.

  2. Efficient promotion of phosphate diester cleavage by a face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer without metal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Gao-Feng; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2012-06-04

    An organic face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer promotes the cleavage of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate efficiently in neutral pH without the addition of metal. Both of the phosphate diester bonds can be cleaved.

  3. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  4. Stories of change: the Text Analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home.

    PubMed

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Saluto, G

    2017-02-15

    Handovers assure a timely and correct information transfer while socializing workers to the service's culture, however no study describes them as instruments to document organizational change and only a few have focused on psychiatric settings.

  5. Embryo Aggregation Promotes Derivation Efficiency of Outgrowths from Porcine Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Goo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have become an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic applications and producing transgenic animals. However, despite numerous reports of putative pESC lines, deriving validated pESC lines from embryos produced in vitro remains difficult. Here, we report that embryo aggregation was useful for deriving pESCs from in vitro-produced embryos. Blastocysts derived from embryo aggregation formed a larger number of colonies and maintained cell culture stability. Our derived cell lines demonstrated expression of pluripotent markers (alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog), an ability to form embryoid bodies, and the capacity to differentiate into the three germ layers. A cytogenetic analysis of these cells revealed that all lines derived from aggregated blastocysts had normal female and male karyotypes. These results demonstrate that embryo aggregation could be a useful technique to improve the efficiency of deriving ESCs from in vitro-fertilized pig embryos, studying early development, and deriving pluripotent ESCs in vitro in other mammals. PMID:26580280

  6. Integration of FMIPv6 in HMIPv6 to Improve Hand-over Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Dipali P.; Patil, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    Mobile users move frequently between networks, as they stay connected to the Internet. Thus, as mobility increases across networks, handovers will significantly impact the quality of the connection and user application. Handover performance is very important when evaluating IP mobility protocols. Since handover request are driven by several needs such as cost reduction criteria, network resource optimization and service related requirements. Current works to support seamless mobility in IPv6 network are classified into HMIPv6 and FMIPv6. These two approaches have pros and cons respectively and are being standardized independently in IETF. If one can integrate properly these two approaches, it is expected that the one can get more effective protocols that can provide better handover performance. This paper integrates FHMIPv6 in HMIPv6 (F-HMIPv6) so as to provide effectively fast handover on the hierarchical Mobile IPv6. The simulation performed using Ns-2 extensions to show that a performance of proposed system is better in terms of packet loss and hand-over delay.

  7. An unmethylated 3' promoter-proximal region is required for efficient transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Appanah, Ruth; Dickerson, David R; Goyal, Preeti; Groudine, Mark; Lorincz, Matthew C

    2007-02-16

    The promoter regions of approximately 40% of genes in the human genome are embedded in CpG islands, CpG-rich regions that frequently extend on the order of one kb 3' of the transcription start site (TSS) region. CpGs 3' of the TSS of actively transcribed CpG island promoters typically remain methylation-free, indicating that maintaining promoter-proximal CpGs in an unmethylated state may be important for efficient transcription. Here we utilize recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce a Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV)-based reporter, in vitro methylated 1 kb downstream of the TSS, into a defined genomic site. In a subset of clones, methylation spreads to within approximately 320 bp of the TSS, yielding a dramatic decrease in transcript level, even though the promoter/TSS region remains unmethylated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal that such promoter-proximal methylation results in loss of RNA polymerase II and TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) binding in the promoter region, suggesting that repression occurs at the level of transcription initiation. While DNA methylation-dependent trimethylation of H3 lysine (K)9 is confined to the intragenic methylated region, the promoter and downstream regions are hypo-acetylated on H3K9/K14. Furthermore, DNase I hypersensitivity and methylase-based single promoter analysis (M-SPA) experiments reveal that a nucleosome is positioned over the unmethylated TATA-box in these clones, indicating that dense DNA methylation downstream of the promoter region is sufficient to alter the chromatin structure of an unmethylated promoter. Based on these observations, we propose that a DNA methylation-free region extending several hundred bases downstream of the TSS may be a prerequisite for efficient transcription initiation. This model provides a biochemical explanation for the typical positioning of TSSs well upstream of the 3' end of the CpG islands in which they are embedded.

  8. Nursing handovers: An integrative review of the different models and processes available.

    PubMed

    Bakon, Shannon; Wirihana, Lisa; Christensen, Martin; Craft, Judy

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the different handover models and processes available and their efficacy in improving handover communication within nursing practice. The handover of information is a key nursing responsibility that ensures patient outcomes through continuity of care. This process is widely recognised as an opening for error that may comprise patient safety. This paper is an integrative literature review that employed an inductive exploratory design. A computerised database search was employed including CINAHL, PubMed and Science Direct and a manual citation search with included papers limited to papers published 2005-2016, in English with full text freely available. This included a systematic search strategy, a critical appraisal of the papers utilising the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, an inductive data extraction and thematic analysis. Sixteen papers were included in this review. The results detailed that there are various handover models in use, yet there is no evidence that any one model displays superior efficacy. The iSoBAR model and its adaptations remain the only model employed across various specialties. More research is warranted to determine if any handover model displays superior efficacy or transferability.

  9. The STAR ESL, electronic shift and handover log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, L.; Lauret, J.

    2008-07-01

    Keeping a clear and accurate experiment log is important for any scientific experiment. The concept is certainly not new but keeping accurate while useful records for a Nuclear Physics experiment such as the Solenoidal Tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR at RHIC) is not a priori a simple matter - STAR operates 24 hours a day for six months out of the year with more than 24 shift crews operating 16 different subsystems (some located remotely). To meet the challenge of not only logging the information but passing it in a concise manner from one shift to another, the STAR experiment has designed an Electronic Shift-Log (ESL), a flexible application written in Java and interfacing with the Data Acquisition tools, Quality Assurance reporting, Online shift crews or remote personnel and experts as well as including features such as shift change-over (or handover) forms, tailored to the sub-group of interest. We will present an overview of STAR's Electronic Log, a system that is clear, reliable, safe, consistent, easy to use and globally viewable in real time with secure connections.

  10. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ming

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  11. Oxygen-Promoted Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction for Efficient Construction of Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Xinmin

    2016-02-01

    As one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds, the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has attracted great attention over the past three decades. In recent years, a huge amount of interest has been focused on the development of ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction systems, which have the advantages of low cost, mild reaction conditions, and easy operation. So far, a number of ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction systems have been developed by using simple palladium salts, nanopalladium, or supported palladium catalysts. In this account, we will review our recent research on the oxygen-promoted ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Interestingly, the oxygen-promoting effect has been observed in different reaction media, including polyethylene glycol, organic/water mixed solvents and pure water. The oxygen-promoted reaction systems demonstrate high efficiency for the construction of biaryls.

  12. Building an Electronic Handover Tool for Physicians Using a Collaborative Approach between Clinicians and the Development Team.

    PubMed

    Guilbeault, Peggy; Momtahan, Kathryn; Hudson, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort by The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) to become one of the top 10% performers in patient safety and quality of care, the hospital embarked on improving the communication process during handover between physicians by building an electronic handover tool. It is expected that this tool will decrease information loss during handover. The Information Systems (IS) department engaged a workgroup of physicians to become involved in defining requirements to build an electronic handover tool that suited their clinical handover needs. This group became ultimately responsible for defining the graphical user interface (GUI) and all functionality related to the tool. Prior to the pilot, the Information Systems team will run a usability testing session to ensure the application is user friendly and has met the goals and objectives of the workgroup. As a result, The Ottawa Hospital has developed a fully integrated electronic handover tool built on the Clinical Mobile Application (CMA) which allows clinicians to enter patient problems, notes and tasks available to all physicians to facilitate the handover process.

  13. A Standardized Shift Handover Protocol: Improving Nurses’ Safe Practice in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Javad; Mazluom, Seyed Reza; Etezadi, Toktam; Tasseri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For maintaining the continuity of care and improving the quality of care, effective inter-shift information communication is necessary. Any handover error can endanger patient safety. Despite the importance of shift handover, there is no standard handover protocol in our healthcare settings. Methods: In this one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study conducted in spring and summer of 2011, we recruited a convenience sample of 56 ICU nurses. The Nurses’ Safe Practice Evaluation Checklist was used for data collection. The Content Validity Index and the inter-rater correlation coefficient of the checklist was 0.92 and 89, respectively. We employed the SPSS 11.5 software and the Mc Nemar and paired-samples t test for data analysis. Results: Study findings revealed that nurses’ mean score on the Safe Practice Evaluation Checklist increased significantly from 11.6 (2.7) to 17.0 (1.8) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: using a standard handover protocol for communicating patient’s needs and information improves nurses’ safe practice in the area of basic nursing care. PMID:25276725

  14. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  15. A cooperative positioning with Kalman filters and handover mechanism for indoor microcellular visible light communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jieqing; Huang, Zhitong; Zhuang, Kaiyu; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel handover scheme for indoor microcellular visible light communication (VLC) network. With such a scheme, the room, which is fully coverage by light, is divided into several microcells according to the layout of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the directionality of light arises new challenges in keeping the connectivity between the mobile devices and light source under the mobile circumstances. The simplest solution is that all LEDs broadcast data of every user simultaneously, but it wastes too much bandwidth resource, especially when the amount of users increases. To solve this key problem, we utilize the optical positioning assisting handover procedure in this paper. In the positioning stage, the network manager obtains the location information of user device via downlink and uplink signal strength information, which is white light and infrared, respectively. After that, a Kalman filter is utilized for improving the tracking performance of a mobile device. Then, the network manager decides how to initiate the handover process by the previous information. Results show that the proposed scheme can achieve low-cost, seamless data communication, and a high probability of successful handover.

  16. Change from an office-based to a walk-around handover system.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Marguerite

    This project stemmed from a desire to review the interdisciplinary handover system in an over-65s rehabilitation ward. The idea was to involve staff, including all members of the interdisciplinary team, in the decision-making process, and to canvass patients' opinions about the walk-around report.

  17. An adaptive handover prediction scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Ali Safa; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  18. Intensive care discharges: improving the quality of clinical handover through changes to discharge documentation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William; Keane, Philip; Wang, Sarra; Debell, Frances; Allana, Alisha; Karia, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have stepped down from intensive care tread a precarious clinical course, and the handover of care between clinical teams at this point should be treated as a high risk event. Poor handover can leave patients vulnerable to suboptimal care and preventable harm. Properly structured written discharge summaries have been shown to improve information transfer and quality of care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has published guidelines entitled “Acute illness in adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration,” which states that patients transferred from intensive care should have a formal structured handover supported by a written plan, and it provides minimum criteria for what information should be included. A retrospective audit was carried out (n=28) to identify if discharge summaries were compliant with these standards. Discharge summaries consistently lacked essential criteria, including psychosocial needs (29%), nutritional needs (50%), therapy needs (29%), ceilings of care (39%), and communication needs (18%). Less than a third of verbal handovers between the nursing and medical teams were documented. After consultation, a new summary template was developed and embedded into practice. The new design prompted trainees to ensure they completed adequate information in all domains of care. Additional sections were added to improve recording of when, and to whom, clinical handover took place, which led to improved clinical governance. The overall quality of discharge summaries was improved, with increased compliance in 11 out of 13 domains. Feedback from staff about the new discharge summaries was positive. This project is easily transferable, and has the potential to improve patient safety and quality of care. PMID:26734430

  19. Intensive care discharges: improving the quality of clinical handover through changes to discharge documentation.

    PubMed

    Hall, William; Keane, Philip; Wang, Sarra; Debell, Frances; Allana, Alisha; Karia, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have stepped down from intensive care tread a precarious clinical course, and the handover of care between clinical teams at this point should be treated as a high risk event. Poor handover can leave patients vulnerable to suboptimal care and preventable harm. Properly structured written discharge summaries have been shown to improve information transfer and quality of care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has published guidelines entitled "Acute illness in adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration," which states that patients transferred from intensive care should have a formal structured handover supported by a written plan, and it provides minimum criteria for what information should be included. A retrospective audit was carried out (n=28) to identify if discharge summaries were compliant with these standards. Discharge summaries consistently lacked essential criteria, including psychosocial needs (29%), nutritional needs (50%), therapy needs (29%), ceilings of care (39%), and communication needs (18%). Less than a third of verbal handovers between the nursing and medical teams were documented. After consultation, a new summary template was developed and embedded into practice. The new design prompted trainees to ensure they completed adequate information in all domains of care. Additional sections were added to improve recording of when, and to whom, clinical handover took place, which led to improved clinical governance. The overall quality of discharge summaries was improved, with increased compliance in 11 out of 13 domains. Feedback from staff about the new discharge summaries was positive. This project is easily transferable, and has the potential to improve patient safety and quality of care.

  20. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  1. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-04-04

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation.

  2. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-03-28

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

  3. Distinct Prion Domain Sequences Ensure Efficient Amyloid Propagation by Promoting Chaperone Binding or Processing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Christine R.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2016-01-01

    Prions are a group of proteins that can adopt a spectrum of metastable conformations in vivo. These alternative states change protein function and are self-replicating and transmissible, creating protein-based elements of inheritance and infectivity. Prion conformational flexibility is encoded in the amino acid composition and sequence of the protein, which dictate its ability not only to form an ordered aggregate known as amyloid but also to maintain and transmit this structure in vivo. But, while we can effectively predict amyloid propensity in vitro, the mechanism by which sequence elements promote prion propagation in vivo remains unclear. In yeast, propagation of the [PSI+] prion, the amyloid form of the Sup35 protein, has been linked to an oligopeptide repeat region of the protein. Here, we demonstrate that this region is composed of separable functional elements, the repeats themselves and a repeat proximal region, which are both required for efficient prion propagation. Changes in the numbers of these elements do not alter the physical properties of Sup35 amyloid, but their presence promotes amyloid fragmentation, and therefore maintenance, by molecular chaperones. Rather than acting redundantly, our observations suggest that these sequence elements make complementary contributions to prion propagation, with the repeat proximal region promoting chaperone binding to and the repeats promoting chaperone processing of Sup35 amyloid. PMID:27814358

  4. DNA DSB repair pathway choice: an orchestrated handover mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kakarougkas, A; Jeggo, P A

    2014-03-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are potential lethal lesions but can also lead to chromosome rearrangements, a step promoting carcinogenesis. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DSB rejoining process and occurs in all cell cycle stages. Homologous recombination (HR) can additionally function to repair irradiation-induced two-ended DSBs in G2 phase. In mammalian cells, HR predominantly uses a sister chromatid as a template for DSB repair; thus HR functions only in late S/G2 phase. Here, we review current insight into the interplay between HR and NHEJ in G2 phase. We argue that NHEJ represents the first choice pathway, repairing approximately 80% of X-ray-induced DSBs with rapid kinetics. However, a subset of DSBs undergoes end resection and repair by HR. 53BP1 restricts resection, thereby promoting NHEJ. During the switch from NHEJ to HR, 53BP1 is repositioned to the periphery of enlarged irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) via a BRCA1-dependent process. K63-linked ubiquitin chains, which also form at IRIF, are also repositioned as well as receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80), a ubiquitin binding protein. RAP80 repositioning requires POH1, a proteasome component. Thus, the interfacing barriers to HR, 53BP1 and RAP80 are relieved by POH1 and BRCA1, respectively. Removal of RAP80 from the IRIF core is required for loss of the ubiquitin chains and 53BP1, and for efficient replication protein A foci formation. We propose that NHEJ is used preferentially to HR because it is a compact process that does not necessitate extensive chromatin changes in the DSB vicinity.

  5. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  6. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  7. Design and implementation of a virtual world training simulation of ICU first hour handover processes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ross; Rasmussen, Rune; Baldwin, Ian; Wyeth, Peta

    2012-08-01

    Nursing training for an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a resource intensive process. High demands are made on staff, students and physical resources. Interactive, 3D computer simulations, known as virtual worlds, are increasingly being used to supplement training regimes in the health sciences; especially in areas such as complex hospital ward processes. Such worlds have been found to be very useful in maximising the utilisation of training resources. Our aim is to design and develop a novel virtual world application for teaching and training Intensive Care nurses in the approach and method for shift handover, to provide an independent, but rigorous approach to teaching these important skills. In this paper we present a virtual world simulator for students to practice key steps in handing over the 24/7 care requirements of intensive care patients during the commencing first hour of a shift. We describe the modelling process to provide a convincing interactive simulation of the handover steps involved. The virtual world provides a practice tool for students to test their analytical skills with scenarios previously provided by simple physical simulations, and live on the job training. Additional educational benefits include facilitation of remote learning, high flexibility in study hours and the automatic recording of a reviewable log from the session. To the best of our knowledge, we believe this is a novel and original application of virtual worlds to an ICU handover process. The major outcome of the work was a virtual world environment for training nurses in the shift handover process, designed and developed for use by postgraduate nurses in training.

  8. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Deverman, Benjamin E; Klein, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  9. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kasey L.; Dayton, Robert D.; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats. PMID:27867348

  10. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. User participation in district psychiatry. The social construction of 'users' in handovers and meetings.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Vår; Obstfelder, Aud; Lorem, Geir F; Måseide, Per

    2016-06-01

    An ideal in mental health care is user participation. This implies inclusion and facilitation by clinicians to enable users to participate in decisions about themselves and in the design of suitable treatment. However, much of the work of clinicians consists of handovers and other meetings where patients are not present. It is therefore interesting to study how the patient perspective is handled in such meetings and whether it forms a basis for user participation. We conducted fieldwork in three different inpatient wards in Norwegian District Psychiatric Centres. We used an interactional perspective in our analysis, where speech acts, framing and footing were key concepts. The findings show that the talk in the handovers and meetings contained five main themes and that there was a clear correlation between what was said and how it was said, and whether clinicians related to the content in a decisive, person-centred or indecisive manner. We discuss potential participation statuses for patients and their limited opportunity to influence the talk and possible decisions about themselves. Our conclusion is that handover meetings primarily function as an aid in organising clinicians' work and could ultimately be seen as counteracting user participation.

  12. User-centered design in clinical handover: exploring post-implementation outcomes for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming Chao; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the outcomes for clinicians from their involvement in the development of an electronic clinical hand-over tool developed using principles of user-centered design. Conventional e-health post-implementation evaluations tend to emphasize technology-related (mostly positive) outcomes. More recently, unintended (mostly negative) consequences arising from the implementation of e-health technologies have also been reported. There remains limited focus on the post-implementation outcomes for users, particularly those directly involved in e-health design processes. This paper presents detailed analysis and insights into the outcomes experienced post-implementation by a cohort of junior clinicians involved in developing an electronic clinical handover tool in Tasmania, Australia. The qualitative methods used included observations, semi-structured interviews and analysis of clinical handover notes. Significantly, a number of unanticipated flow-on effects were identified that mitigated some of the challenges arising during the design and implementation of the tool. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of identifying post-implementation user outcomes beyond conventional system adoption and use and also points to the need for more comprehensive evaluative frameworks to encapsulate these broader socio-technical user outcomes.

  13. An efficient ligation reaction promoted by a Varkud Satellite ribozyme with extended 5'- and 3'-termini.

    PubMed

    Jones, F D; Ryder, S P; Strobel, S A

    2001-12-15

    The Neurospora Varkud Satellite (VS) RNA is capable of promoting a reversible self-cleavage reaction important for its replication pathway. In vivo the VS RNA performs a cis-cleavage reaction to generate monomeric length transcripts that are subsequently ligated to produce circular VS RNA. The predominant form of VS RNA observed in vivo is the closed circular form, though minimal VS ribozyme self-cleavage constructs lack detectable ligation activity. MFOLD analysis of the entire VS RNA sequence revealed an extended region 5' and 3' of the minimal self-cleaving region that could anneal to form a complementary helix, which we have termed helix 7. In full-length VS RNA, this helix appears to span over 40 bp of sequence and brings the 5'- and 3'-ends of the RNA into proximity for the ligation reaction. Here we report a variant of the VS ribozyme with an extended 5'- and 3'-terminus capable of forming a truncated helix 7 that promotes the ligation reaction in vitro. Through mutation and selection of this RNA we have identified a ribozyme containing two point mutations in the truncated helix 7 that ligates with >70% efficiency. These results show that an additional helical element absent in current VS ribozyme constructs is likely to be important for the ligation activity of VS RNA.

  14. Isolation of an efficient actin promoter for use in rice transformation.

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, D; Zhang, W; Cao, J; Wu, R

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the 5' region of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) and show that it is an efficient promoter for regulating the constitutive expression of a foreign gene in transgenic rice. By constructing plasmids with 5' regions from the rice Act1 gene fused to the coding sequence of a gene encoding bacterial beta-glucuronidase, we demonstrate that a region 1.3 kilobases upstream of the Act1 translation initiation codon contains all of the 5'-regulatory elements necessary for high-level beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in transient assays of transformed rice protoplasts. The rice Act1 primary transcript has a noncoding exon separated by a 5' intron from the first coding exon. Fusions that lack this Act1 intron showed no detectable GUS activity in transient assays of transformed rice protoplasts. Deletion analysis of the Act1 5' intron suggests that the intron-mediated stimulation of GUS expression is associated, in part, with an in vivo requirement for efficient intron splicing. PMID:2136633

  15. Global genome nucleotide excision repair is organized into domains that promote efficient DNA repair in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shirong; Evans, Katie; Bennett, Mark; Webster, Richard M.; Leadbitter, Matthew; Teng, Yumin; Waters, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The rates at which lesions are removed by DNA repair can vary widely throughout the genome, with important implications for genomic stability. To study this, we measured the distribution of nucleotide excision repair (NER) rates for UV-induced lesions throughout the budding yeast genome. By plotting these repair rates in relation to genes and their associated flanking sequences, we reveal that, in normal cells, genomic repair rates display a distinctive pattern, suggesting that DNA repair is highly organized within the genome. Furthermore, by comparing genome-wide DNA repair rates in wild-type cells and cells defective in the global genome–NER (GG-NER) subpathway, we establish how this alters the distribution of NER rates throughout the genome. We also examined the genomic locations of GG-NER factor binding to chromatin before and after UV irradiation, revealing that GG-NER is organized and initiated from specific genomic locations. At these sites, chromatin occupancy of the histone acetyl-transferase Gcn5 is controlled by the GG-NER complex, which regulates histone H3 acetylation and chromatin structure, thereby promoting efficient DNA repair of UV-induced lesions. Chromatin remodeling during the GG-NER process is therefore organized into these genomic domains. Importantly, loss of Gcn5 significantly alters the genomic distribution of NER rates; this has implications for the effects of chromatin modifiers on the distribution of mutations that arise throughout the genome. PMID:27470111

  16. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  17. Role of injured pancreatic extract promotes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs.

  18. The Efficiency and Effectiveness of the K-12 Energy Technology Education Promotion Centers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote energy literacy for graders K-12, the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan initiated a K-12 Energy Technology Education Project in September 2010. This 40-month project has one project office affiliated to a university, and 18 promotion centers affiliated to 18 schools--including 5 regional centers for upper-secondary schools…

  19. Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the free energy of binary sII hydrogen clathrate hydrates for identifying efficient promoter molecules.

    PubMed

    Atamas, Alexander A; Cuppen, Herma M; Koudriachova, Marina V; de Leeuw, Simon W

    2013-01-31

    The thermodynamics of binary sII hydrogen clathrates with secondary guest molecules is studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The small cages of the sII unit cell are occupied by one H(2) guest molecule. Different promoter molecules entrapped in the large cages are considered. Simulations are conducted at a pressure of 1000 atm in a temperature range of 233-293 K. To determine the stabilizing effect of different promoter molecules on the clathrate, the Gibbs free energy of fully and partially occupied sII hydrogen clathrates are calculated. Our aim is to predict what would be an efficient promoter molecule using properties such as size, dipole moment, and hydrogen bonding capability. The gas clathrate configurational and free energies are compared. The entropy makes a considerable contribution to the free energy and should be taken into account in determining stability conditions of binary sII hydrogen clathrates.

  1. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters. PMID:22709462

  2. Cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter efficiently drives heterogeneous gene expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, Q N; Zhang, X T; Zheng, X Y; Lv, Y F; Hao, Z M

    2014-03-05

    Recently, wide attention has been given to the potential of recombinant baculovirus as a gene transfer vehicle for mammalian gene therapy. In this study, we packaged the recombinant baculoviruses with cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV-IE) promoter in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells, and found that the CMV-IE promoter could efficiently drive the exogenic gene expression in the cells 12 h post-infection (h.p.i.). The expression level at 72 h.p.i. was only around half of that driven by polyhedrin promoter (Ppolh). However, the biological activity of the reporter proteins at 72 h.p.i. were similar with that driven by Ppolh. In addition, the Sf9 cells transfected with CMV-IE-containing plasmids also expressed foreign genes, suggesting that the CMV-IE-directed heterogeneous gene expression in the Sf9 cells was baculovirus-independent. These results demonstrate that the CMV-IE promoter might be used as a regular promoter in Sf9 cells.

  3. Construction of efficient, tuber-specific, and cold-inducible promoters in potato.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Xie, Conghua; Song, Botao; Ou, Yongbin; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Xun; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Promoter activity is crucial for precise gene expression. Previously, a synthetic tuber-specific and cold-inducible promoter, pCL, containing a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) cassette and a tuber-specific fragment, was constructed in order to regulate cold-induced sweetening (CIS) in potatoes. However, the utility of pCL is limited due to its low activity. To improve its inducibility in response to low temperatures, we modified the CRT/DRE and flanking sequences. In particular, promoter activity was significantly improved by site-specific mutation of flanking sequences next to the core element (CCGAC) of CRT/DRE. We also inserted a modified CRT/DRE cassette into pCL; although this enhanced activity, it was not more effective than mutation of the flanking sequences. Indeed, up to 20-fold enhanced pCL activity could be achieved by replacing the CRT/DRE cassette in pCL with tandem repeats of two mutated CRT/DRE cassettes. This improvement was due to an enhanced affinity between the CRT/DRE cassette(s) and the StCBF1 transcription factor. Together, these data suggest that altering the structure of CRT/DRE can enhance CBF-related transcription complex formation and thus improve the activity of this cold-inducible promoter.

  4. Enhancement of a high efficient autoinducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis by promoter engineering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jintao; Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhongmei; Li, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhemin

    2016-11-01

    Quorum-sensing related promoter srfA (PsrfA) was used to construct autoinducible expression system for production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. PsrfA was prominent in the unique property of inducer-free activity that is closely correlated with cell density. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter protein, PsrfA was optimized by shortening its sequences and changing the nucleotides at the conserved regions of -35 -15 and -10 regions, obtaining a library of PsrfA derivatives varied in the strength of GFP production. Among all the promoter mutants, the strongest promoter P10 was selected and the strength in GFP expression was 150% higher than that of PsrfA. Heterologous protein of aminopeptidase and nattokinase could be overexpressed by P10, the activities of which were 360% and 50% higher than that of PsrfA, respectively. These results suggested that the enhanced promoter P10 could be used to develop autoinducible expression system for overexpression of heterologous proteins in B. subtilis.

  5. KF/Clinoptilolite: an efficient promoter for the synthesis of thioethers.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Sadegh; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Hosseini, Abolfazl

    2013-06-01

    Potassium fluoride impregnated on natural zeolite as a new solid base system effectively catalyzes the coupling of thiophenols with electron-deficient fluoro-, chloro- and bromo-arenes in DMSO. This versatile and efficient solid base has been demonstrated to afford the corresponding desired products in good to excellent yields. This procedure provides a convenient, efficient and practical method for the preparation of diaryl thioethers.

  6. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  7. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    PubMed

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  8. The 5′UTR-intron of the Gladiolus polyubiquitin promoter GUBQ1 enhances translation efficiency in Gladiolus and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many non-cereal monocots of agronomic, horticultural, and biofuel importance. Successful transformation of these species requires an understanding of factors controlling expression of their genes. Introns have been known to affect both the level and tissue-specific expression of genes in dicots and cereal monocots, but there have been no studies on an intron isolated from a non-cereal monocot. This study characterizes the levels of GUS expression and levels of uidA mRNA that code for β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in leaves of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis using GUBQ1, a polyubiquitin promoter with a 1.234 kb intron, isolated from the non-cereal monocot Gladiolus, and an intronless version of this promoter. Results Gladiolus and Arabidopsis were verified by Southern hybridization to be transformed with the uidA gene that was under control of either the GUBQ1 promoter (1.9 kb), a 5′ GUBQ1 promoter missing its 1.234 kb intron (0.68 kb), or the CaMV 35 S promoter. Histochemical staining showed that GUS was expressed throughout leaves and roots of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis with the 1.9 kb GUBQ1 promoter. GUS expression was significantly decreased in Gladiolus and abolished in Arabidopsis when the 5′UTR-intron was absent. In Arabidopsis and Gladiolus, the presence of uidA mRNA was independent of the presence of the 5′UTR-intron. The 5′-UTR intron enhanced translation efficiency for both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. Conclusions The GUBQ1 promoter directs high levels of GUS expression in young leaves of both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. The 5′UTR-intron from GUBQ1 resulted in a similar pattern of β-glucuronidase translation efficiency for both species even though the intron resulted in different patterns of uidA mRNA accumulation for each species. PMID:22672685

  9. Ca2+ Promoted the Low Transformation Efficiency of Plasmid DNA Exposed to PAH Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Long, Jian; Wang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72–3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg·L–1. The addition of Ca2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with “–POO––” groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments. PMID:23484001

  10. p53 isoform Δ133p53 promotes efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells and ensures genomic integrity during reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Haide; Rao, Lingjun; Zeng, Yelin; Hang, Honghui; Peng, Jinrong; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. p53 isoform Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene and functions to not only antagonize p53 mediated apoptosis, but also promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we report that Δ133p53 is induced in reprogramming. Knockdown of Δ133p53 results 2-fold decrease in reprogramming efficiency, 4-fold increase in chromosomal aberrations, whereas overexpression of Δ133p53 with 4 Yamanaka factors showes 4-fold increase in reprogamming efficiency and 2-fold decrease in chromosomal aberrations, compared to those in iPS cells induced only with 4 Yamanaka factors. Overexpression of Δ133p53 can inhibit cell apoptosis and promote DNA DSB repair foci formation during reprogramming. Our finding demonstrates that the overexpression of Δ133p53 not only enhances reprogramming efficiency, but also results better genetic quality in iPS cells. PMID:27874035

  11. Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. PMID:24058711

  12. Retrovirus-like vectors for Saccharomyces cerevisiae: integration of foreign genes controlled by efficient promoters into yeast chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E; Dewerchin, M; Boeke, J D

    1988-07-30

    Using modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 elements located on a 2 mu plasmid, reverse-transcriptase-mediated transposition into yeast chromosomes of expression cassettes containing a foreign gene can be induced. These expression cassettes consist of the yeast ARG3 and CUP1 promoter sequences fused to the Escherichia coli galK structural gene. Expression cassettes as large as 2 kb can be inserted into Ty elements and transposed efficiently to various sites in the yeast genome. A third yeast promoter (from the yeast CAR1 gene) seems to be unsuitable for use in the expression cassette. This may be because it does not allow the transcription run-through necessary for Ty1 transposition. Ways of improving this vector system are discussed, as are its advantages over episomal vector systems.

  13. Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter.

    PubMed

    Melton, D A; Krieg, P A; Rebagliati, M R; Maniatis, T; Zinn, K; Green, M R

    1984-09-25

    A simple and efficient method for synthesizing pure single stranded RNAs of virtually any structure is described. This in vitro transcription system is based on the unusually specific RNA synthesis by bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase which initiates transcription exclusively at an SP6 promoter. We have constructed convenient cloning vectors that contain an SP6 promoter immediately upstream from a polylinker sequence. Using these SP6 vectors, optimal conditions have been established for in vitro RNA synthesis. The advantages and uses of SP6 derived RNAs as probes for nucleic acid blot and solution hybridizations are demonstrated. We show that single stranded RNA probes of a high specific activity are easy to prepare and can significantly increase the sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization methods. Furthermore, the SP6 transcription system can be used to prepare RNA substrates for studies on RNA processing (1,5,9) and translation (see accompanying paper).

  14. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  15. Promoting Accountability and Enhancing Efficiency: Using National Education Accounts to Track Expenditure Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Deepika; Forbes, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    Increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public and out-of-pocket financing in education are critical to realizing the maximum impact of the meager allocations to education in most developing countries. While broad estimates and numbers are routinely collected by most national ministries and state departments of education, the lack…

  16. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  17. Development of a highly-efficient CHO cell line generation system with engineered SV40E promoter.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Larson, Jeffery L; Bowden, Daniel M; Frye, Christopher C

    2013-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been one of the most widely used host cells for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins. An effective and efficient clinical cell line development process, which could quickly identify those rare, high-producing cell lines among a large population of low and non-productive cells, is of considerable interest to speed up biological drug development. In the glutamine synthetase (GS)-CHO expression system, selection of top-producing cell lines is based on controlling the balance between the expression level of GS and the concentration of its specific inhibitor, l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX). The combined amount of GS expressed from plasmids that have been introduced through transfection and the endogenous CHO GS gene determine the stringency and efficiency of selection. Previous studies have shown significant improvement in selection stringency by using GS-knockout CHO cells, which eliminate background GS expression from the endogenous GS gene in CHOK1SV cells. To further improve selection stringency, a series of weakened SV40E promoters have been generated and used to modulate plasmid-based GS expression with the intent of manipulating GS-CHO selection, finely adjusting the balance between GS expression and GS inhibitor (MSX) levels. The reduction of SV40E promoter activities have been confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR and GFP expression profiling. Significant productivity improvements in both bulk culture and individual clonal cell line have been achieved with the combined use of GS-knockout CHOK1SV cells and weakened SV40E promoters driving GS expression in the current cell line generation process. The selection stringency was significantly increased, as indicated by the shift towards higher distribution of producing-cell populations, even with no MSX added into cell culture medium. The potential applications of weakened SV40E promoter and GS-knockout cells in development of targeted integration and transient CHO

  18. Planarity and multiple components promote organic photovoltaic efficiency by improving electronic transport.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Matthew B; Reid, Daniel; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Establishing how the conformation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers affects their electronic and transport properties is critical in order to determine design rules for new OPV materials and in particular to understand the performance enhancements recently reported for ternary blends. We report coupled classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that polymer linkage twisting significantly reduces optical absorption efficiency, as well as hole transport rates in donor polymers. We predict that blends with components favoring planar geometries contribute to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of ternary OPVs. Furthermore, our electronic structure calculations for the PTB7-PID2-PC71BM system show that hole transfer rates are enhanced in ternary blends with respect to their binary counterpart. Finally, our results point at thermal disorder in the blend as a key reason responsible for device voltage losses and at the need to carry out electronic structure calculations at finite temperature to reliably compare with experiments.

  19. Pigment-targeted light wavelength and intensity promotes efficient photoautotrophic growth of Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bland, Erik; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-09-01

    A consensus is lacking whether monochromatic rather than broad-spectrum illumination is more efficient for photosynthetic microbe production platforms. Light wavelength and intensity were tuned to pigment composition for growth of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Phycocyanin (PC)-targeting LEDs (620nm) provided more than 6times the peak efficiency of white LEDs, with peak efficiency growth rates of 0.063h(-1) at 81μEm(-2)s(-1) and 0.039h(-1) at 126μEm(-2)s(-1) for red and white LEDs, respectively. Chlorophyll a (Chl a)-targeting LEDs (680- and 440-nm) performed poorly. Indeed, 10 times greater mass abundance was observed for PC than Chl a. PC levels did not change while Chl a levels decreased when Synechocystis transitioned from white light at 50μEm(-2)s(-1) to 250μEm(-2)s(-1) with 620nm, 680nm, or white LEDs. This work demonstrates that light wavelengths and intensity need to be optimized for each strain.

  20. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  1. Affirmative action policies promote women and do not harm efficiency in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-02-03

    Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are one source of unequal labor market outcomes concerning wages and promotions. Given that studying the effects of policy interventions to support women is difficult with field data because of measurement problems and potential lack of control, we evaluated, in a set of controlled laboratory experiments, four interventions: quotas, where one of two winners of a competition must be female; two variants of preferential treatment, where a fixed increment is added to women's performance; and repetition of the competition, where a second competition takes place if no woman is among the winners. Compared with no intervention, all interventions encourage women to enter competitions more often, and performance is at least equally good, both during and after the competition.

  2. Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

    1993-11-01

    A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

  3. Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Homologous Recombination Promotes the Rapid Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes of Pseudorabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jin-Chao; Tang, Yan-Dong; Zhao, Kuan; Wang, Tong-Yun; Liu, Ji-Ting; Gao, Jia-Cong; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Cui, Hong-Yu; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; An, Tong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are powerful tools for the manipulation of the large genomes of DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses. However, the methods currently used to construct the recombinant viruses, an important intermediate link in the generation of BACs, involve the laborious process of multiple plaque purifications. Moreover, some fastidious viruses may be lost or damaged during these processes, making it impossible to generate BACs from these large-genome DNA viruses. Here, we introduce the CRISPR/Cas9 as a site-specific gene knock-in instrument that promotes the homologs recombination of a linearized transfer vector and the Pseudorabies virus genome through double incisions. The efficiency of recombination is as high as 86%. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency ever reported for Pseudorabies virus recombination. We also demonstrate that the positions and distances of the CRISPR/Cas9 single guide RNAs from the homology arms correlate with the efficiency of homologous recombination. Our work show a simple and fast cloning method of BACs with large genome inserted by greatly enhancing the HR efficiencies through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair mechanism, and this method could be of helpful for manipulating large DNA viruses, and will provide a successful model for insertion of large DNA fragments into other viruses. PMID:28066407

  4. Fast and secure handover of intra-ASN IEEE802.16 network by proposed certificate based pre-authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Supriya, T. S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    The current generation of wireless networks has been designed predominantly to support voice and more recently data traffic. WiMAX is currently one of the hottest technologies in wireless. The main motive of the mobile technologies is to provide seamless cost effective mobility. But this is affected by Authentication cost and handover delay since on each handoff the Mobile Station (MS) has to undergo all steps of authentication. Pre-Authentication is used to reduce the handover delay and increase the speed of the Intra-ASN Handover. Proposed Pre-Authentication method is intended to reduce the authentication delay by getting pre authenticated by central authority called Pre Authentication Authority (PAA). MS requests PAA for Pre Authentication Certificate (PAC) before performing handoff. PAA verifies the identity of MS and provides PAC to MS and also to the neighboring target Base Stations (tBSs). MS having time bound PAC can skip the authentication process when recognized by target BS during handoff. It also prevents the DOS (Denial Of Service) attack and Replay attack. It has no wastage of unnecessary key exchange of the resources. The proposed work is simulated by NS2 model and by MATLAB.

  5. Characterization of efficient plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Sulla coronaria resistant to cadmium and to other heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Abdelkrim, Souhir; Abid, Ghassen; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2016-01-01

    The inoculation of plants with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria has become a priority in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. A total of 82 bacteria were isolated from Sulla coronaria root nodules cultivated on four soil samples differently contaminated by heavy metals. The phenotypic characterization of these isolates demonstrated an increased tolerance to cadmium reaching 4.1mM, and to other metals, including Zn, Cu and Ni. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) analysis showed a large diversity represented by genera related to Agrobacterium sp., R. leguminosarum, Sinorhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhizobium sp. Their symbiotic effectiveness was evaluated by nodulation tests. Taking into consideration efficiency and cadmium tolerance, four isolates were chosen; their 16SrRNA gene sequence showed that they belonged to Pseudomonas sp. and the Rhizobium sullae. The selected consortium of soil bacteria had the ability to produce plant-growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid and siderophore. The intracellular Cd accumulation was enhanced by increasing the time of incubation of the four soil bacteria cultivated in a medium supplemented with 0.1mM Cd. The existence of a cadmium-resistant gene was confirmed by PCR. These results suggested that Sulla coronaria in symbiosis with the consortium of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be useful in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

  6. Phleomycin Increases Transformation Efficiency and Promotes Single Integrations in Schizophyllum commune▿

    PubMed Central

    van Peer, Arend F.; de Bekker, Charissa; Vinck, Arman; Wösten, Han A. B.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    Phleomycin is mutagenic by introducing double-strand breaks in DNA. The ble gene of Streptoalloteychus hindustanus, which confers resistance to this substance, is widely used as a selection marker for transformation. Schizophyllum commune grows on 25 μg of phleomycin ml−1 after introduction of a resistance cassette based on the ble gene. However, we here report that growth of resistant colonies on this concentration of phleomycin resulted in aberrant colony morphologies. Apparently, phleomycin was mutagenic despite acquired resistance. Therefore, a new selection system was developed based on resistance to the antibiotic nourseothricin. However, the transformation efficiency was tenfold lower than that obtained with phleomycin as a selection agent. This low transformation efficiency could be rescued by addition of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin during protoplast regeneration. This was accompanied by a higher incidence of single-copy integrations and with an increase of expression of key genes involved in double-strand break repair. Taken together, we conclude that the effect of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin strongly resembles the effect of restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) but, unlike REMI, it does not depend on the presence of a target restriction site. PMID:19114524

  7. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-09-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods.

  8. Information flow and its significance in coherently integrated policymaking for promoting energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kua, Harn Wei

    2007-05-01

    Why do negative, unexpected outcomes occur in sustainable development policies? What can we learn from them? Studies have shown clearly that, to be effective, sustainable development policies must be as coherent and integrated as possible; however, policy integration should not evolve into a tool that restricts creativity and undermines the relevance of local policy initiatives. The Coherently Integrated Policymaking frameworks, based on the precept that information flow is pivotal to the success of policymaking, are proposed and then applied to design an integrated energy efficiency policy that coaddresses a set of indicators. These indicators are energy and greenhouse gas reduction, improvement of public's health, increase in material efficiency, enhancementof energy equity, provision of employment and education opportunities, improvement of workers' health, improvement of local economy, and reduction in derived costs for the business community. Our framework also provides guidance for the magnitude of change a policy should introduce at one time, guided by five distinct types of feedback loops that link the different stakeholders involved in the design, implementation, and monitoring of integrated policies.

  9. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Chandler, Jess; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ally, Moonis

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  10. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation by silica supported and platinum promoted titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Meenal M.; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Parwate, D.V.; Rayalu, Sadhana S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor. Hydrogen yield observed is 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} and that for P-25 is 161 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The value is 30 times higher than benchmark material Degussa P-25. This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. - Highlights: • Semiconductor titanium dioxide has been supported on silica gel and promoted with Pt by simple wet impregnation route. • This synthesized photocatalyst is showing high surface area of 140.6 m{sup 2}/g with crystallite size in the range of 15.44 Å. • This photocatalyst is showing enhanced hydrogen yield of about 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2}. • This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. • The effect of various operating parameters on supported photocatalyst also has been studied. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor

  11. Multilayered films fabricated from an oligoarginine-conjugated protein promote efficient surface-mediated protein transduction.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Christopher M; Fuchs, Stephen M; Flessner, Ryan M; Raines, Ronald T; Lynn, David M

    2007-03-01

    The conjugation of cationic protein transduction domains to proteins results in an increase in the extent to which proteins are internalized by cells. This investigation sought to determine whether the conjugation of a protein transduction domain to a functional protein could be used to facilitate the incorporation of the protein into multilayered polyelectrolyte films and, subsequently, whether these films could be used to promote surface-mediated protein transduction. We demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate multilayered assemblies 80 nm thick using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) conjugated to the cationic protein transduction domain nonaarginine (R(9)) using an entirely aqueous layer-by-layer process. We demonstrate further that the conjugation of R(9) to RNase A permits the assembly of multilayered films under conditions that do not allow for the incorporation of the unmodified protein. This result suggests that R(9) functions as a cationic anchor and serves to increase the strength of electrostatic interactions with SPS and facilitate layer-by-layer assembly. We also demonstrate that RNase A-R(9)/SPS films dissolve rapidly in physiologically relevant media and that macroscopic objects coated with these materials can be used to mediate high levels of protein transduction in mammalian cells. These results suggest the basis of general methods that could contribute to the design of materials that permit spatial and temporal control over the delivery of therapeutic proteins to cells and tissues.

  12. Enhancing the specificity of the enterokinase cleavage reaction to promote efficient cleavage of a fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Shahravan, S Hesam; Qu, Xuanlu; Chan, I-San; Shin, Jumi A

    2008-06-01

    In our work with designed minimalist proteins based on the bZIP motif, we have found our His-tagged proteins to be prone to inclusion body formation and aggregation; we suspect this problem is largely due to the His tag, known to promote aggregation. Using AhR6-C/EBP, a hybrid of the AhR basic region and C/EBP leucine zipper, as representative of our bZIP-like protein family, we attempted removal of the His tag with enterokinase (EK) but obtained the desired cleavage product in very small yield. EK is known for proteolysis at noncanonical sites, and most cleavage occurred at unintended sites. We manipulated experimental conditions to improve specificity of proteolysis and analyzed the cleavage products; no effect was observed after changing pH, temperature, or the amount of EK. We then suspected the accessibility of the EK site was impeded due to protein aggregation. We found that the easily implemented strategy of addition of urea (1-4 M) greatly improved EK cleavage specificity at the canonical site and reduced adventitious cleavage. We believe that this enhancement in specificity is due to a more "open" protein structure, in which the now accessible canonical target can compete effectively with adventitious cleavage sites of related sequence.

  13. Efficiency promotion for an on-ramp system based on intelligent transportation system information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Gao, Zi-You; Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    2010-08-01

    The effect of cars with intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) on traffic flow near an on-ramp is investigated by car-following simulations. By numerical simulations, the dependences of flux on the inflow rate are investigated for various proportions of cars with ITSs. The phase diagrams as well as the spatiotemporal diagrams are presented to show different traffic flow states on the main road and the on-ramp. The results show that the saturated flux on the main road increases and the free flow region is enlarged with the increase of the proportion of cars with ITS. Interestingly, the congested regions of the main road disappear completely when the proportion is larger than a critical value. Further investigation shows that the capacity of the on-ramp system can be promoted by 13% by using the ITS information, and the saturated flux on the on-ramp can be kept at an appropriate value by adjusting the proportion of cars with ITS.

  14. Efficient compressed sensing SENSE parallel MRI reconstruction with joint sparsity promotion and mutual incoherence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Il Yong Chun; Adcock, Ben; Talavage, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a key modality for the future as it offers several advantages, including the use of non-ionizing radiation and having no known side effects on the human body, and has recently begun to serve as a key component of multi-modal neuroimaging. However, two major intrinsic problems exist: slow acquisition and intrusive acoustic noise. Parallel MRI (pMRI) techniques accelerate acquisition by reducing the duration and coverage of conventional gradient encoding. The under-sampled k-space data is detected with several receiver coils surrounding the object, using distinct spatial encoding information for each coil element to reconstruct the image. However, this scanning remains slow compared to typical clinical imaging (e.g. X-ray CT). Compressed Sensing (CS), a sampling theory based on random sub-sampling, has potential to further reduce the sampling used in pMRI, accelerating acquisition further. In this work, we propose a new CS SENSE pMRI reconstruction model promoting joint sparsity across channels and enhancing mutual incoherence to improve reconstruction accuracy from limited k-space data. For fast image reconstruction and fair comparisons, all reconstructions are computed with split-Bregman and variable splitting techniques. Numerical results show that, with the introduced methods, reconstruction performance can be crucially improved with limited amount of k-space data.

  15. Environmentally friendly efficient one-pot esterification of cyclohexane with CuO-promoted sulfated zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo

    2008-09-15

    The production of dibutyl phthalate directly from oxidation and esterification of cyclohexane, catalyzed by CuO-modified sulfated zirconia (SZCu) by one-pot under mild condition, was studied. The esterification reaction process was monitored by UV-vis spectra and the distribution of the products was analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result revealed that the SZCu catalyst was efficient in the direct oxidation and esterification of cyclohexane to ester. The selectivity for ester (dibutyl phthalate) can reach up to 72.2 wt.%, and the yield of ester was 29.5 wt.%. The esterification reaction, that offers several advantages such as usage of environmental friendly oxidant, simple work-up procedure, no-solvent conditions, short reaction times, easy recovery and reusability of the catalyst, is necessary for chemosynthesis industry from the environment standpoint. The regeneration property of SZCu was also tested in this work.

  16. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2014-11-24

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm-800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  17. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  18. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm–800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced. PMID:25418477

  19. Promoting wired links in wireless mesh networks: an efficient engineering solution.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes.

  20. Phenotypic constraints promote latent versatility and carbon efficiency in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Bardoscia, Marco; Marsili, Matteo; Samal, Areejit

    2015-07-01

    System-level properties of metabolic networks may be the direct product of natural selection or arise as a by-product of selection on other properties. Here we study the effect of direct selective pressure for growth or viability in particular environments on two properties of metabolic networks: latent versatility to function in additional environments and carbon usage efficiency. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling based on flux balance analysis (FBA), we sample from a known biochemical universe random viable metabolic networks that differ in the number of directly constrained environments. We find that the latent versatility of sampled metabolic networks increases with the number of directly constrained environments and with the size of the networks. We then show that the average carbon wastage of sampled metabolic networks across the constrained environments decreases with the number of directly constrained environments and with the size of the networks. Our work expands the growing body of evidence about nonadaptive origins of key functional properties of biological networks.

  1. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae–independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17508.001 PMID:27528195

  2. Promoting Wired Links in Wireless Mesh Networks: An Efficient Engineering Solution

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes. PMID:25793516

  3. A Novel Sequence in AP180 and CALM Promotes Efficient Clathrin Binding and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Xue, Jing; Wark, Jesse Ray; Robinson, Phillip James

    2016-01-01

    The clathrin heavy chain N-terminal domain interacts with endocytic adapter proteins via clathrin binding motifs to assemble clathrin triskelia into cages. However, the precise mechanism of clathrin assembly is not yet known. Clathrin assembly protein AP180 has more clathrin binding motifs than any other endocytic protein and has a major role in the assembly of the clathrin coat during synaptic vesicle biogenesis. We now demonstrate that some of the previously identified binding motifs in AP180 may be non-functional and that a non-conventional clathrin binding sequence has a major influence on AP180 function. The related protein, clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM), has fewer clathrin binding motifs and functions ubiquitously in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The C-terminal ~16 kDa sub-domain in AP180, which has relatively high similarity with CALM, was shown in earlier work to have an unexplained role in clathrin binding. We identified the specific sequences in this sub-domain that bind to clathrin. Evidence for a role for these sequences in promoting clathrin binding was examined using in vitro and ex vivo experiments that compared the clathrin binding ability of site mutants with the wild type sequence. A sequence conserved in both AP180 and CALM (LDSSLA[S/N]LVGNLGI) was found to be the major interaction site and mutation caused a deficit in clathrin assembly, which is the first example of a mutation having this effect. In contrast, single or double mutation of DL(L/F) motifs in full length AP180 had no significant effect on clathrin binding, despite higher clathrin affinity for isolated peptides containing these motifs. We conclude that the novel clathrin interaction sites identified here in CALM and AP180 have a major role in how these proteins interface with clathrin. This work advances the case that AP180 and CALM are required to use a combination of standard clathrin N-terminal domain binding motifs and the sequence identified here

  4. Impact of a modified nursing handover model for improving nursing care and documentation in the emergency department: A pre- and post-implementation study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Debra; Klim, Sharon; Kelly, Anne-Maree; McCann, Terence

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of a new nursing handover model led to improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation. A pre- and post-implementation study, using a survey and document audit, was conducted in a hospital ED in Melbourne. A convenience sample of nurses completed the survey at baseline (n = 67) and post-intervention (n = 59), and the audit was completed at both time points. Results showed significant improvements in several processes: handover in front of the patient (P < 0.001), patients contributed and/or listened to handover discussions (P < 0.001), and provision of adequate information about all patients in the department (P < 0.001). Nurses also reported a reduction in omission of vital signs (P = 0.022) during handover. Three hundred sixty-eight medical records were audited in the two study periods: 173 (pre-intervention) and 195 (post-intervention). Statistically significant improvements in the completion of two nursing care tasks and three documentation items were identified. The findings suggest that implementation of a new handover model improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation, and transfer of important information to nurses on oncoming shifts.

  5. Efficiency of ligation-mediated PCR and TAIL-PCR methods for isolation of RbcS promoter sequences from green microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Napis, Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of promoter sequences from known gene sequences is a tedious task in genome-related research. An efficient method of obtaining the promoter sequences is necessary in order to successfully use targeted promoters for genetic manipulations. Here, efficiency and usefulness of two PCR-based methods, namely: ligation-mediated PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR, for isolation of promoter sequences of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) gene from green microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus (A. convolutus) were evaluated. The results showed that the amplification efficiency of TAIL-PCR was higher than that of the ligation-mediated PCR method, i.e. the amplified promoter fragments of 1.2 and 0.8 kb in length or promoter sequences of 813 and 606 bp (after eliminating the unreadable sequences). The use of TAIL-PCR described here presents a low cost and efficient strategy for the isolation of promoter sequences of known genes, especially in GC-rich regions, and species with little or no available genome information such as A. convolutus.

  6. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Arnold; Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T; Dawes, Brian E; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur

    2016-05-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins.

  7. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  8. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T.; Dawes, Brian E.; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins. PMID:27203423

  9. Autoantigen La promotes efficient RNAi, antiviral response, and transposon silencing by facilitating multiple-turnover RISC catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren’s syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. PMID:22055194

  10. A method for detecting characteristic patterns in social interactions with an application to handover interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Andrew; Lacey, Lindsey; Fennell, John G.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions are a defining behavioural trait of social animals. Discovering characteristic patterns in the display of such behaviour is one of the fundamental endeavours in behavioural biology and psychology, as this promises to facilitate the general understanding, classification, prediction and even automation of social interactions. We present a novel approach to study characteristic patterns, including both sequential and synchronous actions in social interactions. The key concept in our analysis is to represent social interactions as sequences of behavioural states and to focus on changes in behavioural states shown by individuals rather than on the duration for which they are displayed. We extend techniques from data mining and bioinformatics to detect frequent patterns in these sequences and to assess how these patterns vary across individuals or changes in interaction tasks. To illustrate our approach and to demonstrate its potential, we apply it to novel data on a simple physical interaction, where one person hands a cup to another person. Our findings advance the understanding of handover interactions, a benchmark scenario for social interactions. More generally, we suggest that our approach permits a general perspective for studying social interactions. PMID:28280570

  11. IL-7 surface-engineered lentiviral vectors promote survival and efficient gene transfer in resting primary T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Verhoeyen, Els; Dardalhon, Valerie; Ducrey-Rundquist, Odile; Trono, Didier; Taylor, Naomi; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2003-03-15

    Important gene therapy target cells such as resting human T cells are refractory to transduction with lentiviral vectors. Completion of reverse transcription, nuclear import, and subsequent integration of the lentiviral genome occur in these cells only if they have been activated. In T-cell-based gene therapy trials performed to date, cells have been activated via their cognate antigen receptor. To couple activation with gene transfer, we previously generated lentiviral vectors displaying an anti-CD3 scFv fragment that allowed up to 48% transduction of freshly isolated T cells. However, transduction of highly purified resting T cells with these anti-CD3-displaying lentiviral vectors was inefficient and shifted the T cells from the naive to the memory phenotype. Here, we describe interleukin-7 (IL-7)-displaying HIV-1-derived vectors. Like recombinant IL-7, these modified particles could promote the survival of primary T cells placed in culture without inducing a naive-to-memory phenotypic switch. Furthermore, a single exposure to the IL-7-displaying vectors resulted in efficient gene transfer in both resting memory adult T cells and naive cord blood T cells. With adult naive T cells, preactivation with recombinant IL-7 was necessary for efficient gene transfer. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-7-displaying vectors could constitute interesting tools for T-cell-targeted gene therapy.

  12. Introduction of a Microsoft Excel-based unified electronic weekend handover document in Acute and General Medicine in a DGH: aims, outcomes and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma. PMID:28352468

  13. Introduction of a Microsoft Excel-based unified electronic weekend handover document in Acute and General Medicine in a DGH: aims, outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma.

  14. HIMIPv6: An Efficient IP Mobility Management Protocol for Broadband Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunku; Maeng, Seungryoul; Chae, Youngsu

    With the increasing deployment of mobile devices and the advent of broadband wireless access systems such as WiBro, mWiMAX, and HSDPA, an efficient IP mobility management protocol becomes one of the most important technical issues for the successful deployment of the broadband wireless data networking service. IETF has proposed the Mobile IPv6 as the basic mobility management protocol for IPv6 networks. To enhance the performance of the basic MIPv6, researchers have been actively working on HMIPv6 and FMIPv6 protocols. In this paper, we propose a new mobility management protocol, HIMIPv6 (Highly Integrated MIPv6), which tightly integrates the hierarchical mobility management mechanism of the HMIPv6 and the proactive handover support of the FMIPv6 to enhance the handover performance especially for the cellular networking environment with high frequent handover activities. We have performed extensive simulation study using ns2 and the results show that the proposed HIMIPv6 outperforms FMIPv6 and HMIPv6. There is no packet loss and consequent service interruption caused by IP handover in HIMIP.

  15. Construction of a highly active secretory expression system via an engineered dual promoter and a highly efficient signal peptide in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Cheng, Jintao; Liu, Rui; Liu, Zhongmei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Zhemin

    2016-05-25

    A strong promoter and highly efficient signal peptides are essential for the secretory overproduction of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. To enhance the limited overexpression capability of natural promoters, various strategies for promoter engineering have been developed and used to construct gene expression systems in B. subtilis and other hosts. By applying a semi-rational approach for promoter engineering, a series of expression plasmids containing single and dual promoters were constructed using aminopeptidase (AP) with an intrinsic signal peptide as the reporter protein. Of the single and dual promoters investigated, the dual promoter PgsiB-PHpaII gave the best performance. To optimize secretion efficiency, the signal peptide YncM was selected after screening a library containing 19 different Sec-type signal peptides. The AP activity detected in the supernatants of a recombinant strain containing the plasmid pBSG24-YncM was as high as 88.86U/mL. The capacity of the expression plasmid pBSG24-YncM was also evaluated with batch fermentation in a 5-L fermentor. Increased production of AP (205U/mL, equal to 1.7g/L) was achieved after 45h of fermentation. These results suggest that this expression system can be used for high-level protein expression in B. subtilis.

  16. Ball milled h-BN: an efficient holes transfer promoter to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianliang; Hu, Yingfei; Yang, Yunguang; Liu, We; Chen, Shifu

    2013-01-15

    High activity hexagonal-BN (h-BN)/TiO(2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by ball milling method. The structural and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and fluorescence emission spectra. The effect of the loading amount of h-BN and the ball milling time on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) could be improved substantially by coupling with a proper amount of milled h-BN. The optimal loading amount of h-BN was found to be 0.5 wt% and the milling time was 30 min. Under this condition, the photocatalytic removal efficiencies of TiO(2) for RhB and MB could be increased as high as 15 and 8 times. The role of the milling process and the mechanism for the enhancements was finally discussed in terms of creation of negatively charged h-BN surface and promotion the separation of photoinduced holes, respectively.

  17. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B.; Lawal, Ibrahim A.; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  18. A TOTP-based enhanced route optimization procedure for mobile IPv6 to reduce handover delay and signalling overhead.

    PubMed

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B; Lawal, Ibrahim A; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO).

  19. Caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid and its analogues using a practical building block.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, Takashi; Iwatsuka, Kinya; Wada, Akimori

    2008-12-21

    A highly efficient and rapid total synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid was accomplished by caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction; using a common building block, 9Z-retinoic acid analogues were also prepared by the same method without isomerisation of the Z-double bond.

  20. Indigenous bacteria with antagonistic and plant-growth-promoting activities improve slow-filtration efficiency in soilless cultivation.

    PubMed

    Déniel, F; Rey, P; Chérif, M; Guillou, A; Tirilly, Y

    2004-07-01

    In tomato soilless culture, slow filtration allows one to control the development of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. During the disinfecting process, microbial elimination is ensured by mechanical and biological factors. In this study, system efficacy was enhanced further to a biological activation of filter by inoculating the pozzolana grains contained in the filtering unit with 5 selected bacteria. Three strains identified as Pseudomonas putida and 2 as Bacillus cereus came from a filter whose high efficiency to eliminate pathogens has been proven over years. These 5 bacteria displayed either a plant growth promoting activity (P. putida strains) or antagonistic properties (B. cereus strains). Over the first months following their introduction in the filter, the bacterial colonisation of pozzolana grains was particularly high as compared to the one observed in the control filter. Conversely to Bacillus spp. populations, Pseudomonas spp. ones remained abundant throughout the whole cultural season. The biological activation of filter unit very significantly enhanced fungal elimination with respect to the one displayed by the control filter. Indeed, the 6-month period needed by the control filter to reach its best efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum was shortened for the bacteria-amended filter; in addition, a high efficacy filtration was got as soon as the first month. Fast colonization of pozzolana grains by selected bacteria and their subsequent interaction with F. oxysporum are likely responsible for filter efficiency. Our results suggest that Pseudomonas spp. act by competition for nutrients, and Bacillus spp. by antibiosis and (or) direct parasitism. Elimination of other fungal pathogens, i.e., Pythium spp., seems to differ from that of Fusarium since both filters demonstrated a high efficacy at the experiment start. Pythium spp. elimination appears to mainly rely on physical factors. It is worth noting that a certain percentage of the 5 pozzolana

  1. Efficient Transformation of the Cephamycin C Producer Nocardia lactamdurans and Development of Shuttle and Promoter-Probe Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Vasant; Coque, Juan-Jose R.; Martín, Juan F.

    1994-01-01

    A high transformation efficiency (1 × 105 to 7 × 105 transformants per μg of DNA) of Nocardia lactamdurans LC411 was obtained by direct treatment of mycelium with polyethylene glycol 1000 and cesium chloride. A variety of vectors from Streptomyces lividans, Brevibacterium lactofermentum, Rhodococcus fascians, and a Nocardia (Amycolatopsis) sp. were tested; transformants could be obtained only with vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain DSM 43387. Vectors carrying the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) as a selective marker were constructed. The transformation procedure has been optimized by using one of these vectors (pULVK1) and studying the influence of the age of the culture, concentrations of cesium chloride and polyethylene glycol, amount of plasmid DNA, and nutrient supplementations of the growth medium. Versatile shuttle cloning vectors (pULVK2 and pULVK3) have been developed by subcloning the pBluescript KS(+) multiple cloning site or a synthetic polylinker containing several unique restriction sites (EcoRV, DraI, BamHI, SstI, EcoRI, and HindIII). A second marker, the apramycin resistance gene (amr) has been added to the vectors (pULVK2A), allowing insertional inactivation of one of the markers while using the second one for selection. An alternative marker, the amy gene of Streptomyces griseus (pULAM2), which is easily detected by the release of extracellular amylase in transformants of N. lactamdurans carrying this vector, has been added. Two promoter-probe plasmids, pULVK4 and pULVK5, have been constructed, with the promoterless xylE gene as a reporter, for utilization in N. lactamdurans. Images PMID:16349436

  2. Integration of promoters, inverted repeat sequences and proteomic data into a model for high silencing efficiency of coeliac disease related gliadins in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten has unique nutritional and technological characteristics, but is also a major trigger of allergies and intolerances. One of the most severe diseases caused by gluten is coeliac disease. The peptides produced in the digestive tract by the incomplete digestion of gluten proteins trigger the disease. The majority of the epitopes responsible reside in the gliadin fraction of gluten. The location of the multiple gliadin genes in blocks has to date complicated their elimination by classical breeding techniques or by the use of biotechnological tools. As an approach to silence multiple gliadin genes we have produced 38 transgenic lines of bread wheat containing combinations of two endosperm-specific promoters and three different inverted repeat sequences to silence three fractions of gliadins by RNA interference. Results The effects of the RNA interference constructs on the content of the gluten proteins, total protein and starch, thousand seed weights and SDSS quality tests of flour were analyzed in these transgenic lines in two consecutive years. The characteristics of the inverted repeat sequences were the main factor that determined the efficiency of silencing. The promoter used had less influence on silencing, although a synergy in silencing efficiency was observed when the two promoters were used simultaneously. Genotype and the environment also influenced silencing efficiency. Conclusions We conclude that to obtain wheat lines with an optimum reduction of toxic gluten epitopes one needs to take into account the factors of inverted repeat sequences design, promoter choice and also the wheat background used. PMID:24044767

  3. The first zinc-promoted, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient acetoxyallylation of aldehydes in aqueous ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, M; Girotti, R; Morganti, S; Trombini, C

    2001-11-21

    An exceptionally mild acetoxyallylation of aldehydes in water promoted by zinc is reported, using 3-bromo-1-acetoxyprop-1-ene as starting material; simple diastereoselectivity mainly depends on the nature of the aldehyde.

  4. Improving clinical handover: Development of a web-based intensive care unit consultation system with structured reply generation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jasperine Ka-yee

    2016-01-01

    Clinical handover is a process of transferring a patient's clinical information from one team to another. Poor quality of handover of critically ill patients associates with misunderstanding, delay in treatment, and adverse outcomes. Therefore, a high quality and standardized information flow process and documentation are definitely crucial. We have developed a web-based platform for generating printed ICU consultation reply and data collection. Baseline measurement was performed by randomly identified 50 case records among 220 ICU consultations in March 2015, before the implementation of the system. We found that there were only 16% of cases had printed ICU consultation reply, 42% had documented patient's premorbid activity of daily living, 30% had recorded patient's mobility, 74% had written down patient's past medical history, 72% had clearly stated the ICU admission decision, 18% had provided the reasons for rejecting ICU admission, and 32% had remarked the mechanism for contacting ICU senior to review the admission. After implementation of the ICU consultation reply platform, the percentage of using printed consultation reply has increased to more than 90%, documentation of patient's morbidity and mobility have raised to over 80% and patient's past medical history has been recorded in over 95% of cases. Standardised ICU admission decision tree has been designed to assist ICU doctor to clearly state the ICU admission decision and the reasons behind. Appeal mechanism for doctors in general ward to contact ICU seniors for case discussion is included in every consultation reply. In short, ICU consultation platform improves the quality of ICU consultation reply and enhances communication among ICU doctors and general ward staff. It also serves as a big data pool for audit cycles which in turns direct ICU consultation service improvement. PMID:27158498

  5. Hepatitis B virus genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicate less efficiently than genotype B isolates but possess higher virion secretion capacity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-10-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C.

  6. Multimedia learning for increasing knowledge on energy efficiency and promotion of proenvironmental behavior: A study of undergraduate students in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh-Zuniga, Yoselyn

    Promotion of energy efficiency practices among household has been employed in many interventions with a varying degree of success, mainly on developed countries. The purpose of the study is to promote and measure knowledge of proenvironmental behavior in undergraduate students in the Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The intervention used for this purpose provided personal and altruistic information about the impact of energy consumption activities in household. People's perceptions and attitudes about behaviors that contribute and mitigate climate change were also investigated. Participants were students from undergraduate programs who are also inhabitants of the residence hall provided by the institution. The participation consisted in two surveys and a learning module. Students responded a survey before and after exposure to a learning module. Surveys focused on identifying knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The learning module provided information about three hypothetical scenarios and corresponding energy consumption estimates for each one. Participants did not significantly improve their knowledge on energy efficiency topics and did not change perceptions about the topic of climate change. Yet for both, knowledge and perceptions, participants demonstrated an average knowledge on topics associated to climate change. In addition, participants did not use technical information to explain concepts and perceptions. Another important finding was that participants wrote their responses more third-person than in first person singular or plural, meaning that, excluding themselves from the solution and the problem. Results suggest that there is an average knowledge among participants about 2.5 out of 5 points that represent a start point to design more successful interventions that promote energy efficiency behaviors. A major recommendation to improve energy efficiency behaviors is to place a greater emphasis and awareness in personal consequences of the misuse of

  7. Efficient transduction and optogenetic stimulation of retinal bipolar cells by a synthetic adeno-associated virus capsid and promoter

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Therese; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Hantz, Péter; Juttner, Josephine; Reimann, Andreas; Kacsó, Ágota–Enikő; Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Busskamp, Volker; Kohler, Hubertus; Lagali, Pamela S; Roska, Botond; Bennett, Jean

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe the development of a modified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid and promoter for transduction of retinal ON-bipolar cells. The bipolar cells, which are post-synaptic to the photoreceptors, are important retinal targets for both basic and preclinical research. In particular, a therapeutic strategy under investigation for advanced forms of blindness involves using optogenetic molecules to render ON-bipolar cells light-sensitive. Currently, delivery of adequate levels of gene expression is a limiting step for this approach. The synthetic AAV capsid and promoter described here achieves high level of optogenetic transgene expression in ON-bipolar cells. This evokes high-frequency (∼100 Hz) spiking responses in ganglion cells of previously blind, rd1, mice. Our vector is a promising vehicle for further development toward potential clinical use. PMID:25092770

  8. Perylene and coronene derivatives binding to G-rich promoter oncogene sequences efficiently reduce their expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Emanuela; Altieri, Alessandro; Cianni, Lorenzo; Cingolani, Chiara; Iachettini, Sara; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Leonetti, Carlo; Cacchione, Stefano; Biroccio, Annamaria; Franceschin, Marco; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach to cancer therapeutics is emerging in the field of G-quadruplex (G4) ligands, small molecules designed to stabilize four-stranded structures that can form at telomeres as well as in other genomic sequences, including oncogene promoter sequences, 5'-UTR regions and introns. In this study, we investigated the binding activity of perylene and coronene derivatives PPL3C, CORON and EMICORON to G4 structures formed within the promoter regions of two important cancer-related genes, c-MYC and BCL-2, and their biochemical effects on gene and protein expression. In order to fully characterize the ability of the selected ligands to bind and stabilize the G4 structures originated by the c-MYC and BCL-2 promoter sequences, we performed electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements, Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra and polymerase stop assay. Altogether our results showed that the ligands had a high capacity in binding and stabilizing the G4 structures within the c-MYC and BCL-2 promoter sequences in vitro. Notably, when we evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, the effects of treatment with the different G4 ligands on c-MYC and BCL2 expression in a human melanoma cell line, EMICORON appeared the most effective compound in reducing the mRNA and protein levels of both genes. These results encourage to consider EMICORON as a promising example of multimodal class of an antineoplastic drug, affecting different tumor crucial pathways simultaneously: telomere maintenance (as previously described), cell proliferation and apoptosis via down-regulation of both c-MYC and BCL-2 (this paper).

  9. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  10. Using RT-prone recombination to promote re-building of complete retroviral vectors from two defective precursors: low efficiency and sequence specificities.

    PubMed

    Bru, Thierry; Galetto, Román; Piver, Eric; Collin, Christine; Negroni, Matteo; Pagès, Jean-Christophe

    2007-06-01

    Retroviral recombination has been suggested as a useful way to modify retroviral vectors. The possibility to combine two multiply deleted retroviral vectors into a novel vector was evaluated. To investigate this possibility we have constructed two defective vectors containing a shared internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The IRES was selected for its complex secondary structure, a feature described to favour retroviral recombination. The IRES was expected to promote a recombination event leading to the formation of a unique, functional retroviral vector. By supporting expression of two transgenes from a single promoter, this sequence was also expected to allow straightforward detection of the recombination event. The present data confirms the achievement of recombination-dependent rescue, albeit at low efficiency. Unexpectedly, a preferential use of the packaging signal (Psi) for recombination was observed, as compared to the IRES. Together these observations mitigate the idea of using this technique for the design of retroviral vectors.

  11. Mobile self-splicing group I introns from the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: highly efficient homing of an exogenous intron containing its own promoter.

    PubMed

    Odom, O W; Holloway, S P; Deshpande, N N; Lee, J; Herrin, D L

    2001-05-01

    Introns 2 and 4 of the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts (Cr.psbA2 and Cr.psbA4, respectively) contain large free-standing open reading frames (ORFs). We used transformation of an intronless-psbA strain (IL) to test whether these introns undergo homing. Each intron, plus short exon sequences, was cloned into a chloroplast expression vector in both orientations and then cotransformed into IL along with a spectinomycin resistance marker (16S rrn). For Cr.psbA2, the sense construct gave nearly 100% cointegration of the intron whereas the antisense construct gave 0%, consistent with homing. For Cr.psbA4, however, both orientations produced highly efficient cointegration of the intron. Efficient cointegration of Cr.psbA4 also occurred when the intron was introduced as a restriction fragment lacking any known promoter. Deletion of most of the ORF, however, abolished cointegration of the intron, consistent with homing. The Cr.psbA4 constructs also contained a 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea resistance marker in exon 5, which was always present when the intron integrated, thus demonstrating exon coconversion. Remarkably, primary selection for this marker gave >100-fold more transformants (>10,000/microgram of DNA) than did the spectinomycin resistance marker. A trans homing assay was developed for Cr.psbA4; the ORF-minus intron integrated when the ORF was cotransformed on a separate plasmid. This assay was used to identify an intronic region between bp -88 and -194 (relative to the ORF) that stimulated homing and contained a possible bacterial (-10, -35)-type promoter. Primer extension analysis detected a transcript that could originate from this promoter. Thus, this mobile, self-splicing intron also contains its own promoter for ORF expression. The implications of these results for horizontal intron transfer and organelle transformation are discussed.

  12. Promoting Active Species Generation by Electrochemical Activation in Alkaline Media for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution in Neutral Media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Cheng, Han; Liu, Linqi; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-01-11

    In this study, by using dicobalt phosphide nanoparticles as precatalysts, we demonstrated that electrochemical activation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media (comparing with directly electrochemical activation in neutral media) could significantly promote the OER catalysis in neutral media, specifically realizing a 2-fold enhanced activity and meanwhile showing a greatly decreased overpotential of about 100 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). Compared directly with electrochemical activation in neutral media, the electrochemical activation in harsh alkaline media could easily break the strong Co-Co bond and promote active species generation on the surface of metallic Co2P, thus accounting for the enhancement of neutral OER activity, which is also evidenced by HRTEM and the electrochemical double-layer capacitance measurement. The activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media enhanced neutral OER catalysis could also be observed on CoP nanoparticles and Ni2P nanoparticles, suggesting this is a generic strategy. Our work highlights that the activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media would pave new avenues for the design of advanced neutral OER electrocatalysts.

  13. 207 EFFICIENT GENERATION OF MYOSTATIN PROMOTER MUTATIONS IN BOVINE EMBRYOS USING THE CRISPR/Cas9 SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, C A; Snyder, M; Pryor, J; Thompson, B; Golding, M; Long, C

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin gene or growth differentiation factor 8 is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that acts as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mutations inactivating this gene occur naturally in Piedmontese and Belgian Blue cattle breeds, resulting in a dramatic increase in muscle mass, albeit with unwanted consequences of increased dystocia and decreased fertility. Modulation of muscle mass increase without the unwanted effects would be of great value for improving livestock growth and economic value of livestock. The objective of our work was to use the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic engineering tool to generate deletions of different elements in the myostatin promoter in order to decrease the level of expression and obtain an attenuated phenotype without the detrimental consequences of an inactivating mutation. To achieve this objective 4 different small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the promoter near the mutation were designed with PAM positions from transcription starting site of -1577, -689, -555, and -116. These sgRNA were cloned individually into the Cas9 plasmids (px461, and px462; Addgene®). These plasmids allow for a dual puromycin resistance (px462) and green fluorescent protein (px461) selection. We first tested the functionality of these sgRNA in vitro by co-transfecting bovine fetal fibroblasts with a combination of both plasmids (Set 1=sgRNA 1-4; Set 2=sgRNA 2-3). Cells were exposed to puromycin (0.2µgmL(-1)) for 72h, then single and mixed colonies positive for green fluorescent protein expression were separated for propagation. The DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of the targeted region. Multiple deletions and a few insertion events were observed after PCR, bands were cloned into TOPO® vector (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) and sequenced. Sequencing results confirmed the PCR products as insertions or deletions in the myostatin promoter region. We proceeded to modify the myostatin promoter directly in bovine zygotes

  14. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. Results The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. Conclusions This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens. PMID:24559060

  15. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968

  16. Intramolecular nucleophilic activation promoting efficient hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by (aqua)bis(dipyridoquinoxaline)copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shanta; Reddy, Pattubala A N; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2004-03-07

    The axial aqua bound copper(II) complex [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)](ClO4)2, having a planar NN-donor heterocyclic base dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) as the DNA minor groove binder, shows efficient hydrolytic cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the dark and in the absence of any external reagents, as evidenced from T4 ligase experiments, with a rate of 5.58 +/- 0.4 h(-1) and a rate enhancement of 1.55 x 10(8).

  17. Efficient production of lycopene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of synthetic crt genes from a plasmid harboring the ADH2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Almehdar, Hussein; Noor, Samah; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Murata, Norio

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene is an effective antioxidant proposed as a possible treatment for some cancers and other degenerative human conditions. This study aims at generation of a yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of efficient productivity of lycopene by overexpressing synthetic genes derived from crtE, crtB and crtI genes of Erwinia uredovora. These synthetic genes were constructed in accordance with the preferred codon usage in S. cerevisiae but with no changes in amino acid sequences of the gene products. S. cerevisiae cells were transformed with these synthetic crt genes, whose expression was regulated by the ADH2 promoter, which is de-repressed upon glucose depletion. The RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that the synthetic crt genes were efficiently transcribed and translated in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells. The highest level of lycopene in one of the transformed lines was 3.3mglycopene/g dry cell weight, which is higher than the previously reported levels of lycopene in other microorganisms transformed with the three genes. These results suggest the excellence of using the synthetic crt genes and the ADH2 promoter in generation of recombinant S. cerevisiae that produces a high level of lycopene. The level of ergosterol was reversely correlated to that of lycopene in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells, suggesting that two pathways for lycopene and ergosterol syntheses compete for the use of farnesyl diphosphate.

  18. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lampis, Silvia; Santi, Chiara; Ciurli, Adriana; Andreolli, Marco; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: (i) non-inoculated plants; (ii) plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A); (iii) plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B), and (iv) plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB). The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community. PMID:25741356

  19. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8⁺ T Cell Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pablo D; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-07-22

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  20. A native promoter and inclusion of an intron is necessary for efficient expression of GFP or mRFP in Armillaria mellea

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathryn L.; Baumgartner, Kendra; Henricot, Béatrice; Bailey, Andy M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Armillaria mellea is a significant pathogen that causes Armillaria root disease on numerous hosts in forests, gardens and agricultural environments worldwide. Using a yeast-adapted pCAMBIA0380 Agrobacterium vector, we have constructed a series of vectors for transformation of A. mellea, assembled using yeast-based recombination methods. These have been designed to allow easy exchange of promoters and inclusion of introns. The vectors were first tested by transformation into basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus to ascertain vector functionality then used to transform A. mellea. We show that heterologous promoters from the basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium that were used successfully to control the hygromycin resistance cassette were not able to support expression of mRFP or GFP in A. mellea. The endogenous A. mellea gpd promoter delivered efficient expression, and we show that inclusion of an intron was also required for transgene expression. GFP and mRFP expression was stable in mycelia and fluorescence was visible in transgenic fruiting bodies and GFP was detectable in planta. Use of these vectors has been successful in giving expression of the fluorescent proteins GFP and mRFP in A. mellea, providing an additional molecular tool for this pathogen. PMID:27384974

  1. The intestinal micro-environment imprints stromal cells to promote efficient Treg induction in gut-draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cording, S; Wahl, B; Kulkarni, D; Chopra, H; Pezoldt, J; Buettner, M; Dummer, A; Hadis, U; Heimesaat, M; Bereswill, S; Falk, C; Bode, U; Hamann, A; Fleissner, D; Huehn, J; Pabst, O

    2014-03-01

    De novo induction of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is particularly efficient in gut-draining mesenteric and celiac lymph nodes (mLN and celLN). Here we used LN transplantations to dissect the contribution of stromal cells and environmental factors to the high Treg-inducing capacity of these LN. After transplantation into the popliteal fossa, mLN and celLN retained their high Treg-inducing capacity, whereas transplantation of skin-draining LN into the gut mesenteries did not enable efficient Treg induction. However, de novo Treg induction was abolished in the absence of dendritic cells (DC), indicating that this process depends on synergistic contributions of stromal and DC. Stromal cells themselves were influenced by environmental signals as mLN grafts taken from germ-free donors and celLN grafts taken from vitamin A-deficient donors did not show any superior Treg-inducing capacity. Collectively, our observations reveal a hitherto unrecognized role of LN stromal cells for the de novo induction of Foxp3⁺ Tregs.

  2. Histone Demethylase Expression Enhances Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Efficiency and Promotes Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young Gie; Matoba, Shogo; Liu, Yuting; Eum, Jin Hee; Lu, Falong; Jiang, Wei; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Sepilian, Vicken; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Dong Ryul; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-03

    The extremely low efficiency of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) limits its potential application. Blastocyst formation from human SCNT embryos occurs at a low rate and with only some oocyte donors. We previously showed in mice that reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) through ectopic expression of the H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d greatly improves SCNT embryo development. Here we show that overexpression of a related H3K9me3 demethylase KDM4A improves human SCNT, and that, as in mice, H3K9me3 in the human somatic cell genome is an SCNT reprogramming barrier. Overexpression of KDM4A significantly improves the blastocyst formation rate in human SCNT embryos by facilitating transcriptional reprogramming, allowing efficient derivation of SCNT-derived ESCs using adult Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patient somatic nuclei donors. This conserved mechanistic insight has potential applications for improving SCNT in a variety of contexts, including regenerative medicine.

  3. Melatonin promotes the in vitro development of pronuclear embryos and increases the efficiency of blastocyst implantation in murine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Liu, GuoShi

    2013-10-01

    When a defect occurs in the in vitro development of a pronuclear embryo, the interruption of the subsequent implantation limits the success of assisted conception. This common problem remains to be solved. In this study, we observed that melatonin at its physiological concentration (10(-7)  m) significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine pronuclear embryos. This was indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate, and blastocyst cell number with melatonin treatment. In addition, when these blastocysts were implanted into female recipient mice, the pregnancy rates (95.0% versus control 67.8%), litter sizes (4.1 pups/litter versus control 2.7 pups/litter), and postnatal survival rates of offspring (96.84% versus control 81.24%) were significantly improved compared with their non-melatonin-treated counterparts. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment upregulates gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the anti-apoptotic factor bcl-2 while downregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and caspase-3. Due to these changes, melatonin treatment reduces ROS production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improves the quality of blastocysts. The implantation of blastocysts with higher quality leads to more healthy offspring and increased pup survival.

  4. Hydrogen Photogeneration Promoted by Efficient Electron Transfer from Iridium Sensitizers to Colloidal MoS2 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jun; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cai, Jian-Guang; Guan, Zhong-Jie; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We report the utilization of colloidal MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) for multicomponent photocatalytic water reduction systems in cooperation with a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) sensitizers. The effects of the particle size and particle dispersion of MoS2 NPs catalyst, reaction solvent and the concentration of the components on hydrogen evolution efficiency were investigated. The MoS2 NPs exhibited higher catalytic performance than did other commonly used water reduction catalysts under identical experiment conditions. The introduction of the carboxylate anchoring groups in the iridium complexes allows the species to be favorably chem-adsorbed onto the MoS2 NPs surface to increase the electron transfer, resulting in enhancement of hydrogen evolution relative to the non-attached systems. The highest apparent quantum yield, which was as high as 12.4%, for hydrogen evolution, was obtained (λ = 400 nm). PMID:24509729

  5. Biomimicry Promotes the Efficiency of a 10-Step Sequential Enzymatic Reaction on Nanoparticles, Converting Glucose to Lactate.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Chinatsu; Gao, Lizeng; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Lata, James P; Cohen, Roy; Wu, Lauren; Hinchman, Meleana M; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sherwood, Robert W; Zhang, Sheng; Travis, Alexander J

    2017-01-02

    For nanobiotechnology to achieve its potential, complex organic-inorganic systems must grow to utilize the sequential functions of multiple biological components. Critical challenges exist: immobilizing enzymes can block substrate-binding sites or prohibit conformational changes, substrate composition can interfere with activity, and multistep reactions risk diffusion of intermediates. As a result, the most complex tethered reaction reported involves only 3 enzymes. Inspired by the oriented immobilization of glycolytic enzymes on the fibrous sheath of mammalian sperm, here we show a complex reaction of 10 enzymes tethered to nanoparticles. Although individual enzyme efficiency was higher in solution, the efficacy of the 10-step pathway measured by conversion of glucose to lactate was significantly higher when tethered. To our knowledge, this is the most complex organic-inorganic system described, and it shows that tethered, multi-step biological pathways can be reconstituted in hybrid systems to carry out functions such as energy production or delivery of molecular cargo.

  6. Efficient yeast cell-surface display of exo- and endo-cellulase using the SED1 anchoring region and its original promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recombinant yeast strains displaying the heterologous cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are considered promising biocatalysts for direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol. However, the cellulolytic activities of the conventional cellulase-displaying yeast strains are insufficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study, we constructed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cellulose utilization by cellulase-displaying yeast strains. Results The novel gene cassettes for the cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reeseii endoglucanase II (EGII) were constructed using the promoter and the GPI anchoring region derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1. The gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome, then the β-glucosidase activity of these recombinant strains was evaluated. We revealed that simultaneous utilization of the SED1 promoter and Sed1 anchoring domain in a gene cassette enabled highly-efficient enzyme integration into the cell wall. The β-glucosidase activity of recombinant yeast cells transduced with the novel gene cassette was 8.4-fold higher than that of a conventional strain. The novel EGII-displaying strain also achieved 106-fold higher hydrolysis activity against the water-insoluble cellulose than a conventional strain. Furthermore, direct ethanol production from hydrothermally processed rice straw was improved by the display of T. reeseii EGII using the novel gene cassette. Conclusions We have developed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cell-surface display of exo- and endo-type cellulolytic enzymes. The results suggest that this gene cassette has the wide applicability for cell-surface display and that cellulase-displaying yeasts have significant potential for cost-effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24423072

  7. Hst3p, a histone deacetylase, promotes maintenance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III lacking efficient replication origins.

    PubMed

    Irene, Carmela; Theis, James F; Gresham, David; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Newlon, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    Long gaps between active replication origins probably occur frequently during chromosome replication, but little is known about how cells cope with them. To address this issue, we deleted replication origins from S. cerevisiae chromosome III to create chromosomes with long interorigin gaps and identified mutations that destabilize them [originless fragment maintenance (Ofm) mutations]. ofm6-1 is an allele of HST3, a sirtuin that deacetylates histone H3K56Ac. Hst3p and Hst4p are closely related, but hst4Δ does not cause an Ofm phenotype. Expressing HST4 under the control of the HST3 promoter suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3Δ, indicating Hst4p, when expressed at the appropriate levels and/or at the correct time, can fully substitute for Hst3p in maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes. H3K56Ac is the Hst3p substrate critical for chromosome maintenance. H3K56Ac-containing nucleosomes are preferentially assembled into chromatin behind replication forks. Deletion of the H3K56 acetylase and downstream chromatin assembly factors suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3, indicating that persistence of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin is deleterious for the maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes, and experiments with synchronous cultures showed that it is replication of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin that causes chromosome loss. This work shows that while normal chromosomes can tolerate hyperacetylation of H3K56Ac, deacetylation of histone H3K56Ac by Hst3p is required for stable maintenance of a chromosome with a long interorigin gap. The Ofm phenotype is the first report of a chromosome instability phenotype of an hst3 single mutant.

  8. Parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal compartments promotes efficient cell death with autophagy: The case of the pentacyclic triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Waleska K.; Costa, Érico T.; Cruz, Mário C.; Stolf, Beatriz S.; Miotto, Ronei; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M.; Baptista, Maurício S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cell death is still controversial and a lot of debate has concerned the transition from its pro-survival to its pro-death roles. The similar structure of the triterpenoids Betulinic (BA) and Oleanolic (OA) acids allowed us to prove that this transition involves parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosome. After treating immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) with either BA or OA, we evaluated cell viability, proliferation and mechanism of cell death, function and morphology of mitochondria and lysosomes, and the status of the autophagy flux. We also quantified the interactions of BA and OA with membrane mimics, both in-vitro and in-silico. Essentially, OA caused mitochondrial damage that relied on autophagy to rescue cellular homeostasis, which failed upon lysosomal inhibition by Chloroquine or Bafilomycin-A1. BA caused parallel damage on mitochondria and lysosome, turning autophagy into a destructive process. The higher cytotoxicity of BA correlated with its stronger efficiency in damaging membrane mimics. Based on these findings, we underlined the concept that autophagy will turn into a destructive outcome when there is parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. We trust that this concept will help the development of new drugs against aggressive cancers. PMID:26213355

  9. Efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using strain-promoted copper-free click reaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jongho; Kang, Jung Ae; Shim, Ha Eun; Nam, You Ree; Yoon, Seonhye; Kim, Hye Rim; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Sang Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Herein we report an efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using copper-free click reaction. For this study, radioiodination using the tin precursor 2 was carried out at room temperature to give (125)I-labeled azide ([(125)I]1) with high radiochemical yield (85%) and excellent radiochemical purity. Dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) containing cRGD peptide and gold nanoparticle were labeled with [(125)I]1 at 37°C for 30min to give triazoles with good radiochemical yields (67-95%). We next carried out tissue biodistribution study of [(125)I]1 in normal ICR mice to investigate the level of organ accumulation which needs to be considered for pre-targeted in vivo imaging. Large amount of [(125)I]1 distributed rapidly in liver and kidney from bloodstream and underwent rapid renal and hepatobiliary clearance. Moreover [(125)I]1 was found to be highly stable (>92%) in mouse serum for 24h. Therefore [(125)I]1 could be used as a potentially useful radiotracer for pre-targeted imaging. Those results clearly indicated that the present radiolabeling method using copper free click reaction would be quite useful for both in vitro and in vivo labeling of DBCO group containing molecules with iodine radioisotopes.

  10. Hexahedron Prism-Anchored Octahedronal CeO2: Crystal Facet-Based Homojunction Promoting Efficient Solar Fuel Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Zongyan; Xu, Qinfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-08-05

    An unprecedented, crystal facet-based CeO2 homojunction consisting of hexahedron prism-anchored octahedron with exposed prism surface of {100} facets and octahedron surface of {111} facets was fabricated through solution-based crystallographic-oriented epitaxial growth. The photocatalysis experiment reveals that growth of the prism arm on octahedron allows to activate inert CeO2 octahedron for an increase in phototocatalytic reduction of CO2 into methane. The pronounced photocatalytic performance is attributed to a synergistic effect of the following three factors: (1) band alignment of the {100} and {111} drives electrons and holes to octahedron and prism surfaces, respectively, aiming to reach the most stable energy configuration and leading to a spatial charge separation for long duration; (2) crystallographic-oriented epitaxial growth of the CeO2 hexahedron prism arm on the octahedron verified by the interfacial lattice fringe provides convenient and fast channels for the photogenerated carrier transportation between two units of homojuntion; (3) different effective mass of electrons and holes on {100} and {111} faces leads to high charge carrier mobility, more facilitating the charge separation. The proposed facet-based homojunction in this work may provide a new concept for the efficient separation and fast transfer of photoinduced charge carriers and enhancement of the photocatalytic performance.

  11. Promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Africa: a framework to evaluate employment generation and cost effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing debate over the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) deployment often hinges on the current cost of incumbent fossil-fuel technologies versus the long-term benefit of clean energy alternatives. This debate is often focused on mature or ‘industrialized’ economies and externalities such as job creation. In many ways, however, the situation in developing economies is at least as or even more interesting due to the generally faster current rate of economic growth and of infrastructure deployment. On the one hand, RE and EE could help decarbonize economies in developing countries, but on the other hand, higher upfront costs of RE and EE could hamper short-term growth. The methodology developed in this paper confirms the existence of this trade-off for some scenarios, yet at the same time provides considerable evidence about the positive impact of EE and RE from a job creation and employment perspective. By extending and adopting a methodology for Africa designed to calculate employment from electricity generation in the U.S., this study finds that energy savings and the conversion of the electricity supply mix to renewable energy generates employment compared to a reference scenario. It also concludes that the costs per additional job created tend to decrease with increasing levels of both EE adoption and RE shares.

  12. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-12-15

    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  13. Efficient Production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod Toxins under Regulation of cry3Aa Promoter and Single Cysteine Mutations in the Protoxin Region

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Blanca I.; Sánchez, Jorge; Martínez de Castro, Diana L.; Ibarra, Jorge E.; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxins are engineered versions of Cry1Ab that lack the amino-terminal end, including domain I helix α-1 and part of helix α-2. This deletion improves oligomerization of these toxins in solution in the absence of cadherin receptor and counters resistance to Cry1A toxins in different lepidopteran insects, suggesting that oligomerization plays a major role in their toxicity. However, Cry1AbMod toxins are toxic to Escherichia coli cells, since the cry1A promoter that drives its expression in B. thuringiensis has readthrough expression activity in E. coli, making difficult the construction of these CryMod toxins. In this work, we show that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod toxins can be cloned efficiently under regulation of the cry3A promoter region to drive its expression in B. thuringiensis without expression in E. coli cells. However, p3A-Cry1Ab(c)Mod construction promotes the formation of Cry1AMod crystals in B. thuringiensis cells that were not soluble at pH 10.5 and showed no toxicity to Plutella xylostella larvae. Cysteine residues in the protoxin carboxyl-terminal end of Cry1A toxins have been shown to be involved in disulfide bond formation, which is important for crystallization. Six individual cysteine substitutions for serine residues were constructed in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of the p3A-Cry1AbMod construct and one in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of p3A-Cry1AcMod. Interestingly, p3A-Cry1AbMod C654S and C729S and p3A-Cry1AcMod C730S recover crystal solubility at pH 10.5 and toxicity to P. xylostella. These results show that combining the cry3A promoter expression system with single cysteine mutations is a useful system for efficient expression of Cry1AMod toxins in B. thuringiensis. PMID:24014526

  14. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Blanca I; Sánchez, Jorge; Martínez de Castro, Diana L; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxins are engineered versions of Cry1Ab that lack the amino-terminal end, including domain I helix α-1 and part of helix α-2. This deletion improves oligomerization of these toxins in solution in the absence of cadherin receptor and counters resistance to Cry1A toxins in different lepidopteran insects, suggesting that oligomerization plays a major role in their toxicity. However, Cry1AbMod toxins are toxic to Escherichia coli cells, since the cry1A promoter that drives its expression in B. thuringiensis has readthrough expression activity in E. coli, making difficult the construction of these CryMod toxins. In this work, we show that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod toxins can be cloned efficiently under regulation of the cry3A promoter region to drive its expression in B. thuringiensis without expression in E. coli cells. However, p3A-Cry1Ab(c)Mod construction promotes the formation of Cry1AMod crystals in B. thuringiensis cells that were not soluble at pH 10.5 and showed no toxicity to Plutella xylostella larvae. Cysteine residues in the protoxin carboxyl-terminal end of Cry1A toxins have been shown to be involved in disulfide bond formation, which is important for crystallization. Six individual cysteine substitutions for serine residues were constructed in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of the p3A-Cry1AbMod construct and one in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of p3A-Cry1AcMod. Interestingly, p3A-Cry1AbMod C654S and C729S and p3A-Cry1AcMod C730S recover crystal solubility at pH 10.5 and toxicity to P. xylostella. These results show that combining the cry3A promoter expression system with single cysteine mutations is a useful system for efficient expression of Cry1AMod toxins in B. thuringiensis.

  15. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  16. Adrenaline administration promotes the efficiency of granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mediated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Cao, Jiang; Song, Xuguang; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Li, Yong; Xu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    A high dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), but G-CSF is relatively inefficient and may cause adverse effects. Recently, adrenaline has been found to play important roles in HSPC mobilization. In this study, we explored whether adrenaline combined with G-CSF could induce HSPC mobilization in a mouse model. Mice were treated with adrenaline and either a high or low dose of G-CSF alone or in combination. Peripheral blood HSPC counts were evaluated by flow cytometry. Levels of bone marrow SDF-1 were measured by ELISA, the transcription of CXCR4 and SDF-1 was measured by real-time RT-PCR, and CXCR4 protein was detected by Western blot. Our results showed that adrenaline alone fails to mobilize HSPCs into the peripheral blood; however, when G-CSF and adrenaline are combined, the WBC counts and percentages of HSPCs are significantly higher compared to those in mice that received G-CSF alone. The combined use of adrenaline and G-CSF not only accelerated HSPC mobilization, but also enabled the efficient mobilization of HSPCs into the peripheral blood at lower doses of G-CSF. Adrenaline/G-CSF treatment also extensively downregulated levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in mouse bone marrow. These results demonstrated that adrenaline combined with G-CSF can induce HSPC mobilization by down-regulating the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis, indicating that the use of adrenaline may enable the use of reduced dosages or durations of G-CSF treatment, minimizing G-CSF-associated complications.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of different liquid inoculant formulations on the survival and plant-growth-promoting efficiency of Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain PS3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kuan; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Lo, Kai-Jiun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Chuang, Chun-Chao; Tang, Shiueh-Jung; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Chi-Te

    2016-09-01

    Biofertilizers can help improve soil quality, promote crop growth, and sustain soil health. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain PS3 (hereafter, PS3), which was isolated from Taiwanese paddy soil, can not only exert beneficial effects on plant growth but also enhance the efficiency of nutrient uptake from applied fertilizer. To produce this elite microbial isolate for practical use, product development and formulation are needed to permit the maintenance of the high quality of the inoculant during storage. The aim of this study was to select a suitable formulation that improves the survival and maintains the beneficial effects of the PS3 inoculant. Six additives (alginate, polyethylene glycol [PEG], polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 [PVP], glycerol, glucose, and horticultural oil) were used in liquid-based formulations, and their capacities for maintaining PS3 cell viability during storage in low, medium, and high temperature ranges were evaluated. Horticultural oil (0.5 %) was chosen as a potential additive because it could maintain a relatively high population and conferred greater microbial vitality under various storage conditions. Furthermore, the growth-promoting effects exerted on Chinese cabbage by the formulated inoculants were significantly greater than those of the unformulated treatments. The fresh and dry weights of the shoots were significantly increased, by 10-27 and 22-40 %, respectively. Horticultural oil is considered a safe, low-cost, and easy-to-process material, and this formulation would facilitate the practical use of strain PS3 in agriculture.

  18. A genomic island of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough promotes survival under stress conditions while decreasing the efficiency of anaerobic growth.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Shawna; Lin, Shiping; Lee, Phoebe; Caffrey, Sean M; Wildschut, Janine; Voordouw, Johanna K; da Silva, Sofia M; Pereira, Ines A C; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-04-01

    A 47 kb genomic island (GEI) bracketed by 50 bp direct repeats, containing 52 annotated genes, was found to delete spontaneously from the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. The island contains genes for site-specific recombinases and transposases, rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase-1 (Roo1) and hybrid cluster protein-1 (Hcp1), which promote survival in air and nitrite stress. The numbering distinguishes these from the Roo2 and Hcp2 homologues for which the genes are located elsewhere in the genome. Cells with and without the island (GEI(+) and GEI(-) cells respectively) were obtained by colony purification. GEI(-) cells arise in anaerobic cultures of colony-purified GEI(+) cells, indicating that the site-specific recombinases encoded by the island actively delete this region. GEI(+) cells survive better in microaerophilic conditions due to the presence of Roo1, whereas the Hcps appear to prevent inhibition by sulfur and polysulfide, which are formed by chemical reaction of sulfide and nitrite. Hence, the island confers resistance to oxygen and nitrite stress. However, GEI(-) cells have a higher growth rate in anaerobic media. Microarrays and enzyme activity stains indicated that the GEI(-) cells have increased expression of genes, which promote anaerobic energy conservation, explaining the higher growth rate. Hence, while lowering the efficiency of anaerobic metabolism, the GEI increases the fitness of D. vulgaris under stress conditions, a feature reminiscent of pathogenicity islands which allow more effective colonization of environments provided by the targeted hosts.

  19. Agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency of rice can be increased by driving OsNRT2.1 expression with the OsNAR2.1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Zhang, Yong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Longlong; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2016-08-01

    The importance of the nitrate (NO3-) transporter for yield and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice was previously demonstrated using map-based cloning. In this study, we enhanced the expression of the OsNRT2.1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity NO3- transporter, using a ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter and the NO3--inducible promoter of the OsNAR2.1 gene to drive OsNRT2.1 expression in transgenic rice plants. Transgenic lines expressing pUbi:OsNRT2.1 or pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 constructs exhibited the increased total biomass including yields of approximately 21% and 38% compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The agricultural NUE (ANUE) of the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines decreased to 83% of that of the WT plants, while the ANUE of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines increased to 128% of that of the WT plants. The dry matter transfer into grain decreased by 68% in the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines and increased by 46% in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines relative to the WT. The expression of OsNRT2.1 in shoot and grain showed that Ubi enhanced OsNRT2.1 expression by 7.5-fold averagely and OsNAR2.1 promoters increased by about 80% higher than the WT. Interestingly, we found that the OsNAR2.1 was expressed higher in all the organs of pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines; however, for pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines, OsNAR2.1 expression was only increased in root, leaf sheaths and internodes. We show that increased expression of OsNRT2.1, especially driven by OsNAR2.1 promoter, can improve the yield and NUE in rice.

  20. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our home-made device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)-1β expression, and downregulating IL-10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen I and III were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD-induced PP on wound healing by regulating inflammation, secretion

  1. Combining a regeneration-promoting ipt gene and site-specific recombination allows a more efficient apricot transformation and the elimination of marker genes.

    PubMed

    López-Noguera, Sonia; Petri, César; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2009-12-01

    The presence of marker genes conferring antibiotic resistance in transgenic plants represents a serious obstacle for their public acceptance and future commercialization. In addition, their elimination may allow gene stacking by the same selection strategy. In apricot, selection using the selectable marker gene nptII, that confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, is relatively effective. An attractive alternative is offered by the MAT system (multi-auto-transformation), which combines the ipt gene for positive selection with the recombinase system R/RS for removal of marker genes from transgenic cells after transformation. Transformation with an MAT vector has been attempted in the apricot cultivar 'Helena'. Regeneration from infected leaves with Agrobacterium harboring a plasmid containing the ipt gene was significantly higher than that from non-transformed controls in a non-selective medium. In addition, transformation efficiencies were much higher than those previously reported using antibiotic selection, probably due to the integration of the regeneration-promoting ipt gene. However, the lack of an ipt expression-induced differential phenotype in apricot made difficult in detecting the marker genes excision and plants had to be evaluated at different times. PCR analysis showed that cassette excision start occurring after 6 months approximately and 1 year in culture was necessary for complete elimination of the cassette in all the transgenic lines. Excision was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. We report here for the first time in a temperate fruit tree that the MAT vector system improves regeneration and transformation efficiency and would allow complete elimination of marker genes from transgenic apricot plants by site-specific recombination.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Wesley Melo; Thijs, Sofie; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Rineau, Francois

    2016-03-10

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  4. T-DNA tagging in Brassica napus as an efficient tool for the isolation of new promoters for selectable marker genes.

    PubMed

    Bade, Jacob; van Grinsven, Emiel; Custers, Jerome; Hoekstra, Sietske; Ponstein, Anne

    2003-05-01

    A simple strategy to identify and isolate new promoters suitable for driving the expression of selectable marker genes is described. By employing a Brassica napus hypocotyl transformation protocol and a promoterless gus::nptII tagging construct, a series of 20 kanamycin-resistant tagged lines was produced. Most of the regenerated plants showed hardly any GUS activity in leaf, stem and root tissues. However, expression was readily restored in callus tissue induced on in vitro leaf segments. Genomic sequences upstream of the gus::nptII insertions were isolated via plasmid rescue. Three clones originating from single copy T-DNA lines were selected for further evaluation. The rescued plasmids were cloned as linear fragments in binary vectors and re-transformed to Brassica napus hypocotyl and Solanum tuberosum stem segments. The new sequences maintained their promoter activity, demonstrated by transient and stable GUS activity after transformation. Furthermore, the promoters provided sufficient expression of the nptII gene to yield transgenic plants when using kanamycin as selective agent. Database searching (BLASTN) revealed that the promoters have significant homology with three Arabidopsis BAC clones, one Arabidopsis cDNA and one Brassica napus cDNA. The results presented in this paper illustrate the strength of combined methods for identification, isolation and testing of new plant promoters.

  5. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-01-01

    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  6. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production.

  7. GPNMB cooperates with neuropilin-1 to promote mammary tumor growth and engages integrin α5β1 for efficient breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Maric, G; Annis, M G; Dong, Z; Rose, A A N; Ng, S; Perkins, D; MacDonald, P A; Ouellet, V; Russo, C; Siegel, P M

    2015-10-01

    Glycoprotein nmb (GPNMB) promotes breast tumor growth and metastasis and its expression in tumor epithelium correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Despite its biological and clinical significance, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms engaged by GPNMB. Herein, we show that GPNMB engages distinct functional domains and mechanisms to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrate that neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression is increased in breast cancer cells that overexpress GPNMB. Interestingly, the GPNMB-driven increase in NRP-1 expression potentiated vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in breast cancer cells and was required for the growth, but not metastasis, of these cells in vivo. Interrogation of RNAseq data sets revealed a positive correlation between GPNMB and NRP-1 levels in human breast tumors. Furthermore, we ascribe pro-growth and pro-metastatic functions of GPNMB to its ability to bind α5β1 integrin and increase downstream signaling in breast cancer cells. We show that GPNMB enhances breast cancer cell adhesion to fibronectin, increases α5β1 expression and associates with this receptor through its RGD motif. GPNMB recruitment into integrin complexes activates Src and Fak signaling pathways in an RGD-dependent manner. Importantly, both the RGD motif and cytoplasmic tail of GPNMB are required to promote primary mammary tumor growth; however, only mutation of the RGD motif impaired the formation of lung metastases. Together, these findings identify novel and distinct molecular mediators of GPNMB-induced breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  8. Simultaneously promoting charge separation and photoabsorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) for efficient visible-light photocatalysis and photosensitization by compositing low-cost biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Huang, Hongwei; Yu, Shixin; Tian, Na; Dong, Fan; Du, Xin; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-11-01

    Exploration of novel and efficient composite photocatalysts is of great significance for advancing the practical application of photocatalysis. BiOX (X = Cl, Br) is a kind of promising photocatalysts, but the charge separation efficiency and photoabsorption need to be ameliorated. In this work, we first employ a low-cost and easily accessable carbon material biochar to modify BiOX (X = Cl, Br) and develop biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composite photocatalysts via a facile in-situ deposition method. The as-prepared composites are detailedly characterized by SEM, SEM-mapping, TEM, XRD and XPS, and DRS result demonstrates that the visible-light absorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) catalysts can be exceedingly enhanced by biochar. The biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composites are found to unfold remarkably enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MO and photocurrent generation. The strengthened photocatalytic performance mainly stems from the profoundly improved charge separation and delivery efficiency, as evidenced by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved PL decay spectra. Additionally, the biochar exerts importance in enhancing the two different types of photochemical reactions of BiOBr and BiOCl, in which the photocatalytic mechanisms are found to be photocatalysis and photosensitization process, respectively. The present work may open up a new avenue for framing economic and efficient photocatalytic materials and new composite materials for photoelectric application.

  9. Efficient colonization of plant roots by the plant growth promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, engineered to express green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ben; Chen, Xiao Hua; Budiharjo, Anto; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Vater, Joachim; Borriss, Rainer

    2011-02-20

    A single copy of the gfp gene linked with the P(spac) promoter and flanked by the terminal FZB42 amyE sequences was stably integrated into the chromosome of plant growth promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 via homologous recombination. A spontaneous mutant, FB01mut, emitting bright fluorescence was detected among the transformants and found suitable for colonization experiments performed with Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana and Lemna minor. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that FB01mut expressed 2.5 times more of the gfp transcript than the original GFP-labeled strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of plant roots infected with gfp+ tagged FZB42 revealed that the bacterium behaves different in colonizing surfaces of plant roots of different species. In contrast to maize, FZB42 colonized preferentially root tips when colonizing Arabidopsis. FZB42 colonized heavily Lemna fronds and roots by forming biofilms consisting of extracellular matrix and cells with altered morphology. Surfactin, but no other lipopeptide or polyketide synthesized by FZB42 under laboratory conditions, was detected in extracts of Lemna plantlets colonized by FZB42. Due to its stable and long-lasting emission of bright fluorescence without antibiotic pressure FB01mut is an excellent tool for studying plant colonization under competitive, environmental conditions.

  10. RNA helicase YTHDC2 promotes cancer metastasis via the enhancement of the efficiency by which HIF-1α mRNA is translated.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Atsushi; Tanikawa, Kenya; Tsunetomi, Mai; Takai, Kaori; Ikeda, Hiroto; Konno, Junpei; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Okita, Kenji; Mori, Mitsuru; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2016-06-28

    YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) is a member of the DExD/H-box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. We previously found that YTHDC2 expression is up-regulated in several human cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate novel roles for YTHDC2 in metastasis of colon tumor cells via translation-dependent pathway. Knockdown of YTHDC2 attenuated protein expression of metastasis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and inhibited metastasis of colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm that YTHDC2 promotes translation initiation by unwinding the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of mRNA, we constructed a firefly luciferase reporter containing the 5'UTR of the HIF-1α mRNA and showed reduction in luciferase activity in YTHDC2-silenced cells. Furthermore, we examined expression levels of YTHDC2 by immunohistochemical staining in human colon cancer tissues from 72 patients and found a significantly positive correlation between YTHDC2 expression and the tumor stage, including metastasis. In conclusion, these results suggest that the RNA helicase YTHDC2 contributes to colon tumor metastasis by promoting translation of HIF-1α and that YTHDC2 is potentially a diagnostic marker and target gene for treating colon cancer patients.

  11. Ethanol-induced yeast flocculation directed by the promoter of TPS1 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 for efficient ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chang, Alan K; Zhang, Qiu-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Yeast flocculation is an important trait in the brewing industry as well as in ethanol production, through which biomass can be recovered by cost-effective sedimentation. However, mass transfer limitation may affect yeast growth and ethanol fermentation if the flocculation occurs earlier before fermentation is completed. In this article, a novel type of cell-cell flocculation induced by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1) promoter was presented. The linear cassette HO-P(TPS1)-FLO1(SPSC01)-KanMX4-HO was constructed to transform the non-flocculating industrial yeast S. cerevisiae 4126 by chromosome integration to obtain a new flocculating yeast strain, ZLH01, whose flocculation was induced by ethanol produced during fermentation. The experimental results illustrated that flocculation of ZLH01 was triggered by 3% (v/v) ethanol and enhanced as ethanol concentration increased till complete flocculation was achieved at ethanol concentration of 8% (v/v). Real time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of FLO1(SPSC01) was dependent on ethanol concentration. The growth and ethanol fermentation of ZLH01 were improved significantly, compared with the constitutive flocculating yeast BHL01 engineered with the same FLO gene but directed by the constitutive 3-phosphoglycerate kinase promoter PGK1, particularly under high temperature conditions. These characteristics make the engineered yeast more suitable for ethanol production from industrial substrates under high gravity and temperature conditions. In addition, this strategy offers advantage in inducing differential expression of other genes for metabolic engineering applications of S. cerevisiae.

  12. Why Do Health Economists Promote Technology Adoption Rather Than the Search for Efficiency? A Proposal for a Change in Our Approach to Economic Evaluation in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Graham; Bryan, Stirling

    2017-02-01

    At a time of intense pressure on health care budgets, the technology management challenge is for disinvestment in low-value technologies and reinvestment in higher value alternatives. The aim of this article is to explore ways in which health economists might begin to redress the observed imbalance between the evaluation of new and existing in-use technologies. The argument is not against evaluating new technologies but in favor of the "search for efficiency," where the ultimate objective is to identify reallocations that improve population health in the face of resource scarcity. We explore why in-use technologies may be of low value and consider how economic evaluation analysts might embrace a broader efficiency lens, first through "technology management" (a process of analysis and evidence-informed decision making throughout a technology's life cycle) and progressing through "pathway management" (the search for efficiency gains across entire clinical care pathways). A number of model-based examples are used to illustrate the approaches.

  13. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) Promotes Efficient Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection by Enhancing the Antigen-Specific IL-9 Response

    PubMed Central

    Srimanote, Potjanee; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Pootong, Anek; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee; Dong, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian hosts often develop distinct immune response against the diverse parasitic helminths that have evolved for immune evasion. Interleukin-25 (IL-25), an IL-17 cytokine family member, plays a key role in initiating the protective immunity against several parasitic helminths; however, the involvement and underlying mechanisms by which IL-25 mediates immune response against Trichinella spiralis infection have not been investigated. Here we showed that IL-25 functions in promoting protective immunity against T. spiralis infection. Mice treated with IL-25 exhibited a lower worm burden and fewer muscle larvae in the later stage of T. spiralis infection. In contrast, mice treated with neutralizing antibody against IL-25 failed to expel T. spiralis effectively. During T. spiralis infection, intestinal IL-25 expression was rapidly elevated before the onset of IL-4 and IL-9 induction. While antigen-specific Th2 and Th9 immune responses were both developed during T. spiralis infection, an antigen-specific Th9 response appeared to be transiently induced in the early stage of infection. Mice into which antigen-specific T cells deficient in IL-9 were transferred were less effective in worm clearance than those given wild-type T cells. The strength of the antigen-specific Th9 immune response against T. spiralis could be enhanced or attenuated after treatment with IL-25 or neutralizing antibody against IL-25, respectively, correlating positively with the levels of intestinal mastocytosis and the expression of IL-9-regulated genes, including mast cell- and Paneth cell-specific genes. Thus, our study demonstrates that intestinal IL-25 promotes protective immunity against T. spiralis infection by inducing antigen-specific Th9 immune response. PMID:23897610

  14. Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic β subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs.

    PubMed

    Meza-Sánchez, David; Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; Sánchez-García, Javier; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura C

    2011-10-01

    The nature of CD4(+) T-cell responses after skin immunization and the role of migrating DCs in the presence of adjuvants in the elicited response are interesting issues to be investigated. Here, we evaluated the priming of CD4(+) T cells following ear immunization with low doses of model antigens in combination with either cholera toxin (CT) or the non-toxic β CT subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant. Following immunization with CT, we found efficient antigen presentation that is reflected in the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells over IL-4 or IL-5 production. The CTB-induced activation of DCs in the ear occurred without visible inflammation, which reflects a similar type of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. In both cases, the elicited response was dependent on the presence of migrating skin cells. Remarkably, immunization with CT or with CTB led to the induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the ear. The DTH response that was induced by CT immunization was dependent on IL-17 and partially dependent on IFN-γ activity. These results indicate that both CT and CTB induce an efficient CD4(+) T-cell response to a co-administered antigen following ear immunization that is dependent on migrating DCs.

  15. Surface reconstruction of titania with g-C3N4 and Ag for promoting efficient electrons migration and enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Liu, Sze Ling; Sim, Lan Ching; Saravanan, Pichiah; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-12-01

    The developments of heterogeneous photocatalysts are one among the competent reconstruction approach to enrich the visible light responsiveness of conventional TiO2. In the present work the TiO2 was reconstructed with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and silver (Ag) to form a ternary (g-C3N4)-Ag/TiO2. The graphitic carbon nitride an intriguing material was prepared through a facile pyrolysis by using urea as a precursor. The silver (Ag) that plays a role as electron-conduction mobiliser in the ternary was synthesised through solar mediated photodeposition method. The synthesised ternary composite characteristics were thoroughly investigated through various physical and chemical analyses. The presence of g-C3N4 in the ternary photocatalysts promoted the formation of interface between the Ag/TiO2 and g-C3N4 and stimulated the electron transfer between them. These electrons migration acknowledged by the synergic effect prolonged the lifetime of charge carriers. The g-C3N4 also significantly tuned the energy band of conventional TiO2. The prepared ternary exhibited significantly high visible light photocatalytic performance by degrading Amoxicillin (AMX) a poor photosensitising pollutant at highest rate.

  16. The anti-tumor efficiency of pterostilbene is promoted with a combined treatment of Fas signaling or autophagy inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Kuei-Yang; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Yang, Ning-Sun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    High expression of vimentin, a canonical mesenchymal marker, is linked with poor prognosis in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), implying that vimentin may be a potential biomarker in the application of TNBC therapy. Pterostilbene (PTE) has shown anti-invasion activity, and thus, we investigated whether PTE inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in TNBC. Here, we show that PTE decreases the vimentin expression, but that the effect was transient. PTE stimulated Fas signaling, which drives EMT by the ERK1/2 and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, supporting Fas signaling induction involved in EMT regulation. PTE also triggered autophagy in TNBC. The treatment of TNBC with 3-methyladenine an autophagy inhibitor, not only sustained PTE-inhibited EMT but also significantly promoted anti-proliferation, which indicates that autophagy plays a cyto-protective role and is associated with EMT. Taken together, these data showed that Fas signaling and autophagy accelerated the aggressiveness of TNBC. Inhibition of autophagy or Fas signaling may provide novel targets for TNBC therapy.

  17. Copper-promoted circumneutral activation of H2O2 by magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles: Mechanism, stoichiometric efficiency, and pathway of degrading sulfanilamide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the heterogeneous degradation of sulfanilamide by external energy-free Fenton-like reactions, magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and used as catalysts for activation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The physicochemical properties of the CuFe2O4 NPs were characterized with several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetometry. In the catalytic experiments, CuFe2O4 NPs/H2O2 oxidation showed the best degradation performance in the circumneutral conditions that resulted from the presence of Cu(II) on the surface of the CuFe2O4 NPs. The surface area-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constants were calculated as 2.60 × 10(-2) L m(-1) min(-1), 2.58 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), 1.92 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), and 7.30 × 10(-4) L m(-1) min(-1) for CuO, CuFe2O4 NPs, Fe3O4, and α-Fe2O3 catalysts, respectively. Thus, solid state Cu(II) was more reactive and efficient than Fe(III) in the circumneutral activation of H2O2; this finding was further supported by the results regarding the stoichiometric efficiency of H2O2. The effects of experimental parameters such as the oxidant dosage and catalyst loading were investigated. The mechanism for H2O2 activation on the spinel surface was explored and could be explained by the solid redox cycles of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Cu(II)/Cu(I). Based on the products detected, a degradation pathway via the CS bond cleavage is proposed for the degradation of sulfanilamide. The findings of this study suggest that copper can be used as a doping metal to improve the reactivity and expand the effective pH range of iron oxides.

  18. Partial-Redox-Promoted Mn Cycling of Mn(II)-Doped Heterogeneous Catalyst for Efficient H2O2-Mediated Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Tao; Gao, Qiang; Han, Bo; Ren, Zheng-Hui; Xia, Kai-Sheng; Zhou, Cheng-Gang

    2017-01-11

    The development of a heterogeneous catalyst with high catalytic activity and durability for H2O2-mediated oxidation is one of the most important industrial and environmental issues. In this study, a Mn(II)-doped TiO2 heterogeneous catalyst was developed for H2O2-mediated oxidation. The TiO2 substrate-dependent partial-redox behavior of Mn was identified on the basis of our density functional theory simulations. This unique redox cycle was induced by a moderate electron transfer from Ti to Mn, which compensated for the electron loss of Mn and finally resulted in a high-efficiency cycling of Mn between its oxidized and reduced forms. In light of the theoretical results, a Mn(II)-doped TiO2 composite with well-defined morphology and large surface area (153.3 m(2) g(-1)) was elaborately fabricated through incorporating Mn(II) ions into a TiO2 nanoflower, and further tested as the catalyst for oxidative degradation of organic pollutants in the presence of H2O2. Benefiting from the remarkable textural features and excellent Mn cycling property, this composite exhibited superior catalytic performance for organic pollutant degradation. Moreover, it could retain 98.40% of its initial activity even in the fifth cycle. Our study provides an effective strategy for designing heterogeneous catalytic systems for H2O2-mediated oxidations.

  19. The β-hairpin of 40S exit channel protein Rps5/uS7 promotes efficient and accurate translation initiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaraiah, Jyothsna; Pittman, Yvette; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic 43S pre-initiation complex bearing tRNAiMet scans the mRNA leader for an AUG start codon in favorable context. Structural analyses revealed that the β-hairpin of 40S protein Rps5/uS7 protrudes into the 40S mRNA exit-channel, contacting the eIF2∙GTP∙Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC) and mRNA context nucleotides; but its importance in AUG selection was unknown. We identified substitutions in β-strand-1 and C-terminal residues of yeast Rps5 that reduced bulk initiation, conferred ‘leaky-scanning’ of AUGs; and lowered initiation fidelity by exacerbating the effect of poor context of the eIF1 AUG codon to reduce eIF1 abundance. Consistently, the β-strand-1 substitution greatly destabilized the ‘PIN’ conformation of TC binding to reconstituted 43S·mRNA complexes in vitro. Other substitutions in β-hairpin loop residues increased initiation fidelity and destabilized PIN at UUG, but not AUG start codons. We conclude that the Rps5 β-hairpin is as crucial as soluble initiation factors for efficient and accurate start codon recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07939.001 PMID:26134896

  20. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Efficiently Promotes the Proliferation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Activating NO-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongyeon; Lee, Hyunyoung; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Kim, Do Young; Han, Sungbum; Song, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at atmospheric pressure. Our study showed that exposure to NTAPP generated in a helium-based dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device increased the proliferation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) by 1.57-fold on an average, compared with untreated cells at 72 h after initial NTAPP exposure. NTAPP-exposed ASCs maintained their stemness, capability to differentiate into adipocytes but did not show cellular senescence. Therefore, we suggested that NTAPP can be used to increase the proliferation of ASCs without affecting their stem cell properties. When ASCs were exposed to NTAPP in the presence of a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the proliferation-enhancing effect of NTAPP was not obvious. Meanwhile, the proliferation of NTAPP-exposed ASCs was not much changed in the presence of scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, Akt, ERK1/2, and NF-κB were activated in ASCs after NTAPP exposure. These results demonstrated that NO rather than ROS is responsible for the enhanced proliferation of ASCs following NTAPP exposure. Taken together, this study suggests that NTAPP would be an efficient tool for use in the medical application of ASCs both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27991548

  1. Vitrectomy Before Intravitreal Injection of AAV2/2 Vector Promotes Efficient Transduction of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Dogs and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Tshilenge, Kizito-Tshitoko; Ameline, Baptiste; Weber, Michel; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Nedellec, Steven; Biget, Marine; Provost, Nathalie; Libeau, Lyse; Blouin, Véronique; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Le Meur, Guylène; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Pichard, Virginie; Rolling, Fabienne

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as a promising vector for retinal gene delivery to restore visual function in certain forms of inherited retinal dystrophies. Several studies in rodent models have shown that intravitreal injection of the AAV2/2 vector is the optimal route for efficient retinal ganglion cell (RGC) transduction. However, translation of these findings to larger species, including humans, is complicated by anatomical differences in the eye, a key difference being the comparatively smaller volume of the vitreous chamber in rodents. Here, we address the role of the vitreous body as a potential barrier to AAV2/2 diffusion and transduction in the RGCs of dogs and macaques, two of the most relevant preclinical models. We intravitreally administered the AAV2/2 vector carrying the CMV-eGFP reporter cassette in dog and macaque eyes, either directly into the vitreous chamber or after complete vitrectomy, a surgical procedure that removes the vitreous body. Our findings suggest that the vitreous body appears to trap the injected vector, thus impairing the diffusion and transduction of AAV2/2 to inner retinal neurons. We show that vitrectomy before intravitreal vector injection is an effective means of overcoming this physical barrier, improving the transduction of RGCs in dog and macaque retinas. These findings support the use of vitrectomy in clinical trials of intravitreal gene transfer techniques targeting inner retinal neurons.

  2. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000-2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing water

  3. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley

    PubMed Central

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000–2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing

  4. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  5. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human

  6. 76 FR 70861 - Promoting Efficient Spending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... pursued an aggressive agenda for reducing administrative costs since taking office and, most recently... aggressive steps to ensure the Government is a good steward of taxpayer money. Sec. 2. Agency...

  7. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  8. Health Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    Department of Defense DIRECTIVEAD-A269 638 , , AD-A29 638March 11, 1986 IIIIii!IN 111111111,11 Ii1111,111111[NUMBER 1010.10 SUBJECT: Health Promotion ...34 March 13, 1985 INC A. URPOSE SThis Directive establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military...civilian employees. C. DEFINITIONS 1. Health Promotion . Any combination of health education and related organizational, social, economic or health care

  9. SP6616 as a new Kv2.1 channel inhibitor efficiently promotes β-cell survival involving both PKC/Erk1/2 and CaM/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, T T; Quan, L L; Chen, L P; Du, T; Sun, K X; Zhang, J C; Yu, L; Li, Y; Wan, P; Chen, L L; Jiang, B H; Hu, L H; Chen, J; Shen, X

    2016-01-01

    Kv2.1 as a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunit has a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, and is believed to be a promising target for anti-diabetic drug discovery, although the mechanism underlying the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell apoptosis is obscure. Here, the small molecular compound, ethyl 5-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-7-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2–a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (SP6616) was discovered to be a new Kv2.1 inhibitor. It was effective in both promoting GSIS and protecting β cells from apoptosis. Evaluation of SP6616 on either high-fat diet combined with streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice or db/db mice further verified its efficacy in the amelioration of β-cell dysfunction and glucose homeostasis. SP6616 treatment efficiently increased serum insulin level, restored β-cell mass, decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, and improved oral glucose tolerance. Mechanism study indicated that the promotion of SP6616 on β-cell survival was tightly linked to its regulation against both protein kinases C (PKC)/extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) and calmodulin(CaM)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this may be the first report on the underlying pathway responsible for the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell protection. In addition, our study has also highlighted the potential of SP6616 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27148689

  10. RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by methyltransferase RlmAII in 23S rRNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae; interplay between two rRNA methylations responsible for telithromycin susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuma; Takaya, Akiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Adenine at position 752 in a loop of helix 35 from positions 745 to 752 in domain II of 23S rRNA is involved in binding to the ribosome of telithromycin (TEL), a member of ketolides. Methylation of guanine at position 748 by the intrinsic methyltransferase RlmAII enhances binding of telithromycin (TEL) to A752 in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have found that another intrinsic methylation of the adjacent uridine at position 747 enhances G748 methylation by RlmAII, rendering TEL susceptibility. U747 and another nucleotide, U1939, were methylated by the dual-specific methyltransferase RlmCD encoded by SP_1029 in S. pneumoniae. Inactivation of RlmCD reduced N1-methylated level of G748 by RlmAII in vivo, leading to TEL resistance when the nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, was dimethylated by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B). In vitro methylation of rRNA showed that RlmAII activity was significantly enhanced by RlmCD-mediated pre-methylation of 23S rRNA. These results suggest that RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by RlmAII, thereby facilitating TEL binding to the ribosome. PMID:26365244

  11. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  12. High-level expression, purification and characterisation of porcine β-defensin 2 in Pichia pastoris and its potential as a cost-efficient growth promoter in porcine feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Feng, Qiuyue; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ivanova, Iskra Vitanova; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun; Song, Weiping

    2014-06-01

    Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), a recently discovered porcine defensin that is produced by the intestine, exerts antimicrobial activities and innate immune effects that are linked to intestinal diseases in pigs. Here, we report a codon-optimised protein corresponding to mature pBD2 cDNA that was expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris yeast. The highest amount of secreted protein (3,694.0 mg/L) was reached 144 h into a 150-h induction during high-density cultivation. Precipitation followed by gel exclusion chromatography yielded 383.7 mg/L purified recombinant pBD2 (rpBD2) with a purity of ~93.7 %. Two recombinant proteins of 5,458.5 and 5,258.4 Da were detected in the mass spectrum due to variation in the amino-terminus. The rpBD2 exhibited high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pig pathogenic bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] 32-128 μg/mL); the highest activity was observed against Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis (MIC 32-64 μg/mL). However, rpBD2 also inhibited the growth of probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but at lower efficacies than the pathogens. Purified or unpurified rpBD2 also maintained high activity over a wide range of pH values (2.0-10.0), a high thermal stability at 100 °C for 40 min and significant resistance to papain, pepsin and trypsin. In addition, the activity of rpBD2 towards S. aureus was unaffected by 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 20 % dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that pBD2 could be produced efficiently in large quantities in P. pastoris and be a substitute for traditional antibiotics for growth promotion in the porcine industry.

  13. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel

    1992-01-01

    Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a

  14. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  15. Sulphur promoted C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) cross dehydrogenative cyclisation of acetophenone hydrazones with aldehydes: efficient synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1H-pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Vanjari, Rajeshwer; Guntreddi, Tirumaleswararao; Kumar, Saurabh; Singh, Krishna Nand

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy for the cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of acetophenone hydrazones and aldehydes has been developed for the synthesis of highly substituted pyrazoles. This work, for the first time, uses elemental sulfur as a promoter as well as a hydrogen acceptor in effecting the Csp(3)-Csp(2) bond formation via C-H activation.

  16. Conciliating binding efficiency and polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Jordi; Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet

    2009-09-01

    The association between molecular size and risk of failure has promoted the use of binding efficiency as a prioritization metric in lead selection. Even though by extension it is often referred to as "ligand efficiency", the concept was originally conceived to be strictly applicable to comparing the binding efficiencies of ligands for a single target. With current trends in designing drugs to bind efficiently to multiple targets, a revision of the original binding efficiency definition is carried out. To this aim, the dependency of binding efficiency on polypharmacology is highlighted in a retrospective analysis of a set of antipsychotic drugs. Statistical standardization of target binding efficiencies relative to basal values obtained from a large background of medicinal chemistry compounds is proposed as a means to conciliate the concepts of binding efficiency and polypharmacology. Finally, the interplay between binding efficiency and therapeutic efficacy for optimizing natural products, random hits, and fragments is discussed.

  17. Promoting Retention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, LaToya N.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Green, Carmen R.; Jackson, James S.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a research volunteer registry to retain community-dwelling African American older adults, and to explore demographic and health factors associated with retention. Method: A logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of demographics, health factors, and registry logic model activities on retention in a sample of 1,730 older African American adults. Results: Almost 80% of participants active in the volunteer research registry between January 2012 and June 2015 were retained. Employment, being referred to research studies, a higher number of medical conditions, and more follow-up contacts were associated with an increased likelihood of retention. Older age, more months in the registry, and more mobility problems decreased the likelihood of retention. Discussion: These results suggest the Michigan Center for Urban African American Aging Research logic model promotes retention through involving older African American adults in research through study referrals and intensive follow-up. The loss of participants due to age- and mobility-related issues indicate the registry may be losing its most vulnerable participants. PMID:28138501

  18. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  19. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  20. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  1. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  2. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  3. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  4. Epi-cinchona based thiourea organocatalyst family as an efficient asymmetric Michael addition promoter: enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to chalcones and alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles.

    PubMed

    Vakulya, Benedek; Varga, Szilárd; Soós, Tibor

    2008-05-02

    A small set of easily available epi-cinchona based thiourea organocatalysts have been synthesized and tested in enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to chalcones. These bifunctional catalyst systems promoted the conjugate additions with high enantioselectivities and chemical yields. The extension of this methodology was further explored to encompass alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles, as a chalcone mimic. Functionally, the N-acylpyrrole moiety in the adduct acts as an ester surrogate; therefore, it can easily be transformed to various valuable and biologically relevant compounds. This approach allowed the concise stereoselective synthesis of (R)-rolipram.

  5. Ultrasound promoted mild and facile one-pot, three component synthesis of 2H-indazoles by consecutive condensation, CN and NN bond formations catalysed by copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as an efficient heterogeneous nano-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Soltani Rad, Mohammad Navid

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasonic promoted facile and convenient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of 2H-indazole derivatives using copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as a heterogeneous nano-catalyst has been described. In this approach, ultrasonic mediated reaction of different substituted 2-bromobenzaldehydes, structurally diverse primary amines, and tetrabutylammonium azide (TBAA) as an azide source in the presence of CDSCS in DMSO at room temperature furnishes 2H-indazoles in good to excellent yields. Utilizing ultrasonic irradiation techniques provided the dramatic improvements in terms of higher yields and shorter reaction times compared with conventional heating method.

  6. The first molecular level monitoring of carbohydrate conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquids. B2O3--an efficient dual-function metal-free promoter for environmentally benign applications.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Elena A; Kachala, Vadim V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2012-04-01

    The mechanistic nature of the conversion of carbohydrates to the sustainable platform chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) was revealed at the molecular level. A detailed study of the key sugar units involved in the biomass conversion process has shown that the simple dissolution of fructose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride significantly changes the anomeric composition and favors the formation of the open fructoketose form. A special NMR approach was developed for the determination of molecular structures and monitoring of chemical reactions directly in ionic liquids. The transformation of glucose to 5-HMF has been followed in situ through the detection of intermediate species. A new environmentally benign, easily available, metal-free promoter with a dual functionality (B(2)O(3)) was developed for carbohydrate conversion to 5-HMF.

  7. Effects of alkoxy groups on arene rings of lignin β-O-4 model compounds on the efficiencies of single electron transfer-promoted photochemical and enzymatic C-C Bond Cleavage Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk Hyun; Nahm, Keepyung; Ra, Choon Sup; Cho, Dae Won; Yoon, Ung Chan; Latham, John A; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Mariano, Patrick S

    2013-09-20

    To gain information about how alkoxy substitution in arene rings of β-O-4 structural units within lignin governs the efficiencies/rates of radical cation C1-C2 bond cleavage reactions, single electron transfer (SET) photochemical and lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation reactions of dimeric/tetrameric model compounds have been explored. The results show that the radical cations derived from less alkoxy-substituted dimeric β-O-4 models undergo more rapid C1-C2 bond cleavage than those of more alkoxy-substituted analogues. These findings gained support from the results of DFT calculations, which demonstrate that C1-C2 bond dissociation energies of β-O-4 radical cations decrease as the degree of alkoxy substitution decreases. In SET reactions of tetrameric compounds consisting of two β-O-4 units, containing different degrees of alkoxy substitution, regioselective radical cation C-C bond cleavage was observed to occur in one case at the C1-C2 bond in the less alkoxy-substituted β-O-4 moiety. However, regioselective C1-C2 cleavage in the more alkoxy-substituted β-O-4 moiety was observed in another case, suggesting that other factors might participate in controlling this process. These observations show that lignins containing greater proportions of less rather than more alkoxylated rings as part of β-O-4 units would be more efficiently cleaved by SET mechanisms.

  8. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  9. Superior preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich stream under visible light irradiation over gold loaded hedgehog-shaped titanium dioxide nanospheres: Identification of copper oxide decoration as an efficient promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Kun; Lin, Liuliu; Chen, Xun; Dai, Wenxin; Fu, Xianzhi

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles loaded on the special three-dimensional urchin-like micro/nano hierarchical TiO2 microspheres, with CuO layer modification, are performed for the CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich stream at room temperature under visible light irradiation or not. It is found that the suitable outer decoration of CuO in TiO2 microspheres can obviously improve the catalytic activity of Au/TiO2, and adding visible light can further promote the performance. Based on the characterizations of catalysts, it is proposed that the CuO layer distributed on the shell of TiO2 urchin-like microspheres can enhance the electron transfer among Au, TiO2 and CuO sites to drive the increase in surface electron densities of Au and support sites induced by both the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles and the photo-excitation of CuO under visible light irradiation, resulting in the adsorptions and activations of CO and O2. Therefore, as a synactic result of its unique band gap relation, its unique electron property and its morphologic effect, the novel CuO modified TiO2 support not only enhances the microstrain itself on the stabilization of the size of Au nanoparticles, but more importantly also reinforces the electron interaction between support and Au sites.

  10. Non-Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Supported on Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient and Durable Catalyst for Promoting H2 Production from Ammonia Borane under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Meicheng; Cui, Yiwen; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-08-24

    In this work, we propose a straightforward method to enhance the catalytic activity of AB dehydrogenation by using non-noble-metal nanoparticle supported on chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101). It was demonstrated to be effective for hydrogen generation from ammonia borane under assistance of visible light irradiation as a noble-metal-free catalyst. The catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles supported on MIL-101 under visible light irradiation is remarkably higher than that without light irradiation. The TOFs of Cu/MIL-101, Co/MIL-101, and Ni/MIL-101 are 1693, 1571, and 3238 h(-1), respectively. The enhanced activity of catalysts can be primarily attributed to the cooperative promoting effects from both non-noble-metal nanoparticles and photoactive metal-organic framework in activating the ammonia borane molecule and strong ability in the photocatalytic production of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and electron-rich non-noble-metal nanoparticle. This work sheds light on the exploration of active non-noble metals supported on photoactive porous materials for achieving high catalytic activity of various redox reactions under visible light irradiation.

  11. Batch efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  12. Vector promoters used in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Zhu, Chengqian; Lin, Jie; Li, Jingkang; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the metabolic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, our knowledge of the actual expression level of promoters used in K. pneumoniae is limited. In this study, the expression levels of three promoters were compared systematically by using the lacZ reporter gene with different carbon sources in K. pneumoniae. The results showed that, although promoters PT5 and Ptac designed for Escherichia coli were functional, PT5 appeared more efficient and the induction/repression ratio of Ptac was decreased extremely in K. pneumoniae. The basal level of Ptac for lacZ expression reached 396.5 U/mg, which was 9.5-fold higher compared with PT5 in LB medium, indicating Ptac can be used as an efficient "constitutive" promoter as well as an efficient induced promoter in K. pneumoniae. In different carbon sources medium, a newly constructed endogenous constitutive Pbud proved to be a stable and weak promoter. On the basis of our data, a set of Pbud and Ptac promoters could meet the broad range (about 1,000 orders of magnitude) of gene expression needed for engineered K. pneumoniae in glycerol-based medium.

  13. Efficiency Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The lighting of learning environments is an important focus in designing new schools and renovating older schools. Studies long have shown that appropriate lighting levels and daylighting improve learning; now, climbing energy budgets have spurred school administrators to seek more efficient use of lighting. Electricity rates are expected to rise…

  14. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  15. Efficient Synthesis of Tris-Heteroleptic Iridium(III) Complexes Based on the Zn(2+)-Promoted Degradation of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes and Their Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Kumar, Sarvendra; Itoh, Taiki; Sato, Kyouhei; Kuroda, Reiko; Aoki, Shin

    2017-01-17

    We report on the efficient synthesis of tris-heteroleptic iridium (Ir) complexes based on the degradation of tris-cyclometalated Ir complexes (IrL3, L: cyclometalating ligand) in the presence of Brønsted and Lewis acids such as HCl (in 1,4-dioxane), AlCl3, TMSCl, and ZnX2 (X = Br or Cl), which affords the corresponding halogen-bridged Ir dimers (μ-complexes). Tris-cyclometalated Ir complexes containing electron-withdrawing groups such as fluorine, nitro, or CF3 moieties on the ligands were less reactive. This different reactivity was applied to the selective degradation of heteroleptic Ir complexes such as fac-Ir(tpy)2(F2ppy) (fac-12) (tpy: 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine and F2ppy: 2-(4',6'-difluorophenyl)pyridine), mer-Ir(tpy)2(F2ppy) (mer-12), and mer-Ir(mpiq)2(F2ppy) (mer-15) (mpiq: 1-(4'-methylphenyl)isoquinoline). For example, the reaction of mer-12 with ZnBr2 gave the heteroleptic μ-complex [{Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(μ-Br)}2] 27b as a major product, resulting from the selective elimination of the tpy ligand of mer-12, and treatment of 27b with acetylacetone (acacH) afforded the corresponding tris-heteroleptic Ir complex Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(acac)18. In addition, another tris-heteroleptic Ir complex 35a having 8-benzenesulfonylamidoquinoline (8BSQ) ligand was synthesized. Mechanistic studies of this degradation reaction and the photochemical properties, especially a dual emission, of these newly synthesized tris-heteroleptic Ir complexes are also reported.

  16. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  17. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Kamilova, Faina

    2009-01-01

    Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches.

  18. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  19. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yujae; Choi, Wooyeol; Baek, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs) together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT) to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS) of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy. PMID:28241083

  20. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Yujae; Choi, Wooyeol; Baek, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs) together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT) to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS) of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy.

  1. Efficient fireplace

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.

    1985-10-01

    Among the efforts to overcome the inherent inefficiency of fireplaces, the most effective to date is a fireplace insert, which is an air-tight wood-burning heater made to fit inside an existing fireplace. New aesthetically pleasing designs combine the latest in heating technology (including catalytic combustors). Features to look for are strong construction with double walls and smooth welds, a good warranty, and proper sizing. Efficiency ratings of the new inserts are 40-45%, compared to 10-15% for a conventional fireplace. Disadvantages include the difficulty of handling and installing the inserts, creosote formation because of lingering smoke, and possible fires. The National Fire Protection Association has adopted a positive connect requirement to carry smoke directly into the chimney. Prices range from $600 to $1300 for the inserts.

  2. The Equity Imperative in Tertiary Education: Promoting Fairness and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-01-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population…

  3. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  4. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  5. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  6. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  7. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  8. Antitermination of transcription from an Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA promoter.

    PubMed

    Holben, W E; Morgan, E A

    1984-11-01

    The Escherichia coli lac and ara promoters and rrnC ribosomal RNA promoter-leader region were fused to lacZYA. Transcription termination signals were introduced into the lac genes of these fusions by Tn9 and IS1 insertions. Measurement of lac enzymes from upstream and downstream of the insertions showed that termination signals resulting from these insertions are very efficient when transcription begins at lac or ara promoters but are very inefficient when transcription begins at the rrnC promoter-leader region. The rrnC promoter-leader region must, therefore, modify RNA polymerase to enable it to read through transcription termination signals.

  9. An Investigation of How Lecturers' Teaching Strategies Promote Productive Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sit, Helena Hing Wa

    2013-01-01

    Both the Mainland and Hong Kong have witnessed the trend of educational internationalisation since the handover. The recruitment of non-local students is regarded as an important strategy to internalise universities in Hong Kong. Within Hong Kong's western-style educational setting, an increasing number of Mainland students attracted by the…

  10. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  11. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  12. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  13. Promoting Resilience in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2002-01-01

    This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…

  14. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... participate in any legal proceedings against invention promoters or promotion firms. Complaints submitted to... promotion firm, explain the basis for the complaint, and include the signature of the complainant....

  15. Generation of an Artificial Double Promoter for Protein Expression in Bacillus subtilis through a Promoter Trap System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ji, Shengyue; Cao, Pinghua; Chen, Yulin; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an attractive host for production of recombinant proteins. Promoters and expression plasmid backbones have direct impacts on the efficiency of gene expression. To screen and isolate strong promoters, a promoter trap vector pShuttleF was developed in this study. Using the vector, approximately 1000 colonies containing likely promoters from Bacillus licheniformis genomic DNA were obtained. Amongst them, pShuttle-09 exhibited the highest β-Gal activities in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The activity of pShuttle-09 in B. subtilis was eight times of that of the P43 promoter, a commonly used strong promoter for B. subtilis. A sequence analysis showed that pShuttle-09 contained PluxS and truncated luxS in-frame fused with the reporter gene as well as another fragment upstream of PluxS containing a putative promoter. This putative promoter was a hybrid promoter and its β-Gal activity was higher than PluxS. Reconstructing the hybrid promoter from pShuttle-09 to PlapS further improved the β-Gal production by 60%. The usefulness of our promoter trap system is likely due to random shuffling and recombination of DNA fragments and adoption of a rapid and high-throughput screening. Thus, our data provide additional evidence to support the concept of using a promoter trap system to create new promoters. PMID:23409173

  16. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.

  17. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  18. Characterizing yeast promoters used in Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Hu, Shenglin; Zhu, Songli; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation at higher temperatures can potentially reduce the cooling cost in large-scale fermentation and reduce the contamination risk. Thus, the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which can grow and ferment at elevated temperatures, is a promising biotechnological tool for future applications. However, the promoters used in K. marxianus are not well characterized, especially at elevated temperatures, which is important in efficient metabolic pathway construction. In this study, six constitutive promoters (P(TDH3), P(PGK), and P(ADH1) from both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. marxianus) were evaluated in K. marxianus through the heterologous expression of the KlLAC4, GUSA, and SH BLE genes at various temperatures, with various carbon sources and oxygen conditions. The expression was evaluated at the transcription and protein level using real-time PCR and protein activity determination to eliminate the effect of heterologous protein stability. While the transcription of all the promoters decreased at higher temperatures, the order of their promoting strength at various temperatures with glucose as the carbon source was P(KmPGK) > P(KmTDH3) > P(ScPGK) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1). When glycerol or xylose was supplied as the carbon source at 42 °C, the order of promoter strength was P(KmPGK) > P(ScPGK) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmTDH3). The promoter activity of P TDH3 decreased significantly, while the promoter activity of both of the P(ADH1) promoters increased. Oxygen conditions had non-significant effect. The results of this study provide important information for fine-tuned pathway construction for the metabolic engineering of K. marxianus.

  19. Cloning of a marine cyanobacterial promoter for foreign gene expression using a promoter probe vector

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Koji; Hatano, Naoaki; Tatara, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    A marine cyanobacterial promoter was cloned to allow efficient foreign gene expression. This was carried out using chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a marker protein. For rapid and simple measurement of CAT activity, a method based on a fluorescently labeled substrate was improved by utilizing HPLC equipped with a flow-through fluorescent spectrophotometer. This method was used in conjunction with a newly constructed promoter probe vector. Cyanobacterial transformants, harboring plasmid containing a cloned 2-kbp marine cyanobacterial genomic fragment, showed a 10-fold higher CAT activity, compared with that achieved using the kanamycin-resistant gene promoter. From the sequence analysis of the cloned fragment, a putative promoter region was found. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Assay and characterization of a strong promoter element from B. subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Hui; Yang, Ming-Ming; Gong, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Hong

    2007-03-02

    A new strong promoter fragment isolated from Bacillus subtilis was identified and characterized. Using the heat stable beta-galactosidase as reporter, the promoter fragment exhibited high expression strength both in Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The typical prokaryotic promoter conservation regions were found in the promoter fragment and the putative promoter was identified as the control element of yxiE gene via sequencing assay and predication of promoter. To further verify and characterize the cloned strong promoter, the putative promoter was sub-cloned and the beta-Gal directed by the promoters was high-level expressed both in E. coli and B. subtilis. By means of the isolated promoter, an efficient expression system was developed in B. subtilis and the benefit and usefulness was demonstrated through expression of three heterologous and homogenous proteins. Thus, we identified a newly strong promoter of B. subtilis and provided a robust expression system for genetic engineering of B. subtilis.

  1. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  2. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  3. Health Promotion Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…

  4. Does Paid Promotion Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Chris

    1980-01-01

    A study to determine the cost effectiveness of newspaper display advertising for cooperative extension programs showed such publicity to be more effective in large metropolitan areas. Though not a technique for increasing enrollment, this method provided long-range benefits in the overall promotion of extension educational services. (SK)

  5. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  6. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  7. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  8. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  9. Uncovering cis Regulatory Codes Using Synthetic Promoter Shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Kinkhabwala, Ali; Guet, Călin C.

    2008-01-01

    Revealing the spectrum of combinatorial regulation of transcription at individual promoters is essential for understanding the complex structure of biological networks. However, the computations represented by the integration of various molecular signals at complex promoters are difficult to decipher in the absence of simple cis regulatory codes. Here we synthetically shuffle the regulatory architecture — operator sequences binding activators and repressors — of a canonical bacterial promoter. The resulting library of complex promoters allows for rapid exploration of promoter encoded logic regulation. Among all possible logic functions, NOR and ANDN promoter encoded logics predominate. A simple transcriptional cis regulatory code determines both logics, establishing a straightforward map between promoter structure and logic phenotype. The regulatory code is determined solely by the type of transcriptional regulation combinations: two repressors generate a NOR: NOT (a OR b) whereas a repressor and an activator generate an ANDN: a AND NOT b. Three-input versions of both logics, having an additional repressor as an input, are also present in the library. The resulting complex promoters cover a wide dynamic range of transcriptional strengths. Synthetic promoter shuffling represents a fast and efficient method for exploring the spectrum of complex regulatory functions that can be encoded by complex promoters. From an engineering point of view, synthetic promoter shuffling enables the experimental testing of the functional properties of complex promoters that cannot necessarily be inferred ab initio from the known properties of the individual genetic components. Synthetic promoter shuffling may provide a useful experimental tool for studying naturally occurring promoter shuffling. PMID:18446205

  10. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences.

  11. Democracy Promotion in Oman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    succession process . The “Ruling Family Council” will meet to designate a successor within 3 days of Qaboos’s death. If it fails to select someone, it will...the Gulf is to increase democracy promotion programs designed to encourage timely and peaceful transitions to more representative forms of govern...stronger efforts toward reform supported by the United States could foster a more peaceful political transformation. This process should begin with the

  12. Publishing and academic promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    2009-09-01

    Clearly, academic endeavour has to be the single most important criterion for appointment to an academic position and for subsequent promotion. It is rare for excellence either in teaching or clinical practice to offset a poor publication record. However, the pressure to publish and gain related grant income can lead to problems in the normal academic pursuits of a department or institution. These and other related issues will be explored in this editorial.

  13. [Comparison of the relative luciferase activity in secondary CEF by different heterogenous strong promoters, MDV gB promoter and the composed promoters].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ya-Feng; Ge, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xue-Qing; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2006-04-01

    To improve the protection efficiency of the recombinant Marek' s disease viruses (MDV) in chickens with or without maternal antibodies,the work of selecting the optimal promoters for the construction of recombinant MDV was carried out. Combined with the efficient genetic manipulation, the composed promoters was constructed by use of the MDV gB core promoter with the regulatory elements from the early immediately promoter and enhancer of hCMV, the promoter and enhancer of SV40 or the partial enhancer of hCMV. And these composed promoters were ligased to the luciferase to construct the eukaryotic expressing vectors and named PhCMV-gB, Psv-gB and Pen-gB, respectively. In vitro, these vectors and internal standard plasmid (pSV-beta-LacZ) were transiently co-transfected into secondary CEF by FuGene 6 Transfection Reagent. Furthermore, cells were harvested 48 hours after transfection. Then the luciferase activity was detected by a luciferase assay kit, at the same time, the beta-galactosidase enzyme activity was detected by a beta-galactosidase enzyme assay kit, and the luciferase activity was corrected by the beta-galactosidase enzyme activity to get the relative luciferase activity. The relative luciferase activity was used as the transcriptional activity. By comparison of the relative luciferase activity of every promoter, it was found that these composed promoters could more effectively drive the reporter gene expression than the full legth of gB promoter did. Among them, PhCMV-gB robustly drove the reporter gene expression. On the other hand, PSV-gB and Pen-gB appeared to have the same strength; But compared with the commercial strong promoters, the transcriptional activity of the composed promoter were less than as or the same as that of the strong promoters. Therefore, at a sense, it can be proposed that these composed promoters have not only the characteristic of MDV gB promoter, but also that of the commercial strong promoters. These provide the choices for

  14. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  15. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification.

  16. Human Promoters Are Intrinsically Directional

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H.C.; Lacadie, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Glass, Christopher K.; Corcoran, David L.; Benner, Christopher; Heinz, Sven; Kadonaga, James T.; Ohler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Divergent transcription, in which reverse-oriented transcripts occur upstream of eukaryotic promoters in regions devoid of annotated genes, has been suggested to be a general property of active promoters. Here we show that the human basal RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and core promoter are inherently unidirectional, and that reverse-oriented transcripts originate from their own cognate reverse-directed core promoters. In vitro transcription analysis and mapping of nascent transcripts in cells revealed that sequences at reverse start sites are similar to those of their forward counterparts. The use of DNase I accessibility to define proximal promoter borders revealed that up to half of promoters are unidirectional and that unidirectional promoters are depleted at their upstream edges of reverse core promoter sequences and their associated chromatin features. Divergent transcription is thus not an inherent property of the transcription process, but rather the consequence of the presence of both forward- and reverse-directed core promoters. PMID:25639469

  17. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  18. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  19. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  20. Novel Synthetic Promoters from the Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sarkar, Shayan; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive promoters direct gene expression uniformly in most tissues and cells at all stages of plant growth and development; they confer steady levels of transgene expression in plant cells and hence their demand is high in plant biology. The gene silencing due to promoter homology can be avoided by either using diverse promoters isolated from different plant and viral genomes or by designing synthetic promoters. The aim of this chapter was to describe the basic protocols needed to develop and analyze novel, synthetic, nearly constitutive promoters from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) through promoter/leader deletion and activating cis-sequence analysis. We also describe the methods to evaluate the strength of the promoters efficiently in various transient expression systems like agroinfiltration assay, gene-gun method, and assay in tobacco protoplasts. Besides, the detailed methods for developing transgenic plants (tobacco and Arabidopsis) for evaluation of the promoter using the GUS reporter gene are also described. The detailed procedure for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) coupled with super-shift EMSA analysis are also described for showing the binding of tobacco transcription factor, TGA1a to cis-elements in the CmYLCV distal promoter region.

  1. Students Promoted Despite Test Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Dara V.

    2012-01-01

    "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) dictates students in Grades 3, 5, and 8 pass state tests to be promoted. Accordingly, most state education codes require students to pass reading and math exams for promotion. The majority of those who fail, however, appear to be promoted anyway. This article addresses core questions concerning the paradigm…

  2. ANSI Energy Efficiency Standarization Coordination Collaborative: Call for Participants

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-10

    The EESCC invites experts to help develop an energy efficiency standardization "roadmap," consisting of an inventory, gap analysis, and priority areas in need of additional standardization efforts. Public and private representatives will also identify approaches to promote adoption and effective implementation of energy efficiency solutions through voluntary, consensus-based standardization and conformance activities.

  3. Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for…

  4. TWEAK Promotes Peritoneal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047

  5. Energy efficient motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  7. The Ethics behind Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    The normative elements underlying efficiency are more complex than generally portrayed and rely upon ethical frameworks that are generally absent from classroom discussions. Most textbooks, for example, ignore the ethical differences between Pareto efficiency (based on voluntary win-win outcomes) and the modern Kaldor-Hicks efficiency used in…

  8. Making energy efficiency happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  9. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    PubMed

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.

  10. Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Johnathan E.; Cook, Nicholas J.; Rovin, Richard A.; Winn, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The hormone leptin has a variety of functions. Originally known for its role in satiety and weight loss, leptin more recently has been shown to augment tumor growth in a variety of cancers. Within gliomas, there is a correlation between tumor grade and tumor expression of leptin and its receptor. This suggests that autocrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment may promote the growth of high-grade gliomas. Leptin does this through stimulation of cellular pathways that are also advantageous for tumor growth and recurrence: antiapoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Conversely, a loss of leptin expression attenuates tumor growth. In animal models of colon cancer and melanoma, a decline in the expression and secretion of leptin resulted in a reduction of tumor growth. In these models, positive mental stimulation through environmental enrichment decreased leptin secretion and improved tumor outcome. This review explores the link between leptin and glioblastoma. PMID:22263109

  11. Love promotes health.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2005-06-01

    Love has consequences for health and well-being. Engaging in joyful activities such as love may activate areas in the brain responsible for emotion, attention, motivation and memory (i.e., limbic structures), and it may further serve to control the autonomic nervous system, i.e., stress reduction. This specific CNS activity pattern appears to exert protective effects, even on the brain itself. Moreover, anxiolytic effects of pleasurable experiences may occur by promotion of an inhibitory tone in specific areas of the brain. Thus, love and pleasure clearly are capable of stimulating health, well-being and (re)productivity: This wonderful biological instrument makes procreation and maintenance of organisms and their species a deeply rewarding and pleasurable experience, thus ensuring survival, health, and perpetuation.

  12. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics.

  13. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics. PMID:27905505

  14. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2015-06-02

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  15. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  16. The unlikely Carnot efficiency.

    PubMed

    Verley, Gatien; Esposito, Massimiliano; Willaert, Tim; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2014-09-15

    The efficiency of an heat engine is traditionally defined as the ratio of its average output work over its average input heat. Its highest possible value was discovered by Carnot in 1824 and is a cornerstone concept in thermodynamics. It led to the discovery of the second law and to the definition of the Kelvin temperature scale. Small-scale engines operate in the presence of highly fluctuating input and output energy fluxes. They are therefore much better characterized by fluctuating efficiencies. In this study, using the fluctuation theorem, we identify universal features of efficiency fluctuations. While the standard thermodynamic efficiency is, as expected, the most likely value, we find that the Carnot efficiency is, surprisingly, the least likely in the long time limit. Furthermore, the probability distribution for the efficiency assumes a universal scaling form when operating close-to-equilibrium. We illustrate our results analytically and numerically on two model systems.

  17. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order... approval of the Secretary, establish, or provide for the establishment of projects including production..., designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient...

  18. Photoreceiver efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.

  19. trans-Activation of a globin promoter in nonerythroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T; Felsenfeld, G

    1991-01-01

    We show that expression in fibroblasts of a single cDNA, encoding the erythroid DNA-binding protein Eryf1 (GF-1, NF-E1), very efficiently activates transcription of a chicken alpha-globin promoter, trans-Activation in these cells occurred when Eryf1 bound to a single site within a minimal globin promoter. In contrast, efficient activation in erythroid cells required multiple Eryf1 binding sites. Our results indicate that mechanisms exist that are capable of modulating the trans-acting capabilities of Eryf1 in a cell-specific manner, without affecting DNA binding. The response of the minimal globin promoter to Eryf1 in fibroblasts was at least as great as for optimal constructions in erythroid cells. Therefore, the assay provides a very simple and sensitive system with which to study gene activation by a tissue-specific factor. Images PMID:1990287

  20. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  1. Computationally efficient multibody simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Kumar, Manoj

    1994-01-01

    Computationally efficient approaches to the solution of the dynamics of multibody systems are presented in this work. The computational efficiency is derived from both the algorithmic and implementational standpoint. Order(n) approaches provide a new formulation of the equations of motion eliminating the assembly and numerical inversion of a system mass matrix as required by conventional algorithms. Computational efficiency is also gained in the implementation phase by the symbolic processing and parallel implementation of these equations. Comparison of this algorithm with existing multibody simulation programs illustrates the increased computational efficiency.

  2. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  3. Mice and Men: Their Promoter Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Vladimir B; Tan, Sin Lam; Christoffels, Alan; Schönbach, Christian; Lipovich, Leonard; Yang, Liang; Hofmann, Oliver; Kruger, Adele; Hide, Winston; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Hume, David A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    Using the two largest collections of Mus musculus and Homo sapiens transcription start sites (TSSs) determined based on CAGE tags, ditags, full-length cDNAs, and other transcript data, we describe the compositional landscape surrounding TSSs with the aim of gaining better insight into the properties of mammalian promoters. We classified TSSs into four types based on compositional properties of regions immediately surrounding them. These properties highlighted distinctive features in the extended core promoters that helped us delineate boundaries of the transcription initiation domain space for both species. The TSS types were analyzed for associations with initiating dinucleotides, CpG islands, TATA boxes, and an extensive collection of statistically significant cis-elements in mouse and human. We found that different TSS types show preferences for different sets of initiating dinucleotides and cis-elements. Through Gene Ontology and eVOC categories and tissue expression libraries we linked TSS characteristics to expression. Moreover, we show a link of TSS characteristics to very specific genomic organization in an example of immune-response-related genes (GO:0006955). Our results shed light on the global properties of the two transcriptomes not revealed before and therefore provide the framework for better understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms in the two species, as well as a framework for development of new and more efficient promoter- and gene-finding tools. PMID:16683032

  4. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  5. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  9. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  10. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  11. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  12. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  13. Energy Efficiency in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Shows how libraries can save money and energy with energy-efficient technologies, improving maintenance, and encouraging staff efforts to conserve energy. Specific techniques such as life-cycle cost analysis and energy audits focusing on lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and water efficiency are described. Funding options and…

  14. Let's Design for Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Edward A.

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory facilities should be designed with the most effective arrangement for maximum instructional efficiency and safety. Periodic evaluation and analysis should be used for improving instruction, abating safety hazards, and presenting an efficient learning environment. Attention should be focused on--(1) instructional program, (2) students,…

  15. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Michael; Bryson, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  16. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  17. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  18. ACTFL's Accent! on Promoting FL's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accent on ACTFL, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This insert in "Accent on ACTFL" is devoted to ways of promoting the study of foreign languages. The first section is a comic book, "The Continuing Story of Captain Fore Lang," created as an assignment by education students. The comic points out several benefits of language study. The second section is a language-specific promotion focusing on…

  19. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  20. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  1. Structural property of regulatory elements in human promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Jia; Yan, Hong

    2008-04-01

    The capacity of transcription factors to activate gene expression is encoded in the promoter sequences, which are composed of short regulatory motifs that function as transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) for specific proteins. To the best of our knowledge, the structural property of TFBSs that controls transcription is still poorly understood. Rigidity is one of the important structural properties of DNA, and plays an important role in guiding DNA-binding proteins to the target sites efficiently. After analyzing the rigidity of 2897 TFBSs in 1871 human promoters, we show that TFBSs are generally more flexible than other genomic regions such as exons, introns, 3' untranslated regions, and TFBS-poor promoter regions. Furthermore, we find that the density of TFBSs is consistent with the average rigidity profile of human promoters upstream of the transcription start site, which implies that TFBSs directly influence the promoter structure. We also examine the local rigid regions probably caused by specific TFBSs such as the DNA sequence TATA(A/T)A(A/T) box, which may inhibit nucleosomes and thereby facilitate the access of transcription factors bound nearby. Our results suggest that the structural property of TFBSs accounts for the promoter structure as well as promoter activity.

  2. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  3. Isolation and Functional Characterization of Bidirectional Promoters in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Menglin; Yang, Mei; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Bidirectional promoters, which show great application potential in genetic improvement of plants, have aroused great research interest recently. However, most bidirectional promoters were cloned individually in the studies of single genes. Here, we initiatively combined RNA-seq data and cDNA microarray data to discover the potential bidirectional promoters in rice genome. Based on the expression level and correlation of each adjacent and oppositely transcribed gene pair, we selected four candidate gene pairs. Then, the intergenic region between each pair was isolated and cloned into a dual reporter vector pDX2181 for functional identification. GUS and GFP assays of the transgenic plants indicated that all the intergenic regions showed bidirectional expression activity in various tissues. Through 5′ and 3′ deletion analysis on one of the above bidirectional promoters, we identified the enhancing region which sharply increased its bidirectional expression efficiency and the essential regions respectively responsible for its 5′ and 3′ basic expression activity. The bidirectional arrangement of the four gene pairs in six gramineous plants was also analyzed, showing the conserved characteristics of the four bidirectional promoters identified in our study. In addition, two novel cis-sequences conserved in the four bidirectional promoters were discovered by bioinformatic identification. Our study proposes a feasible method for selecting, cloning, and functionally identifying bidirectional promoters as well as for discovering their bidirectional regulatory regions and conserved sequences in rice. PMID:27303432

  4. Trial Promoter: A Web-Based Tool for Boosting the Promotion of Clinical Research Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Ukpolo, Francis; Ward, Edward; Wilson, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce information about clinical research, in particular clinical trials, is among the top reasons why potential participants do not take part in clinical studies. Without volunteers, on the other hand, clinical research and the development of novel approaches to preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease are impossible. Promising digital options such as social media have the potential to work alongside traditional methods to boost the promotion of clinical research. However, investigators and research institutions are challenged to leverage these innovations while saving time and resources. Objective To develop and test the efficiency of a Web-based tool that automates the generation and distribution of user-friendly social media messages about clinical trials. Methods Trial Promoter is developed in Ruby on Rails, HTML, cascading style sheet (CSS), and JavaScript. In order to test the tool and the correctness of the generated messages, clinical trials (n=46) were randomized into social media messages and distributed via the microblogging social media platform Twitter and the social network Facebook. The percent correct was calculated to determine the probability with which Trial Promoter generates accurate messages. Results During a 10-week testing phase, Trial Promoter automatically generated and published 525 user-friendly social media messages on Twitter and Facebook. On average, Trial Promoter correctly used the message templates and substituted the message parameters (text, URLs, and disease hashtags) 97.7% of the time (1563/1600). Conclusions Trial Promoter may serve as a promising tool to render clinical trial promotion more efficient while requiring limited resources. It supports the distribution of any research or other types of content. The Trial Promoter code and installation instructions are freely available online. PMID:27357424

  5. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Development of vascular tissue and stress inducible hybrid-synthetic promoters through dof-1 motifs rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Dey, Nrisingha

    2012-07-01

    A Caulimovirus-based hybrid-promoter, EFCFS, was derived by fusing the distal region (-227 to -54, FUAS) of Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (F20) with the core promoter (-151 to +12, FS3CP) domain of Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS3). The hybrid-promoter (EFCFS) showed enhanced activity compared to the CaMV35S, F20 and FS3 promoters; while it showed equivalent activity with that of the CAMV35S(2) promoter in both transient protoplast (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi Brad) and transgenic plants (Nicotiana tabacum; Samsun NN). Further, we have engineered the EFCFS promoter sequence by inserting additional copies of the stress-inducible 'AAAG' cis-motif (Dof-1) to generate a set of three hybrid-synthetic promoters namely; EFCFS-HS-1, EFCFS-HS-2 and EFCFS-HS-3-containing 10, 11 and 13 'AAAG' motif, respectively. Transgenic plants expressing these hybrid synthetic promoters coupled to the GUS reporter were developed and their transcriptional activities were compared with F20, FS3, 35S and 35S(2) promoters, respectively. The relative levels of uidA-mRNA accumulation in transgenic plants driven by above promoters individually were compared by qRT-PCR. Localization of GUS reporter activity in plant tissue was assayed by histochemical approach. CLSM-based study revealed that hybrid-synthetic promoters namely; EFCFS-HS-1, EFCFS-HS-2 and EFCFS-HS-3 showed enhanced activity in vascular tissue compared to the CaMV35S promoter. In the presence of abiotic stress elicitors, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, the EFCFS-HS-1 promoters showed enhanced activity compared to the 35S promoter. Newly derived hybrid-synthetic promoter/s with enhanced activity and stress inducibility could become efficient tools for advancement of plant biotechnology.

  7. Amy as a reporter gene for promoter activity in Nocardia lactamdurans: comparison of promoters of the cephamycin cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Chary, V K; de la Fuente, J L; Liras, P; Martin, J F

    1997-01-01

    Promoter probe vectors containing the pA origin of replication and the Streptomyces griseus promoterless amy gene (encoding alpha-amylase) as reporter have been constructed to study transcription initiation regions in Nocardia lactamdurans. In some of the promoter probe vectors the phage fd terminator has been introduced to avoid readthrough expression from upstream sequences. By using these vectors, four different transcription initiation regions of the cephamycin gene cluster have been studied in N. lactamdurans. The bla gene encoding a beta-lactamase has a relatively strong promoter. Two other separate promoters corresponding to the lat and cefD genes (encoding, respectively, lysine-6-aminotransferase and isopenicillin N-epimerase) showed weak transcription initiation ability. These two promoters are arranged in a bidirectional transcription initiation region located in the center of the cephamycin gene cluster. The cmcH gene (encoding 3-hydroxymethylcephem carbamoyltransferase) upstream region did not contain a functional promoter, suggesting that cmcH is transcribed as a part of a polycistronic mRNA. The native amy promoter is used very efficiently in N. lactamdurans, resulting in secretion of high levels of extracellular alpha-amylase. PMID:9251185

  8. Evaluation of constitutive viral promoters in transgenic soybean roots and nodules.

    PubMed

    Govindarajulu, Manjula; Elmore, James M; Fester, Thomas; Taylor, Christopher G

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression was evaluated with five viral promoters to identify the most suitable promoter or promoters for use in soybean hairy roots, including applications to study the symbiotic interaction with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Levels of GUS activity were fluorimetrically and histochemically assayed when the GUS (uidA) gene was driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and enhanced 35S (E35S) promoter, the Cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, the Figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, and the Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV2) promoter. We demonstrate that GUS activity was highest when driven by the FMV promoter and that the promoter activity of 35S and SVBV2 was significantly lower than that of the CsVMV and E35S promoters when tested in soybean hairy roots. In mature soybean root nodules, strong GUS activity was evident when the FMV, 35S, and CsVMV promoters were used. These results indicate that the FMV promoter facilitates the strong expression of target genes in soybean hairy roots and root nodules.

  9. Information technology in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  10. Health promotion: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.

  11. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  12. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  13. Duluth Energy Efficiency Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Duluth developed the Duluth Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to create jobs, lessen the energy affordability gap faced by Duluth families, retain energy dollars currently exported from the city, and reduce Duluth's carbon footprint.

  14. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  15. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Anypas, Katie

    2014-10-17

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  16. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    ScienceCinema

    Anypas, Katie

    2016-07-12

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  17. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  18. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  19. Characterization of a highly active promoter, PBbgpd, in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-gang; Fang, Wei-guo; Zhang, Yong-jun; Fan, Yan-hua; Wu, Xing-wei; Zhou, Qun; Pei, Yan

    2008-08-01

    The promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene from Aspergillus nidulans (PgpdA) is widely used to direct expression of target genes constitutively in fungi. However, in some species, a heterogeneous promoter is found to be of low efficiency. To obtain a high-efficiency promoter for transformation of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus widely used as an mycoinsecticide, a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (Bbgpd) promoter, was cloned and characterized. Four deletion constructs (-2118, -1153, -726, and -354) of the 5'-upstream sequence of Bbgpd linked to a bar::gus fusion gene (phosphinothricin-resistance::beta-glucuronidase fused gene), which were used as selected marker gene and report gene, respectively, were generated. GUS activities of transgenic strains harboring -726, -1153, and -2118 deletion constructs were much stronger than that of the promoter of Aspergillus nidulans gpdA (PgpdA), with a twofold to threefold increase over that in the PgpdA construct. The -726 fragment was necessary to direct GUS expression in B. bassiana. No -354 transgenic progenies were obtained, possibly because it failed to initiate the transcription of bar::gus fusion gene. A remarkable increase of GUS activity was found between the -1153 and -726 constructs, indicating that some active transcriptional elements were located in this region. With a high expression level and relatively short sequence, PBbgpd can be used to drive target genes in B. bassiana transgenic research.

  20. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifL and nifH promoters and in vivo analysis of promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, M; Khan, H; Dixon, R

    1985-01-01

    The role of conserved nucleotides in nitrogen-fixation promoter function has been examined using both oligonucleotide and chemical mutagenesis to introduce base changes in the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifL and nifH promoters. Among ten mutations analysed, including six spontaneous mutations, base changes at -12, -13, -14, and -26, located in previously identified conserved sequences, perturbed the activity of the promoters, demonstrating that these sequences are required for transcription. Not all base changes produced similar strong promoter down phenotypes when the nifL and nifH promoters were compared: activation of the nifH promoter by the nifA gene product was less sensitive to base changes in conserved nucleotides than was activation of the equivalently altered nifL promoter by the nifA or ntrC products. We have found that the nifH promoter can be weakly activated by the ntrC product; this activation shows the same down response to base changes seen with ntrC activation of the nifL promoter. We present evidence that the efficient activation of the nifH promoter by nifA (but not ntrC) can be attributed to specific upstream sequences present in the nifH promoter. PMID:3906564

  1. Mechanical efficiency in rowing.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, T; Matsuo, A; Yamamoto, K; Asami, T

    1986-01-01

    Five university oarsmen participated in a determination of mechanical efficiency when rowing in a tank. In the tank, water was circulated at 3 m X s-1 by a motor driven pump. The subjects rowed with the stepwise incremental loading, in which the intensity increased by 10% of the maximum force of rowing (maxFc) every 2 min. Power (WO) was calculated from the force applied to the oarlock pin (FC) and its angular displacement (theta H). Oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured every 30 s during rowing. Anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined from expired gas variables by Wasserman's method. AT of oarsmen was 74.6 +/- 6.01% as a percentage of VO2max. As the displacement of the handgrip in the stroke was independent of WO, the increment of WO was caused by the increase of both FC and stroke frequency. Gross efficiency without base-line correction (GE) increased with FC with low intensities of rowing. In the region of 124-182 W of WO GE was almost constant at 17.5%. Efficiency was 19.8 +/- 1.4%, with resting metabolism as base-line correction (net efficiency), and 27.5 +/- 2.9% when using the unloaded rowing as the base-line correction (work efficiency), and 22.8 +/- 2.2% when calculating the work rate as the base-line correction (delta efficiency).

  2. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  3. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Kavita; Bennich, Peter; Cockburn, John; Doi, Naoko; Garg, Sandeep; Garnaik, S.P.; Holt, Shane; Walker, Mike; Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth; Lising, Anna; Pantano, Steve; Khare, Amit; Park, Won Young

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  4. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  5. The Business of Radio Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan

    This speech suggests that public radio stations should examine and use the techniques employed by commercial stations to increase their listening audience--creative promotion based on community involvement and participation. Some examples are included. (SC)

  6. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  7. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  8. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    PubMed

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice.

  9. Tissue-specific activity of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jeannotte, L.; Trifiro, M.A.; Plante, R.K.; Chamberland, M.; Drouin, J.

    1987-11-01

    The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is specifically expressed in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary. To define the POMC promoter sequences responsible for tissue-specific expression, we assessed POMC promoter activity by gene transfer into POMC-expressing pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20) and fibroblast L cells. The rat POMC promoter was only efficiently utilized and correctly transcribed in AtT-20 cells. 5'-End deletion analysis revealed two promoter regions for activity in AtT-20 cells. When tested by fusion to a heterologuous promoter, DNA fragments corresponding to both regions exhibited tissue-specific activity, suggesting the presence of at least two tissue-specific DNA sequence elements within the promoter. In summary, POMC promoter sequences from -480 to -34 base pairs appear sufficient to mimic the specificity of anterior pituitary expression.

  10. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education,...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising,...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means...

  16. Heterologous activation of the Porphyra tenera HSP70 promoter in Bangiophycean algal cells.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ryo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Porphyra has attracted great attention for its biological and industrial importance. However, establishment of a stable nuclear transformation has not yet been achieved in these organisms, which impedes the molecular biological study and the development of a molecular breeding method for them. Toward establishing the stable transformation, we have recently developed an efficient transient gene expression system in Bangiophycean algae, in which the HSP70 promoter from P. tenera (PtHSP70 promoter) was activated heterologously in P. yezoensis cells. Since heterologous promoters are required for homologous recombination-based stable transformation, the identification of heterologously activated promoters is important in establishing a stable transformation system in individual Bangiophycean alga. We here examined the activation of the PtHSP70 promoter using the GC-rich PyGUS reporter system in additional Porphyra and Bangia species. The results indicated that this promoter drove expression of the PyGUS gene efficiently in all examined algae, whereas there was quite low expression of PyGUS by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter that is widely used as a heterologous promoter in the transformation of green land plants. Therefore, heterologous activation of the PtHSP70 promoter could promote the establishment of the stable transformation system in various kinds of Bangiophycean algae.

  17. Forget energy conservation - think energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}CONSERVE ENERGY: Please Turn Off The Lights!{close_quotes} Many buildings constructed before 1975 have the peeling remains of those green or orange stickers on light switches. They are the remnants of a U.S. energy policy gone bad. Twenty years ago, energy conservation meant telling employees to wear sweaters to work and applying stickers to remind people to turn off the lights. Neither worked. People who see those old stickers probably don`t know that a quiet revolution has taken place inside thousands of public and commercial buildings. Thanks to new technology and a new attitude about energy, you can forget sweaters and switches. For example... (1) Motion sensors automatically turn off fights when you leave the room. (2) Computers determine when energy rates go down to get the best value. (3) Personal environmental modules let office workers set their cubicle`s heating and lighting levels. These days, energy efficiency is equated with good business. It can increase productivity, create jobs, and reduce pollution -- all with very little effort. That`s why it`s called energy efficiency, not energy conservation. And energy efficiency is good government. If Congress truly is committed to lowering taxes and reducing the budget deficit, members should first look at ways to lower the nation`s energy bill through energy efficiency. It is in the best interests of the energy efficiency industry to work together and promote these benefits.

  18. Span efficiency in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects. PMID:23658113

  19. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  20. Essays in Efficiency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchuk, Pavlo

    Today a standard procedure to analyze the impact of environmental factors on productive efficiency of a decision making unit is to use a two stage approach, where first one estimates the efficiency and then uses regression techniques to explain the variation of efficiency between different units. It is argued that the abovementioned method may produce doubtful results which may distort the truth data represent. In order to introduce economic intuition and to mitigate the problem of omitted variables we introduce the matching procedure which is to be used before the efficiency analysis. We believe that by having comparable decision making units we implicitly control for the environmental factors at the same time cleaning the sample of outliers. The main goal of the first part of the thesis is to compare a procedure including matching prior to efficiency analysis with straightforward two stage procedure without matching as well as an alternative of conditional efficiency frontier. We conduct our study using a Monte Carlo simulation with different model specifications and despite the reduced sample which may create some complications in the computational stage we strongly agree with a notion of economic meaningfulness of the newly obtained results. We also compare the results obtained by the new method with ones previously produced by Demchuk and Zelenyuk (2009) who compare efficiencies of Ukrainian regions and find some differences between the two approaches. Second part deals with an empirical study of electricity generating power plants before and after market reform in Texas. We compare private, public and municipal power generators using the method introduced in part one. We find that municipal power plants operate mostly inefficiently, while private and public are very close in their production patterns. The new method allows us to compare decision making units from different groups, which may have different objective schemes and productive incentives. Despite

  1. Creating and Promoting a Natural History Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belben, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the value of developing and promoting a natural history library by school library media specialists. Topics include benefits to students; promoting outdoor education; recommended reading for high school students; using technology; and other aids to promote outdoor education. (LRW)

  2. Effects of acid and alkali promoters on compressed liquid hot water pretreatment of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Imman, Saksit; Arnthong, Jantima; Burapatana, Vorakan; Champreda, Verawat; Laosiripojana, Navadol

    2014-11-01

    In this study, effects of homogeneous acid and alkali promoters on efficiency and selectivity of LHW pretreatment of rice straw were studied. The presences of acid (0.25%v/v H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and oxalic acid) and alkali (0.25 w/v NaOH) efficiently promoted hydrolysis of hemicellulose, improved enzymatic digestibility of the solids, and lower the required LHW temperature. Oxalic acid was a superior promoter under the optimal LHW conditions at 160 °C, leading to the highest glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis (84.2%) and the lowest formation of furans. Combined with hydrolyzed glucose in the liquid, this resulted in the maximal 91.6% glucose recovery from the native rice straw. This was related to changes in surface area and crystallinity of pretreated biomass. The results showed efficiency of external promoters on increasing sugar recovery and saving energy in LHW pretreatment.

  3. Sustaining health promotion programs within sport and recreation organisations.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan M; Payne, Warren R; Eime, Rochelle M; Brown, Sue J

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of the sport and recreation sector as a setting for health promotion is a new strategy implemented by health policy makers and strategic planners. Strategies to promote and sustain health promotion activities are important considering the risk that programs may cease after initial funding ends. This study explored the factors affecting the sustainability of a sport- and recreation-based health promotion program. A stratified sampling method was used to select four of the nine Regional Sports Assemblies (RSAs) that delivered a state-wide health promotion program funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation in Australia. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with four Executive Officers (EOs) and focus group discussions with their Boards of Management. A sustainability checklist with pre-specified dimensions (e.g. organisational setting, broader community environment, and program design and implementation) guided data collection and analysis. The results showed that the organisational setting and the broader community environment supported program institutionalisation; whilst the design and implementation of the program worked against institutionalisation. The capacity of the organisations to generate new funds for the program was limited; the relationship between the central funding organisation and the Boards of Management was weak; and the program did not support the retention of staff. The engagement of sport and recreation organisations has potential to facilitate health promotion and public health. To enhance organisational capacity and achieve program sustainability, it is important that organisational processes, structures, and resources that support long-term health promotion practice are effectively and efficiently planned and managed.

  4. Ginning efficiency - research progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few years, there has been a consorted effort between cotton geneticists/breeders, ginning engineers and molecular scientists to understand ‘ginning efficiency’ in upland cotton. Ginning efficiency includes ginning rate (measured in g lint sec-1) and net gin stand energy (measured in Wh k...

  5. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  6. Jet Inlet Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-08

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes -Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes -Green Keith Williams John

  7. The Effective, Efficient Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a succinct overview of the book "The Effective, Efficient Professor" (P. Wankat) that presents a wealth of strategies and techniques for successful faculty members. Sections of the book focus on time management, teaching, students, and scholarship and service. Includes some practical tips from the book ranging from instructional…

  8. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  9. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  11. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  12. ERP=Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Deploying an ERP system is one of the most extensive--and expensive--IT projects a college or university can undertake. The potential benefits of ERP are significant: a more smoothly running operation with efficiencies in virtually every area of administration, from automated…

  13. Mental health promotion: concepts and strategies for reaching the population.

    PubMed

    Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2007-12-01

    There have been many attempts to define mental health promotion. To date, there is no consensus in the field as to what it entails. While some understand it as a holistic concept including intervening at structural, societal and political levels to positively influence mental health, others conceptualise it basically as strategies with an individual focus to improve personal competencies. Many of these differences are related to the distinct understanding of the concepts of mental well-being and positive mental health. The lack of clarity on the boundaries of mental health promotion has divided professionals and is a missed opportunity, as momentum is moving mental health promotion on to political agendas. In Europe, two important milestones for mental health, the WHO Ministerial Conference and the EC Green Paper on Mental Health, have moved mental health promotion into the political landscape, recognising positive mental health and mental well-being as fundamental to the quality of life and productivity of Europeans and a contributor to sustainable development. Although proven efficacious, ad hoc implementation of mental health promotion programs alone is not sufficient to ensure improvement of the population's mental health. Co-ordinated action that includes efficient ways to deliver such interventions in a sustainable way is essential. Two such delivery mechanisms in the search for efficiency are discussed in this paper: a) identifying co-occurrence of mental and physical health problems in order to include mental health promotion components into existing health promotion interventions; and, b) supporting the inclusion of mental health indicators into sound public policy options in order to prove that efficacious policies in labour, education, environment, etc, also bring about positive mental health outcomes. To support the current interest to bring about positive mental health it is essential that evaluation of existing initiatives is put in place, as well as

  14. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  15. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

  16. Innovative financing for energy-efficiency improvements. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, M.; Schwartz, H.K.; Feder, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Green, R.H.; Williams, J.; Sherman, J.L.; Carroll, M.

    1982-01-01

    The use of utility-assisted financing, tax-exempt financing, bank financing, leasing, and joint venture financing to promote energy efficiency investments for each of three different categories of buildings (multifamily, commercial, and industrial) is discussed in separate chapters. (MCW)

  17. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  18. Energy-Efficient Schools: Three Case Studies from Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document presents case studies of three schools or districts in Oregon that have implemented steps to promote energy efficiency. Steps taken by the schools include daylighting, energy audits, special energy loans, new ventilation design, and sustainable building practices. The facilities described are Ash Creek Intermediate School in…

  19. The impact of growth promoters on muscle growth and the potential consequences for meat quality.

    PubMed

    Parr, Tim; Mareko, Molebeledi H D; Ryan, Kevin J P; Hemmings, Krystal M; Brown, David M; Brameld, John M

    2016-10-01

    To meet the demands of increased global meat consumption, animal production systems will have to become more efficient, or at least maintain the current efficiency utilizing feed ingredients that are not also used for human consumption. Use of growth promoters is a potential option for increasing production animal feed efficiency and increased muscle growth. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the mechanisms by which the growth promoters, beta-adrenergic agonists and growth hormone, mediate their effects, with specific consideration of the aspects which have implications for meat quality.

  20. DNA signals at isoform promoters

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional heterogeneity is extensive in the genome, and most genes express variable transcript isoforms. However, whether variable transcript isoforms of one gene are regulated by common promoter elements remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isoform promoters of one gene have separated DNA signals for transcription and translation initiation. We found that TATA box and nucleosome-disfavored DNA sequences are prevalent in distinct transcript isoform promoters of one gene. These DNA signals are conserved among species. Transcript isoform has a RNA-determined unstructured region around its start site. We found that these DNA/RNA features facilitate isoform transcription and translation. These results suggest a DNA-encoded mechanism by which transcript isoform is generated. PMID:27353836

  1. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  2. Promoter Hypermethylation in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prostate gland is the most common site of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in American men. It is well known that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation within the regulatory (promoter) regions of genes are associated with transcriptional silencing in cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of critical pathway genes could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Methods This review discusses current information on methylated genes associated with prostate cancer development and progression. Results Over 30 genes have been investigated for promoter methylation in prostate cancer. These methylated genes are involved in critical pathways, such as DNA repair, metabolism, and invasion/metastasis. The role of hypermethylated genes in regulation of critical pathways in prostate cancer is reviewed. Conclusions These findings may provide new information of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Certain epigenetic alterations in prostate tumors are being translated into clinical practice for therapeutic use. PMID:20861812

  3. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  4. Promoting recovery from ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Antje; Minnerup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, experimental and clinical stroke studies have identified a number of neurorestorative treatments that stimulate neural plasticity and promote functional recovery. In contrast to the acute stroke treatments thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, neurorestorative treatments are still effective when initiated days after stroke onset, which makes them applicable to virtually all stroke patients. In this article, selected physical, pharmacological and cell-based neurorestorative therapies are discussed, with special emphasis on interventions that have already been transferred from the laboratory to the clinical setting. We explain molecular and structural processes that promote neural plasticity, discuss potential limitations of neurorestorative treatments, and offer a speculative viewpoint on how neurorestorative treatments will evolve.

  5. Synthetic Core Promoters for Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic promoters are commonly used tools for circuit design or high level protein production. Promoter engineering efforts in yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris have mostly been focused on altering upstream regulatory sequences such as transcription factor binding sites. In higher eukaryotes synthetic core promoters, directly needed for transcription initiation by RNA Polymerase II, have been successfully designed. Here we report the first synthetic yeast core promoter for P. pastoris, based on natural yeast core promoters. Furthermore we used this synthetic core promoter sequence to engineer the core promoter of the natural AOX1 promoter, thereby creating a set of core promoters providing a range of different expression levels. As opposed to engineering strategies of the significantly longer entire promoter, such short core promoters can directly be added on a PCR primer facilitating library generation and are sufficient to obtain variable expression yields. PMID:24187969

  6. High-efficiency beam bending using graded photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Oner, B B; Turduev, M; Kurt, H

    2013-05-15

    We explore beam-bending properties of graded index (GRIN) waveguide with hyperbolic secant profile. The transmission efficiency and bandwidth features are extracted for GRIN photonic crystal (PC) media composed of dielectric rods. Light guiding performance of the GRIN PC medium is analyzed for 90° and 180° waveguide bends. The finite-difference time-domain method is deployed to investigate the performance of the designed GRIN waveguides. By the help of proposed photonic configuration, bending of light is achieved with a high efficiency within a broad bandwidth, which promotes the use of GRIN PC structures for efficient light-bending purposes.

  7. No Promoter Left Behind (NPLB): learn de novo promoter architectures from genome-wide transcription start sites

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sneha; Narlikar, Leelavati

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Promoters have diverse regulatory architectures and thus activate genes differently. For example, some have a TATA-box, many others do not. Even the ones with it can differ in its position relative to the transcription start site (TSS). No Promoter Left Behind (NPLB) is an efficient, organism-independent method for characterizing such diverse architectures directly from experimentally identified genome-wide TSSs, without relying on known promoter elements. As a test case, we show its application in identifying novel architectures in the fly genome. Availability and implementation: Web-server at http://nplb.ncl.res.in. Standalone also at https://github.com/computationalBiology/NPLB/ (Mac OSX/Linux). Contact: l.narlikar@ncl.res.in Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26530723

  8. Several different upstream promoter elements can potentiate transactivation by the BPV-1 E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ham, J; Dostatni, N; Arnos, F; Yaniv, M

    1991-01-01

    The enhancer and upstream promoter regions of RNA polymerase II transcribed genes modulate the rate of transcription initiation and establish specific patterns of gene expression. Both types of region consist of clusters of DNA binding sites for nuclear proteins. To determine how efficiently the same factor can activate transcription when acting as an enhancer or promoter factor, we have studied transactivation by the BPV-1 E2 protein, a papillomavirus transcriptional regulator. By cotransfecting a BPV-1 E2 expression vector and a series of reporter plasmids containing well-defined chimeric promoters we have found that whilst E2 can strongly stimulate complex promoters such as that of the HSV tk gene, it does not efficiently activate constructions containing only a TATA box and initiation site. We show that insertion of upstream promoter elements, but not of spacer DNA, between E2 binding sites and the TATA box greatly increases E2 activation. This effect was observed with more than one type of upstream promoter element, is not related to the strength of the promoter and is unlikely to result from co-operative DNA binding by E2 and the transcription factors tested. These results would suggest that E2 has the properties of an enhancer rather than promoter factor and that in certain cases promoter and enhancer factors may affect different steps in the process of transcriptional activation. Images PMID:1655407

  9. Identification and refinement of two strong constitutive promoters for gene expression system of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongcheng; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ren; Mei, Yanzhen; Shao, Weilan

    2014-06-01

    Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe shares various important properties with higher eukaryotes and is now considered a useful host for elevated production of mammalian proteins for medicinal applications. The full-length nmt1 promoter has been widely used as a strong promoter in S. pombe expression system. In the present study, the promoters of the eno101 and gpd3 genes in S. pombe were identified as strong constitutive promoters. For convenient applications in the plasmids of S. pombe, these promoters were refined to 276-bp eno and 273-bp gpd promoters by deleting undesired sequences and examining the expression of reporter genes including lacZ and xynA. Both the refined eno and gpd promoters provided approximately 1.5-fold higher expression of LacZ than nmt1 promoter. Furthermore, gene expression under the control of the eno or gpd promoter was not repressed by the components of YES medium while nmt1 promoter was inhibited by thiamine in yeast extract. Therefore, both eno and gpd promoters offer opportunities for efficient production of recombinant proteins by S. pombe in high cell-density fermentation.

  10. Positive and negative control sequences within the distal domain of the adenovirus IVa2 promoter overlap with the major late promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, V; Madden, M J; Salzman, N P

    1985-01-01

    The RNA initiation sites of the adenovirus IVa2 and major late promoters (MLP) are separated by 210 base pairs and transcribed from opposite DNA strands. We had previously shown that they contained overlapping promoter sequences (V. Natarajan, M. J. Madden, and N. P. Salzman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:6290-6294, 1984). The transcription efficiencies of these two promoters were studied in vitro with templates of covalently closed circular DNAs that contained various deletion and point mutants. The distal control region of the IVa2 promoter that is located at nucleotide position (np) -152 to -242 from the RNA initiation site consists of at least two domains. The first distal domain, present between np -152 and -179, is necessary for efficient transcription of the IVa2 promoter, and it overlaps with sequences that have been shown to be necessary for efficient transcription of MLP. This region may serve as the entry site for the transcription machinery. The second distal domain consists of sequences present between np -211 and -242. These sequences are contained at the 5' end in the MLP transcript, and they inhibit transcription from the IVa2 promoter. However, these sequences are not necessary for transcription of the MLP with a covalently closed template but are needed for transcription with a linear template. The TATA box that is located at np -180 to -186 between these two domains has a critical role for efficient transcription of the MLP. A point mutation that reduces transcription from MLP by more than 80% stimulates transcription from IVa2 promoter by 10-fold. This finding is consistent with the proposal that MLP and IVa2 promoters share an entry site for transcription machinery and compete for its use. Images PMID:4009788

  11. Linking quality improvement and energy efficiency/waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Moore, N.L.

    1995-04-01

    For some time industry has recognized the importance of both energy efficiency/waste reduction (ee/wr) and quality/manufacturing improvement. However, industry has not particularly recognized that manufacturing efficiency is, in part, the result of a more efficient use of energy. For that reason, the energy efficiency efforts of most companies have involved admonishing employees to save energy. Few organizations have invested resources in training programs aimed at increasing energy efficiency and reducing waste. This describes a program to demonstrate how existing utility and government training and incentive programs can be leveraged to increase ee/wr and benefit both industry and consumers. Fortunately, there are a variety of training tools and resources that can be applied to educating workers on the benefits of energy efficiency and waste reduction. What is lacking is a method of integrating ee/wr training with other important organizational needs. The key, therefore, is to leverage ee/wr investments with other organizational improvement programs. There are significant strides to be made by training industry to recognize fully the contribution that energy efficiency gains make to the bottom line. The federal government stands in the unique position of being able to leverage the investments already made by states, utilities, and manufacturing associations by coordinating training programs and defining the contribution of energy-efficiency practices. These aims can be accomplished by: developing better measures of energy efficiency and waste reduction; promoting methods of leveraging manufacturing efficiency programs with energy efficiency concepts; helping industry understand how ee/wr investments can increase profits; promoting research on the needs of, and most effective ways to, reach the small and medium-sized businesses that so often lack the time, information, and finances to effectively use the hardware and training technologies available.

  12. Advanced Chemical Design for Efficient Lignin Bioconversion

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Shangxian; Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, lignin depolymerization mainly involves redox reactions relying on the effective electron transfer. Even though electron mediators were previously used for delignification of paper pulp, no study has established a bioprocess to fragment and solubilize the lignin with an effective laccase–mediator system, in particular, for subsequent microbial bioconversion. Efficient lignin depolymerization was achieved by screening proper electron mediators with laccase to attain a nearly 6-fold increase of kraft lignin solubility compared to the control kraft lignin without laccase treatment. Chemical analysis suggested the release of a low molecular weight fraction of kraft lignin into the solution phase. Moreover, NMR analysismore » revealed that an efficient enzyme–mediator system can promote the lignin degradation. More importantly, the fundamental mechanisms guided the development of an efficient lignin bioconversion process, where solubilized lignin from laccase–HBT treatment served as a superior substrate for bioconversion by Rhodococcus opacus PD630. The cell growth was increased by 106 fold, and the lipid titer reached 1.02 g/L. Overall, the study has manifested that an efficient enzyme–mediator–microbial system can be exploited to establish a bioprocess to solubilize lignin, cleave lignin linkages, modify the structure, and produce substrates amenable to bioconversion.« less

  13. Advanced chemical design for efficient lignin bioconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shangxian; Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Lin, Furong; Sun, Su; Wang, Xin; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-12-22

    Here, lignin depolymerization mainly involves redox reactions relying on the effective electron transfer. Even though electron mediators were previously used for delignification of paper pulp, no study has established a bioprocess to fragment and solubilize the lignin with an effective laccase–mediator system, in particular, for subsequent microbial bioconversion. Efficient lignin depolymerization was achieved by screening proper electron mediators with laccase to attain a nearly 6-fold increase of kraft lignin solubility compared to the control kraft lignin without laccase treatment. Chemical analysis suggested the release of a low molecular weight fraction of kraft lignin into the solution phase. Moreover, NMR analysis revealed that an efficient enzyme–mediator system can promote the lignin degradation. More importantly, the fundamental mechanisms guided the development of an efficient lignin bioconversion process, where solubilized lignin from laccase–HBT treatment served as a superior substrate for bioconversion by Rhodococcus opacus PD630. The cell growth was increased by 106 fold, and the lipid titer reached 1.02 g/L. Overall, the study has manifested that an efficient enzyme–mediator–microbial system can be exploited to establish a bioprocess to solubilize lignin, cleave lignin linkages, modify the structure, and produce substrates amenable to bioconversion.

  14. High Efficiency Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbajal, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The specific activity was to improve the tandem junction Cell (TJC) as a high efficiency solar cell. The TJC development was to be consistent with module assembly and should contribute to the overall goals of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project. During 1978, TJC efficiency improved from approximately 11 percent to approximately 16 percent (AMI). Photogenerated current densities in excess of 42 mA/sq cm were observed at AMO. Open circuit voltages as high as 0.615 V were measured at AMO. Fill factor was only 0.68 - 0.75 due to a nonoptimum metal contact design. A device model was conceived in which the solar cell is modelled as a transitor. There are virtually no interconnect or packaging factor systems and the TJC is compatible with all conventional module fabrication systems. A modification of the TJC, the Front Surface Field (FSF) cell, was also explored.

  15. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  16. SparkJet Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golbabaei-Asl, Mona; Knight, Doyle; Anderson, Kellie; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for determining the thermal efficiency of the SparkJet is proposed. A SparkJet is attached to the end of a pendulum. The motion of the pendulum subsequent to a single spark discharge is measured using a laser displacement sensor. The measured displacement vs time is compared with the predictions of a theoretical perfect gas model to estimate the fraction of the spark discharge energy which results in heating the gas (i.e., increasing the translational-rotational temperature). The results from multiple runs for different capacitances of c = 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micro-F show that the thermal efficiency decreases with higher capacitive discharges.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  19. Carnot efficiency: Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2013-09-01

    In 1824, Carnot proposed a cycle operating on reversibility principles. He proved that there exists an upper limit of the efficiency of this cycle and this limit is also the upper limit for any real process. The irreversibility related to the finite-time and the finite-size constraints are fundamental for the optimization of any real thermodynamic system. It has been pointed out how fundamental is the interaction between any open system and its surroundings. The meaning of the Carnot efficiency is that even in the ideal condition, when there is no dissipation, there exists something that does not allow the system to convert all the energies absorbed in work. The aim of this paper is to show why this happens, starting from a variational approach of thermodynamics.

  20. Energy efficiency buildings program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Progress is reported in developing techniques for auditing the energy performance of buildings. The ventilation of buildings and indoor air quality is discussed from the viewpoint of (1) combustion generated pollutants; (2) organic contaminants; (3) radon emanation, measurements, and control; (4) strategies for the field monitoring of indoor air quality; and (5) mechanical ventilation systems using air-to-air heat exchanges. The development of energy efficient windows to provide optimum daylight with minimal thermal losses in cold weather and minimum thermal gain in hot weather is considered as well as the production of high frequency solid state ballasts for fluorescent lights to provide more efficient lighting at a 25% savings over conventional core ballasts. Data compilation, analysis, and demonstration activities are summarized.

  1. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  2. Media Independent Handover for Wireless Full Motion Video Dissemination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    COP Common Operational Picture CUCM CISCO Unified Communications Managers DDAN DISN Deployed Access Node DISN Defense Information Systems Network...for DVBRCS, the ability to see real-time FMV feeds could become a reality. As Technical Manager of the TSP Joint Capability Technology Demonstration...defined, media independent and media dependent. The media independent SAPs allow the MIHF to provide services to the upper layers of the mobility management

  3. Considerations on propeller efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1928-01-01

    The propeller cannot be considered alone, but the mutual interference between propeller and airplane must be considered. These difficulties are so great when the joint action of propeller and airplane is considered, that the aerodynamic laboratory at Gottingen originally abandoned the idea of applying the efficiency conception of the test results. These difficulties and the methods by which they are overcome are outlined in this report.

  4. Developments in Efficiency Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Statistical Society, Series A, General, 120, 3, 253-281 1957l. 15. Fenchel , W., Convex Sets , Cones and Functions , Princeton University Press...Efficiency Value .... 58 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Empirical Production Possibility Set ................ 7 2. Isotonic Function with Concave Cap...frontier of production possibility sets to define "the" production function . The work of R. Shephard[18], [19] under severe restrictions on the mathematical

  5. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  6. Efficient Cryosolid Positron Moderators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    41 62 Correlation between CEM and γ−γ coincidence signals ........................................41 63 13.9-µm...70 114 Compiled RPA scans for data shown in Figure 112 ..............................................71 115 Correlation plot of γ−γ coincidence ... coincidence detection of the annihilation radiation with a pair of NaI(Tl) detectors. The CEM approach has a much higher detection efficiency, but the γ−γ

  7. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  8. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  9. New Construct Approaches for Efficient Gene Silencing in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hua; Chretien, Robert; Ye, Jingsong; Rommens, Caius M.

    2006-01-01

    An important component of conventional sense, antisense, and double-strand RNA-based gene silencing constructs is the transcriptional terminator. Here, we show that this regulatory element becomes obsolete when gene fragments are positioned between two oppositely oriented and functionally active promoters. The resulting convergent transcription triggers gene silencing that is at least as effective as unidirectional promoter-to-terminator transcription. In addition to short, variably sized, and nonpolyadenylated RNAs, terminator-free cassette produced rare, longer transcripts that reach into the flanking promoter. These read-through products did not influence the efficacy and expression levels of the neighboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Replacement of gene fragments by promoter-derived sequences further increased the extent of gene silencing. This finding indicates that genomic DNA may be a more efficient target for gene silencing than gene transcripts. PMID:16766670

  10. Health Promotion at the Ballpark.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Bonni C

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.

  11. Teachers Promoting Student Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina; Maher, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    During an informal, after-school, math program, a group of middle school students worked collaboratively on open-ended problems. The students co-constructed arguments, provided justifications for their solutions, and engaged in mathematical reasoning. This paper describes the specific teacher moves that promoted this phenomenon. The findings of…

  12. Women's Studies Online: Promoting Visibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    Three problems in online searching in women's studies are type of indexing, database quality, and adequacy of coverage. Results of a recent study show there is significant end-user satisfaction and the searches done are described in order to promote greater and more effective use of online retrieval in women's studies. (Author/EM)

  13. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  14. The Rhetoric of "Promoting Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Uses Chaim Perelman's theories of argumentation to examine a recent Institute of Medicine report, "Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research" (2000). Notes that it focuses on social, economic, behavioral, and political health as a means of assuring population health--and thereby expands the…

  15. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  16. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  17. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda

    2015-01-01

    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  18. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  19. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  20. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  1. Promoting Multiculturalism in Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the teaching profession needs to recognize the natural connections between multicultural and developmental education. Presents eight steps developmental educators can take to promote pluralism, including (1) establishing a clear link between cultural pluralism and institutional and programmatic mission and goals; (2) striving for…

  2. Promoting science together with art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John

    2011-08-01

    The divide between science and art will forever be fuel for discussion, as two articles in the June issue of Physics World show. In the first, Leonardo Colletti (p16) calls for physicists to invite poets to conferences, while in the second (p19) Robert P Crease urges us to take insights from the study of culture when we try to promote science.

  3. Promoting Community Cohesion in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.; McDaid, Maggie; Potter, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Following serious disturbances in some northern cities in England in 2001, concerns about possible rising inter-communal tension have led to a statutory duty to promote community cohesion being placed on schools. Inspectors from the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) are required to make judgements in the leadership and management section…

  4. Ecological Foundations of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In this article, human ecology is defined; its historical and intellectual roots are traced through various disciplines to its applications in public health and health promotion today; its strengths and limitations are described; some potential contributions to systems theory are suggested; and some emerging ecological models of health promotion…

  5. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  6. When Promoting Democracy Is Counterproductive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esfandiari, Haleh; Litwak, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The United States has begun a $75-million program to promote democracy by supporting Iranian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). That program, coupled with loose talk about regime change from members of Congress, commentators close to the administration, and individuals within the administration, has fed a sense of vulnerability and paranoia…

  7. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion....

  20. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin...

  1. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often.... Promotion activities directed toward consummation of the employee's own sales are exempt....

  2. 76 FR 34871 - Mobile Barcode Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... 111 Mobile Barcode Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... ) 709.4 to add a temporary promotion for First-Class Mail cards, letters and flats, and Standard Mail... barcode promotion, and the new mailing standards to implement the promotion. To be eligible,...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.118 Promotion....

  4. 5 CFR 532.407 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1212.20 Section 1212.20 Agriculture..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.20 Promotion. “Promotion” means...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to the Act, to present a favorable image for watermelons to...

  14. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  15. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  16. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  17. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  18. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  19. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  20. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well...

  1. A calcium-sensitive promoter construct for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Merlet, E; Lipskaia, L; Marchand, A; Hadri, L; Mougenot, N; Atassi, F; Liang, L; Hatem, S N; Hajjar, R J; Lompré, A-M

    2013-03-01

    Targeting diseased cells is a challenging issue in both pharmacological and biological therapeutics. Gene therapy is emerging as a novel approach for treating rare diseases and for illnesses for which there is no other alternative. An important limitation of gene therapy has been the off-target effects and therefore efforts have been focused on increasing the specificity of gene transfer to the targeted organ. Here, we describe a promoter containing six nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) consensus sequences, which is as efficient as the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to drive expression in vascular smooth muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to the CMV promoter it is activated in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner after endoplasmic reticulum depletion and allows the transgene expression only in proliferative/diseased cells. Overexpression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca(2+) ATPase 2a under the control of this NFAT promoter inhibits restenosis after angioplasty in rats. In conclusion, this promoter may be useful for gene therapy in vascular proliferative diseases and other diseases involving upregulation of the NFAT pathway.

  2. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences.

    PubMed

    K, Kouser; P G, Lavanya; Rangarajan, Lalitha; K, Acharya Kshitish

    2016-01-01

    Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM) features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine), KNN (K Nearest Neighbor) and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method) but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species.

  3. Effective Feature Selection for Classification of Promoter Sequences

    PubMed Central

    K., Kouser; P. G., Lavanya; Rangarajan, Lalitha; K., Acharya Kshitish

    2016-01-01

    Exploring novel computational methods in making sense of biological data has not only been a necessity, but also productive. A part of this trend is the search for more efficient in silico methods/tools for analysis of promoters, which are parts of DNA sequences that are involved in regulation of expression of genes into other functional molecules. Promoter regions vary greatly in their function based on the sequence of nucleotides and the arrangement of protein-binding short-regions called motifs. In fact, the regulatory nature of the promoters seems to be largely driven by the selective presence and/or the arrangement of these motifs. Here, we explore computational classification of promoter sequences based on the pattern of motif distributions, as such classification can pave a new way of functional analysis of promoters and to discover the functionally crucial motifs. We make use of Position Specific Motif Matrix (PSMM) features for exploring the possibility of accurately classifying promoter sequences using some of the popular classification techniques. The classification results on the complete feature set are low, perhaps due to the huge number of features. We propose two ways of reducing features. Our test results show improvement in the classification output after the reduction of features. The results also show that decision trees outperform SVM (Support Vector Machine), KNN (K Nearest Neighbor) and ensemble classifier LibD3C, particularly with reduced features. The proposed feature selection methods outperform some of the popular feature transformation methods such as PCA and SVD. Also, the methods proposed are as accurate as MRMR (feature selection method) but much faster than MRMR. Such methods could be useful to categorize new promoters and explore regulatory mechanisms of gene expressions in complex eukaryotic species. PMID:27978541

  4. Core promoter specificities of the Sp1 and VP16 transcriptional activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Emami, K H; Navarre, W W; Smale, S T

    1995-01-01

    The core promoter compositions of mammalian protein-coding genes are highly variable; some contain TATA boxes, some contain initiator (Inr) elements, and others contain both or neither of these basal elements. The underlying reason for this heterogeneity remains a mystery, as recent studies have suggested that TATA-containing and Inr-containing core promoters direct transcription initiation by similar mechanisms and respond similarly to a wide variety of upstream activators. To analyze in greater detail the influence of core promoter structure on transcriptional activation, we compared activation by GAL4-VP16 and Sp1 through synthetic core promoters containing a TATA box, an Inr, or both TATA and Inr. Striking differences were found between the two activators, most notably in the relative strengths of the TATA/Inr and Inr core promoters: the TATA/Inr promoter was much stronger than the Inr promoter when transcription was activated by GAL4-VP16, but the strengths of the two promoters were more comparable when transcription was activated by Sp1. To define the domains of Sp1 responsible for efficient activation through an Inr, several Sp1 deletion mutants were tested as GAL4 fusion proteins. The results reveal that the glutamine-rich activation domains, which previously were found to interact with Drosophila TAF110, preferentially stimulate Inr-containing core promoters. In contrast, efficient activation through TATA appears to require additional domains of Sp1. These results demonstrate that activation domains differ in their abilities to function with specific core promoters, suggesting that the core promoter structure found in a given gene may reflect a preference of the regulators of that gene. Furthermore, the core promoter preference of an activation domain may be related to a specific mechanism of action, which may provide a functional criterion for grouping activation domains into distinct classes. PMID:7565743

  5. A comparative analysis of constitutive promoters located in adeno-associated viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Ota, Akinobu; Hossain, Ekhtear; Konishi, Yuko; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The properties of constitutive promoters within adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, AAV vectors, in which enhanced GFP expression was directed by one of the six constitutive promoters (human β-actin, human elongation factor-1α, chicken β-actin combined with cytomegalovirus early enhancer, cytomegalovirus (CMV), simian virus 40, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase), were constructed and introduced into the HCT116, DLD-1, HT-1080, and MCF-10A cell lines. Quantification of GFP signals in infected cells demonstrated that the CMV promoter produced the highest GFP expression in the six promoters and maintained relatively high GFP expression for up to eight weeks after infection of HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080. Exogenous human CDKN2A gene expression was also introduced into DLD-1 and MCF-10A in a similar pattern by using AAV vectors bearing the human β-actin and the CMV promoters. The six constitutive promoters were subsequently placed upstream of the neomycin resistance gene within AAV vectors, and HCT116, DLD-1, and HT-1080 were infected with the resulting vectors. Of the six promoters, the CMV promoter produced the largest number of G418-resistant colonies in all three cell lines. Because AAV vectors have been frequently used as a platform to construct targeting vectors that permit gene editing in human cell lines, we lastly infected the three cell lines with AAV-based targeting vectors against the human PIGA gene in which one of the six promoters regulate the neomycin resistance gene. This assay revealed that the CMV promoter led to the lowest PIGA gene targeting efficiency in the investigated promoters. These results provide a clue to the identification of constitutive promoters suitable to express exogenous genes with AAV vectors, as well as those helpful to conduct efficient gene targeting using AAV-based targeting vectors in human cell lines.

  6. Ubiquitin promoter-terminator cassette promotes genetically stable expression of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Kim, You-Wang; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Lettuce is a commercially important leafy vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, and it is also a target crop for plant factories. In this study, lettuce was selected as an alternative platform for recombinant miraculin production because of its fast growth, agronomic value, and wide availability. The taste-modifying protein miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the red berries of the West African native shrub Richadella dulcifica. Because of its limited natural availability, many attempts have been made to produce this protein in suitable alternative hosts. We produced transgenic lettuce with miraculin gene driven either by the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette from lettuce or a 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. Miraculin gene expression and miraculin accumulation in both cassettes were compared by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of the miraculin gene and protein in transgenic lettuce was higher and more genetically stable in the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette than in the 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. These results demonstrated that the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette is an efficient platform for the genetically stable expression of the miraculin protein in lettuce and hence this platform is of benefit for recombinant miraculin production on a commercial scale.

  7. Human p53 oncogene contains one promoter upstream of exon 1 and a second, stronger promoter within intron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D.; Greenberg, M.; Rotter, V. )

    1988-07-01

    To gain insight into how transcription of the human p53 oncogene is controlled, the authors characterized the regulatory regions of the gene. A 3.8-kilobase-pair (kbp) EcoRI restriction fragment encompassing the 5{prime} end of the human p53 gene, as well as subfragments generated by restriction digests, was cloned upstream of the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and CAT activity was assayed in extracts of transfected cells. Two types of CAT vectors were used: Epstein-Barr virus oriP-derived constructs that were stably introduced into the human cell lines K562, Raji, and HL-60, and pSVO-CAT-derived constructs that were transiently introduced into the monkey cell line COS. By this approach they have identified two promoters for the human p53 gene. One promoter, p53P1, is located 100-250 bp upstream of the 218-bp noncoding first exon; a second, stronger promoter, p53P2, maps within the first intron. CAT activity and expression of CAT RNA indicate that p53P2 functions up to 50-fold more efficiently than p53P1. They conclude that the expression of the human p53 gene may be controlled by two promoters and that differential regulation of these promoters may play an important role in the altered expression of the gene in both normal and transformed cells.

  8. Human miR223 promoter as a novel myelo-specific promoter for chronic granulomatous disease gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Christian; Hänseler, Walther; Wohlgensinger, Vital; Bianchi, Matteo; Tokmak, Serap; Chen-Wichmann, Linping; Kuzmenko, Elena; Cesarovic, Nikola; Nicholls, Flora; Reichenbach, Janine; Seger, Reinhard; Grez, Manuel; Siler, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Targeting transgene expression to specific hematopoietic cell lineages could contribute to the safety of retroviral vectors in gene therapeutic applications. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a defect of phagocytic cells, can be managed by gene therapy, using retroviral vectors with targeted expression to myeloid cells. In this context, we analyzed the myelospecificity of the human miR223 promoter, which is known to be strongly upregulated during myeloid differentiation, to drive myeloid-restricted expression of p47(phox) and gp91(phox) in mouse models of CGD and in primary patient-derived cells. The miR223 promoter restricted the expression of p47(phox), gp91(phox), and green fluorescent protein (GFP) within self-inactivating (SIN) gamma- and lentiviral vectors to granulocytes and macrophages, with only marginal expression in lymphocytes or hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Furthermore, gene transfer into primary CD34+ cells derived from a p47(phox) patient followed by ex vivo differentiation to neutrophils resulted in restoration of Escherichia coli killing activity by miR223 promoter-mediated p47(phox) expression. These results indicate that the miR223 promoter as an internal promoter within SIN gene therapy vectors is able to efficiently correct the CGD phenotype with negligible activity in hematopoietic progenitors, thereby limiting the risk of insertional oncogenesis and development of clonal dominance.

  9. Radio efficiency of pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Szary, Andrzej; Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Ren-Xin E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-03-20

    We investigate radio emission efficiency, ξ, of pulsars and report a near-linear inverse correlation between ξ and the spin-down power, E-dot , as well as a near-linear correlation between ξ and pulsar age, τ. This is a consequence of very weak, if any, dependences of radio luminosity, L, on pulsar period, P, and the period derivative, P-dot , in contrast to X-ray or γ-ray emission luminosities. The analysis of radio fluxes suggests that these correlations are not due to a selection effect, but are intrinsic to the pulsar radio emission physics. We have found that, although with a large variance, the radio luminosity of pulsars is ≈10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1}, regardless of the position in the P-- P-dot diagram. Within such a picture, a model-independent statement can be made that the death line of radio pulsars corresponds to an upper limit in the efficiency of radio emission. If we introduce the maximum value for radio efficiency into the Monte Carlo-based population syntheses we can reproduce the observed sample using the random luminosity model. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on a synthetic flux distribution reveals a high probability of reproducing the observed distribution. Our results suggest that the plasma responsible for generating radio emission is produced under similar conditions regardless of pulsar age, dipolar magnetic field strength, and spin-down rate. The magnetic fields near the pulsar surface are likely dominated by crust-anchored, magnetic anomalies, which do not significantly differ among pulsars, leading to similar conditions for generating electron-positron pairs necessary to power radio emission.

  10. High-efficiency CARM

    SciTech Connect

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  11. Increased expression in vivo and in vitro of foreign genes directed by A-type inclusion body hybrid promoters in recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, S; Itamura, S; Iinuma, H; Nerome, K; Sugimoto, M; Shida, H

    1991-01-01

    We constructed A-type inclusion body (ATI) hybrid promoters, that is, late ATI promoters followed by tandemly repeated early regions of the promoter for the 7.5-kDa protein (the 7.5-kDa promoter). The repetition of the whole early promoter sequence of the 7.5-kDa gene, including the upstream consensus sequence and initiation region, efficiently increased the early expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in recombinant vaccinia virus. Recombinant vaccinia virus could express influenza virus hemagglutinin via the hybrid promoter more efficiently, induced higher levels of neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and consequently protected mice more efficiently against challenge with influenza virus than did recombinant vaccinia virus containing the widely used 7.5-kDa promoter. Images PMID:1654453

  12. Cost efficient command management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.

  13. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  14. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzisera, Steven; Brown, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  15. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  16. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  17. Energy efficient engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Sabla, P. E.; Bahr, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting or closely approaching the emissions goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Project with an advanced design, single annular combustor was determined. A total of nine sector combustor configurations and one full-annular-combustor configuration were evaluated. Acceptable levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were obtained with several of the sector combustor configurations tested, and several of the configurations tested demonstrated reduced levels of nitrogen oxides compared to conventional, single annular designs. None of the configurations tested demonstrated nitrogen oxide emission levels that meet the goal of the E3 Project.

  18. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  19. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  20. Viral Vector-Based Dissection of Marmoset GFAP Promoter in Mouse and Marmoset Brains

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobutaka; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Kishi, Shoji; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are small in diameter, diffuse easily in the brain, and represent a highly efficient means by which to transfer a transgene to the brain of a large animal. A major demerit of AAV vectors is their limited accommodation capacity for transgenes. Thus, a compact promoter is useful when delivering large transgenes via AAV vectors. In the present study, we aimed to identify the shortest astrocyte-specific GFAP promoter region that could be used for AAV-vector-mediated transgene expression in the marmoset brain. The 2.0-kb promoter region upstream of the GFAP gene was cloned from the marmoset genome, and short promoters (1.6 kb, 1.4 kb, 0.6 kb, 0.3 kb and 0.2 kb) were obtained by progressively deleting the original 2.0-kb promoter from the 5’ end. The short promoters were screened in the mouse cerebellum in terms of their strength and astrocyte specificity. We found that the 0.3-kb promoter maintained 40% of the strength of the original 2.0-kb promoter, and approximately 90% of its astrocyte specificity. These properties were superior to those of the 1.4-kb, 0.6-kb (20% promoter strength) and 0.2-kb (70% astrocyte specificity) promoters. Then, we verified whether the 0.3-kb GFAP promoter retained astrocyte specificity in the marmoset cerebral cortex. Injection of viral vectors carrying the 0.3-kb marmoset GFAP promoter specifically transduced astrocytes in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex of the marmoset. These results suggest that the compact 0.3-kb promoter region serves as an astrocyte-specific promoter in the marmoset brain, which permits us to express a large gene by AAV vectors that have a limited accommodation capacity. PMID:27571575