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Sample records for promotes efficient handover

  1. Technology support of the handover: promoting observability, flexibility and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emily S

    2012-12-01

    Efforts to standardise data elements and increase the comprehensiveness of information included in patient handovers have produced a growing interest in augmenting the verbal exchange of information with written communications conducted through health information technology (HIT). The aim of this perspective is to offer recommendations to optimise technology support of handovers, based on a review of the relevant scientific literature. Review of the literature on human factors and the study of communication produced three recommendations. The first entails making available "shared knowledge" relevant to the handover and subsequent clinical management with intended and unintended recipients. The second is to create a flexible narrative structure (unstructured text fields) for human-human communications facilitated by technology. The third recommendation is to avoid reliance on real-time data entry during busy periods. Implementing these recommendations is anticipated to increase the observability (the ability to readily determine current status), flexibility, and efficiency of HIT-supported patient handovers. Anticipated benefits of technology-supported handovers include reducing reliance on human memory, increasing the efficiency and structure of the verbal exchange, avoiding readbacks of numeric data, and aiding clinical management following the handover. In cases when verbal handovers are delayed, do not occur, or involve members of the health care team without first-hand access to critical information, making 'common ground' observable for all recipients, creating a flexible narrative structure for communication and avoiding reliance on real-time data entry during the busiest times has implications for HIT design and day to day data entry and management operations. Benefits include increased observability, flexibility, and efficiency of HIT-supported patient handovers.

  2. Implementing electronic handover: interventions to improve efficiency, safety and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Alhamid, Sharifah Munirah; Lee, Desmond Xue-Yuan; Wong, Hei Man; Chuah, Matthew Bingfeng; Wong, Yu Jun; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Tan, Thuan Tong; Low, Su Ying

    2016-10-01

    Effective handovers are critical for patient care and safety. Electronic handover tools are increasingly used today to provide an effective and standardized platform for information exchange. The implementation of an electronic handover system in tertiary hospitals can be a major challenge. Previous efforts in implementing an electronic handover tool failed due to poor compliance and buy-in from end-users. A new electronic handover tool was developed and incorporated into the existing electronic medical records (EMRs) for medical patients in Singapore General Hospital (SGH). There was poor compliance by on-call doctors in acknowledging electronic handovers, and lack of adherence to safety rules, raising concerns about the safety and efficiency of the electronic handover tool. Urgent measures were needed to ensure its safe and sustained use. A quality improvement group comprising stakeholders, including end-users, developed multi-faceted interventions using rapid PDSA (P-Plan, D-Do, S-Study, A-Act ) cycles to address these issues. Innovative solutions using media and online software provided cost-efficient measures to improve compliance. The percentage of unacknowledged handovers per day was used as the main outcome measure throughout all PDSA cycles. Doctors were also assessed for improvement in their knowledge of safety rules and their perception of the electronic handover tool. An electronic handover tool complementing daily clinical practice can be successfully implemented using solutions devised through close collaboration with end-users supported by the senior leadership. A combined 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' approach with regular process evaluations is crucial for its long-term sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  4. A Study on Efficient Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover Scheme Using Reverse Binding Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Randy S.; Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Sung-Gyu; Kim, Miso; Park, Byungjoo

    This paper proposes a solution for solving the packet handover issues of MIPv6. We propose an efficient scheme that can support fast handover effectively in standard Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) by optimizing the associated data and the flow of signal during handover. A new signaling message Reverse Packet Binding Mechanism is defined and utilized to hasten the handover procedure by adding a buffer in access point (AP) and home agent (HA).

  5. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  6. Developing a community mental health nursing handover form.

    PubMed

    Burleton, Laurie

    While nursing handovers are predominantly used in ward settings, this essential form of communication is also used by community mental health teams to promote continuity of care. A community mental health nursing handover form was developed to overcome poor communication of patient information. It is expected that the form will increase efficiency and reduce handover time by focusing on pertinent and current patient information. Implementation of a community mental health nursing handover form requires the willingness of staff to be proactive and embrace change. The involvement of nurse leaders is essential to implement successful change, overcome barriers and motivate staff.

  7. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Based on Light-Weight Diffie-Hellman on Mobile Node in FMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeduck; Jung, Souhwan

    This letter proposes a secure and efficient handover authentication scheme that requires a light-weight Diffie-Hellman operation at mobile nodes. Our scheme provides more enhanced securities like the PFS, PBS, and so on than the existing security-context-transfer schemes. Also, the mobile node delegates the exponent operation for the DH to the access router to reduce computational cost on it.

  8. Improving medical handover at the weekend: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Emma; Patel, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years medical handover has been identified as an increasingly important area for hospitals to improve upon, in light of the changes in shift patterns for doctors. Significant changes to weekday handover had recently been successfully introduced at Broomfield hospital. Weekend handover remained a concern, with an electronic and paper system being used simultaneously. Our objectives were to introduce a new electronic handover system for weekend handover at Broomfield Hospital and improve the organisation of the weekend handover meeting to promote patient safety. Doctors involved in weekend handover were surveyed using a questionnaire, to establish insufficiencies in the weekend handover process; where both the electronic ExtraMed system and paper were being used inconsistently. A new weekend handover system was introduced together with a new user-friendly electronic handover database, addressing the identified difficulties in the current system. These changes met the medical handover guidelines set by the Royal College of Physicians. Three months after the launch of the new system, doctors were re-surveyed using a modified questionnaire to assess the impact our changes had made. Before changes were implemented only 12% of doctors surveyed used the electronic system for weekend. Eighty-nine percent found sorting through jobs time consuming and 67% were handed jobs to them meant for a different grade of doctor. Only 41% were aware who to hand weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of safety was 3.18 out of 5. The electronic system was felt to be time consuming and complicated. After execution of the new weekend handover process, 100% of doctors reported using the electronic system for weekend handover. Only 47% of doctors felt sorting through jobs was time consuming and 89% of doctors were aware who to handover weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of the safety of weekend handover improved to 3.84 out of 5. Informal interviews on the ward

  9. Improving medical handover at the weekend: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Michael, Emma; Patel, Chandni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years medical handover has been identified as an increasingly important area for hospitals to improve upon, in light of the changes in shift patterns for doctors. Significant changes to weekday handover had recently been successfully introduced at Broomfield hospital. Weekend handover remained a concern, with an electronic and paper system being used simultaneously. Our objectives were to introduce a new electronic handover system for weekend handover at Broomfield Hospital and improve the organisation of the weekend handover meeting to promote patient safety. Doctors involved in weekend handover were surveyed using a questionnaire, to establish insufficiencies in the weekend handover process; where both the electronic ExtraMed system and paper were being used inconsistently. A new weekend handover system was introduced together with a new user-friendly electronic handover database, addressing the identified difficulties in the current system. These changes met the medical handover guidelines set by the Royal College of Physicians. Three months after the launch of the new system, doctors were re-surveyed using a modified questionnaire to assess the impact our changes had made. Before changes were implemented only 12% of doctors surveyed used the electronic system for weekend. Eighty-nine percent found sorting through jobs time consuming and 67% were handed jobs to them meant for a different grade of doctor. Only 41% were aware who to hand weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of safety was 3.18 out of 5. The electronic system was felt to be time consuming and complicated. After execution of the new weekend handover process, 100% of doctors reported using the electronic system for weekend handover. Only 47% of doctors felt sorting through jobs was time consuming and 89% of doctors were aware who to handover weekend discharges to. Subjective assessment of the safety of weekend handover improved to 3.84 out of 5. Informal interviews on the ward

  10. Assessing intern handover processes.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Robert; Block, Lauren; Silva, Kathryn Novello; Oliver, Nora; Wu, Albert; Feldman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    New standards for resident work hours set in 2011 changed the landscape of patient care in teaching hospitals, and resulted in new challenges for US residency training programmes to overcome. One such challenge was a dramatic increase in the number of patient handovers performed by residents. As a result, there is a renewed focus for clinical teachers to develop educational strategies to optimise the patient handover process and improve the quality of patient care and safety. In order to investigate current gaps in resident handovers, we examined the handover processes performed by medicine interns at two academic medical centres in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We used trained observers to collect data on whether handovers were conducted face to face, with questions asked, in private locations, with written documentation, and without distractions or interruptions. Results were analysed using chi-square tests, and adjusted for clustering at the observer and intern levels. Interns successfully conducted handovers face to face (99.5%), asked questions (85.3%), used private locations (91%), included written handover documentation (95.8%) and did not experience distractions for the majority of the time (87.7%); however, interruptions were pervasive, occurring 41.3 per cent of the time. In order to investigate current gaps in resident handovers, we examined the handover processes performed by medicine interns Interns conducted patient handovers face to face, with questions asked, in private locations, with written documentation and without distractions the majority of the time; however, interruptions during the handover process were common. Exploring gaps at the individual programme level is a critical first step to develop effective teaching strategies to optimise handovers in residency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Knapsack - TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay. PMID:26237221

  12. Brief educational intervention improves content of intern handovers.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Erin E; Ginsbach, Kimberly; Groeschl, Nicole; Bragg, Dawn; Weisgerber, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to ensure safe patient handovers and to document resident competency in handover communication, yet there are few evidence-based curricula teaching resident handover skills. We assessed the immediate and sustained impact of a brief educational intervention on pediatrics intern handover skills. Interns at a freestanding children's hospital participated in an intervention that included a 1-hour educational workshop on components of high-quality handovers, as well as implementation of a standardized handover format. The format, SAFETIPS, includes patient information, current diagnosis and assessment, patient acuity, a focused plan, a baseline exam, a to-do list, anticipatory guidance, and potential pointers and pitfalls. Important communication behaviors, such as paraphrasing key information, were addressed. Quality of intern handovers was evaluated using a simulated encounter 2 weeks before, 2 weeks after, and 7 months after the workshop. Two trained, blinded, independent observers scored the videotaped encounters. All 27 interns rotating at the Children's Hospital consented to participate in the study, and 20 attended the workshop. We included all participant data in the analysis, regardless of workshop attendance. Following the intervention, intern reporting of patient acuity improved from 13% to 92% (P < .001), and gains were maintained 7 months later. Rates of key communication behaviors, such as paraphrasing critical information, did not improve. A brief educational workshop promoting standardized handovers improved the inclusion of essential information during intern handovers, and these improvements were sustained over time. The intervention did not improve key communication behaviors.

  13. Bedside handover: quality improvement strategy to "transform care at the bedside".

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; McMurray, Anne; Johnson, Joanne; Hardy, Linda; Wallis, Marianne; Sylvia Chu, Fang Ying

    2009-01-01

    This quality improvement project implemented bedside handover in nursing. Using Lewin's 3-Step Model for Change, 3 wards in an Australian hospital changed from verbal reporting in an isolated room to bedside handover. Practice guidelines and a competency standard were developed. The change was received positively by both staff and patients. Staff members reported that bedside handover improved safety, efficiency, teamwork, and the level of support from senior staff members.

  14. Improving patient safety in cardiothoracic surgery: an audit of surgical handover in a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natasha Johan

    2016-01-01

    Novel research has revealed that the relative risk of death increased by 10% and 15% for admissions on a Saturday and Sunday, respectively. With an imminent threat of 7-day services in the National Health Service, including weekend operating lists, handover plays a pivotal role in ensuring patient safety is paramount. This audit evaluated the quality, efficiency, and safety of surgical handover of pre- and postoperative cardiothoracic patients in a tertiary center against guidance on Safe Handover published by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the British Medical Association. A 16-item questionnaire prospectively audited the nature, time and duration of handover, patient details, operative history and current clinical status, interruptions during handover, and difficulties cross-covering specialties over a month. Just over half (52%) of the time, no handover took place. The majority of handovers (64%) occurred over the phone; two-thirds of these were uninterrupted. All handovers were less than 10 minutes in duration. About half of the time, the senior house officer had previously met the registrar involved in the handover, but the overwhelming majority felt it would facilitate the handover process if they had prior contact. Patient details handed over 100% of the time included name, ward, and current clinical diagnosis. A third of the time, the patient's age, responsible consultant, and recent operations or procedures were not handed over, potentially compromising future management due to delays and lack of relevant information. Perhaps the most revealing result was that the overall safety of handover was perceived to be five out of ten, with ten being very safe with no aspects felt to impact negatively on optimal patient care. These findings were presented to the department, and a handover proforma was implemented. Recommendations included the need for a new face-to-face handover. A reaudit will evaluate the effects of these changes.

  15. "It's like two worlds apart": an analysis of vulnerable patient handover practices at discharge from hospital.

    PubMed

    Groene, Raluca Oana; Orrego, Carola; Suñol, Rosa; Barach, Paul; Groene, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Handover practices at hospital discharge are relatively under-researched, particularly as regards the specific risks and additional requirements for handovers involving vulnerable patients with limited language, cognitive and social resources. To explore handover practices at discharge and to focus on the patients' role in handovers and on the potential additional risks for vulnerable patients. We conducted qualitative interviews with patients, hospital professionals and primary care professionals in two hospitals and their associated primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain. We identified handover practices at discharge that potentially put patients at risk. Patients did not feel empowered in the handover but were expected to transfer information between care providers. Professionals identified lack of medication reconciliation at discharge, loss of discharge information, and absence of plans for follow-up care in the community as quality and safety problems for discharge handovers. These occurred for all patients, but appeared to be more frequent and have a greater negative effect in patients with limited language comprehension and/or lack of family and social support systems. Discharge handovers are often haphazard. Healthcare professionals do not consider current handover practices safe, with patients expected to transfer information without being empowered to understand and act on it. This can lead to misinformation, omission or duplication of tests or interventions and, potentially, patient harm. Vulnerable patients may be at greater risk given their limited language, cognitive and social resources. Patient safety at discharge could benefit from strategies to enhance patient education and promote empowerment.

  16. Knapsack--TOPSIS Technique for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Network.

    PubMed

    Malathy, E M; Muthuswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    In a heterogeneous wireless network, handover techniques are designed to facilitate anywhere/anytime service continuity for mobile users. Consistent best-possible access to a network with widely varying network characteristics requires seamless mobility management techniques. Hence, the vertical handover process imposes important technical challenges. Handover decisions are triggered for continuous connectivity of mobile terminals. However, bad network selection and overload conditions in the chosen network can cause fallout in the form of handover failure. In order to maintain the required Quality of Service during the handover process, decision algorithms should incorporate intelligent techniques. In this paper, a new and efficient vertical handover mechanism is implemented using a dynamic programming method from the operation research discipline. This dynamic programming approach, which is integrated with the Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, provides the mobile user with the best handover decisions. Moreover, in this proposed handover algorithm a deterministic approach which divides the network into zones is incorporated into the network server in order to derive an optimal solution. The study revealed that this method is found to achieve better performance and QoS support to users and greatly reduce the handover failures when compared to the traditional TOPSIS method. The decision arrived at the zone gateway using this operational research analytical method (known as the dynamic programming knapsack approach together with Technique to Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) yields remarkably better results in terms of the network performance measures such as throughput and delay.

  17. Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    AOA097 06 ARMY POCUREMNT RESARCH OFFICE FORT LEE VA F/B 5/I PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS AND PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY.(U) MAR 81 R W NICK, 6 A...08 0.5 FINAL PROFIT NEGOTIATIONS MD PROMOTION OF CONTRACTOR EFFICIENCY MARCH 1981 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited APRO iU. ANIr...DRXMC-PRO 2 April 1981 SUBJECT: Army Procurement Research Office Report APRO 80-08, Profit Negotiations and Promotion of Contractor Efficiency SEE

  18. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.

    2007-06-01

    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  19. “It's like two worlds apart”: an analysis of vulnerable patient handover practices at discharge from hospital

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Raluca Oana; Orrego, Carola; Suñol, Rosa; Barach, Paul; Groene, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background Handover practices at hospital discharge are relatively under-researched, particularly as regards the specific risks and additional requirements for handovers involving vulnerable patients with limited language, cognitive and social resources. Objective To explore handover practices at discharge and to focus on the patients’ role in handovers and on the potential additional risks for vulnerable patients. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with patients, hospital professionals and primary care professionals in two hospitals and their associated primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain. Results We identified handover practices at discharge that potentially put patients at risk. Patients did not feel empowered in the handover but were expected to transfer information between care providers. Professionals identified lack of medication reconciliation at discharge, loss of discharge information, and absence of plans for follow-up care in the community as quality and safety problems for discharge handovers. These occurred for all patients, but appeared to be more frequent and have a greater negative effect in patients with limited language comprehension and/or lack of family and social support systems. Conclusions Discharge handovers are often haphazard. Healthcare professionals do not consider current handover practices safe, with patients expected to transfer information without being empowered to understand and act on it. This can lead to misinformation, omission or duplication of tests or interventions and, potentially, patient harm. Vulnerable patients may be at greater risk given their limited language, cognitive and social resources. Patient safety at discharge could benefit from strategies to enhance patient education and promote empowerment. PMID:23112285

  20. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  1. A survey of cancer patients’ unmet information and coordination needs in handovers – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The care responsibilities for cancer patients are frequently handed over from one healthcare professional to another. These handovers are known to pose a threat to the safety of patients and the efficiency of the healthcare system. Little is known about specific needs of cancer patients in handovers. The objectives of this study were to examine cancer patients’ unmet needs for information and coordination in handovers and to analyse the association between patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and unmet information and coordination needs. Methods Cancer patients treated in an oncology and a surgery outpatient setting completed a questionnaire developed to examine unmet information and coordination needs of cancer patients in handovers. Associations between unmet needs and comorbidity, treatment type, time since diagnosis, gender, age, and education in various handover situations were analysed. Results Of 250 eligible patients 131 participated (response rate of 52%). Overall, 18% of patients had unmet coordination needs and 18% had unmet information needs. Hospital discharge was the type of handover where patients most frequently reported unmet information needs (18%). Unmet coordination needs were most frequently reported in handovers between different hospitals (19%) and in handovers between hospital and general practice (18%). In general, age and education were statistically significantly associated with reporting unmet needs, where patients younger than 60 years and patients with a higher education were more likely to express unmet needs. Conclusions The findings indicate room for improvements regarding exchange of information and coordination between healthcare professionals, and between healthcare professionals and patients. PMID:24066725

  2. The ABC of handover: impact on shift handover in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Maisse; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2012-12-01

    A study was undertaken to test the impact of a new tool for shift handover, 'The ABC of Handover', in the emergency department (ED). The impact on shift handover following implementation of this structured tool, the effect on clinical and organisational aspects of the subsequent shift and the opinions of users of this new tool are reported. A prospective observational before and after study was performed to explore the effect of implementing 'The ABC of Handover' on clinical and organisational practice using a questionnaire. 41 handovers were observed before implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' and 42 were observed after. The new tool was successfully implemented and resulted in a change of practice which led to a significant increase in the operational issues mentioned at handover from a mean of 34% to a mean of 86% of essential items with the ABC method. Over the study period, middle-grade staff demonstrated improved situational awareness as they adopted proactive management of operational issues such as staffing or equipment shortages. All participants reported that 'The ABC of Handover' improved handover regardless of the seniority of the doctor giving it, and found the ABC method easy to learn. Successful implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' led to a change of practice in the ED. Improving handover resulted in better organisation of the shift and heightened awareness of potential patient safety issues. The ABC method provides a framework for organising the shift and preparing for events in the subsequent shift.

  3. Improving Handover Quality in 4G Mobile Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Hanjin; Kim, Namgi; Yoon, Hyunsoo

    In this paper, we propose a new handover algorithm to guarantee handover quality in 4G mobile systems. The proposed algorithm limits the handover interruption time by improving the HARQ retransmission latency of the first packet transmitted from new serving cell. Through the simulations, we proved that our algorithm meets the requirement of handover interruption time for TCP services with high rate.

  4. Efficient promotion strategies in hierarchical organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea; Garofalo, Cesare

    2011-10-01

    The Peter principle has recently been investigated by means of an agent-based simulation, and its validity has been numerically corroborated. It has been confirmed that, within certain conditions, it can really influence in a negative way the efficiency of a pyramidal organization adopting meritocratic promotions. It was also found that, in order to bypass these effects, alternative promotion strategies should be adopted, as for example a random selection choice. In this paper, within the same line of research, we study promotion strategies in a more realistic hierarchical and modular organization, and we show the robustness of our previous results, extending their validity to a more general context. We also discuss why the adoption of these strategies could be useful for real organizations.

  5. SCTPmx: An SCTP Fast Handover Mechanism Using a Single Interface Based on a Cross-Layer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yunsop; Teraoka, Fumio

    Recently, SCTP is attracting attention to support mobility in the Internet because it does not require additional equipment such as the Home Agent of Mobile IP. This paper focuses on an SCTP fast handover mechanism using a single interface because it is assumed that small mobile devices have a single interface per communication medium such as IEEE802.11b due to hardware limitations. The proposed mechanism called SCTPmx employs a cross layer control information exchange system called LIESto predict handover. LIES was originally designed to achieve network layer fast handover and then it was extended by adding the network layer primitives for efficient interaction among the link layer, the network layer, and the transport layer. Prior to handover, SCTPmx can generate a new address that will be used after handover and can execute duplicate address detection of IPv6. SCTPmx can suppress the delay caused by channel scanning at the link layer by employing selective background scanning mechanism which allows to continue data communication during channel scanning. In addition, SCTPmx can notify the correspondent node of the new address before handover. SCTPmx was implemented on FreeBSD. SCTPmx achieved better than 25 times lower handover latency (100msec) and 2 times higher throughput than previous proposals.

  6. Improving handovers across a North London Mental Health Trust

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer; Manghnani, Reena; Sommerlad, Andrew; Ikkos, George

    2014-01-01

    The GMC Survey June 2011 highlighted that trainees in Barnet, Enfield and Haringey Mental Health Trust (BEH-MHT) were dissatisfied with the Trust's handover process. At this time there were no Trust guidelines on handovers. A quality improvement project was developed to create a consistent out of hours handover process and to improve staff satisfaction thereafter. Handover guidelines were implemented throughout the Trust on 1/2/12. An audit was carried out to measure staff compliance with handovers. A questionnaire was sent out to staff before and after implementation of the guidelines to assess satisfaction with handovers. The audit results highlighted that handovers occurred relatively consistently across the Trust following implementation of the guidelines. The questionnaire results showed an improvement in staff satisfaction with the handover process. The clinical implication of this project is an improved process of out of hours handover across BEH-MHT. PMID:26732241

  7. Improving the quality of handover by addressing handover culture and introducing a new, multi-disciplinary, team-based handover meeting.

    PubMed

    Walton, Henry; Munro, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Handover is a "major preventable cause of patient harm"[1] and this project aims to improve the quality of night handover within a teaching hospitals general medicine department, resulting in the safe transfer of patient care to the night team. Quality of handover was assessed both qualitatively, via structured qualitative interviews with trainees and a baseline survey assessing doctor's opinions of night handover, and quantitatively through the collection of a data set during regular observation of night handover. The initial intervention instituted a new handover meeting with a set time and new location and invited the night nurse practitioner to attend. A prompt card, standardised documentation, defined leadership, and an attendance register were also introduced. Successive PDSA cycles introduced technology to the intervention, enabled the nurse night practitioners to actually attend and re-branded the prompt card as an agenda. Results show a sustained reduction in length of handover from 70 minutes (n=7) to 34 minutes (n=13) post-intervention as well as a reduction in the number of distractions occurring during each handover from a mean of 14 to a mean of 8.5. An improved quality of handover was also demonstrated with an overall increase in the percentage of task handovers containing hospital number, an admitting diagnosis, comorbidities and a time allocated for the task to be performed of at least 10%. When trainees were surveyed post-implementation they unanimously identified the new handover system as safer than the previous handover process (n=30). This project demonstrates that replacing an ad-hoc system of handover with a multi-disciplinary, team based approach to handover improves handover quality. In addition it provides a useful guide to introducing a new handover meeting to a department and contains useful lessons on how to combat cultural barriers to change within a department.

  8. A New Privacy-Preserving Handover Authentication Scheme for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changji; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Jiayuan

    2017-01-01

    Handover authentication is a critical issue in wireless networks, which is being used to ensure mobile nodes wander over multiple access points securely and seamlessly. A variety of handover authentication schemes for wireless networks have been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, existing handover authentication schemes are vulnerable to a few security attacks, or incur high communication and computation costs. Recently, He et al. proposed a handover authentication scheme PairHand and claimed it can resist various attacks without rigorous security proofs. In this paper, we show that PairHand does not meet forward secrecy and strong anonymity. More seriously, it is vulnerable to key compromise attack, where an adversary can recover the private key of any mobile node. Then, we propose a new efficient and provably secure handover authentication scheme for wireless networks based on elliptic curve cryptography. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed scheme can resist key compromise attack, and achieves forward secrecy and strong anonymity. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of computation and communication. PMID:28632171

  9. Implementing bedside handover: strategies for change management.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Anne; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne; Fetherston, Cathy

    2010-09-01

    To identify factors influencing change in two hospitals that moved from taped and verbal nursing handover to bedside handover. Bedside handover is based on patient-centred care, where patients participate in communicating relevant and timely information for care planning. Patient input reduces care fragmentation, miscommunication-related adverse events, readmissions, duplication of services and enhances satisfaction and continuity of care. Analysing change management was a component of a study aimed at developing a standard operating protocol for bedside handover communication. The research was undertaken in two regional acute care hospitals in two different states of Australia. Data collection included 532 semi-structured observations in six wards in the two hospitals and 34 in-depth interviews conducted with a purposive sample of nursing staff involved in the handovers. Observation and interview data were analysed separately then combined to generate thematic analysis of factors influencing the change process in the transition to bedside handover. Themes included embedding the change as part of the big picture, the need to link the project to standardisation initiatives, providing reassurance on safety and quality, smoothing out logistical difficulties and learning to listen. We conclude that change is more likely to be successful when it is part of a broader initiative such as a quality improvement strategy. Nurses are generally supportive of quality improvement initiatives, particularly those aimed at standardising care. For successful implementation, change managers should be mindful of clinicians' attitudes, motivation and concerns and their need for reassurance when changing their practice. This is particularly important when change is dramatic, as in moving from verbal handover, conducted in the safety of the nursing office, to bedside handover where there is greater transparency and accountability for the accuracy and appropriateness of communication

  10. Cardio-thoracic surgical patients' experience on bedside nursing handovers: Findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lupieri, Giulia; Creatti, Chiara; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of postoperative cardio-thoracic surgical patients experiencing nursing bedside handover. A descriptive qualitative approach was undertaken. A purposeful sampling technique was adopted, including 14 patients who went through cardio-thoracic surgery and witnessed at least two bedside handovers. The study was performed in a Cardio-thoracic ICU localised in a Joint Commission International accredited Academic Hospital in north-eastern Italy from August to November 2014. The experience of patients participating at the bedside handover is based on four main themes: (1) 'discovering a new nursing identity', (2) 'being apparently engaged in a bedside handover', (3) 'experiencing the paradox of confidentiality' and (4) 'having the situation under control'. With the handover performed at the bedside in a postoperative setting, two interconnected potential effects may be achieved with regard to patients, nurses and the nursing profession. Nurses have a great opportunity to express their closeness to patients and to promote awareness of the important growth that nursing has achieved over the years as a profession and discipline. Therefore, patients may better perceive nursing competence and feel safer during the postoperative care pathway. They can appreciate nurses' humanity in caring and trust their competence and professionalism.

  11. Need for a hands-on approach to hand-offs: A study of nursing handovers in an Indian Neurosciences Center.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parmeshwar; Jithesh, Vishwanathan; Vij, Aarti; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Standardized nursing handovers have been known to improve outcome, reduce error, and enhance communication. Few, if any, studies on nursing handovers have been conducted in the India. The aim was to study nursing handover practices in a Neurosciences Center in India. This study was conducted in a 200 bedded public sector Neurosciences Center in New Delhi, to assess nursing handover practices across five wards, all shifts, weekdays, and weekends using a pretested checklist. Ten elements were observed under the categories of time, duration, process, nurse interaction, and patient communication. Analysis of variance, Z-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Totally, 525 nursing handovers revealed varying compliance levels among (63%) time, place (76%), process (82%), staff interaction (53%), and patient communication (44%) related elements. Poorer compliance was seen in morning shifts and weekends; the difference being statistically significant. Bedside handovers were more frequent during weekends and night shifts and were positively correlated with increased staff interaction and patient communication and negatively related to handover duration. Though nurses showed better adherence to process related elements, background patient information, and assessment was explained less frequently. Differences between wards were insignificant except in categories of nurse interaction and patient communication which was better in the neurosurgery than neurology wards. Study revealed a need for a system change and standardization of handovers. Greater administrative commitment, use of technology, training, and leadership development will aid in continuity of care, promote patient safety, and ensure better outcomes.

  12. Need for a hands-on approach to hand-offs: A study of nursing handovers in an Indian Neurosciences Center

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parmeshwar; Jithesh, Vishwanathan; Vij, Aarti; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Standardized nursing handovers have been known to improve outcome, reduce error, and enhance communication. Few, if any, studies on nursing handovers have been conducted in the India. Aim: The aim was to study nursing handover practices in a Neurosciences Center in India. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted in a 200 bedded public sector Neurosciences Center in New Delhi, to assess nursing handover practices across five wards, all shifts, weekdays, and weekends using a pretested checklist. Ten elements were observed under the categories of time, duration, process, nurse interaction, and patient communication. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance, Z-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Totally, 525 nursing handovers revealed varying compliance levels among (63%) time, place (76%), process (82%), staff interaction (53%), and patient communication (44%) related elements. Poorer compliance was seen in morning shifts and weekends; the difference being statistically significant. Bedside handovers were more frequent during weekends and night shifts and were positively correlated with increased staff interaction and patient communication and negatively related to handover duration. Though nurses showed better adherence to process related elements, background patient information, and assessment was explained less frequently. Differences between wards were insignificant except in categories of nurse interaction and patient communication which was better in the neurosurgery than neurology wards. Conclusion: Study revealed a need for a system change and standardization of handovers. Greater administrative commitment, use of technology, training, and leadership development will aid in continuity of care, promote patient safety, and ensure better outcomes. PMID:26889281

  13. Improving Learner Handovers in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Warm, Eric J; Englander, Robert; Pereira, Anne; Barach, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that the information included in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation fails to reliably predict medical students' future performance. This faulty transfer of information can lead to harm when poorly prepared students fail out of residency or, worse, are shuttled through the medical education system without an honest accounting of their performance. Such poor learner handovers likely arise from two root causes: (1) the absence of agreed-on outcomes of training and/or accepted assessments of those outcomes, and (2) the lack of standardized ways to communicate the results of those assessments. To improve the current learner handover situation, an authentic, shared mental model of competency is needed; high-quality tools to assess that competency must be developed and tested; and transparent, reliable, and safe ways to communicate this information must be created.To achieve these goals, the authors propose using a learner handover process modeled after a patient handover process. The CLASS model includes a description of the learner's Competency attainment, a summary of the Learner's performance, an Action list and statement of Situational awareness, and Synthesis by the receiving program. This model also includes coaching oriented towards improvement along the continuum of education and care. Just as studies have evaluated patient handover models using metrics that matter most to patients, studies must evaluate this learner handover model using metrics that matter most to providers, patients, and learners.

  14. Security-Enhanced Fast Mobile IPv6 Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Seop

    Motivated by the fact that the existing FMIPv6 security scheme has several weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency, we propose a security-enhanced fast mobile IPv6 in this letter. Based on the concept of a secret key-based CGA (Cryptographically Generated Address), we show how to establish a new security association between the MN and AR (Access Router) whenever a handover occurs. We also show that the proposed scheme is robust against several types of security attacks feasible with the existing scheme. Our scheme is more efficient in that it requires fewer public key operations.

  15. Nursing clinical handover improvement practices among acute inpatients in a tertiary hospital in Sydney: a best practice implementation project.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Craig; Wright, Kylie M

    2016-10-01

    The nursing handover normally occurs at the beginning of a nurse's shift and is considered essential for continuity of care. Nursing handovers have the potential to communicate accurate information about a patient's condition, treatment and anticipated needs but also to be ineffective or even harmful if information is incomplete or omitted. The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care has recognized clinical handover as a National Standard, thus reinforcing its importance. This project aimed to conduct an audit of nursing clinical handover practices to implement evidence-based best practice recommendations to assess the effectiveness of these strategies to maximize the effectiveness of clinical handover across 11 units in a large tertiary hospital. The project used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit tool for promoting change in healthcare practice. A baseline audit of 330 observations of nursing clinical handover was conducted and measured against seven best practice recommendations, followed by the implementation of targeted strategies and a follow-up audit. The baseline audit revealed significant deficits between current practice and best practice in all but one criterion. Barriers for implementation of nursing clinical handover best practice criteria were identified by the project team, and a bundled education strategy was implemented. There were significantly improved outcomes across all best practice criteria in the follow-up audit. The findings showed how audits may be used to promote best practice in healthcare and that focused education and provision of relevant resources can have an immediate and positive impact on clinical practice. Some of the measured criteria improved to a moderate degree, leaving room for improvement; however, by the end of the project attitudes toward nursing clinical handover had been "transformed" from a passive routine "must do

  16. Considering Factors of and Knowledge About Patients in Handover Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Meth, Sharon; Bass, Ellen J.; Hoke, George

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare system is moving from one primary physician who assumes responsibility for each patient to a more team-based approach. Thus, assessing team communication is critical. This study characterizes and assesses the quality of hospitalist handover communications at shift change using the literature recommended content and language form elements. Quality handovers should contain the following content: patient identifiers, active issues, and care plans. Quality handovers also should include utterances in the following language forms: explanations, rationales, and directives. Interviews, observation, recording, and conversation analysis of hospitalist handover communications were used. Hospitalist handover utterances were assigned both content and language form codes. The proportion of quality element verbalization across all patient handovers was calculated. In addition, the impact of patient factors (new admission, new problem, acuity level) and handover receiver knowledge on the inclusion of quality elements was examined. The 106 individual patient handovers across 16 handover sessions were recorded. 39% contained all six quality elements. While the majority of handovers contained five out of six quality elements, only 48% included directives. There was also no difference in the inclusion of quality elements based on patient factors or handover receiver knowledge. Hospitalist handovers are lacking in directives. Efforts to improve handovers through enhanced electronic medical record systems and training may need to expand to hospitalists and other attending level physicians. PMID:24851196

  17. Improving the quality of patient handover on a surgical ward.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive means safe patient hand over is imperative. It is the responsibility of every doctor and an issue of patient safety and clinical governance [1]. The aims of this project were to improve the quality of patient handover between combined assessment unit (CAU) and surgical ward FY1 doctors. The Royal College of Surgeons England (RCSEng) guidelines on surgical patient handover [1] were used as the standard. Data was collected throughout November 2013. A handover tool was then introduced and attached to the front of patient notes when a patient was transferred from CAU to the surgical ward. The doctor handing over the patient and the ward doctor receiving the handover signed this document. Policy was also changed so that handover should take place once the patient had received senior review on the CAU and was deemed appropriate for transfer to the surgical ward. Data from the handover tool was collated and checked against the list of surgical admission for February 2014. The number of patients handed over improved from 15 % to 45%. The quality of patient handover also improved. 0 patient handovers in November 2013 included all of the information recommended by the RCSEng guidelines. 100% of the patient handovers in February 2014 contained all the recommended information. Introduction of a handover tool and formalisation of timing of patient handover helped to improve quality and number of patients being handed over. Further work needs to be done to improve safe handover of surgical patients, particularly out of hours.

  18. Managing perturbations during handover meetings: a joint activity framework.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Eric; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    To document the prevalence of perturbations of handover meetings and understand how nurses manage temporal, physical and social meeting boundaries in response to perturbations. Handovers are joint activities performed collaboratively by participating nurses. Perturbations of handover are frequent and may potentially threaten continuity of care. We observed and videotaped handovers during five successive days in four nursing care units in two Swiss hospitals in 2009. Videorecordings were transcribed. All perturbations during the handovers were noted. We performed content analysis of the sources of perturbations from the notes and interactional micro-analyses of handover interactions based on video and transcripts. Nurses are the most frequent sources of perturbations during handovers. Perturbations are collaboratively managed. A tacit division of labour is enacted via multimodal communication strategies, whereby perturbations are dealt with using both linguistic and bodily signals.

  19. Clinical handover improvement in context: exploring tensions between user-centred approaches and standardisation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2013-01-01

    User-centred approaches in the development and evaluation of health information systems promote the importance of involving users and understanding their social contexts to optimise the quality and safety of these systems for patient care. Simultaneously, the standardisation of clinical practices has also been advocated to improve the quality and safety of patient care. In the context of clinical handover improvement within three different departments in one tertiary teaching hospital, this paper highlights the potential for tensions between these two approaches and explores their implications. Based on a user-centred approach, the paper reports on the unique requirements identified within each of the three departments for an information system to support improved clinical handover. Each department had clinical practices, work cultures and user requirements that needed to be considered and accommodated. This led to the project developing distinct minimum data sets for each of the three departments that posed challenges for efforts to standardise handover practices across the hospital and for building an integrated information system. While on the one hand accommodating unique departmental user requirements was valuable, they revealed the potential for the introduction of quality and safety risks at the organisational level. To resolve these tensions, the project team developed an approach called flexible standardisation that has now been embedded in Australia' s national guidelines on clinical handover improvement.

  20. Quality of post-operative patient handover in the post-anaesthesia care unit: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Milby, A; Böhmer, A; Gerbershagen, M U; Joppich, R; Wappler, F

    2014-02-01

    Anaesthesiology plays a key role in promoting safe perioperative care. This includes the perioperative phase in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) where problems with incomplete information transfer may have a negative impact on patient safety and can lead to patient harm. The objective of this study was to analyse information transfer during post-operative handovers in the PACU. With a self-developed checklist including 59 items the information transfer during post-operative handovers was documented and subsequently compared with patient information in anaesthesia records during a 2-month period. A total number of 790 handovers with duration of 73 ± 49 s was analysed. Few items were transferred in most of the cases such as type of surgery (97% of the cases), regional anaesthesia (94% of the cases) and cardiac instability (93% of the cases). However, some items were rarely transferred, such as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (7% of the cases), initiation of post-operative pain management (12% of the cases), antibiotic therapy (14% of the cases) and fluid management (15% of the cases). There was a slight correlation between amount of information transferred and duration of post-operative handovers (r = 0.5). The study shows that post-operative handovers in the PACU are in most cases incomplete. It appears useful to optimise the post-operative handover process, for example by implementing a standardised handover checklist. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of an orthopedic surgery trauma patient handover checklist

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Justin; Donnon, Tyrone; Hutchison, Carol; Duffy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background In surgery, preoperative handover of surgical trauma patients is a process that must be made as safe as possible. We sought to determine vital clinical information to be transferred between patient care teams and to develop a standardized handover checklist. Methods We conducted standardized small-group interviews about trauma patient handover. Based on this information, we created a questionnaire to gather perspectives from all Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) members about which topics they felt would be most important on a handover checklist. We analyzed the responses to develop a standardized handover checklist. Results Of the 1106 COA members, 247 responded to the questionnaire. The top 7 topics felt to be most important for achieving patient safety in the handover were comorbidities, diagnosis, readiness for the operating room, stability, associated injuries, history/mechanism of injury and outstanding issues. The expert recommendations were to have handover completed the same way every day, all appropriate radiographs available, adequate time, all appropriate laboratory work and more time to spend with patients with more severe illness. Conclusion Our main recommendations for safe handover are to use standardized checklists specific to the patient and site needs. We provide an example of a standardized checklist that should be used for preoperative handovers. To our knowledge, this is the first checklist for handover developed by a group of experts in orthopedic surgery, which is both manageable in length and simple to use. PMID:24461220

  2. Developing a minimum data set for electronic nursing handover.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Jefferies, Diana; Nicholls, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a minimum data set designed for an electronic system to complement verbal nursing handover. Background.  Poor communication of patient information at handover has been implicated in adverse events with changes to clinical handover being proposed as a solution. This study developed a minimum data set for an electronic patient summary tool. DESIGN; Using an observational design the scope of information being presented by nurses at handover was identified in relation to a generic Nursing Handover Minimum Data Set. Patient handovers (n = 195) were observed and digitally recorded across diverse specialties. Content analysis confirmed the frequent use of the Nursing Handover Minimum Data Set items across all specialties. The use of the items was affected by the patient context and the clinical setting. Aged care patients often had several clinical alerts reported (pressure areas, falls risk). Rapid changes in patient condition in emergency emphasised the need for a focus on observations and presenting problems. Mental health and maternity required further refinement of the items. The generic Nursing Handover Minimum Data Set can direct nurses to give a comprehensive account of their patient's condition and care. The data set needs to be flexible and adaptable to the patient context and setting and complements structured content verbal handover. This minimum data set provides an excellent framework for system development by clinicians, managers and information technologists. Educators can use this tool to teach student nurses, new graduates and experienced staff, about the patient information to be presented at handover. The Nursing Handover Minimum Data Set for electronic nursing handover complements verbal handover and provides a tool to give clinicians access to comprehensive information about all patients within the ward area. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Improving junior doctor handover between jobs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is one of the most important issues in healthcare. In recent years there has been much focus on “Black Wednesday”; the day that Foundation doctors start their first jobs. Great efforts have been made to ensure that patient safety on this day has improved, with the main example being that newly qualified doctors now use some of their free time between medical school and starting their first job to shadow their outgoing counterparts. However, because Foundation doctors start a brand new job approximately every four months for two years, subsequent job changeovers were identified as a time of potential problems and increased patient risk. It is not practical to shadow prior to every job because junior doctors are needed in their current post right up until changeover day, so a simple way to smooth this transition was needed. A handover lunch seemed to be a feasible solution. The day before Foundation doctors change jobs, an hour is dedicated for Foundation Year 1 doctors (F1's) to sit down together over lunch (provided by the mess) and take a formal handover of all relevant information about their forthcoming job and discuss current inpatients. Results showed that 100% of those surveyed mentioned face to face handover as essential, 93.75% said it was either helpful or extremely helpful to have a dedicated time for F1's to handover, and 12.5% said they would not have sought a face to face handover otherwise. Apart from being extremely simple and cheap, it was very popular with the F1's in the trust. It enables effective working from day one and is a great team building activity. PMID:27493740

  4. Investigation of a new handover approach in LTE and WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.

  5. Investigation of a New Handover Approach in LTE and WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms. PMID:25379524

  6. A description of handover processes in an Australian public hospital.

    PubMed

    Bomba, David T; Prakash, Robert

    2005-02-01

    Handover of patient care has been an ongoing problem within the health care sector. The process remains highly variable and there is a threat to patient safety. Despite the general belief that handover transitions in patient care have become routine, not enough attention or research has been directed at improving this period of care. For this reason there is a need to provide an analysis of the communication processes during handover. A study was conducted of the handover process among doctors during shift changes within a hospital setting. The results suggested a need for process change. Results revealed a handover process which was unstructured, informal and error prone, with the majority of doctors noting that there was no standard or formal procedure for handover. The research found that the majority of hospital doctors recognised the potential benefits of formalising and computerising this process.

  7. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.'s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.'s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client's privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay.

  8. A New Ticket-Based Authentication Mechanism for Fast Handover in Mesh Network

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yan-Ming; Cheng, Pu-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Ku, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ever-growing popularity mobile devices of various kinds have received worldwide, the demands on large-scale wireless network infrastructure development and enhancement have been rapidly swelling in recent years. A mobile device holder can get online at a wireless network access point, which covers a limited area. When the client leaves the access point, there will be a temporary disconnection until he/she enters the coverage of another access point. Even when the coverages of two neighboring access points overlap, there is still work to do to make the wireless connection smoothly continue. The action of one wireless network access point passing a client to another access point is referred to as the handover. During handover, for security concerns, the client and the new access point should perform mutual authentication before any Internet access service is practically gained/provided. If the handover protocol is inefficient, in some cases discontinued Internet service will happen. In 2013, Li et al. proposed a fast handover authentication mechanism for wireless mesh network (WMN) based on tickets. Unfortunately, Li et al.’s work came with some weaknesses. For one thing, some sensitive information such as the time and date of expiration is sent in plaintext, which increases security risks. For another, Li et al.’s protocol includes the use of high-quality tamper-proof devices (TPDs), and this unreasonably high equipment requirement limits its applicability. In this paper, we shall propose a new efficient handover authentication mechanism. The new mechanism offers a higher level of security on a more scalable ground with the client’s privacy better preserved. The results of our performance analysis suggest that our new mechanism is superior to some similar mechanisms in terms of authentication delay. PMID:27171160

  9. Enhanced PMIPv6 Route Optimization Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seil; Kang, Namhi; Kim, Younghan; Yoon, Wonsik

    Packet delivery in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) relies on an anchor node called LMA. All packets sent by a source node reach a receiver node via LMA, even though the two nodes attach to the same MAG. In some scenarios, PMIPv6 results in high delivery latency and processing costs due to this unnecessary detour. To address this issue, several PMIPv6 route optimization schemes have been proposed. However, high signaling costs and excessive delays remain when handover is performed. For this reason, we propose an enhanced PMIPv6 route optimization (EPRO) scheme. In addition, we analyze the performance of the EPRO. Analytical results indicate that the EPRO outperforms previous schemes in terms of signaling overhead and handover latency.

  10. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    PubMed

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  11. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    stockholder of the newspaper, Robert Kuok Hock Nien; and in 2004, the hosts of the radio shows “Smoke Signals” (Fung Yin), “Teacup in a Tempest” (Fung Bor...35 For a description of the pre-Handover Hong Kong economic network, see Hong Hong Advantage, by Michael Enright , Edith Scott, and David Dodwell...Hong Kong & the Pearl River Delta: The Economic Interaction, by Michael J. Enright , Chang Ka Mun, Edith Scott, and Zhu Wen Hui, sponsored by the 2022

  12. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism's overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the collaborative'' processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  13. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism`s overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the ``collaborative`` processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  14. Structured Handover in the Pediatric Postanesthesia Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Funk, Emily; Taicher, Brad; Thompson, Julie; Iannello, Kelly; Morgan, Brett; Hawks, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    To establish a structured handover in the pediatric postanesthesia care unit. An observational prequality and postquality improvement design was used. Convenience samples of 52 preimplementation and 51 postimplementation handover interactions (N = 103) were observed and compared to a 42-item Introductions, Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations, & Questions checklist. Patient care team members' satisfaction was assessed using voluntary electronic surveys. Data were analyzed for descriptive measures and differences in the pre- and postchecklist, and satisfaction total scores were compared using a two-sample t test. The implementation of the handover checklist resulted in a statistically significant increase in the percentage of items discussed during five of six handover phases (P < .001). Overall, a significant increase in provider satisfaction was demonstrated from preimplementation to postimplementation (P < .01). The average duration of handover (in minutes) was not significantly different from pre (mean = 5.80 ± 3.80) to post (mean = 6.80 ± 2.30), P = .15. A structured handover checklist is associated with increased communication of handover content information and improved provider satisfaction. No statistically significant effect on handover duration time was found. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  16. Enhanced Handover Decision Algorithm in Heterogeneous Wireless Network

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Radhwan Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Transferring a huge amount of data between different network locations over the network links depends on the network’s traffic capacity and data rate. Traditionally, a mobile device may be moved to achieve the operations of vertical handover, considering only one criterion, that is the Received Signal Strength (RSS). The use of a single criterion may cause service interruption, an unbalanced network load and an inefficient vertical handover. In this paper, we propose an enhanced vertical handover decision algorithm based on multiple criteria in the heterogeneous wireless network. The algorithm consists of three technology interfaces: Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). It also employs three types of vertical handover decision algorithms: equal priority, mobile priority and network priority. The simulation results illustrate that the three types of decision algorithms outperform the traditional network decision algorithm in terms of handover number probability and the handover failure probability. In addition, it is noticed that the network priority handover decision algorithm produces better results compared to the equal priority and the mobile priority handover decision algorithm. Finally, the simulation results are validated by the analytical model. PMID:28708067

  17. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  18. Building continuity in handovers with shorter residency duty hours

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As junior doctors work shorter hours in light of concerns about the harmful effects of fatigue on physician performance and health, it is imperative to consider how to ensure that patient safety is not compromised by breaks in the continuity of care. By reconceptualizing handover as a necessary bridge to continuity, and hence to safer patient care, the model of continuity-enhanced handovers has the potential to allay fears and improve patient care in an era of increasing fragmentation. “Continuity-enhanced handovers” differ from traditional handovers in several key aspects, including quality of information transferred, greater professional responsibility of senders and receivers, and a different philosophy of “coverage.” Continuity during handovers is often achieved through scheduling and staffing to maximize the provision of care by members of the primary team who have first-hand knowledge of patients. In this way, senders and receivers often engage in intra-team handovers, which can result in the accumulation of greater common ground or shared understanding of the patients they collectively care for through a series of repeated interactions. However, because maximizing team continuity is not always possible, other strategies such as cultivating high-performance teams, making handovers active learning opportunities, and monitoring performance during handovers are also important. Medical educators and clinicians should work toward adopting and testing principles of continuity-enhanced handovers in their local practices and share successes so that innovation and learning may spread easily among institutions and practices. PMID:25560954

  19. A standard operating protocol (SOP) and minimum data set (MDS) for nursing and medical handover: considerations for flexible standardization in developing electronic tools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2009-01-01

    As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover.

  20. MIPv6 seamless handover with light home agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yaling; Ojima, Masahiro; Niu, Zhisheng; Yano, Masashi

    2004-03-01

    Mobile IPv6 enables network nodes to roam in the IPv6 Internet. It is the main protocol for mobile Internet. Supported by Mobile IPv6, the Internet node can roam regardless of its changing of IP address. However during Mobile IPv6 handover procedure, the Internet node has a period of communication interruption. Thus the mobile Internet system has handover latency and packet loss. Also because Home Agent (HA) is in charge of registration of Mobile Node (MN) and tunneling packets for MN, it potentially has overflow problem. These three problems are especially obvious in multimedia networks with many users. So in this article, we propose a new Mobile IPv6 handover method to reduce handover latency and packet loss, and to overcome overflow of HA. We have evaluated the proposed handover method over IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN system by using NS2 simulation platform, and confirmed the effectiveness of the new method.

  1. Managing change in the nursing handover from traditional to bedside handover - a case study from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Kassean, Hemant K; Jagoo, Zaheda B

    2005-01-28

    BACKGROUND: The shift handover forms an important part of the communication process that takes place twice within the nurses' working day in the gynaecological ward. This paper addresses the topic of implementing a new system of bedside handover, which puts patients central to the whole process of managing care and also addresses some of the shortcomings of the traditional handover system. METHODS: A force field analysis in terms of the driving forces had shown that there was dissatisfaction with the traditional method of handover which had led to an increase in the number of critical incidents and complaints from patients, relatives and doctors. The restraining forces identified were a fear of accountability, lack of confidence and that this change would lead to more work. A 3 - step planned change model consisting of unfreezing, moving and refreezing was used to guide us through the change process. Resistance to change was managed by creating a climate of open communication where stakeholders were allowed to voice opinions, share concerns, insights, and ideas thereby actively participating in decision making. RESULTS: An evaluation had shown that this process was successfully implemented to the satisfaction of patients, and staff in general. CONCLUSION: This successful change should encourage other nurses to become more proactive in identifying areas for change management in order to improve our health care system.

  2. Template for success: using a resident-designed sign-out template in the handover of patient care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Clancy J; Sindell, Sarah L; Koehler, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Report our implementation of a standardized handover process in a general surgery residency program. The standardized handover process, sign-out template, method of implementation, and continuous quality improvement process were designed by general surgery residents with support of faculty and senior hospital administration using standard work principles and business models of the Virginia Mason Production System and the Toyota Production System. Nonprofit, tertiary referral teaching hospital. General surgery residents, residency faculty, patient care providers, and hospital administration. After instruction in quality improvement initiatives, a team of general surgery residents designed a sign-out process using an electronic template and standard procedures. The initial implementation phase resulted in 73% compliance. Using resident-driven continuous quality improvement processes, real-time feedback enabled residents to modify and improve this process, eventually attaining 100% compliance and acceptance by residents. The creation of a standardized template and protocol for patient handovers might eliminate communication failures. Encouraging residents to participate in this process can establish the groundwork for successful implementation of a standardized handover process. Integrating a continuous quality-improvement process into such an initiative can promote active participation of busy general surgery residents and lead to successful implementation of standard procedures. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    PubMed

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  4. Living for the weekend: electronic documentation improves patient handover.

    PubMed

    Govier, Matthew; Medcalf, Pippa

    2012-04-01

    With increasing shift work the importance of effective handover is becoming more widely recognised, resulting in the production of guidelines on written handover documentation. A particular area of poor compliance was handover from the week to weekend teams for medical inpatients, as shown through an audit cycle. Full implementation of any guidelines can be time and financially costly. However, a simple, minimal cost, electronic-based list improved the quantitative measures of written handover, particularly in areas of patient location, resuscitation status and investigations. Qualitative data showed multiple benefits, but also problems with logistics in computer terminals, networks and access. Solutions to such problems are discussed, with the importance of carefully implemented longer-term changes being emphasised.

  5. Patients' perceptions of safety and quality of maternity clinical handover.

    PubMed

    Chin, Georgiana S M; Warren, Narelle; Kornman, Louise; Cameron, Peter

    2011-08-10

    Maternity clinical handover serves to address the gaps in knowledge existing when transitions between individuals or groups of clinicians occur throughout the antenatal, intra-partum and postnatal period. There are limited published studies on maternity handover and a paucity of information about patients' perceptions of the same. This paper reports postnatal patients' perceptions of how maternity handover contributes to the quality and safety of maternity care. This paper reports on a mixed-methods study consisting of qualitative interviews and quantitative medical record analysis. Thirty English-speaking postnatal patients who gave birth at an Australian tertiary maternity hospital participated in a semi-structured interview prior to discharge from hospital. Interview data were coded thematically using the constant comparative method and managed via NVivo software; this data set was supplemented by medical record data analysed using STATA. Almost half of the women were aware of a handover process. Clinician awareness of patient information was seen as evidence that handover had taken place and was seen as representing positive aspects of teamwork, care and communication by participants, all important factors in the perception of quality health care. Collaborative cross-checking, including the use of cognitive artefacts such as hand held antenatal records and patient-authored birth plans, and the involvement of patients and their support people in handover were behaviours described by participants to be protective mechanisms that enhanced quality and safety of care. These human factors also facilitated team situational awareness (TSA), shared decision making and patient motivation in labour. This study illustrates that many patients are aware of handover processes. For some patients, evidence of handover, through clinician awareness of information, represented positive aspects of teamwork, care and communication. Cross-checking and cognitive artefacts were

  6. Patients' perceptions of safety and quality of maternity clinical handover

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternity clinical handover serves to address the gaps in knowledge existing when transitions between individuals or groups of clinicians occur throughout the antenatal, intra-partum and postnatal period. There are limited published studies on maternity handover and a paucity of information about patients' perceptions of the same. This paper reports postnatal patients' perceptions of how maternity handover contributes to the quality and safety of maternity care. Methods This paper reports on a mixed-methods study consisting of qualitative interviews and quantitative medical record analysis. Thirty English-speaking postnatal patients who gave birth at an Australian tertiary maternity hospital participated in a semi-structured interview prior to discharge from hospital. Interview data were coded thematically using the constant comparative method and managed via NVivo software; this data set was supplemented by medical record data analysed using STATA. Results Almost half of the women were aware of a handover process. Clinician awareness of patient information was seen as evidence that handover had taken place and was seen as representing positive aspects of teamwork, care and communication by participants, all important factors in the perception of quality health care. Collaborative cross-checking, including the use of cognitive artefacts such as hand held antenatal records and patient-authored birth plans, and the involvement of patients and their support people in handover were behaviours described by participants to be protective mechanisms that enhanced quality and safety of care. These human factors also facilitated team situational awareness (TSA), shared decision making and patient motivation in labour. Conclusions This study illustrates that many patients are aware of handover processes. For some patients, evidence of handover, through clinician awareness of information, represented positive aspects of teamwork, care and communication. Cross

  7. Medication communication during handover interactions in specialty practice settings.

    PubMed

    Braaf, Sandra; Rixon, Sascha; Williams, Allison; Liew, Danny; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    To investigate what and how medication information is communicated during handover interactions in specialty hospital settings. Effective communication about patients' medications between health professionals and nurses at handover is vital for the delivery of safe continuity of care. An exploratory qualitative design and observational study. Participant observation was undertaken at a metropolitan Australian public hospital in four specialty settings: cardiothoracic care, intensive care, emergency care and oncology care. A medication communication model was applied to the data and thematic analysis was performed. Over 130 hours of observational data were collected. In total, 185 (predominately nursing) handovers were observed across the four specialty settings involving 37 nurse participants. Health professionals communicated partial details of patients' medication regimens, by focusing on auditing the medication administration record, and through the handover approach employed. Gaps in medication information at handover were evident as shown by lack of communication about detailed and specific medication content. Incoming nurses rarely posed questions about medications at handover. Handover interactions contained restricted and incomplete medication information. Improving the transparency, completeness and accuracy of medication communication is vital for optimising patient safety and quality of care in specialty practice settings. For nurses to make informed and rapid decisions regarding appropriate patient care, information about all types of prescribed medications is essential, which is communicated in an explicit and clear way. Jargon and assumptions related to medication details should be minimised to reduce the risk of misunderstandings. Disclosure of structured medication information supports nurses to perform accurate patient assessments, make knowledgeable decisions about the appropriateness of medications and their doses, and anticipate possible

  8. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  9. Opportunistically discovering usability requirements for a clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, David; Parry, David; Carlsen, Victoria; Carter, Philip; Parry, Emma; Westbrook, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Handover in hospital is a process that can cause a major risk to patients, and be inefficient and time-consuming for staff. Software designed to support such processes needs to be used in a demanding and fast-moving environment. This work formulated Usability Design Requirements for such a handover software system. The requirements have been derived from a usability evaluation at Auckland City Hospital, where the handover was observed in two different environments during a handover improvement process. The requirements were produced using a multi-method, triangulated approach and they may be able to inform the design of systems to support clinical handover. The physical environment and the protocols adopted for handover were changed during this process, with software changes waiting for a larger project. Periods of change in work practice may be particularly favourable times to perform such studies, even if major software changes are not implemented. Staff engagement with the process may also be improved during times of change.

  10. A Multimodal Intervention Improves Postanesthesia Care Unit Handovers.

    PubMed

    Weinger, Matthew B; Slagle, Jason M; Kuntz, Audrey H; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Banerjee, Arna; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Bills, James L; Wallston, Kenneth A; Speroff, Theodore; Patterson, Emily S; France, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Failures of communication are a major contributor to perioperative adverse events. Transitions of care may be particularly vulnerable. We sought to improve postoperative handovers. We introduced a multimodal intervention in an adult and a pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to improve postoperative handovers between anesthesia providers (APs) and PACU registered nurses (RNs). The intervention included a standardized electronic handover report form, a didactic webinar, mandatory simulation training focused on improving interprofessional communication, and post-training performance feedback. Trained, blinded nurse observers scored PACU handovers during 17 months using a structured tool consisting of 8 subscales and a global score (1-5 scale). Multivariate logistic regression assessed the effect of the intervention on the proportion of observed handovers receiving a global effectiveness rating of ≥3. Four hundred fifty-two clinicians received the simulation-based training, and 981 handovers were observed and rated. In the adult PACU, the estimated percentages of acceptable handovers (global ratings ≥3) among AP-RN pairs, where neither received simulation-based training (untrained dyads), was 3% (95% confidence interval, 1%-11%) at day 0, 10% (5%-19%) at training initiation (day 40), and 57% (33%-78%) at 1-year post-training initiation (day 405). For AP-RN pairs where at least one received the simulation-based training (trained dyads), these percentages were estimated to be 18% (11%-28%) and 68% (57%-76%) on days 40 and 405, respectively. The percentage of acceptable handovers was significantly greater on day 405 than it was on day 40 for both untrained (P < 0.001) and trained dyads (P < 0.001). Similar patterns were observed in the pediatric PACU. Three years later, the unadjusted estimate of the probability of an acceptable handover was 87% (72%-95%) in the adult PACU and 56% (40%-72%) in the pediatric PACU. A multimodal intervention substantially improved

  11. Acute general surgery in Canada: a survey of current handover practices.

    PubMed

    Johner, Amanda M; Merchant, Shaila; Aslani, Nava; Planting, Anneke; Ball, Chad G; Widder, Sandy; Pagliarello, Giuseppe; Parry, Neil G; Klassen, Dennis; Hameed, S Morad

    2013-06-01

    Today's acute care surgery (ACS) service model requires multiple handovers to incoming attending surgeons and residents. Our objectives were to investigate current handover practices in Canadian hospitals that have an ACS service and assess the quality of handover practices in place. We administered an electronic survey among ACS residents in 6 Canadian general surgery programs. Resident handover of patient care occurs frequently and often not under ideal circumstances. Most residents spend less than 5 minutes preparing handovers. Clinical uncertainty owing to inadequate handover is most likely to occur during overnight and weekend coverage. Almost one-third of surveyed residents rate the overall quality of the handovers they received as poor. Handover skills must be taught in a systematic fashion. Improved resident communication will likely decrease loss of patient information and therefore improve ACS patient safety.

  12. The impact of an integrated nursing handover system on nurses' satisfaction and work practices.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Sanchez, Paula; Zheng, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an Integrated Nursing Handover System--structured content, a minimum data set and an electronic module within the patient clinical information system--on nurses' satisfaction with handover and changes to practice. Poor transfer of patient information between clinicians at handover has been associated with adverse patient outcomes. A mixed methods pre-post evaluative approach was used. The Integrated Nursing Handover System was introduced and evaluated within an Australian hospital. Changes to nurses' satisfaction were measured using the modified Bradley Clinical Handover Survey (n = 40 pre, n = 80 post). Three focus groups with clinicians (2) and mangers and educators (1) examined changes to clinical practice. The location of handover was observed. Nurses' satisfaction with handover was improved. A two stage approach to handover emerged: nurses received handover of all patients within meeting rooms followed by handover delivered at the bedside. Major categories identified through content analysis included: implementation and the transition, work practice changes and bedside handover, accessible and standardised patient information, accountability for information transfer and a central repository of patient information. An integrated system has been implemented with positive outcomes of: improved nurse satisfaction with handover, nurses being informed about all patients, enhanced patient transfers and improved patient information for all health professionals. Further research into the potential use of stored patient handover data for research is recommended. This comprehensive system of nursing handover represents the first integrated system of this nature ever reported in the nursing and health literature. This integrated nursing handover system has been successfully implemented resulting in delivery of more comprehensive, logical and standardised patient information at handover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    SciTech Connect

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  14. Leading clinical handover improvement: a change strategy to implement best practices in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christina M; Persaud, Drepaul David

    2011-03-01

    Many contemporary acute care facilities lack safe and effective clinical handover practices resulting in patient transitions that are vulnerable to discontinuities in care, medical errors, and adverse patient safety events. This article is intended to supplement existing handover improvement literature by providing practical guidance for leaders and managers who are seeking to improve the safety and the effectiveness of clinical handovers in the acute care setting. A 4-stage change model has been applied to guide the application of strategies for handover improvement. Change management and quality improvement principles, as well as concepts drawn from safety science and high-reliability organizations, were applied to inform strategies. A model for handover improvement respecting handover complexity is presented. Strategies targeted to stages of change include the following: 1. Enhancing awareness of handover problems and opportunities with the support of strategic directions, accountability, end user involvement, and problem complexity recognition. 2. Identifying solutions by applying and adapting best practices in local contexts. 3. Implementing locally adapted best practices supported by communication, documentation, and training. 4. Institutionalizing practice changes through integration, monitoring, and active dissemination. Finally, continued evaluation at every stage is essential. Although gaps in handover process and function knowledge remain, efforts to improve handover safety and effectiveness are still possible. Continued evaluation is critical in building this understanding and to ensure that practice changes lead to improvements in patient safety, organizational effectiveness, and patient and provider satisfaction. Through handover knowledge building, fundamental changes in handover policies and practices may be possible.

  15. Media Independent Handover for Wireless Full Motion Video Dissemination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    802.11 to 802.16 handover, and an Android smartphone to use within the 802.11-to- 3G handover. Upon successful completion of this portion of the test the...EJ;ecunoo Lillk_C ~c- -- ~ MlH - D::Jr:.ltd.ftdiatilo --~ (0<) I ’?="" I M!H_C "P"’X L llii!C’llD( IQ +- Remom Transpon(RESPONS FRAME) lo!IB-C.=m

  16. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  17. Implementation of fast handover for proxy mobile IPv6: Resolving out-of-order packets.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byungseok; Anh, Khuong Quoc; Choo, Hyunseung

    2017-01-01

    Mobile IP allows for location-independent routing of IP datagrams on the Internet. Mobile IP specifies how a mobile node (MN) registers with its home agent and how the home agent routes datagrams to the MN through the tunnel. Current Mobile IP protocols have difficulties meeting the stringent handover delay requirements of future wireless networks. Fast handover for Proxy Mobile IPv6 (FPMIPv6) is used to resolve handover latency and packet loss problems that occur in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) protocol. However, while implementing the FPMIPv6 scheme in a testbed, we encounter the out-of-order packet (OoOP) problem. The cause of this problem is the existence of two paths for data transmitted from a correspondent node (CN) to an MN. Since the problem affects the quality of service (QoS) of the network and the performance of the MN, we propose a new scheme using the last packet marker and packet buffering to solve this problem in FPMIPv6. The new Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) can control and deliver the data transmitted via the old path or the new path to an MN in order, using the last packet marker to notify the end of the data delivery in the old path and the packet buffering for holding the data delivered in the new path. We implement both the proposed scheme and FPMIPv6 in a testbed as a real network environment to demonstrate the correctness, cost effectiveness, and performance of the proposed scheme. A performance evaluation reveals that the proposed scheme can handle the OoOP problem efficiently.

  18. Evaluation of postoperative handover using a tool to assess information transfer and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Kamal; Abboudi, May; Fischler, Lukas; Schmidt, Tanja; Vats, Amit; Manchanda, Chhavi; Sevdalis, Nick; Scheidegger, Daniel; Vincent, Charles; Moorthy, Krishna

    2011-04-01

    To assess the feasibility, validity, and reliability of a postoperative Handover Assessment Tool (PoHAT) and to evaluate the current practices of the postoperative handover at 2 large European hospitals. Postoperative handover is one of the most critical phases in the care of a patient undergoing surgery. However, handovers are largely informal and variable. A thorough understanding of the problem is necessary before safety solutions can be considered. Postoperative Handover Assessment Tool (PoHAT) was developed through task analysis, semistructured interviews, literature review, and learned society guidelines. Subsequent validation was done by the Delphi technique. Feasibility and reliability were then evaluated by direct observation of handovers at 2 large European hospitals. Outcomes measures included information omissions, task errors, teamwork evaluation, duration of handover, and number of distractions. The tool was feasible to use and inter-rater reliability was excellent (r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Evaluation of handover at the 2 study sites revealed a median of 8 information omissions per handover at both the centers (IQR 7-10). There were a median of 3 task errors per handover (IQR 2-4). Thirty-five percent of handovers had distractions, which included competing demands for nurse attention, bleeps, and case-irrelevant communication. This study has established the feasibility, validity, and reliability of a tool for evaluating postoperative handover. In addition to serving as an objective measure of postoperative handover, the tool can also be used to evaluate the efficacy of any intervention developed to improve this process. The study has also shown that postoperative handover is characterized by incomplete transfer of information and failures in the performance of key tasks.

  19. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  20. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  1. Enhanced Predictive Handover for Fast Proxy Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seil; Kang, Namhi; Kim, Younghan

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) has been proposed in order to overcome the limitations of host-based mobility management in IPv6 networks. However, packet losses during doing handover are still a problem. To solve this issue, several schemes have been developed, and can be classified into two approaches: predictive and reactive handover. Both approaches commonly use bi-directional tunnel between mobile access gateways (MAGs). In predictive schemes especially, mobility support for a mobile node (MN) is triggered by simplified link signal strength. Thereafter, the MN sends handover notification to its serving MAG, and is then able to initiate packet forwarding. Therefore, if the MN moves toward an unexpected MAG that does not have any pre-established tunnel with the serving MAG, it may lead to packet losses. In this paper, we define this problem as Early Packet Forwarding (EPF). As a solution, we propose an enhanced PMIPv6 scheme using two-phase tunnel control based on the IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover (MIH).

  2. Passing the Baton: An Experimental Study of Shift Handover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, Bonny; Hobbs, Alan; Kanki, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Shift handovers occur in many safety-critical environments, including aviation maintenance, medicine, air traffic control, and mission control for space shuttle and space station operations. Shift handovers are associated with increased risk of communication failures and human error. In dynamic industries, errors and accidents occur disproportionately after shift handover. Typical shift handovers involve transferring information from an outgoing shift to an incoming shift via written logs, or in some cases, face-to-face briefings. The current study explores the possibility of improving written communication with the support modalities of audio and video recordings, as well as face-to-face briefings. Fifty participants participated in an experimental task which mimicked some of the critical challenges involved in transferring information between shifts in industrial settings. All three support modalities, face-to-face, video, and audio recordings, reduced task errors significantly over written communication alone. The support modality most preferred by participants was face-to-face communication; the least preferred was written communication alone.

  3. Clinical handover practices in maternity services in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Gerard; Munroe, Deirdre; Riordan, Fiona; Croke, Eilish; Conroy, Celine; McNamara, Martin; Shannon, Michael

    2016-08-01

    the objective was to examine and describe clinical handover practices in Irish maternity services. the study design incorporated interviews and focus group discussions with a purposive sample of healthcare practitioners working in Irish maternity services. five maternity hospitals and fourteen co-located maternity units. midwives, obstetricians and other healthcare professionals, specifically physiotherapists and radiologists, midwifery students and health care assistants working in maternity services. the study participants provided nuanced and differentiated accounts of clinical handover practices, which indicated a general absence of formal policy and training on clinical handover and the practice of midwifery and medical teams holding separate clinical handovers based on their separate, respective needs for transferring information and clinical responsibility. Participants spoke of barriers to effective clinical handover, including unsuitable environments, lack of dedicated time and fatigue during duty shift clinical handover, lack of supportive information technology (IT) infrastructure, and resistance of some staff to the adoption of new technologies to support clinical handover. whether internal and external to clinical handover events, the barriers to effective clinical handover represent threats to patient safety and quality of care, since effective clinical handover is essential to the provision of safe quality care. clear and effective communication between collaborating professionals within maternity teams is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Requirements of a new communication technology for handover and the escalation of patient care: a multi-stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Maximilian J; King, Dominic; Arora, Sonal; Cooper, Kerri; Panda, Neha Aparajita; Gosling, Rebecca; Singh, Kaushiki; Sanders, Bradley; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2014-08-01

    In order to enable safe and efficient information transfer between health care professionals during clinical handover and escalation of care, existing communication technologies must be updated. This study aimed to provide a user-informed guide for the development of an application-based communication system (ABCS), tailored for use in patient handover and escalation of care. Current methods of inter-professional communication in health care along with information system needs for communication technology were identified through literature review. A focus group study was then conducted according to a topic guide developed by health innovation and safety researchers. Fifteen doctors and 11 nurses from three London hospitals participated in a mixture of homogeneous and heterogeneous sessions. The sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim before being subjected to thematic analysis. Seventeen information system needs were identified from the literature review. Participants identified six themes detailing user perceptions of current communication technology, attitudes to smartphone technology and anticipated requirements of an application produced for handover and escalation of care. Participants were in favour of an ABCS over current methods and expressed enthusiasm for a system with integrated patient information and group-messaging functions. Despite concerns regarding confidentiality and information governance a robust guide for development and implementation of an ABCS was produced, taking input from multiple stakeholders into account. Handover and escalation of care are vital processes for patient safety and communication within these must be optimized. An ABCS for health care professionals would be a welcome innovation and may lead to improvements in patient safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Handover Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Mann, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is planned to launch in early 2009 as a mission to study the solar variability and its impact on Earth. To best satisfy its science goal, SDO will fly in a geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of approximately 29 deg. The spacecraft attitude is designed so that the science instruments point directly at the Sun with high accuracy. One of SDO s principal requirements is to obtain long periods of uninterrupted observations. The observations have an extremely high data volume so SDO must be in continuous contact with the ground during the observation periods. To maintain this contact, SDO is equipped with a pair of high gain antennas (HGAs) transmitting to a pair of ground antennas at the SDO ground station (SDOGS) located in White Sands, New Mexico. Either HGA can transmit to either SDOGS antenna. Neither HGA can be powered down. During a portion of each year, each of the HGA beams will intersect with the SDO body for a portion of the orbit. The original SDO antenna contact plan used each HGA for the half of each year during which its beam would not intersect the spacecraft. No data would be lost except, possibly, when switching from one antenna to another. After this plan was adopted, further analysis showed that daily handovers would be necessary for significant periods of the year. This unexpected need for extensive handovers necessitated that a handover design be developed to minimize the impact on the mission. This antenna handover design was developed and successfully tested with simulated data using the slew rate limits from preliminary jitter analysis. Subsequent analysis provided significant revision of allowed rates requiring modification of the handover plans.

  6. Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Handover Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Mann, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is planned to launch in early 2009 as a mission to study the solar variability and its impact on Earth. To best satisfy its science goal, SDO will fly in a geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of approximately 29 deg. The spacecraft attitude is designed so that the science instruments point directly at the Sun with high accuracy. One of SDO's principal requirements is to obtain long periods of uninterrupted observations. The observations have an extremely high data volume so SDO must be in continuous contact with the ground during the observation periods. To maintain this contact, SDO is equipped with a pair of high gain antennas (HGAs) transmitting to a pair of ground antennas at the SDO ground station (SDOGS) located in White Sands, New Mexico. Either HGA can transmit to either SDOGS antenna. Neither HGA can be powered down. During a portion of each year, each of the HGA beams will intersect with the SDO body for a portion of the orbit. The original SDO antenna contact plan used each HGA for the half of each year during which its beam would not intersect the spacecraft. No data would be lost except, possibly, when switching from one antenna to another. After this plan was adopted, further analysis showed that daily handovers would be necessary for significant periods of the year. This unexpected need for extensive handovers necessitated that a handover design be developed to minimize the impact on the mission. This antenna handover design was developed and successfully tested with simulated data using the slew rate limits from preliminary jitter analysis. Subsequent analysis provided significant revision of allowed rates requiring modification of the handover plans.

  7. Managing change in the nursing handover from traditional to bedside handover – a case study from Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Kassean, Hemant K; Jagoo, Zaheda B

    2005-01-01

    Background The shift handover forms an important part of the communication process that takes place twice within the nurses' working day in the gynaecological ward. This paper addresses the topic of implementing a new system of bedside handover, which puts patients central to the whole process of managing care and also addresses some of the shortcomings of the traditional handover system. Methods A force field analysis in terms of the driving forces had shown that there was dissatisfaction with the traditional method of handover which had led to an increase in the number of critical incidents and complaints from patients, relatives and doctors. The restraining forces identified were a fear of accountability, lack of confidence and that this change would lead to more work. A 3 – step planned change model consisting of unfreezing, moving and refreezing was used to guide us through the change process. Resistance to change was managed by creating a climate of open communication where stakeholders were allowed to voice opinions, share concerns, insights, and ideas thereby actively participating in decision making. Results An evaluation had shown that this process was successfully implemented to the satisfaction of patients, and staff in general. Conclusion This successful change should encourage other nurses to become more proactive in identifying areas for change management in order to improve our health care system. PMID:15676078

  8. One size fits all? Challenges faced by physicians during shift handovers in a hospital with high sender/recipient ratio

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi Jessie; Park, Taezoon; Siah, Tien Ho Kewin; Ang, Bee Leng Sophia; Donchin, Yoel

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of the present study was to investigate the challenges faced by physicians during shift handovers in a university hospital that has a high handover sender/recipient ratio. METHODS We adopted a multifaceted approach, comprising recording and analysis of handover information, rating of handover quality, and shadowing of handover recipients. Data was collected at the general medical ward of a university hospital in Singapore for a period of three months. Handover information transfer (i.e. senders’ and recipients’ verbal communication, and recipients’ handwritten notes) and handover environmental factors were analysed. The relationship between ‘to-do’ tasks and information transfer, handover quality and handover duration was examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS Verbal handovers for 152 patients were observed. Handwritten notes on 102 (67.1%) patients and handover quality ratings for 98 (64.5%) patients were collected. Although there was good task prioritisation (information transfer: p < 0.005, handover duration: p < 0.01), incomplete information transfer and poor implementation of non-modifiable identifiers were observed. The high sender/recipient ratio of the hospital made face-to-face and/or bedside handover difficult to implement. Although the current handover method (i.e. use of telephone communication) allowed for interactive communication, it resulted in systemic information loss due to the lack of written information. The handover environment was chaotic in the high sender/recipient ratio setting, and the physicians had no designated handover time or location. CONCLUSION Handovers in high sender/recipient ratio settings are challenging. Efforts should be made to improve the handover processes in such situations, so that patient care is not compromised. PMID:25532519

  9. Efficient chimeric promoters derived from full-length and sub-genomic transcript promoters of Figwort mosaic virus (FMV).

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Patro, Sunita; Kumari, Sangeeta; Kumar, Deepak; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu B

    2011-03-10

    Addition of multiple repeats of the FS3 upstream activation sequence (FS3-UAS, -270 to -60) intra-molecularly to the TATA containing core-domain of the FS3 (-151 to +31) promoter resulted in 2-3-folds enhanced promoter activity. The chimeric promoter, FS3-UAS-3X with maximum activity, showed 3.31 times stronger activity in root vascular tissue compared to FS3 promoter and could be used efficiently in translational research.

  10. Implicit motor learning promotes neural efficiency during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Frank F; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Hu, Yong; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-09-01

    An understanding of differences in expert and novice neural behavior can inform surgical skills training. Outside the surgical domain, electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence analyses have shown that during motor performance, experts display less coactivation between the verbal-analytic and motor planning regions than their less skilled counterparts. Reduced involvement of verbal-analytic processes suggests greater neural efficiency. The authors tested the utility of an implicit motor learning intervention specifically devised to promote neural efficiency by reducing verbal-analytic involvement in laparoscopic performance. In this study, 18 novices practiced a movement pattern on a laparoscopic trainer with either conscious awareness of the movement pattern (explicit motor learning) or suppressed awareness of the movement pattern (implicit motor learning). In a retention test, movement accuracy was compared between the conditions, and coactivation (EEG coherence) was assessed between the motor planning (Fz) region and both the verbal-analytic (T3) and the visuospatial (T4) cortical regions (T3-Fz and T4-Fz, respectively). Movement accuracy in the conditions was not different in a retention test (P = 0.231). Findings showed that the EEG coherence scores for the T3-Fz regions were lower for the implicit learners than for the explicit learners (P = 0.027), but no differences were apparent for the T4-Fz regions (P = 0.882). Implicit motor learning reduced EEG coactivation between verbal-analytic and motor planning regions, suggesting that verbal-analytic processes were less involved in laparoscopic performance. The findings imply that training techniques that discourage nonessential coactivation during motor performance may provide surgeons with more neural resources with which to manage other aspects of surgery.

  11. Reducing the Handover Delay in FMIPv6 Using Proactive Care-of Address Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    To deal with the increasing number of mobile devices accessing the Internet and the increasing demands of mobility management, IETF has proposed Mobile IPv6 and its fast handover protocol FMIPv6. In FMIPv6, the possibility of Care-of Address (CoA) collision and the time for Return Routability (RR) procedure result in long handover delay, which makes it unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we propose an improved handover scheme for FMIPv6, which reduces the handover delay by using proactive CoA acquisition, configuration and test method. In our proposal, collision-free CoA is proactively prepared, and the time for RR procedure does not contribute to the handover delay. Furthermore, we analyze our proposal's benefits and overhead tradeoff. The numerical results demonstrate that it outperforms the current schemes, such as FMIPv6 and enhanced FMIPv6, on the aspect of handover delay and packet transmission delay.

  12. Time as a Key Topic in Health Professionals’ Perceptions of Clinical Handovers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Bernadette M.; Jones, Liz; Cretchley, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical handovers are an essential part of the daily care and treatment of hospital patients. We invoked a language and social psychology lens to investigate how different health professional groups discussed the communication problems and strengths they experienced in handovers. We conducted in-depth interviews with three different health professional groups within a large metropolitan hospital. We used Leximancer text analytics software as a tool to analyze the data. Results showed that time was of concern to all groups in both similar and diverse ways. All professionals discussed time management, time pressures, and the difficulties of coordinating different handovers. Each professional group had its own unique perceptions and priorities about handovers. Our findings indicated that health professionals understood what was required for handover improvement but did not have the extra capacity to alter their current environment. Hospital management, with clinicians, need to implement handover schedule processes that prioritize interprofessional representation. PMID:28462291

  13. A Cross-Layer User Centric Vertical Handover Decision Approach Based on MIH Local Triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, Maaz; Yousaf, Muhammad; Qayyum, Amir; Malik, Shahzad

    Vertical handover decision algorithm that is based on user preferences and coupled with Media Independent Handover (MIH) local triggers have not been explored much in the literature. We have developed a comprehensive cross-layer solution, called Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) approach, which consists of three parts viz. mechanism for collecting and storing user preferences, Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) algorithm and the MIH Function (MIHF). MIHF triggers the VHOD algorithm which operates on user preferences to issue handover commands to mobility management protocol. VHOD algorithm is an MIH User and therefore needs to subscribe events and configure thresholds for receiving triggers from MIHF. In this regard, we have performed experiments in WLAN to suggest thresholds for Link Going Down trigger. We have also critically evaluated the handover decision process, proposed Just-in-time interface activation technique, compared our proposed approach with prominent user centric approaches and analyzed our approach from different aspects.

  14. An Improved Cross-Layering Design for IPv6 Fast Handover with IEEE 802.16m Entry Before Break Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ronny Yongho; Jung, Inuk; Kim, Young Yong

    IEEE 802.16m is an advanced air interface standard which is under development for IMT-Advanced systems, known as 4G systems. IEEE 802.16m is designed to provide a high data rate and a Quality of Service (QoS) level in order to meet user service requirements, and is especially suitable for mobilized environments. There are several factors that have great impact on such requirements. As one of the major factors, we mainly focus on latency issues. In IEEE 802.16m, an enhanced layer 2 handover scheme, described as Entry Before Break (EBB) was proposed and adopted to reduce handover latency. EBB provides significant handover interruption time reduction with respect to the legacy IEEE 802.16 handover scheme. Fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in order to provide reduced handover interruption time from IP layer perspective. Since FMIPv6 utilizes link layer triggers to reduce handover latency, it is very critical to jointly design FMIPv6 with its underlying link layer protocol. However, FMIPv6 based on new handover scheme, EBB has not been proposed. In this paper, we propose an improved cross-layering design for FMIPv6 based on the IEEE 802.16m EBB handover. In comparison with the conventional FMIPv6 based on the legacy IEEE 802.16 network, the overall handover interruption time can be significantly reduced by employing the proposed design. Benefits of this improvement on latency reduction for mobile user applications are thoroughly investigated with both numerical analysis and simulation on various IP applications.

  15. The combination of a synthetic promoter and a CMV promoter improves foreign gene expression efficiency in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Jianwei, Dai; Qianqian, Zhang; Songcai, Liu; Mingjun, Zhang; Xiaohui, Ren; Linlin, Hao; Qingyan, Jiang; Yongliang, Zhang

    2012-04-15

    Skeletal muscle is becoming an attractive target tissue for gene therapy. Nevertheless, the low level of gene therapeutic expression in this tissue is the major limitation to it becoming an ideal target for gene transfer. The promoter is important element for gene transcription; however, the gene expression efficiencies and specificities of viral promoters and skeletal muscle-specific promotors are in themselves limiting factors. In this study, we established a dual-promoters system in skeletal muscle using a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and a skeletal muscle-specific synthetic promoter. Mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 cells were transfected with the system. We demonstrated that the dual-promoters system could significantly improve exogenous gene expression rate in vitro when compared with a single CMV promoter system and a skeletal muscle-specific synthetic promoter system in C2C12 cell line, by 69.48% and 41.93%, respectively. Next, we evaluated the system efficiency in vivo, the results showed that the dual-promoters system increased gene expression in mice 1.23-fold and 1.60-fold, respectively compared with expression controlled by the two single promoter vectors. Finally, we tested the dual-promoters system in growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene therapy, and revealed that when these two promoters co-drove the GHRH gene expression in vivo animal growth was enhanced significantly. All these results indicate that use of the dual-promoter vector was more efficient for gene expression in skeletal muscle tissue than use of the single promoter vectors. These finding could, hopefully, lead to the development of a high efficiency expression system in myocytes and form an ideal approach for gene therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 18374 - Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV AGENCY: The National Coordination Office...&D that will promote progress toward more efficient spectrum utilization and sharing. SUPPLEMENTARY... identify economic and policy research that will accelerate the progress toward more efficient...

  17. Improving residents' handovers through just-in-time training for structured communication

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Liam; Amin, Aditi; Boyington, Curtiss; Ao, Peter; Frolova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent quality assurance project we learned that nearly half of the handovers we examined were characterized as unsatisfactory by our residents, who provided examples in which their anxiety had been piqued and patient care had been affected. These reports substantiated a growing body of literature on the relationship between the quality of handover and the quality of patient care, so we sought to improve the quality and consistency of the in-hosptial handovers undertaken by our internal medicine residents. Senior residents attended morning report for three consecutive month long blocks and evaluated the quality of the handovers using an observational protocol comprised of 16 aspects of effective handover. During the first block, the resident observed a median of eight of the 16 practices occurring across the 46 handovers, and a large amount of variability. At the beginning of the subsequent block we presented a concise introduction to a structured handover procedure (SBARR). The median quality of the subsequent 33 handovers rose to 11, and the variability decreased considerably. In the next block we refined the SBARR orientation to focus on the errors observed in the previous blocks, and the improvement in the quality and variability was sustained. The minor change, which requires few resources to sustain, had a favourable impact on the quality of our residents' in-hospital handovers. PMID:26893890

  18. Conceptualizing handover strategies at change of shift in the emergency department: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Renée H; Tomolo, Anne M; Garlisi, Andy P; Aron, David C

    2008-12-16

    The importance and complexity of handovers is well-established. Progress for intervening in the emergency department change of shift handovers may be hampered by lack of a conceptual framework. The objectives were to gain a better understanding of strategies used for change of shift handovers in an emergency care setting and to further expand current understanding and conceptualizations. Observations, open-ended questions and interviews about handover strategies were collected at a Veteran's Health Administration Medical Center in the United States. All relevant staff in the emergency department was observed; 31 completed open-ended surveys; 10 completed in-depth interviews. The main variables of interest were strategies used for handovers at change of shift and obstacles to smooth handovers. Of 21 previously identified strategies, 8 were used consistently, 4 were never used, and 9 were used occasionally. Our data support ten additional strategies. Four agent types and 6 phases of the process were identified via grounded theory analysis. Six general themes or clusters emerged covering factors that intersect to define the degree of handover smoothness. Including phases and agents in conceptualizations of handovers can help target interventions to improve patient safety. The conceptual model also clarifies unique handover considerations for the emergency department setting.

  19. Nursing handover from ICU to cardiac ward: Standardised tools to reduce safety risks.

    PubMed

    Graan, Sher Michael; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Redley, Bernice

    2016-08-01

    Standardising handover processes and content, and using context-specific checklists are proposed as solutions to mitigate risks for preventable errors and patient harm associated with clinical handovers. Adapt existing tools to standardise nursing handover from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the cardiac ward and assess patient safety risks before and after pilot implementation. A three-stage, pre-post interrupted time-series design was used. Data were collected using naturalistic observations and audio-recording of 40 handovers and focus groups with 11 nurses. In Stage 1, examination of existing practice using observation of 20 handovers and a focus group interview provided baseline data. In Stage 2, existing tools for high-risk handovers were adapted to create tools specific to ICU-to-ward handovers. The adapted tools were introduced to staff using principles from evidence-based frameworks for practice change. In Stage 3, observation of 20 handovers and a focus group with five nurses were used to verify the design of tools to standardise handover by ICU nurses transferring care of cardiac surgical patients to ward nurses. Stage 1 data revealed variable and unsafe ICU-to-ward handover practices: incomplete ward preparation; failure to check patient identity; handover located away from patients; and information gaps. Analyses informed adaptation of process, content and checklist tools to standardise handover in Stage 2. Compared with baseline data, Stage 3 observations revealed nurses used the tools consistently, ward readiness to receive patients (10% vs 95%), checking patient identity (0% vs 100%), delivery of handover at the bedside (25% vs 100%) and communication of complete information (40% vs 100%) improved. Clinician adoption of tools to standardise ICU-to-ward handover of cardiac surgical patients reduced handover variability and patient safety risks. The study outcomes provide context-specific tools to guide handover processes and delivery of verbal

  20. Improving residents' handovers through just-in-time training for structured communication.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Liam; Amin, Aditi; Boyington, Curtiss; Ao, Peter; Frolova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent quality assurance project we learned that nearly half of the handovers we examined were characterized as unsatisfactory by our residents, who provided examples in which their anxiety had been piqued and patient care had been affected. These reports substantiated a growing body of literature on the relationship between the quality of handover and the quality of patient care, so we sought to improve the quality and consistency of the in-hosptial handovers undertaken by our internal medicine residents. Senior residents attended morning report for three consecutive month long blocks and evaluated the quality of the handovers using an observational protocol comprised of 16 aspects of effective handover. During the first block, the resident observed a median of eight of the 16 practices occurring across the 46 handovers, and a large amount of variability. At the beginning of the subsequent block we presented a concise introduction to a structured handover procedure (SBARR). The median quality of the subsequent 33 handovers rose to 11, and the variability decreased considerably. In the next block we refined the SBARR orientation to focus on the errors observed in the previous blocks, and the improvement in the quality and variability was sustained. The minor change, which requires few resources to sustain, had a favourable impact on the quality of our residents' in-hospital handovers.

  1. STRONTIUM AS AN EFFICIENT PROMOTER FOR SUPPORTED PALLADIUM HYDROGENATION CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of strontium promotion is studied for a series of supported palladium catalysts such as Pd/zeolite-β, Pd/Al2O3, Pd/SiO2, Pd/hydrotalcite and Pd/MgO. Strontium is found to be an effective promoter for enhancing the metal area, perce...

  2. STRONTIUM AS AN EFFICIENT PROMOTER FOR SUPPORTED PALLADIUM HYDROGENATION CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of strontium promotion is studied for a series of supported palladium catalysts such as Pd/zeolite-β, Pd/Al2O3, Pd/SiO2, Pd/hydrotalcite and Pd/MgO. Strontium is found to be an effective promoter for enhancing the metal area, perce...

  3. "There is a chain of Chinese whispers ...": empirical data support the call to formally teach handover to prequalification doctors.

    PubMed

    Cleland, J A; Ross, S; Miller, S C; Patey, R

    2009-08-01

    Changing patterns of work in the hospital setting mean different teams look after the same group of patients over the course of any given day. Shift handovers, or hand/sign-off, can give rise to miscommunication of critical information, a patient safety issue. How can we best prepare new doctors for handover? This was a qualitative, focus-group study, exploring the views of doctors (Foundation Year, Senior House Officers, Registrars and Consultants) and night nurse practitioners, in Aberdeen, UK. Five focus groups were carried out with 21 participants. Using framework analysis, five main themes relevant to the task of effectively handing over, and how to best teach handover, emerged. These were: definition of handover; experience of handover as a junior doctor; perceptions of junior doctors' handover skills and attitudes; systems factors, and their interaction with individual factors; and the "what" and the "how" of teaching handover. New doctors feel unprepared for handover and are seen as poor at handing over. Certain skills are required for effective handover, but professional attitudes are also critical. The skills identified reflect those suggested in policy documents based on expert panel views. Poor systems are a barrier to effective learning and practice. Our empirical approach adds to existing knowledge by highlighting that handover is not solely a skills-based task; there are complex interactions between individual and systems factors; and junior doctors should be prepared for handover prequalification. These data can be used to plan optimal handover teaching for medical students.

  4. Use of Mobile Applications for Hospital Discharge Letters: Improving Handover at Point of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Bridget; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Hoare, Cathal; Sorensen, Humphrey; Lezcano, Leonardo; Henn, Pat; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Handover of patient care is a time of particular risk and it is important that accurate and relevant information is clearly communicated. The hospital discharge letter is an important part of handover. However, the quality of hospital discharge letters is variable and letters frequently omit important information. The Cork Letter-Writing…

  5. Use of Mobile Applications for Hospital Discharge Letters: Improving Handover at Point of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Bridget; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Hoare, Cathal; Sorensen, Humphrey; Lezcano, Leonardo; Henn, Pat; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Handover of patient care is a time of particular risk and it is important that accurate and relevant information is clearly communicated. The hospital discharge letter is an important part of handover. However, the quality of hospital discharge letters is variable and letters frequently omit important information. The Cork Letter-Writing…

  6. Fragmentation of Patient Safety Research: A Critical Reflection of Current Human Factors Approaches to Patient Handover

    PubMed Central

    Manser, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The integration of human factors science in research and interventions aimed at increased patient safety has led to considerable improvements. However, some challenges to patient safety persist and may require human factors experts to critically reflect upon their predominant approaches to research and improvement. This paper is a call to start a discussion of these issues in the area of patient handover. Briefly reviewing recent handover research shows that while these studies have provided valuable insights into the communication practices for a range of handover situations, the predominant research strategy of studying isolated handover episodes replicates the very problem of fragmentation of care that the studies aim to overcome. Thus, there seems to be a need for a patient-centred approach to handover research that aims to investigate the interdependencies of handover episodes during a series of transitions occurring along the care path. Such an approach may contribute to novel insights and help to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve handover. Significance for public health While much of public health research has a preventive focus, health services research is generally concerned with the ways in which care is provided to those requiring treatment. This paper calls for a patient-centred approach to research on patient handover; a significant contributor to adverse events in healthcare. It is argued that this approach has the potential to improve our understanding of handover processes along the continuum of care. Thus, it can provide a scientific foundation for effective improvements in handover that are likely to reduce patient harm and help to maintain patient safety. PMID:25170504

  7. Interprofessional communication supporting clinical handover in emergency departments: An observation study.

    PubMed

    Redley, Bernice; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Bucknall, Tracey

    2017-08-01

    Poor interprofessional communication poses a risk to patient safety at change-of-shift in emergency departments (EDs). The purpose of this study was to identify and describe patterns and processes of interprofessional communication impacting quality of ED change-of-shift handovers. Observation of 66 change-of-shift handovers at two acute hospital EDs in Victoria, Australia. Focus groups with 34 nurse participants complemented the observations. Qualitative data analysis involved content and thematic methods. Four structural components of ED handover processes emerged represented by (ABCD): (1) Antecedents; (2) Behaviours and interactions; (3) Content; and (4) Delegation of ongoing care. Infrequent and ad hoc interprofessional communication and discipline-specific handover content and processes emerged as specific risks to patient safety at change-of-shift handovers. Three themes related to risky and effective practices to support interprofessional communications across the four stages of ED handovers emerged: 1) standard processes and practices, 2) teamwork and interactions and 3) communication activities and practices. Unreliable interprofessional communication can impact the quality of change-of-shift handovers in EDs and poses risk to patient safety. Structured reflective analysis of existing practices can identify opportunities for standardisation, enhanced team practices and effective communication across four stages of the handover process to support clinicians to enhance local handover practices. Future research should test and refine models to support analysis of practice, and identify and test strategies to enhance ED interprofessional communication to support clinical handovers. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and trial of a new ambulance-to-emergency department handover protocol: 'IMIST-AMBO'.

    PubMed

    Iedema, Rick; Ball, Chris; Daly, Barbara; Young, Jacinta; Green, Tim; Middleton, Paul M; Foster-Curry, Catherine; Jones, Marea; Hoy, Sarah; Comerford, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Information communicated by ambulance paramedics to Emergency Department (ED) staff during handover of patients has been found to be inconsistent and incomplete, and yet has major implications for patients' subsequent hospital treatment and trajectory of care. The study's aims were to: (1) identify the existing structure of paramedic-to-emergency staff handovers by video recording and analysing them; (2) involve practitioners in reflecting on practice using the footage; (3) combine those reflections with formal analyses of these filmed handovers to design a handover protocol; (4) trial-run the protocol; and (5) assess the protocol's enactment. The study was a 'video-reflexive ethnography' involving: structured analysis of videoed handovers (informed by ED clinicians' and ambulance paramedics' comments); ED clinicians and ambulance paramedics viewing their own practices; and rapid at-work training and feedback for paramedics. A five-question pre- and post-survey measured ED triage nurses' perceptions of the new protocol's impact. In total, 137 pre- and post-handovers were filmed involving 291 staff, and 368 staff were educated in the use of the new protocol. There was agreement that Identification of the patient, Mechanism/medical complaint, Injuries/information relative to the complaint, Signs, vitals and GCS, Treatment and trends/response to treatment, Allergies, Medications, Background history and Other (social) information (IMIST-AMBO) was the preferred protocol for non-trauma and trauma handovers. Uptake of IMIST-AMBO showed improvements: a greater volume of information per handover that was more consistently ordered; fewer questions from ED staff; a reduction in handover duration; and fewer repetitions by both paramedics and ED clinicians that may suggest improved recipient comprehension and retention. IMIST-AMBO shows promise for improving the ambulance-ED handover communication interface. Involving paramedics and ED clinicians in its development enhanced the

  9. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, W. S.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes and mudflats. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through vegetation's influence on the cohesive strength of channel banks. Understanding the morphology of a tidal channel network is thus essential to understanding both the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and the topographic signature of life. A critical measure of the morphology of a channel network is the unchanneled path length, which is characteristic of the efficiency with which a network dissects the marsh platform. However, the processes which control the formation and maintenance of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we show that an unvegetated marsh platform (Estero La Ramada, Baja California, Mexico) is dissected by a less efficient channel network than a vegetated one (Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States). The difference in geometric efficiency reflects a difference in the branching and meandering characteristics of the network, characteristics controlled by the density of vegetation on the channel banks. Our results suggest a feedback between network geometry and vegetation, mediated by fluxes of nutrients and salinity through the channel network, maintains the observed network geometries. An efficient network can support a denser vegetation community which stabilizes channel banks, leading to an efficient meandering geometry.

  10. Efficient chimeric plant promoters derived from plant infecting viral promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sefali; Ranjan, Rajiv; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed a set of three chimeric/hybrid promoters namely FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt incorporating different important domains of Figwort Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FSgt, -270 to -60), Mirabilis Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt, -306 to -125) and Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus full-length transcript promoter (PFlt-, -353 to +24 and PFlt-UAS, -353 to -49). We demonstrated that these chimeric/hybrid promoters can drive the expression of reporter genes in different plant species including tobacco, Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and spinach. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 4.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times stronger GUS activities compared to the activity of the CaMV35S promoter, respectively, in tobacco protoplasts. Protoplast-derived recombinant promoter driven GFP showed enhanced accumulation compared to that obtained under the CaMV35S promoter. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 3.0, 1.3 and 1.0 times stronger activities than the activity of the CaMV35S² (a modified version of the CaMV35S promoter with double enhancer domain) promoter, respectively, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN). Alongside, we observed a fair correlation between recombinant promoter-driven GUS accumulation with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical (X-gluc) staining of whole transgenic seedlings and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated floral parts expressing the GUS under the control of recombinant promoters also support above findings. Furthermore, we confirmed that these chimeric promoters are inducible in the presence of 150 μM salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Taken altogether, we propose that SA/ABA inducible chimeric/recombinant promoters could be used for strong expression of gene(s) of interest in crop plants.

  11. Understanding how clinical judgement and communicative practices interact with the use of an electronic clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Clinical handover is a high risk scenario involving the transfer of information, responsibility and accountability for patient care. Many strategies have been proposed to improve clinical handover and reduce risks it can pose to the safety and quality of patient care. The development and implementation of electronic tools provides one mechanism for structuring and streamlining information transfer to support more standardised handover practices. However, clinical judgement remains a valued, fundamental aspect of clinical practice and its communication during handover is open to variation in ways that may compromise patient safety. This research examines these issues based on evidence generated from a user-centred approach involving clinicians in the development and implementation of an electronic clinical handover system. The paper highlights how clinical judgements and communicative practices interact with an electronic clinical handover system, and discusses their potential implications for patient safety as part of a broader clinical handover improvement project.

  12. Clinical Information Transfer between EMS Staff and Emergency Medicine Assistants during Handover of Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Fahim Yegane, Seyedeh Almas; Shahrami, Ali; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Clinical handover by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) staff, as the first people who have contact with trauma patients, in the emergency department (ED), is very important. Therefore, effective communication to transfer clinical information about patients in a concise, rational, clear, and time-bound manner is essential. In Iran, the transfer of necessary information in clinical handover in EDs was carried out orally and without following standard instructions. This study aimed to audit the current clinical handover according to the Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation (ISBAR) tool and survey the effect of training the ISBAR tool to Emergency Medicine Assistants (EMAs) and EMS staff on improvement of the clinical handover of patients to the ED. This is a clinical audit study in three phases in Imam Hossein Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2016. In the first phase, the clinical handover between EMS staff and EMAs for 178 trauma patients admitted to the ED using ISBAR was audited and information was recorded. In the second phase, the correct approach of clinical handover according to the ISBAR tool was taught to EMS staff and EMAs using pamphlets and lectures. In the third phase, again, the clinical handover between EMS staff and EMAs for 168 trauma patients admitted to the ED was audited using the ISBAR tool and information was recorded. At the end, clinical audit assessment indicators of handover were evaluated before and after training. Clinical audit of the current situation in the ED showed that the clinical handover process does not follow standard ISBAR (0.0%). However, after training, 65.3% of clinical handover processes were performed in accordance with ISBAR. In the current study, there was an increase in all parameters of the ISBAR tool after training, most of which increased significantly compared to the first phase of the study (before the intervention). Findings demonstrate that patient handover in the ED did not

  13. Heterogeneous delivering capability promotes traffic efficiency in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan-Bo; Guan, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Traffic is one of the most fundamental dynamical processes in networked systems. With the homogeneous delivery capability of nodes, the global dynamic routing strategy proposed by Ling et al. [Phys. Rev. E81, 016113 (2010)] adequately uses the dynamic information during the process and thus it can reach a quite high network capacity. In this paper, based on the global dynamic routing strategy, we proposed a heterogeneous delivery allocation strategy of nodes on scale-free networks with consideration of nodes degree. It is found that the network capacity as well as some other indexes reflecting transportation efficiency are further improved. Our work may be useful for the design of more efficient routing strategies in communication or transportation systems.

  14. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks.

    PubMed

    Kearney, William S; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-07-19

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh.

  15. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, William S.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through the influence of vegetation on both flow and the cohesive strength of channel banks. Determining how vegetation affects channel networks is essential in understanding the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and their ecosystem services. However, the processes that control the formation of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we compare the channel networks of vegetated salt marshes in Massachusetts and the Venice Lagoon to unvegetated systems in the arid environments of the Gulf of California and Yemen. We find that the unvegetated systems are dissected by less efficient channel networks than the vegetated salt marshes. These differences in network geometry reflect differences in the branching and meandering of the channels in the network, characteristics that are related to the density of vegetation on the marsh. PMID:27430165

  16. [Promoting efficiency of microbial extracellular electron transfer by synthetic biology].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Song, Hao

    2017-03-25

    Electroactive bacteria, including electrigenic bacteria (exoelectrogens) and electroautotrophic bacteria, implement microbial bioelectrocatalysis processes via bi-directional exchange of electrons and energy with environments, enabling a wide array of applications in environmental and energy fields, including microbial fuel cells (MFC), microbial electrolysis cells (MEC), microbial electrosynthesis (MES) to produce electricity and bulk fine chemicals. However, the low efficiency in the extracellular electron transfer (EET) of exoelectrogens and electrotrophic microbes limited their industrial applications. Here, we reviewed synthetic biology approaches to engineer electroactive microorganisms to break the bottleneck of their EET pathways, to achieve higher efficiency of EET of a number of electroactive microorganisms. Such efforts will lead to a breakthrough in the applications of these electroactive microorganisms and microbial electrocatalysis systems.

  17. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  18. Handover of patient information from the crisis assessment and treatment team to the inpatient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Waters, Amanda; Sands, Natisha; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Handover, or the communication of patient information between clinicians, is a fundamental component of health care. Psychiatric settings are dynamic environments relying on timely and accurate communication to plan care and manage risk. Crisis assessment and treatment teams are the primary interface between community and mental health services in many Australian and international health services, facilitating access to assessment, treatment, and admission to hospital. No previous research has investigated the handover between crisis assessment and treatment teams and inpatient psychiatric units, despite the importance of handover to care planning. The aim of the present study was to identify the nature and types of information transferred during these handovers, and to explore how these guides initial care planning. An observational, exploratory study design was used. A 20-item handover observation tool was used to observe 19 occasions of handover. A prospective audit was undertaken on clinical documentation arising from the admission. Clinical information, including psychiatric history and mental state, were handed over consistently; however, information about consumer preferences was reported less consistently. The present study identified a lack of attention to consumer preferences at handover, despite the current focus on recovery-oriented models for mental health care, and the centrality of respecting consumer preferences within the recovery paradigm. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Failures in transition: learning from incidents relating to clinical handover in acute care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew J W; Schultz, Timothy J; Hannaford, Natalie; Runciman, William B

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate handover of patients, whereby responsibility and accountability of care is transferred between healthcare providers, is a critical component of quality healthcare delivery. This paper examines data from recent incidents relating to clinical handover in acute care settings, in order to provide a basis for the design and implementation of preventive and corrective strategies. A sample of incidents (n = 459) relating to clinical handover was extracted from an Australian health service's incident reporting system using a manual search function. Incident narratives were subjected to classification according to the system safety and quality concepts of failure type, error type, and failure detection mechanism. The most prevalent failure types associated with clinical handover were those relating to the transfer of patients without adequate handover 28.8% (n = 132), omissions of critical information about the patient's condition 19.2% (n = 88), and omissions of critical information about the patient's care plan during the handover process 14.2% (n = 65). The most prevalent failure detection mechanisms were those of expectation mismatch 35.7% (n = 174), clinical mismatch 26.9% (n = 127), and mismatch with other documentation 24.0% (n = 117). The findings suggest the need for a structured approach to handover with a recording of standardized sets of information to ensure that critical components are not omitted. Limitations of existing reporting processes are also highlighted. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  20. The equity imperative in tertiary education: Promoting fairness and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-06-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.

  1. Large-scale implementation of the I-PASS handover system at an academic medical centre.

    PubMed

    Shahian, David M; McEachern, Kayla; Rossi, Laura; Chisari, Roger Gino; Mort, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare has become increasingly complex and care delivery models have changed dramatically (eg, team-based care, duty-hour restrictions). However, approaches to critical communications among providers have not evolved to meet these new challenges. Evidence from safety culture surveys, academic studies and malpractice claims suggests that healthcare handover quality is problematic, leading to preventable errors and adverse outcomes. To address this concern, from 2013 to 2016 Massachusetts General Hospital completed phase I of a multifaceted programme to implement standardised, structured handovers across all departments, units and direct care providers. A multidisciplinary Handovers Committee selected the I-PASS handover system. Phase I implementation focused on large-scale training and shift-to-shift handovers. Important features included administrative and clinical leadership support; EHR templates for I-PASS; hospital handover policy revision; varied educational modalities, venues and durations; concomitant TeamSTEPPS training; unit-level I-PASS champions; handover observations; and solicitation of caregiver feedback and suggestions. More than 6000 doctors, nurses and therapists have been trained. Trended observation scores demonstrate progressive but non-uniform adoption of I-PASS, with significant improvements in the correct sequencing and percentage of I-PASS elements included in handovers. Adoption of Synthesis (readback) has been challenging, with lower scores. Comprehensive I-PASS implementation in a large academic medical centre necessitated major cultural change. I-PASS education is straightforward, whereas assuring consistent and sustained adoption across all services is more challenging, requiring adaptation of the basic I-PASS structure to local needs and workflows. EHR I-PASS templates facilitated caregiver acceptance. Initial phase I results are encouraging and the lessons learned should be helpful to other programmes planning handover initiatives

  2. Comparing nursing handover and documentation: forming one set of patient information.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M; Sanchez, P; Suominen, H; Basilakis, J; Dawson, L; Kelly, B; Hanlen, L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential for one set of patient information for nursing handover and documentation. Communication of patient information requires two processes in nursing: a verbal summary of the patients' care and another report within the nursing notes, creating duplication. Advances in speech recognition technology have provided an opportunity to consider the practicality of one set of information at the nursing end-of-shift. We used content analysis to compare transcripts from 162 digitally recorded handovers and written nursing notes for similar patients within general medical-surgical wards from two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney Australia. Using the Nursing Handover Minimum Dataset analysis framework similar content [n = 2109 (handover) n = 1902 (nursing notes)] was found within the handovers and notes at the end-of-shift (7:00 am and 2:00 pm). Analysis of the overarching categories demonstrated the emphasis within the differing data sources as: patient identification (31%), care planning or interventions (25%), clinical history (13%), and clinical status (13%) for handover, vs. care planning (47%), clinical status (24%), and outcomes or goals of care (12%) for nursing notes. This study has demonstrated that similar patient information is presented at handover and within documentation. Major categories are consistent with international nursing minimum datasets in use. We can use one set of patient information (within some limitations) for two purposes with system design, practice change and education. Experiments are currently being conducted trialling speech recognition within laboratory and clinical settings. One set of patient information, verbally generated at handover delivering electronic documentation within one process, will transform international nursing policy for nursing handover and documentation. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Efficient promotion of phosphate diester cleavage by a face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer without metal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Gao-Feng; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2012-06-04

    An organic face-to-face cyclodextrin dimer promotes the cleavage of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate efficiently in neutral pH without the addition of metal. Both of the phosphate diester bonds can be cleaved.

  4. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures.

  5. Medication communication between nurses and patients during nursing handovers on medical wards: a critical ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

    2012-08-01

    Communication is central to safe medication management. Handover is a routine communication forum where nurses provide details about how patients' medications are managed. Previous studies have investigated handover processes as general communication forums without specific focus on medication information exchange. The effects of social, environmental and organisational contexts on handover communication and medication safety have not been explored. To examine dominant and submissive forms of communication and power relations surrounding medication communication among nurses, and between nurses and patients during handover. A critical ethnographic approach was utilised to unpack the social and power struggles embedded in handover practices. The study was conducted in two medical wards of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia from January to November 2010. All registered nurses employed in the medical wards during the study time were eligible for participation. Patients were eligible if they were able to communicate with nurses about how their medications were managed. In total, 76 nurses and 27 patients were recruited for the study after giving written consent for participation. Participant observations, field interviews, video-recordings and video reflexive focus groups were conducted. Fairclough's critical discourse analytic framework guided data analysis. Nurse coordinators' group handovers in private spaces prioritised organisational and biomedical discourses, with little emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of medication treatment. The ward spatial structure provided an added complexity to how staff allocation occurred. Handovers involving patients in the public spaces at the bedside facilitated a partnership model in medication communication. Nurses exercised discretion during bedside handovers by discussing sensitive information away from the bedside. Handovers across different wards during patient transfers caused communication

  6. Exploring the structure and organization of information within nursing clinical handovers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Jefferies, Diana; Nicholls, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Clinical handover is the primary source of patient information for nurses; however, inadequate information transfer compromises patient safety. We investigated the content and organization of information conveyed at 81 handovers. A structure that captures and presents the information transferred at handover emerged: identification of the patient and clinical risks, clinical history/presentation, clinical status, care plan and outcomes/goals of care (ICCCO). This approach covers essential information while allowing for prioritization of information when required. Further research into the impact of ICCCO on patient safety is in progress. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. 75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 5 Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies... Commission seeks to promote and facilitate wireless innovation to ensure that the promise of dynamic spectrum access technologies can be fully realized and applied across more of the radio spectrum. A...

  8. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences.

  9. HDAC Activity Is Required for Efficient Core Promoter Function at the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang C.; Magklara, Angeliki; Smith, Catharine L.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to be required for basal or inducible transcription at a variety of genes by poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrated previously that HDAC inhibition rapidly repressed transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter by a mechanism that does not require the binding of upstream transcription factors. In the current study, we find that HDACs work through the core promoter sequences of MMTV as well as those of several cellular genes to facilitate transcriptional initiation through deacetylation of nonhistone proteins. PMID:21253530

  10. New Vertical Handover Method to Optimize Utilization of Wireless Local Area Network in High-Speed Environment.

    PubMed

    Yew, Hoe Tung; Supriyanto, Eko; Satria, Muhammad Haikal; Hau, Yuan Wen

    2016-01-01

    In heterogeneous wireless networks, wireless local area network (WLAN) is highly preferred by mobile terminals (MTs) owing to its high transmission bandwidth and low access cost. However, in high-speed environment, handover from a cellular network to a WLAN cell will lead to a high number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers due to the WLAN coverage limitation and will become worse at high speed. A new vertical handover method is proposed to minimize the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover while maximizing the usage of WLAN in high-speed environment. The simulation results show that the proposed method kept the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover below 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the proposed method reduced the number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers up to 80.0% and 97.7%, respectively, while the MT is highly mobile. Using the proposed prediction method, the MT can benefit high bandwidth and low network access cost from the WLAN with minimum interruption regardless of speed.

  11. New Vertical Handover Method to Optimize Utilization of Wireless Local Area Network in High-Speed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Supriyanto, Eko; Hau, Yuan Wen

    2016-01-01

    In heterogeneous wireless networks, wireless local area network (WLAN) is highly preferred by mobile terminals (MTs) owing to its high transmission bandwidth and low access cost. However, in high-speed environment, handover from a cellular network to a WLAN cell will lead to a high number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers due to the WLAN coverage limitation and will become worse at high speed. A new vertical handover method is proposed to minimize the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover while maximizing the usage of WLAN in high-speed environment. The simulation results show that the proposed method kept the probability of handover failure and unnecessary handover below 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the proposed method reduced the number of handover failures and unnecessary handovers up to 80.0% and 97.7%, respectively, while the MT is highly mobile. Using the proposed prediction method, the MT can benefit high bandwidth and low network access cost from the WLAN with minimum interruption regardless of speed. PMID:27814388

  12. Embryo Aggregation Promotes Derivation Efficiency of Outgrowths from Porcine Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Goo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have become an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic applications and producing transgenic animals. However, despite numerous reports of putative pESC lines, deriving validated pESC lines from embryos produced in vitro remains difficult. Here, we report that embryo aggregation was useful for deriving pESCs from in vitro-produced embryos. Blastocysts derived from embryo aggregation formed a larger number of colonies and maintained cell culture stability. Our derived cell lines demonstrated expression of pluripotent markers (alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog), an ability to form embryoid bodies, and the capacity to differentiate into the three germ layers. A cytogenetic analysis of these cells revealed that all lines derived from aggregated blastocysts had normal female and male karyotypes. These results demonstrate that embryo aggregation could be a useful technique to improve the efficiency of deriving ESCs from in vitro-fertilized pig embryos, studying early development, and deriving pluripotent ESCs in vitro in other mammals. PMID:26580280

  13. Stories of change: the Text Analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home.

    PubMed

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Saluto, G

    2017-02-15

    Handovers assure a timely and correct information transfer while socializing workers to the service's culture, however no study describes them as instruments to document organizational change and only a few have focused on psychiatric settings.

  14. How Does Nursing Staff Perceive the Use of Electronic Handover Reports? A Questionnaire-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Meum, Torbjørg; Wangensteen, Gro; Soleng, Karen S.; Wynn, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Following the implementation of electronic nursing records in a psychogeriatric ward, we examined nursing staff's attitudes and perceptions to the implementation of an electronic handover routine. A web-based anonymous and secure questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to all nursing staff at a psychogeriatric ward at a university hospital. Most respondents were satisfied with the electronic handover, and they believed they managed to keep informed by the new routine. The simultaneous introduction of a morning meeting, to ensure a forum for oral professional discussion, was a success. A minority of staff did not fully trust the information conveyed in the electronic handover, and a significant proportion expressed a need for guidance in using the system. Staff that had a high level of trust in written reports believed these saved time, had little trouble finding time and a place to read the reports, and were more positive to the new handover routine. PMID:21760779

  15. Integration of FMIPv6 in HMIPv6 to Improve Hand-over Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Dipali P.; Patil, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    Mobile users move frequently between networks, as they stay connected to the Internet. Thus, as mobility increases across networks, handovers will significantly impact the quality of the connection and user application. Handover performance is very important when evaluating IP mobility protocols. Since handover request are driven by several needs such as cost reduction criteria, network resource optimization and service related requirements. Current works to support seamless mobility in IPv6 network are classified into HMIPv6 and FMIPv6. These two approaches have pros and cons respectively and are being standardized independently in IETF. If one can integrate properly these two approaches, it is expected that the one can get more effective protocols that can provide better handover performance. This paper integrates FHMIPv6 in HMIPv6 (F-HMIPv6) so as to provide effectively fast handover on the hierarchical Mobile IPv6. The simulation performed using Ns-2 extensions to show that a performance of proposed system is better in terms of packet loss and hand-over delay.

  16. An unmethylated 3' promoter-proximal region is required for efficient transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Appanah, Ruth; Dickerson, David R; Goyal, Preeti; Groudine, Mark; Lorincz, Matthew C

    2007-02-16

    The promoter regions of approximately 40% of genes in the human genome are embedded in CpG islands, CpG-rich regions that frequently extend on the order of one kb 3' of the transcription start site (TSS) region. CpGs 3' of the TSS of actively transcribed CpG island promoters typically remain methylation-free, indicating that maintaining promoter-proximal CpGs in an unmethylated state may be important for efficient transcription. Here we utilize recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce a Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV)-based reporter, in vitro methylated 1 kb downstream of the TSS, into a defined genomic site. In a subset of clones, methylation spreads to within approximately 320 bp of the TSS, yielding a dramatic decrease in transcript level, even though the promoter/TSS region remains unmethylated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal that such promoter-proximal methylation results in loss of RNA polymerase II and TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) binding in the promoter region, suggesting that repression occurs at the level of transcription initiation. While DNA methylation-dependent trimethylation of H3 lysine (K)9 is confined to the intragenic methylated region, the promoter and downstream regions are hypo-acetylated on H3K9/K14. Furthermore, DNase I hypersensitivity and methylase-based single promoter analysis (M-SPA) experiments reveal that a nucleosome is positioned over the unmethylated TATA-box in these clones, indicating that dense DNA methylation downstream of the promoter region is sufficient to alter the chromatin structure of an unmethylated promoter. Based on these observations, we propose that a DNA methylation-free region extending several hundred bases downstream of the TSS may be a prerequisite for efficient transcription initiation. This model provides a biochemical explanation for the typical positioning of TSSs well upstream of the 3' end of the CpG islands in which they are embedded.

  17. Understanding best practice within nurse intershift handover: what suits palliative care?

    PubMed

    Messam, Kerry; Pettifer, Annie

    2009-04-01

    Following identification of the limitation of nurse intershift handover within a specialist palliative care unit, a review of the research literature is undertaken. The aim is to identify and appraise what is known about best practice within nurse intershift handover and evaluate the implications for practice within a specialist palliative care inpatient unit. The retrieval of literature identified 19 pertinent research papers which were critically analyzed. Three main themes emerged within the literature: purpose; type; and content of handover. Only two studies had been carried out within a generalist palliative care context; however, five sub-categories emerged that may be significant in meeting the demands of specialist palliative nursing. These were: clinical decision-making; staff support; maintaining confidentiality while handling sensitive information; patient involvement; and type of information exchange. All themes are presented within this article. The literature review suggests that traditional verbal nursing handover may be the most advantageous handover method within inpatient specialist palliative care, though attention to structure and focus is vital.

  18. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  19. Learning from incident reports in the Australian medical imaging setting: handover and communication errors.

    PubMed

    Hannaford, N; Mandel, C; Crock, C; Buckley, K; Magrabi, F; Ong, M; Allen, S; Schultz, T

    2013-02-01

    To determine the type and nature of incidents occurring within medical imaging settings in Australia and identify strategies that could be engaged to reduce the risk of their re-occurrence. 71 search terms, related to clinical handover and communication, were applied to 3976 incidents in the Radiology Events Register. Detailed classification and thematic analysis of a subset of incidents that involved handover or communication (n=298) were undertaken to identify the most prevalent types of error and to make recommendations about patient safety initiatives in medical imaging. Incidents occurred most frequently during patient preparation (34%), when requesting imaging (27%) and when communicating a diagnosis (23%). Frequent problems within each of these stages of the imaging cycle included: inadequate handover of patients (41%) or unsafe or inappropriate transfer of the patient to or from medical imaging (35%); incorrect information on the request form (52%); and delayed communication of a diagnosis (36%) or communication of a wrong diagnosis (36%). The handover of patients and clinical information to and from medical imaging is fraught with error, often compromising patient safety and resulting in communication of delayed or wrong diagnoses, unnecessary radiation exposure and a waste of limited resources. Corrective strategies to address safety concerns related to new information technologies, patient transfer and inadequate test result notification policies are relevant to all healthcare settings. Handover and communication errors are prevalent in medical imaging. System-wide changes that facilitate effective communication are required.

  20. Nursing handovers: An integrative review of the different models and processes available.

    PubMed

    Bakon, Shannon; Wirihana, Lisa; Christensen, Martin; Craft, Judy

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the different handover models and processes available and their efficacy in improving handover communication within nursing practice. The handover of information is a key nursing responsibility that ensures patient outcomes through continuity of care. This process is widely recognised as an opening for error that may comprise patient safety. This paper is an integrative literature review that employed an inductive exploratory design. A computerised database search was employed including CINAHL, PubMed and Science Direct and a manual citation search with included papers limited to papers published 2005-2016, in English with full text freely available. This included a systematic search strategy, a critical appraisal of the papers utilising the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, an inductive data extraction and thematic analysis. Sixteen papers were included in this review. The results detailed that there are various handover models in use, yet there is no evidence that any one model displays superior efficacy. The iSoBAR model and its adaptations remain the only model employed across various specialties. More research is warranted to determine if any handover model displays superior efficacy or transferability.

  1. A systematic review of educational resources for teaching patient handover skills to resident physicians and other healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Mark F; Gill, Richdeep S; Turner, Simon R; Shrichand, Pankaj; Giuliani, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    As physicians reduce their work hours, transfer of patient care becomes more common; this is a time of heightened risk to patients. Training in patient handover skills may reduce this risk. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding education models available to teach handovers skills to healthcare professionals. Two investigators independently reviewed educational publications for inclusion/exclusion. A third reviewer resolved any disagreement. Included papers contained an educational resource for teaching handover skills to any health profession in any patient population. Papers were rated on a previously described 4 point scale for quality. 1746 papers were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria These studies presented information on educational curricula, simulation technologies and didactic sessions. The most common educational method was simulation or role-playing, which is better received by learners than didactic sessions. Teaching handover practices makes residents feel more confident in their handover, and residents receiving adequate handover are more comfortable with their duties. Although data are limited, effective training models for handover skills have been described in the literature. Residents and other healthcare practitioners should receive training in handover to improve practitioner comfort and patient care.

  2. The STAR ESL, electronic shift and handover log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, L.; Lauret, J.

    2008-07-01

    Keeping a clear and accurate experiment log is important for any scientific experiment. The concept is certainly not new but keeping accurate while useful records for a Nuclear Physics experiment such as the Solenoidal Tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR at RHIC) is not a priori a simple matter - STAR operates 24 hours a day for six months out of the year with more than 24 shift crews operating 16 different subsystems (some located remotely). To meet the challenge of not only logging the information but passing it in a concise manner from one shift to another, the STAR experiment has designed an Electronic Shift-Log (ESL), a flexible application written in Java and interfacing with the Data Acquisition tools, Quality Assurance reporting, Online shift crews or remote personnel and experts as well as including features such as shift change-over (or handover) forms, tailored to the sub-group of interest. We will present an overview of STAR's Electronic Log, a system that is clear, reliable, safe, consistent, easy to use and globally viewable in real time with secure connections.

  3. Influence of learner knowledge and case complexity on handover accuracy and cognitive load: results from a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Young, John Q; van Dijk, Savannah M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Custers, Eugene J; Irby, David M; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-09-01

    The handover represents a high-risk event in which errors are common and lead to patient harm. A better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of handover errors is essential to improving handover education and practice. This paper reports on an experiment conducted to study the effects of learner knowledge, case complexity (i.e. cases with or without a clear diagnosis) and their interaction on handover accuracy and cognitive load. Participants were 52 Dutch medical students in Years 2 and 6. The experiment employed a repeated-measures design with two explanatory variables: case complexity (simple or complex) as the within-subject variable, and learner knowledge (as indicated by illness script maturity) as the between-subject covariate. The dependent variables were handover accuracy and cognitive load. Each participant performed a total of four simulated handovers involving two simple cases and two complex cases. Higher illness script maturity predicted increased handover accuracy (p < 0.001) and lower cognitive load (p = 0.007). Case complexity did not independently affect either outcome. For handover accuracy, there was no interaction between case complexity and illness script maturity. For cognitive load, there was an interaction effect between illness script maturity and case complexity, indicating that more mature illness scripts reduced cognitive load less in complex cases than in simple cases. Students with more mature illness scripts performed more accurate handovers and experienced lower cognitive load. For cognitive load, these effects were more pronounced in simple than complex cases. If replicated, these findings suggest that handover curricula and protocols should provide support that varies according to the knowledge of the trainee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  4. Lost information during the handover of critically injured trauma patients: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Zakrison, Tanya Liv; Rosenbloom, Brittany; McFarlan, Amanda; Jovicic, Aleksandra; Soklaridis, Sophie; Allen, Casey; Schulman, Carl; Namias, Nicholas; Rizoli, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    Clinical information may be lost during the transfer of critically injured trauma patients from the emergency department (ED) to the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to investigate the causes and frequency of information discrepancies with handover and to explore solutions to improving information transfer. A mixed-methods research approach was used at our level I trauma centre. Information discrepancies between the ED and the ICU were measured using chart audits. Descriptive, parametric and non-parametric statistics were applied, as appropriate. Six focus groups of 46 ED and ICU nurses and nine individual interviews of trauma team leaders were conducted to explore solutions to improve information transfer using thematic analysis. Chart audits demonstrated that injuries were missed in 24% of patients. Clinical information discrepancies occurred in 48% of patients. Patients with these discrepancies were more likely to have unknown medical histories (p<0.001) requiring information rescue (p<0.005). Close to one in three patients with information rescue had a change in clinical management (p<0.01). Participants identified challenges according to their disciplines, with some overlap. Physicians, in contrast to nurses, were perceived as less aware of interdisciplinary stress and their role regarding variability in handover. Standardising handover, increasing non-technical physician training and understanding unit cultures were proposed as solutions, with nurses as drivers of a culture of safety. Trauma patient information was lost during handover from the ED to the ICU for multiple reasons. An interprofessional approach was proposed to improve handover through cross-unit familiarisation and use of communication tools is proposed. Going beyond traditional geographical and temporal boundaries was deemed important for improving patient safety during the ED to ICU handover. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  5. Sustainability of protocolized handover of pediatric cardiac surgery patients to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Chenault, Kristin; Moga, Michael-Alice; Shin, Minah; Petersen, Emily; Backer, Carl; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Suresh, Santhanam

    2016-05-01

    Transfer of patient care among clinicians (handovers) is a common source of medical errors. While the immediate efficacy of these initiatives is well documented, sustainability of practice changes that results in better processes of care is largely understudied. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the sustainability of a protocolized handover process in pediatric patients from the operating room after cardiac surgery to the intensive care unit. This was a prospective study with direct observation assessment of handover performance conducted in the cardiac ICU (CICU) of a free-standing, tertiary care children's hospital in the United States. Patient transitions from the operating room to the CICU, including the verbal handoff, were directly observed by a single independent observer in all phases of the study. A checklist of key elements identified errors classified as: (1) technical, (2) information omissions, and (3) realized errors. Total number of errors was compared across the different times of the study (preintervention, postintervention, and the current sustainability phase). A total of 119 handovers were studied: 41 preintervention, 38 postintervention, and 40 in the current sustainability phase. The median [Interquartile range (IQR)] number of technical errors was significantly reduced in the sustainability phase compared to the preintervention and postintervention phase, 2 (1-3), 6 (5-7), and 2.5 (2-4), respectively P = 0.0001. Similarly, the median (IQR) number of verbal information omissions was also significantly reduced in the sustainability phase compared to the preintervention and postintervention phases, 1 (1-1), 4 (3-5) and 2 (1-3), respectively. We demonstrate sustainability of an improved handover process using a checklist in children being transferred to the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Standardized handover processes can be a sustainable strategy to improve patient safety after pediatric cardiac surgery.

  6. 'Being in the know': Nurses' perspectives on the role of 'end-of-shift' verbal handover.

    PubMed

    David, Antoinette; Holroyd, Eleanor; Jackson, Mervyn; Cleary, Sonja

    2017-06-01

    To explore and qualitatively review 'end-of-shift' verbal communication practices and processes; and to further develop a core theoretical construction of nurses' perspectives on handover in contemporary Australian clinical settings. The following study will report the results from phase 1 of a two-phase study examining the Australian nurse's perspective of verbal handover. The data were gathered over a 2-month period in 2013 for phase 1 of the study.Phase 1 of the research was undertaken using Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory methodology, to explore the perceptions of verbal handover by acute care nurses. The participants included 41 registered nurses purposively sampled from acute care surgical and medical backgrounds in a metropolitan hospital in Melbourne, Australia.Data were collected using intensive interviewing techniques in six focus groups with an average of seven members in each group. The data were then coded and analyzed concurrently allowing the categorization of core concepts. Communication proved to be the underlying core concept with linked themes such as mode of handover, relevance of information, professional roles of nursing, duty of care, timeliness and scope of practice. Communication during handover time must be tailored to support the oncoming nurse in preparing for the shift ahead. To do this effectively, information shared must be relevant and fashioned in such a way that the oncoming nurse can prioritize patient care needs while ensuring adherence to their scope of practice. This Grounded Theory has helped toward the reconceptualization of verbal handover, one that attempts to enhance current end-of-shift communication practices and processes, thereby optimizing clinical outcomes.

  7. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ming

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  8. Oxygen-Promoted Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction for Efficient Construction of Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Xinmin

    2016-02-01

    As one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds, the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has attracted great attention over the past three decades. In recent years, a huge amount of interest has been focused on the development of ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction systems, which have the advantages of low cost, mild reaction conditions, and easy operation. So far, a number of ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction systems have been developed by using simple palladium salts, nanopalladium, or supported palladium catalysts. In this account, we will review our recent research on the oxygen-promoted ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Interestingly, the oxygen-promoting effect has been observed in different reaction media, including polyethylene glycol, organic/water mixed solvents and pure water. The oxygen-promoted reaction systems demonstrate high efficiency for the construction of biaryls.

  9. Fuzzy Logic-based Intelligent Scheme for Enhancing QoS of Vertical Handover Decision in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzali, F.; Ghazali, O.; Omar, M. H.

    2017-08-01

    The design of next generation networks in various technologies under the “Anywhere, Anytime” paradigm offers seamless connectivity across different coverage. A conventional algorithm such as RSSThreshold algorithm, that only uses the received strength signal (RSS) as a metric, will decrease handover performance regarding handover latency, delay, packet loss, and handover failure probability. Moreover, the RSS-based algorithm is only suitable for horizontal handover decision to examine the quality of service (QoS) compared to the vertical handover decision in advanced technologies. In the next generation network, vertical handover can be started based on the user’s convenience or choice rather than connectivity reasons. This study proposes a vertical handover decision algorithm that uses a Fuzzy Logic (FL) algorithm, to increase QoS performance in heterogeneous vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET). The study uses network simulator 2.29 (NS 2.29) along with the mobility traffic network and generator to implement simulation scenarios and topologies. This helps the simulation to achieve a realistic VANET mobility scenario. The required analysis on the performance of QoS in the vertical handover can thus be conducted. The proposed Fuzzy Logic algorithm shows improvement over the conventional algorithm (RSSThreshold) in the average percentage of handover QoS whereby it achieves 20%, 21% and 13% improvement on handover latency, delay, and packet loss respectively. This is achieved through triggering a process in layer two and three that enhances the handover performance.

  10. Modification Strategies with Inorganic Acids for Efficient Photocatalysts by Promoting the Adsorption of O2.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Luan, Yunbo; Qu, Yang; Jing, Liqiang

    2015-10-21

    Efficient photocatalysis for degrading environmental organic pollutants on semiconductors requires photogenerated charge carrier separation to drive the photochemical processes. To ensure charge separation, it is indispensable to make charges captured effectively. Generally, the step for capturing the photogenerated electrons by the surface adsorbed O2 is relatively slow as compared to that for capturing holes by the surface adsorbed hydroxyl groups so that it is taken as the rate-determining step. However, it is frequently neglected. Thus, it is greatly desired to develop feasible strategies to promote the adsorption of O2 for efficient photocatalysts. In this paper, we have mainly discussed surface modification with inorganic acids, such as H3PO4, HF, and H3BO3, to enhance photogenerated charge carrier separation based on oxygen adsorption promotion for photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. Among these acids, the function and mechanism of H3PO4 are highlighted because of its good performance and universality. Several important photocatalyst systems, mainly including TiO2, α-Fe2O3, and g-C3N4, along with the nanostructured carbons as electron acceptors in nanocomposites, are addressed to improve the ability to adsorb O2. A key consideration in this review is the development of a strategy for the promotion of adsorbed O2 for efficient photocatalysts, along with the process mechanisms by revealing the relationships among the adsorbed O2, photogenerated charge carrier separation, and photocatalytic performance. Interestingly, it is suggested that the enrichment in surface acidity be favorable for promotion of O2 adsorption, leading to the improved charge carrier separation and then to the enhanced photoactivities of various semiconductor photocatalysts. Moreover, several outlooks are put forward.

  11. Building an Electronic Handover Tool for Physicians Using a Collaborative Approach between Clinicians and the Development Team.

    PubMed

    Guilbeault, Peggy; Momtahan, Kathryn; Hudson, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort by The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) to become one of the top 10% performers in patient safety and quality of care, the hospital embarked on improving the communication process during handover between physicians by building an electronic handover tool. It is expected that this tool will decrease information loss during handover. The Information Systems (IS) department engaged a workgroup of physicians to become involved in defining requirements to build an electronic handover tool that suited their clinical handover needs. This group became ultimately responsible for defining the graphical user interface (GUI) and all functionality related to the tool. Prior to the pilot, the Information Systems team will run a usability testing session to ensure the application is user friendly and has met the goals and objectives of the workgroup. As a result, The Ottawa Hospital has developed a fully integrated electronic handover tool built on the Clinical Mobile Application (CMA) which allows clinicians to enter patient problems, notes and tasks available to all physicians to facilitate the handover process.

  12. Gaps in continuity of care: patients' perceptions of the quality of care during labor ward handover in Mulago hospital, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Dan K; Nakimuli, Annettee; Kakaire, Othman; Osinde, Michael O; Mbalinda, Scovia N; Kakande, Nelson

    2015-05-06

    Client satisfaction is a common outcome measure for quality of care and goal for quality improvement in healthcare. We assessed women's perceptions of the structure, process and outcome of intrapartum care in Mulago hospital, specifically, labor ward duty shift handovers. Data was collected through 40 in-depth interviews conducted on two occasions: during the time of hospitalization and within 4-6 months after childbirth. Participants were women who delivered at the hospital, of whom some had life-threatening obstetric complications. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Maternity duty handovers were associated with patient dissatisfaction, particularly the process of hand-over, the decision-making that follows handovers and failure of communication of information to patients and their caretakers. Consequently, duty handovers were perceived inadequate. They were described as gaps in the continuity of care, and contributed to poor quality of care, birth trauma and mothers' dissatisfaction with the childbirth experience. The handover process and practices should be standardized using protocols and checklists. Health workers need training on handover practices, team work and communication skills (so as to improve patient-health provider and provider-provider interaction.

  13. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-04-04

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation.

  14. Efficient Ionic-Liquid-Promoted Chemical Fixation of CO2 into α-Alkylidene Cyclic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jikuan; Zhao, Yuling; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Huiyong; Fan, Maohong; Wang, Jianji

    2017-03-22

    The efficient conversion of CO2 into value-added chemicals under metal-free conditions is of significant importance from the viewpoint of sustainable chemistry. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) with different properties were used to promote the reaction between CO2 and propargylic alcohol for the synthesis of α-alkylidene cyclic carbonates. The protic IL 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-7-undecenium 2-methylimidazolide ([DBUH][MIm]) was prepared by simple neutralization of the superbase with a weak proton donor and could efficiently promote the reactions in high yields. After the reactions, the IL was separated from the reaction mixtures by simply adding water, and then reused after drying without an observable decrease in the catalytic activity and selectivity. NMR spectroscopy and detailed density functional theory analysis were used to propose a reaction mechanism. Both the cation and anion of the IL played a key synergistic role in promoting the reaction. These findings may be useful for the rational design of novel metal-free and recyclable routes for the reaction between CO2 and propargylic alcohols. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  16. Oligoethylene glycols as highly efficient mutifunctional promoters for nucleophilic-substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Jang, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Sungyul; Lee, Ji Woong; Song, Choong Eui; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-26

    Herein, we report the promising use of n-oligoethylene glycols (oligoEGs) as mutifunctional promoters for nucleophilic-substitution reactions employing alkali metal salts. Among the various oligoEGs tested, pentaethylene glycol (pentaEG) had the most efficient catalytic activity. In particular, when compared with other nucleophiles examined, a fluorine nucleophile generated from CsF was significantly activated by the pentaEG promoter. We also performed various facile nucleophilic-displacement reactions, such as the halogenation, acetoxylation, thioacetoxylation, nitrilation, and azidation of various substrates with potassium halides, acetate, thioacetate, cyanide, and sodium azide, respectively, in the presence of the pentaEG promoter. All of these reactions provided their desired products in excellent yields. Furthermore, the combination of pentaEG and a tert-alcohol medium showed tremendous efficiency in the nucleophilic-displacement reactions (fluorination and methoxylation) of base-sensitive substrates with basic nucleophiles (cesium fluoride and potassium methoxide, respectively). The catalytic role of oligoEGs was examined by quantum-chemical methods. The oxygen atoms in oligoEGs were found to act as Lewis bases on the metal cations to produce the "flexible" nucleophile, whereas the two terminal hydroxy (OH) groups acted as "anchors" to orientate the nucleophile and the substrate into an ideal configuration for the reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. An adaptive handover prediction scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Ali Safa; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  18. Change from an office-based to a walk-around handover system.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Marguerite

    This project stemmed from a desire to review the interdisciplinary handover system in an over-65s rehabilitation ward. The idea was to involve staff, including all members of the interdisciplinary team, in the decision-making process, and to canvass patients' opinions about the walk-around report.

  19. A cooperative positioning with Kalman filters and handover mechanism for indoor microcellular visible light communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jieqing; Huang, Zhitong; Zhuang, Kaiyu; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel handover scheme for indoor microcellular visible light communication (VLC) network. With such a scheme, the room, which is fully coverage by light, is divided into several microcells according to the layout of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the directionality of light arises new challenges in keeping the connectivity between the mobile devices and light source under the mobile circumstances. The simplest solution is that all LEDs broadcast data of every user simultaneously, but it wastes too much bandwidth resource, especially when the amount of users increases. To solve this key problem, we utilize the optical positioning assisting handover procedure in this paper. In the positioning stage, the network manager obtains the location information of user device via downlink and uplink signal strength information, which is white light and infrared, respectively. After that, a Kalman filter is utilized for improving the tracking performance of a mobile device. Then, the network manager decides how to initiate the handover process by the previous information. Results show that the proposed scheme can achieve low-cost, seamless data communication, and a high probability of successful handover.

  20. A Standardized Shift Handover Protocol: Improving Nurses’ Safe Practice in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Javad; Mazluom, Seyed Reza; Etezadi, Toktam; Tasseri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For maintaining the continuity of care and improving the quality of care, effective inter-shift information communication is necessary. Any handover error can endanger patient safety. Despite the importance of shift handover, there is no standard handover protocol in our healthcare settings. Methods: In this one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study conducted in spring and summer of 2011, we recruited a convenience sample of 56 ICU nurses. The Nurses’ Safe Practice Evaluation Checklist was used for data collection. The Content Validity Index and the inter-rater correlation coefficient of the checklist was 0.92 and 89, respectively. We employed the SPSS 11.5 software and the Mc Nemar and paired-samples t test for data analysis. Results: Study findings revealed that nurses’ mean score on the Safe Practice Evaluation Checklist increased significantly from 11.6 (2.7) to 17.0 (1.8) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: using a standard handover protocol for communicating patient’s needs and information improves nurses’ safe practice in the area of basic nursing care. PMID:25276725

  1. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  2. Stakeholder perspectives on handovers between hospital staff and general practitioners: an evaluation through the microsystems lens

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Beryl; Zwart, Dorien; Hesselink, Gijs; Pijnenborg, Loes; Barach, Paul; Kalkman, Cor; Johnson, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Background Much of the research on improving patient handovers has focused on enhancing communication within the hospital system, but there have been relatively few efforts aimed at addressing the challenges at the interface between the hospital and the primary care setting. Methods A qualitative thematic analysis using a clinical microsystems lens applied to 28 semi-structured key stakeholder interviews in the Netherlands. Data were organised into seven ‘virtual’ clinical microsystem datasets composed of patients, hospital-based physicians, hospital-based nurses and community-based general practitioners. Results Five themes that contributed to effective or ineffective handovers emerged from our analysis: (1) lack of adequate information; (2) healthcare professionals’ availability and opportunity for personal contact; (3) feedback, teaching and protocols related to handovers; (4) information technology facilitated communication solutions; and (5) the role and responsibility of patients. Our analysis suggests that each healthcare professional attempted to provide the best care possible, but did this largely in isolation, and without the benefit of the knowledge and expertise of the other members of the microsystem. Conclusions The microsystem approach offers an innovative organisational construct and approach to assess the gaps in ‘hospital to community’ patient handovers, by viewing the hospital to the community interface as a clinical microsystem continuum. Our application of the microsystem approach confirms and extends earlier findings about the impact of barriers on the continuity and safety of patient transitions and their impact on the quality of patient care. PMID:23118408

  3. A survey of trauma alert criteria and handover practice in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Henry Robert; Almond, Lawrence Maximilian; Porter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate alerting of patients with trauma and informative handover are necessary to allow a smooth transition of care between the prehospital and hospital teams. Aim To identify current practice and areas that need to be improved to facilitate the transition from prehospital care to emergency department resuscitation. Methods A questionnaire postal study of 100 emergency departments and all 32 ambulance service trusts in England and Wales. Results Emergency departments returned 34 (34%) completed questionnaires, and ambulance trusts returned 16 (50%) completed questionnaires. In all, 56.8% of emergency department responders stated that trauma alert information was relayed through ambulance control, 48.5% stated that alert messages were standardised and 18.5% felt that ambulance crews used the trauma severity scoring system during alerting. 64.7% stated that handover was broadcast to the trauma team and 9.1% routinely received digital photographic images. All ambulance service responders included injury mechanism in their alerting criteria and 53.3% used a standard handover structure with 86.7% familiar with the mnemonic ASHICE (Age, Sex, History, Injuries, Condition, Expected time of arrival) for rapid information transmission. Discussion Greater cooperation between regional emergency departments and ambulance services is necessary to refine the alerting and handover process, producing a pathway through which vital information is collected by trained personnel and communicated without distortion to the resuscitation room, where it may be utilised to inform life‐saving decisions. PMID:17384393

  4. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-03-28

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

  5. Distinct Prion Domain Sequences Ensure Efficient Amyloid Propagation by Promoting Chaperone Binding or Processing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Christine R.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2016-01-01

    Prions are a group of proteins that can adopt a spectrum of metastable conformations in vivo. These alternative states change protein function and are self-replicating and transmissible, creating protein-based elements of inheritance and infectivity. Prion conformational flexibility is encoded in the amino acid composition and sequence of the protein, which dictate its ability not only to form an ordered aggregate known as amyloid but also to maintain and transmit this structure in vivo. But, while we can effectively predict amyloid propensity in vitro, the mechanism by which sequence elements promote prion propagation in vivo remains unclear. In yeast, propagation of the [PSI+] prion, the amyloid form of the Sup35 protein, has been linked to an oligopeptide repeat region of the protein. Here, we demonstrate that this region is composed of separable functional elements, the repeats themselves and a repeat proximal region, which are both required for efficient prion propagation. Changes in the numbers of these elements do not alter the physical properties of Sup35 amyloid, but their presence promotes amyloid fragmentation, and therefore maintenance, by molecular chaperones. Rather than acting redundantly, our observations suggest that these sequence elements make complementary contributions to prion propagation, with the repeat proximal region promoting chaperone binding to and the repeats promoting chaperone processing of Sup35 amyloid. PMID:27814358

  6. Measurement of the frequency and source of interruptions occurring during bedside nursing handover in the intensive care unit: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Amy J; Corley, Amanda; Chaboyer, Wendy; Hammond, Naomi E; Fraser, John F

    2015-02-01

    Effective clinical handover involves the communication of relevant patient information from one care provider to another and is critical in ensuring patient safety. Interruptions may contribute to errors and are potentially a significant barrier to the delivery of effective handovers. The study objective was to measure the frequency and source of interruptions during intensive care (ICU) bedside nursing handover. Twenty observations of bedside handover in an ICU were performed and the frequency and source of interruptions were recorded by the observer for each handover. Observations occurred Monday to Friday during shift change; night to day shift and day to evening shift. Interruptions were defined as a break in performance of an activity. The mean handover time was 11 (± 4)min with a range of 5-22 min. The mean number of interruptions was 2 (± 2) per handover with a range of 0-7. The most frequent number of interruptions was seven, occurring during a 15 min handover. Doctors, nurses and alarming intravenous pumps were the most frequent source of interruptions, with administration staff and wards people also disrupting handovers. Nurses, doctors and alarming intravenous pumps frequently interrupt ICU bedside handovers, which may lead to loss of critical information and result in adverse patient events. Increased knowledge in this area will ensure appropriate strategies are developed and implemented in healthcare areas to manage interruptions effectively and improve patient safety. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Patient handover from surgery to intensive care: using Formula 1 pit-stop and aviation models to improve safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Ken R; de Leval, Marc R; McEwan, Angus; Pigott, Nick; Elliott, Martin J; McQuillan, Annette; MacDonald, Carol; Goldman, Allan J

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to improve the quality and safety of handover of patients from surgery to intensive care using the analogy of a Formula 1 pit stop and expertise from aviation. A prospective intervention study measured the change in performance before and after the implementation of a new handover protocol that was developed through detailed discussions with a Formula 1 racing team and aviation training captains. Fifty (23 before and 27 after) postsurgery patient handovers were observed. Technical errors and information omissions were measured using checklists, and teamwork was scored using a Likert scale. Duration of the handover was also measured. The mean number of technical errors was reduced from 5.42 (95% CI +/-1.24) to 3.15 (95% CI +/-0.71), the mean number of information handover omissions was reduced from 2.09 (95% CI +/-1.14) to 1.07 (95% CI +/-0.55), and duration of handover was reduced from 10.8 min (95% CI +/-1.6) to 9.4 min (95% CI +/-1.29). Nine out of twenty-three (39%) precondition patients had more than one error in both technical and information handover prior to the new protocol, compared with three out of twnety-seven (11.5%) with the new handover. Regression analysis showed that the number of technical errors were significantly reduced with the new handover (t = -3.63, P < 0.001), and an interaction suggested that teamwork (t = 3.04, P = 0.004) had a different effect with the new handover protocol. The introduction of the new handover protocol lead to improvements in all aspects of the handover. Expertise from other industries can be extrapolated to improve patient safety, and in particular, areas of medicine involving the handover of patients or information.

  8. Intensive care discharges: improving the quality of clinical handover through changes to discharge documentation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William; Keane, Philip; Wang, Sarra; Debell, Frances; Allana, Alisha; Karia, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have stepped down from intensive care tread a precarious clinical course, and the handover of care between clinical teams at this point should be treated as a high risk event. Poor handover can leave patients vulnerable to suboptimal care and preventable harm. Properly structured written discharge summaries have been shown to improve information transfer and quality of care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has published guidelines entitled “Acute illness in adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration,” which states that patients transferred from intensive care should have a formal structured handover supported by a written plan, and it provides minimum criteria for what information should be included. A retrospective audit was carried out (n=28) to identify if discharge summaries were compliant with these standards. Discharge summaries consistently lacked essential criteria, including psychosocial needs (29%), nutritional needs (50%), therapy needs (29%), ceilings of care (39%), and communication needs (18%). Less than a third of verbal handovers between the nursing and medical teams were documented. After consultation, a new summary template was developed and embedded into practice. The new design prompted trainees to ensure they completed adequate information in all domains of care. Additional sections were added to improve recording of when, and to whom, clinical handover took place, which led to improved clinical governance. The overall quality of discharge summaries was improved, with increased compliance in 11 out of 13 domains. Feedback from staff about the new discharge summaries was positive. This project is easily transferable, and has the potential to improve patient safety and quality of care. PMID:26734430

  9. Intensive care discharges: improving the quality of clinical handover through changes to discharge documentation.

    PubMed

    Hall, William; Keane, Philip; Wang, Sarra; Debell, Frances; Allana, Alisha; Karia, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have stepped down from intensive care tread a precarious clinical course, and the handover of care between clinical teams at this point should be treated as a high risk event. Poor handover can leave patients vulnerable to suboptimal care and preventable harm. Properly structured written discharge summaries have been shown to improve information transfer and quality of care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has published guidelines entitled "Acute illness in adults in hospital: recognising and responding to deterioration," which states that patients transferred from intensive care should have a formal structured handover supported by a written plan, and it provides minimum criteria for what information should be included. A retrospective audit was carried out (n=28) to identify if discharge summaries were compliant with these standards. Discharge summaries consistently lacked essential criteria, including psychosocial needs (29%), nutritional needs (50%), therapy needs (29%), ceilings of care (39%), and communication needs (18%). Less than a third of verbal handovers between the nursing and medical teams were documented. After consultation, a new summary template was developed and embedded into practice. The new design prompted trainees to ensure they completed adequate information in all domains of care. Additional sections were added to improve recording of when, and to whom, clinical handover took place, which led to improved clinical governance. The overall quality of discharge summaries was improved, with increased compliance in 11 out of 13 domains. Feedback from staff about the new discharge summaries was positive. This project is easily transferable, and has the potential to improve patient safety and quality of care.

  10. A Novel ICU Hand-Over Tool: The Glass Door of the Patient Room.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Brian T; Sona, Carrie; Schallom, Marilyn

    2017-09-01

    Poor communication among health-care providers is cited as the most common cause of sentinel events involving patients. Patient care in the critical care setting is incredibly complex. A consistent care plan is necessary between day/night shift teams and among bedside intensive care unit (ICU) nurses, consultants, and physicians. Our goal was to create a novel, easily accessible communication device to improve ICU patient care. This communication improvement project was done at an academic tertiary surgical/trauma/mixed 36-bed ICU with an average of 214 admissions per month. We created a glass door template embossed on the glass that included 3 columns for daily goals to be written: "day team," "night team," and "surgery/consultant team." Assigned areas for tracking "lines," "antibiotics," "ventilator weaning," and "Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) screening" were included. These doors are filled out/updated throughout the day by all of the ICU providers. All services can review current plans/active issues while evaluating the patient at the bedside. Patient-identifying data are not included. We retrospectively reviewed all ICU safety reported events over a 4-year period (2 years prior/2 years after glass door implementation) for specific handover communication-related errors and compared the 2 cohorts. Information on the glass doors is entered daily on rounds by all services. Prior to implementation, 7.96% of reported errors were related to patient handover communication errors. The post glass-door era had 4.26% of reported errors related to patient handover communication errors with a relative risk reduction of 46.5%. Due to its usefulness, this method of communication was quickly adopted by the other critical care services (cardiothoracic, medical, neurology/neurosurgery, cardiology) at our institution and is now used for over 150 ICU beds. Our glass door patient handover tool is an easily adaptable intervention that has improved communication leading to an overall

  11. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  12. A model for the handover traffic in low earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite networks for personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosiere, Frederic; Zein, Tarif; Maral, Gerard; Boutes, Jean P.

    1993-06-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has demonstrated the demand for personal communications. Communication systems based on low earth orbit (LEO) constellations of satellites seem to be an adequate approach to achieve a world-wide network. When defining the capacity in terms of satellite circuits, the network designer has to take into account the handover traffic. Unfortunately, in a LEO communication network where handover is most often due to the network nodes motion, handover traffic models for terrestrial cellular networks cannot be used. Hence specific models must be developed. This paper proposes an analytical model for the handover in LEO satellite networks. This model is applied to different network configurations and compared to discrete-time simulations. Simulation results agree with those obtained from the analytical model.

  13. DNA DSB repair pathway choice: an orchestrated handover mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kakarougkas, A; Jeggo, P A

    2014-03-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are potential lethal lesions but can also lead to chromosome rearrangements, a step promoting carcinogenesis. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DSB rejoining process and occurs in all cell cycle stages. Homologous recombination (HR) can additionally function to repair irradiation-induced two-ended DSBs in G2 phase. In mammalian cells, HR predominantly uses a sister chromatid as a template for DSB repair; thus HR functions only in late S/G2 phase. Here, we review current insight into the interplay between HR and NHEJ in G2 phase. We argue that NHEJ represents the first choice pathway, repairing approximately 80% of X-ray-induced DSBs with rapid kinetics. However, a subset of DSBs undergoes end resection and repair by HR. 53BP1 restricts resection, thereby promoting NHEJ. During the switch from NHEJ to HR, 53BP1 is repositioned to the periphery of enlarged irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) via a BRCA1-dependent process. K63-linked ubiquitin chains, which also form at IRIF, are also repositioned as well as receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80), a ubiquitin binding protein. RAP80 repositioning requires POH1, a proteasome component. Thus, the interfacing barriers to HR, 53BP1 and RAP80 are relieved by POH1 and BRCA1, respectively. Removal of RAP80 from the IRIF core is required for loss of the ubiquitin chains and 53BP1, and for efficient replication protein A foci formation. We propose that NHEJ is used preferentially to HR because it is a compact process that does not necessitate extensive chromatin changes in the DSB vicinity.

  14. Developing a minimum dataset for nursing team leader handover in the intensive care unit: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Amy J; Aitken, Leanne M; Corley, Amanda; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-02-23

    Despite increasing demand for structured processes to guide clinical handover, nursing handover tools are limited in the intensive care unit. The study aim was to identify key items to include in a minimum dataset for intensive care nursing team leader shift-to-shift handover. This focus group study was conducted in a 21-bed medical/surgical intensive care unit in Australia. Senior registered nurses involved in team leader handovers were recruited. Focus groups were conducted using a nominal group technique to generate and prioritise minimum dataset items. Nurses were presented with content from previous team leader handovers and asked to select which content items to include in a minimum dataset. Participant responses were summarised as frequencies and percentages. Seventeen senior nurses participated in three focus groups. Participants agreed that ISBAR (Identify-Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendations) was a useful tool to guide clinical handover. Items recommended to be included in the minimum dataset (≥65% agreement) included Identify (name, age, days in intensive care), Situation (diagnosis, surgical procedure), Background (significant event(s), management of significant event(s)) and Recommendations (patient plan for next shift, tasks to follow up for next shift). Overall, 30 of the 67 (45%) items in the Assessment category were considered important to include in the minimum dataset and focused on relevant observations and treatment within each body system. Other non-ISBAR items considered important to include related to the ICU (admissions to ICU, staffing/skill mix, theatre cases) and patients (infectious status, site of infection, end of life plan). Items were further categorised into those to include in all handovers and those to discuss only when relevant to the patient. The findings suggest a minimum dataset for intensive care nursing team leader shift-to-shift handover should contain items within ISBAR along with unit and patient specific

  15. Effectiveness of different nursing handover styles for ensuring continuity of information in hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Smeulers, Marian; Lucas, Cees; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-24

    An accurate handover of clinical information is of great importance to continuity and safety of care. If clinically relevant information is not shared accurately and in a timely manner it may lead to adverse events, delays in treatment and diagnosis, inappropriate treatment and omission of care. During the last decade the call for interventions to improve handovers has increased. These interventions aim to reduce the risk of miscommunication, misunderstanding and the omission of critical information. To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve hospital nursing handover, specifically:to identify which nursing handover style(s) are associated with improved outcomes for patients in the hospital setting and which nursing handover style(s) are associated with improved nursing process outcomes. We searched the following electronic databases for primary studies: Cochrane EPOC Group specialised register (to 19 September 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 1 March 2013), MEDLINE (1950 to 1 March 2013) OvidSP, EMBASE (1947 to 1 March 2013) OvidSP, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) (1980 to 1 March 2013) EbscoHost and ISI Web of Knowledge (Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index) (to 9 July 2012). The Database of Abstracts of Reviews (DARE) was searched for related reviews. We screened the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) http://www.who.int/ictrp/en/ and Current Controlled Trials www.controlled-trials.com/mrct and we conducted a search of grey literature web sites. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs or cluster-RCTs) evaluating any nursing handover style between nurses in a hospital setting with the aim of preventing adverse events or optimising the transfer of accurate essential information required for continuity of care, or both. Two review authors independently

  16. Hybrid cytomegalovirus-U6 promoter-based plasmid vectors improve efficiency of RNA interference in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Xiong, Feng; Wang, Yaping

    2008-01-01

    Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) directed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) or Pol II promoter was shown to be capable of silencing gene expression, which should permit analyses of gene functions or as a potential therapeutic tool. However, the inhibitory effect of shRNA remains problematic in fish. We demonstrated that silencing efficiency by shRNA produced from the hybrid construct composed of the CMV enhancer or entire CMV promoter placed immediately upstream of a U6 promoter. When tested the exogenous gene, silencing of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) target gene was 89.18 +/- 5.06% for CMVE-U6 promoter group and 88.26 +/- 6.46% for CMV-U6 promoter group. To test the hybrid promoters driving shRNA efficiency against an endogenous gene, we used shRNA against no tail (NTL) gene. When vectorized in the zebrafish, the hybrid constructs strongly repressed NTL gene expression. The NTL phenotype occupied 52.09 +/- 3.06% and 51.56 +/- 3.68% for CMVE-U6 promoter and CMV-U6 promoter groups, respectively. The NTL gene expression reduced 82.17 +/- 2.96% for CMVE-U6 promoter group and 83.06 +/- 2.38% for CMV-U6 promoter group. We concluded that the CMV enhancer or entire CMV promoter locating upstream of the U6-promoter could significantly improve inhibitory effect induced by the shRNA for both exogenous and endogenous genes compared with the CMV promoter or U6 promoter alone. In contrast, the two hybrid promoter constructs had similar effects on driving shRNA.

  17. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kasey L.; Dayton, Robert D.; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats. PMID:27867348

  18. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Deverman, Benjamin E; Klein, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  19. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao-lan; Chen, Dong-qing; Li, Shu-min; Yue, Yin-ling; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bing-cheng; Ying, Bo

    2010-02-05

    The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research. A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants. Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent. The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is applicable to regions with abundant

  20. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  1. An efficient ligation reaction promoted by a Varkud Satellite ribozyme with extended 5'- and 3'-termini.

    PubMed

    Jones, F D; Ryder, S P; Strobel, S A

    2001-12-15

    The Neurospora Varkud Satellite (VS) RNA is capable of promoting a reversible self-cleavage reaction important for its replication pathway. In vivo the VS RNA performs a cis-cleavage reaction to generate monomeric length transcripts that are subsequently ligated to produce circular VS RNA. The predominant form of VS RNA observed in vivo is the closed circular form, though minimal VS ribozyme self-cleavage constructs lack detectable ligation activity. MFOLD analysis of the entire VS RNA sequence revealed an extended region 5' and 3' of the minimal self-cleaving region that could anneal to form a complementary helix, which we have termed helix 7. In full-length VS RNA, this helix appears to span over 40 bp of sequence and brings the 5'- and 3'-ends of the RNA into proximity for the ligation reaction. Here we report a variant of the VS ribozyme with an extended 5'- and 3'-terminus capable of forming a truncated helix 7 that promotes the ligation reaction in vitro. Through mutation and selection of this RNA we have identified a ribozyme containing two point mutations in the truncated helix 7 that ligates with >70% efficiency. These results show that an additional helical element absent in current VS ribozyme constructs is likely to be important for the ligation activity of VS RNA.

  2. The quality of intensive care unit nurse handover related to end of life: a descriptive comparative international study.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy; Benbinishty, Julie; Ben Nun, Maureen; Ryan, Helen; Schoter, Amanda; Boulanger, Carole; Chamberlain, Wendy; Spooner, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Quality ICU end-of-life-care has been found to be related to good communication. Handover is one form of communication that can be problematic due to lost or omitted information. A first step in improving care is to measure and describe it. The objective of this study was to describe the quality of ICU nurse handover related to end-of-life care and to compare the practices of different ICUs in three different countries. This was a descriptive comparative study. The study was conducted in seven ICUs in three countries: Australia (1 unit), Israel (3 units) and the UK (3 units). A convenience sample of 157 handovers was studied. Handover quality was rated based on the ICU End-of-Life Handover tool, developed by the authors. The highest levels of handover quality were in the areas of goals of care and pain management while lowest levels were for legal issues (proxy and advanced directives) related to end of life. Significant differences were found between countries and units in the total handover score (country: F(2,154)=25.97, p=<.001; unit: F(6,150)=58.24, p=<.001), for the end of life subscale (country: F(2, 154)=28.23, p<.001; unit: F(6,150)=25.25, p=<.001), the family communication subscale (country: F(2,154)=15.04, p=<.001; unit: F(6,150)=27.38, p=<.001), the family needs subscale (F(2,154)=22.33, p=<.001; unit: F(6,150)=42.45, p=<.001) but only for units on the process subscale (F(6,150)=8.98, p=<.001. The total handover score was higher if the oncoming RN did not know the patient (F(1,155)=6.51, p=<.05), if the patient was expected to die during the shift (F(1,155)=89.67, p=<.01) and if the family were present (F(1,155)=25.81, p=<.01). Practices of end-of-life-handover communication vary greatly between units. However, room for improvement exists in all areas in all of the units studied. The total score was higher when quality of care might be deemed at greater risk (if the nurses did not know the patient or the patient was expected to die), indicating that

  3. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  4. Isolation of an efficient actin promoter for use in rice transformation.

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, D; Zhang, W; Cao, J; Wu, R

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the 5' region of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) and show that it is an efficient promoter for regulating the constitutive expression of a foreign gene in transgenic rice. By constructing plasmids with 5' regions from the rice Act1 gene fused to the coding sequence of a gene encoding bacterial beta-glucuronidase, we demonstrate that a region 1.3 kilobases upstream of the Act1 translation initiation codon contains all of the 5'-regulatory elements necessary for high-level beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in transient assays of transformed rice protoplasts. The rice Act1 primary transcript has a noncoding exon separated by a 5' intron from the first coding exon. Fusions that lack this Act1 intron showed no detectable GUS activity in transient assays of transformed rice protoplasts. Deletion analysis of the Act1 5' intron suggests that the intron-mediated stimulation of GUS expression is associated, in part, with an in vivo requirement for efficient intron splicing. PMID:2136633

  5. Design and implementation of a virtual world training simulation of ICU first hour handover processes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ross; Rasmussen, Rune; Baldwin, Ian; Wyeth, Peta

    2012-08-01

    Nursing training for an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a resource intensive process. High demands are made on staff, students and physical resources. Interactive, 3D computer simulations, known as virtual worlds, are increasingly being used to supplement training regimes in the health sciences; especially in areas such as complex hospital ward processes. Such worlds have been found to be very useful in maximising the utilisation of training resources. Our aim is to design and develop a novel virtual world application for teaching and training Intensive Care nurses in the approach and method for shift handover, to provide an independent, but rigorous approach to teaching these important skills. In this paper we present a virtual world simulator for students to practice key steps in handing over the 24/7 care requirements of intensive care patients during the commencing first hour of a shift. We describe the modelling process to provide a convincing interactive simulation of the handover steps involved. The virtual world provides a practice tool for students to test their analytical skills with scenarios previously provided by simple physical simulations, and live on the job training. Additional educational benefits include facilitation of remote learning, high flexibility in study hours and the automatic recording of a reviewable log from the session. To the best of our knowledge, we believe this is a novel and original application of virtual worlds to an ICU handover process. The major outcome of the work was a virtual world environment for training nurses in the shift handover process, designed and developed for use by postgraduate nurses in training.

  6. Weekend surgical handover enhances early management of acute clinical changes using a red flag system.

    PubMed

    White-Gibson, A; Manole, C; Kearney, D; Kavanagh, D

    2017-09-02

    Recent implementation of the European Working Time Directive in Ireland has resulted in a change from thetraditional model of patient care to a system characterised by shift work among clinicians. Effective handover ofpatient information is essential for transfer of responsibility between clinicians and maintaining continuity of care. The weekend has been identified as a particularly vulnerable transition of patient care. Our study aims to determine if implementing a formal face-to-face handover accompanied by an electronictemplate in our surgical department can improve the number of adverse events reported back to the primary teamafter a weekend on call. Data was collected over 12 weekends between February and May 2016. A list of adverseevents was established, and during an initial observation period of 6 weeks, we documented the number of adverseevents that were informally handed over. A 6-week intervention was then performed, involving a formal face-to-facehandover on Monday morning supported by an electronic patient census using a red-flag system to highlightpatients who experienced an adverse event over the weekend. Our results showed the mean number of adverse events recorded pre-intervention was 3.17 ± 0.6 over the 6-week period. Following the introduction of weekend face-to-face handover, there was 147% increase in the number of adverse events recorded with a mean of 7.83 ± 1.2. The introduction of a formal face-to-face weekend handover with a red-flag system resulted in increased reporting of patient adverse events, allowing earlier recognition and management.

  7. Context-based handover of persons in crowd and riot scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    In order to control riots in crowds, it is helpful to get ringleaders under control and pull them out of the crowd if one has become an offender. A great support to achieve these tasks is the capability of observing the crowd and ringleaders automatically by using cameras. It also allows a better conservation of evidence in riot control. A ringleader who has become an offender should be tracked across and recognized by several cameras, regardless of whether overlapping camera's fields of view exist or not. We propose a context-based approach for handover of persons between different camera fields of view. This approach can be applied for overlapping as well as for non-overlapping fields of view, so that a fast and accurate identification of individual persons in camera networks is feasible. Within the scope of this paper, the approach is applied to a handover of persons between single images without having any temporal information. It is particularly developed for semiautomatic video editing and a handover of persons between cameras in order to improve conservation of evidence. The approach has been developed on a dataset collected during a Crowd and Riot Control (CRC) training of the German armed forces. It consists of three different levels of escalation. First, the crowd started with a peaceful demonstration. Later, there were violent protests, and third, the riot escalated and offenders bumped into the chain of guards. One result of the work is a reliable context-based method for person re-identification between single images of different camera fields of view in crowd and riot scenarios. Furthermore, a qualitative assessment shows that the use of contextual information can support this task additionally. It can decrease the needed time for handover and the number of confusions which supports the conservation of evidence in crowd and riot scenarios.

  8. User-centered design in clinical handover: exploring post-implementation outcomes for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming Chao; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the outcomes for clinicians from their involvement in the development of an electronic clinical hand-over tool developed using principles of user-centered design. Conventional e-health post-implementation evaluations tend to emphasize technology-related (mostly positive) outcomes. More recently, unintended (mostly negative) consequences arising from the implementation of e-health technologies have also been reported. There remains limited focus on the post-implementation outcomes for users, particularly those directly involved in e-health design processes. This paper presents detailed analysis and insights into the outcomes experienced post-implementation by a cohort of junior clinicians involved in developing an electronic clinical handover tool in Tasmania, Australia. The qualitative methods used included observations, semi-structured interviews and analysis of clinical handover notes. Significantly, a number of unanticipated flow-on effects were identified that mitigated some of the challenges arising during the design and implementation of the tool. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of identifying post-implementation user outcomes beyond conventional system adoption and use and also points to the need for more comprehensive evaluative frameworks to encapsulate these broader socio-technical user outcomes.

  9. User participation in district psychiatry. The social construction of 'users' in handovers and meetings.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Vår; Obstfelder, Aud; Lorem, Geir F; Måseide, Per

    2016-06-01

    An ideal in mental health care is user participation. This implies inclusion and facilitation by clinicians to enable users to participate in decisions about themselves and in the design of suitable treatment. However, much of the work of clinicians consists of handovers and other meetings where patients are not present. It is therefore interesting to study how the patient perspective is handled in such meetings and whether it forms a basis for user participation. We conducted fieldwork in three different inpatient wards in Norwegian District Psychiatric Centres. We used an interactional perspective in our analysis, where speech acts, framing and footing were key concepts. The findings show that the talk in the handovers and meetings contained five main themes and that there was a clear correlation between what was said and how it was said, and whether clinicians related to the content in a decisive, person-centred or indecisive manner. We discuss potential participation statuses for patients and their limited opportunity to influence the talk and possible decisions about themselves. Our conclusion is that handover meetings primarily function as an aid in organising clinicians' work and could ultimately be seen as counteracting user participation.

  10. An observational study of patient care outcomes sensitive to handover quality in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Lillibridge, Nichole; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Redley, Bernice

    2017-05-19

    To identify patient care outcome indicators sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover between the anaesthetist and the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit nurse. The relationship between interprofessional clinical handover when patients are transferred from the operating theatre to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes of subsequent patient care delivery is not well understood. Naturalistic, exploratory descriptive design using observation. Observations of 31 patient journeys through Post-Anaesthetic Care Units across three public and private hospitals. Characteristics of interprofessional handover on arrival in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, the trajectory of patient care activities in Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes were observed. Of the 821 care activities observed across 31 "patient journeys" in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, observations (assessments and vital signs) (52.5 %), communication (15.8 %) and pain management (assessment of pain and analgesic administration) (10.3%) were most common. Examination of patterns in handover communications and subsequent trajectories of patient care activities revealed three patient trajectory typologies and two patient outcome indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit: pain on discharge from the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and timely response to clinical deterioration. An additional process indicator, seeking missing information, was also identified. Patient's pain on discharge from Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, escalation of care in response to early signs of deterioration and the need for nurses to seek out missing information to deliver care are indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit. Future research should test these indicators. Patient outcomes sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover on patient

  11. The effect of a checklist on the quality of patient handover from the operating room to the intensive care unit: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Cornelie; Mai, Victoria; Punke, Mark A; Kluge, Stefan; Reuter, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Handover of patient care is a potential safety risk for the patient due to loss of information which may result in adverse outcome. We hypothesized that a checklist for handover from the operating room (OR) to the intensive care unit (ICU) will lead to an increase of quality regarding information transfer compared with a nonstandardized handover procedure. The study was conducted as a prospective, randomized trial in a university hospital. The quality of handovers with checklist was compared with handovers without checklist. Handovers were recorded by digital voice recorder and analyzed using an individual rating sheet for each patient. This enabled to discriminate between items that "must be handed over" (red items) and items that "should be handed over" (yellow items). A total of 121 patient handovers from OR to ICU were included. Significantly more red items were handed over in the study group compared with the control group (study group: median 87.1%, 25-27 percentile 77.1%-90.0%; control group: median 75.0%, 25-75 percentile 66.7%-88.6%; P < .01). This study gives first evidence that the use of a standardized checklist for patient handover from OR to ICU increases the quantity and quality of transmitted medical information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global genome nucleotide excision repair is organized into domains that promote efficient DNA repair in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shirong; Evans, Katie; Bennett, Mark; Webster, Richard M.; Leadbitter, Matthew; Teng, Yumin; Waters, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The rates at which lesions are removed by DNA repair can vary widely throughout the genome, with important implications for genomic stability. To study this, we measured the distribution of nucleotide excision repair (NER) rates for UV-induced lesions throughout the budding yeast genome. By plotting these repair rates in relation to genes and their associated flanking sequences, we reveal that, in normal cells, genomic repair rates display a distinctive pattern, suggesting that DNA repair is highly organized within the genome. Furthermore, by comparing genome-wide DNA repair rates in wild-type cells and cells defective in the global genome–NER (GG-NER) subpathway, we establish how this alters the distribution of NER rates throughout the genome. We also examined the genomic locations of GG-NER factor binding to chromatin before and after UV irradiation, revealing that GG-NER is organized and initiated from specific genomic locations. At these sites, chromatin occupancy of the histone acetyl-transferase Gcn5 is controlled by the GG-NER complex, which regulates histone H3 acetylation and chromatin structure, thereby promoting efficient DNA repair of UV-induced lesions. Chromatin remodeling during the GG-NER process is therefore organized into these genomic domains. Importantly, loss of Gcn5 significantly alters the genomic distribution of NER rates; this has implications for the effects of chromatin modifiers on the distribution of mutations that arise throughout the genome. PMID:27470111

  13. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  14. The histone variant H2A.Z promotes efficient cotranscriptional splicing in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Neves, Lauren T; Douglass, Stephen; Spreafico, Roberto; Venkataramanan, Srivats; Kress, Tracy L; Johnson, Tracy L

    2017-04-01

    In eukaryotes, a dynamic ribonucleic protein machine known as the spliceosome catalyzes the removal of introns from premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA). Recent studies show the processes of RNA synthesis and RNA processing to be spatio-temporally coordinated, indicating that RNA splicing takes place in the context of chromatin. H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant of the canonical histone H2A. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited into chromatin by the SWR-C complex, is found near the 5' ends of protein-coding genes, and has been implicated in transcription regulation. Here we show that splicing of intron-containing genes in cells lacking H2A.Z is impaired, particularly under suboptimal splicing conditions. Cells lacking H2A.Z are especially dependent on a functional U2 snRNP (small nuclear RNA [snRNA] plus associated proteins), as H2A.Z shows extensive genetic interactions with U2 snRNP-associated proteins, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reveals that introns with nonconsensus branch points are particularly sensitive to H2A.Z loss. Consistently, H2A.Z promotes efficient spliceosomal rearrangements involving the U2 snRNP, as H2A.Z loss results in persistent U2 snRNP association and decreased recruitment of downstream snRNPs to nascent RNA. H2A.Z impairs transcription elongation, suggesting that spliceosome rearrangements are tied to H2A.Z's role in elongation. Depletion of disassembly factor Prp43 suppresses H2A.Z-mediated splice defects, indicating that, in the absence of H2A.Z, stalled spliceosomes are disassembled, and unspliced RNAs are released. Together, these data demonstrate that H2A.Z is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and indicate a role for H2A.Z in coordinating the kinetics of transcription elongation and splicing. © 2017 Neves et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Role of injured pancreatic extract promotes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs.

  16. The Efficiency and Effectiveness of the K-12 Energy Technology Education Promotion Centers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote energy literacy for graders K-12, the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan initiated a K-12 Energy Technology Education Project in September 2010. This 40-month project has one project office affiliated to a university, and 18 promotion centers affiliated to 18 schools--including 5 regional centers for upper-secondary schools…

  17. Efficient management and promotion of utilization of the video information acquired by observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Shimabukuro, R.; Hase, H.; Ogido, M.; Nakamura, M.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Sonoda, A.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), the deep sea videos are made from the research by JAMSTEC submersibles in 1982, and the information on the huge deep-sea that will reach more 4,000 dives (ca. 24,700 tapes) by the present are opened to public via the Internet since 2002. The deep-sea videos is important because the time variation of deep-sea environment with difficult investigation and collection and growth of the living thing in extreme environment can be checked. Moreover, with development of video technique, the advanced analysis of an investigation image is attained. For grasp of deep sea environment, especially the utility value of the image is high. In JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences (DrC), collection of the video are obtained by dive investigation of JAMSTEC, preservation, quality control, and open to public are performed. It is our big subject that the huge video information which utility value has expanded managed efficiently and promotion of use. In this announcement, the present measure is introduced about these subjects . The videos recorded on a tape or various media onboard are collected, and the backup and encoding for preventing the loss and degradation are performed. The video inside of a hard disk has the large file size. Then, we use the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which attracts attention with image management engineering these days. Cost does not start compared with the usual disk backup, but correspondence years can also save the video data for a long time, and the operatively of a file is not different from a disk. The video that carried out the transcode to offer is archived by disk storage, and offer according to a use is possible for it. For the promotion of utilization of the video, the video public presentation system was reformed completely from November, 2011 to "JAMSTEC E-library of Deep Sea Images (http:// www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jedi/)" This new system has preparing

  18. Downstream promoter sequences facilitate the formation of a specific transcription factor IID-promoter complex topology required for efficient transcription from the megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Knutson, A; Castaño, E; Oelgeschläger, T; Roeder, R G; Westin, G

    2000-05-12

    Megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP-2) is an endocytic receptor expressed in highly specialized cell types such as parathyroid cells and epithelia of the kidney. Previous experiments identified a nonconsensus TATA element, with the sequence TAGAAAA, as crucial for accurate and efficient transcription from the LRP-2 promoter. Here we show that, in addition to the TAGA element, promoter sequences downstream of the transcription start site contribute significantly to transcription both in vitro and in transfected cells. Deletion and point mutational analyses reveal that the promoter region located between positions +5 and +11 (sequence TTTTGGC) is of particular importance. Complementation experiments in nuclear extracts lacking transcription factor IID (TFIID) activity show that TATA-binding protein-associated factors of TFIID are essential for the function of LRP-2 downstream promoter sequences. Interestingly, DNase I footprinting studies show that the downstream region between positions +5 and +11 does not significantly affect overall TFIID affinity to the promoter but that it profoundly affects the topology of the TFIID x promoter complex not only downstream of the transcription start site, but in particular in the TATA box region. Our observations suggest a model for a novel downstream sequence function, in which TATA-binding protein-associated factor-promoter interactions downstream of the transcription start site modulate TFIID-DNA interactions in the TATA box region.

  19. The effectiveness and efficiency of home-based nursing health promotion for older people: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Browne, Gina; Weir, Robin; Gafni, Amiram; Roberts, Jacqueline; Henderson, Sandra R

    2006-10-01

    Despite the large potential role that community nurses have in providing individualized health promotion to older people, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding this role's effectiveness and efficiency. This article presents a literature review and synthesis of 12 randomized controlled trials selected from 344 published studies on preventive home visitation programs for older people. The findings suggest that a diversity of home visiting interventions carried out by nurses can favorably affect health and functional status, mortality rates, use of hospitalization and nursing homes, and costs. Further research is needed that focuses on the outcomes of quality of life, mental health, social support, caregiver burden, the acceptability of intervention, and specific subgroups of clients who benefit most. Findings also indicate the need for a theoretical foundation, increased emphasis on health-promotion strategies, and more research using a more complete economic evaluation to establish efficiency.

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the free energy of binary sII hydrogen clathrate hydrates for identifying efficient promoter molecules.

    PubMed

    Atamas, Alexander A; Cuppen, Herma M; Koudriachova, Marina V; de Leeuw, Simon W

    2013-01-31

    The thermodynamics of binary sII hydrogen clathrates with secondary guest molecules is studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The small cages of the sII unit cell are occupied by one H(2) guest molecule. Different promoter molecules entrapped in the large cages are considered. Simulations are conducted at a pressure of 1000 atm in a temperature range of 233-293 K. To determine the stabilizing effect of different promoter molecules on the clathrate, the Gibbs free energy of fully and partially occupied sII hydrogen clathrates are calculated. Our aim is to predict what would be an efficient promoter molecule using properties such as size, dipole moment, and hydrogen bonding capability. The gas clathrate configurational and free energies are compared. The entropy makes a considerable contribution to the free energy and should be taken into account in determining stability conditions of binary sII hydrogen clathrates.

  1. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters. PMID:22709462

  2. Development of an efficient autoinducible expression system by promoter engineering in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Cheng, Jintao; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhongmei; Zhou, Zhemin

    2016-04-25

    Bacillus subtilis, a Gram-positive organism, has been developed to be an attractive expression platform to produce both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins owing to its prominent biological characteristics. We previously developed an auto-inducible expression system containing the srfA promoter (PsrfA) which was activated by the signal molecules acting in the quorum-sensing pathway for competence. The P srfA promoter exhibited the unique property of inducer-free activity that is closely correlated with cell density. To improve the PsrfA-mediated expression system to the high-cell-density fermentation for industrial production in the B. subtilis mutant strain that is unable to sporulate, a spore mutant strain BSG1682 was developed, and the PsrfA promoter was enhanced by promoter engineering. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter, higher fluorescent intensity was observed in BSG1682 with expression from either plasmid or chromosome than that of the wild type B. subtilis 168. Thereafter, the PsrfA was engineered, yielding a library of PsrfA derivatives varied in the strength of GFP expression. The P23 promoter exhibited the best performance, almost twofold stronger than that of P srfA. Two heterologous proteins, aminopeptidase (AP) and nattokinase (NK), were successfully overproduced under the control of P23 in BSG1682. Finally, the capacity of the expression system was demonstrated in batch fermentation in a 5-L fermenter. The expression system demonstrates prominence in the activity of the auto-inducible promoter. Desired proteins could be highly and stably produced by integrating the corresponding genes downstream of the promoter on the plasmid or the chromosome in strain BSG1682. The expression system is conducive to the industrial production of pharmaceuticals and heterologous proteins in high-cell-density fermentation in BSG1682.

  3. [The efficiency of mass media utilization in preventive health programs and mental health promotion].

    PubMed

    Devault, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews articles pertaining to mental health prevention and promotion programs that have used mass media as a component of their program. The programs are analyzed according to four roles that media can play in health promotion programs: promotion, education, complementarity, and support. The relationship between the function assigned to the media and the effects of the programs in changing knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour is explored. When mass media are used alone, they seem to be powerful in recruiting people into groups or social services and in enhancing knowledge and changing attitudes. But when it comes to changing behaviour, mass media by themselves have limited impact. This type of change is more likely to occur when media are combined with face-to-face intervention. Finally, some issues involved in improving the use of mass media in mental health are discussed.

  4. Cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter efficiently drives heterogeneous gene expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, Q N; Zhang, X T; Zheng, X Y; Lv, Y F; Hao, Z M

    2014-03-05

    Recently, wide attention has been given to the potential of recombinant baculovirus as a gene transfer vehicle for mammalian gene therapy. In this study, we packaged the recombinant baculoviruses with cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV-IE) promoter in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells, and found that the CMV-IE promoter could efficiently drive the exogenic gene expression in the cells 12 h post-infection (h.p.i.). The expression level at 72 h.p.i. was only around half of that driven by polyhedrin promoter (Ppolh). However, the biological activity of the reporter proteins at 72 h.p.i. were similar with that driven by Ppolh. In addition, the Sf9 cells transfected with CMV-IE-containing plasmids also expressed foreign genes, suggesting that the CMV-IE-directed heterogeneous gene expression in the Sf9 cells was baculovirus-independent. These results demonstrate that the CMV-IE promoter might be used as a regular promoter in Sf9 cells.

  5. Interactive questioning in critical care during handovers: a transcript analysis of communication behaviours by physicians, nurses and nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Mount-Campbell, Austin F; O'Brien, James M; White, Susan E; Butz, Alexandra; Evans, Kris; Patterson, Emily S

    2014-06-01

    Although there is a growing recognition of the importance of active communication behaviours from the incoming clinician receiving a patient handover, there are currently no agreed-upon measures to objectively describe those behaviours. This study sought to identify differences in incoming clinician communication behaviours across levels of clinical training for physicians and nurses. Handover observations were conducted during shift changes for attending physicians, resident physicians, registered nurses and nurse practitioners in three medical intensive care units from July 2011 to August 2012. Measures were the number of interjections from the incoming clinician and the communication mode of those interjections. Each collaborative cross-check, a specific type of interactive question, was subsequently classified by level of assertiveness. 133 patient handovers were analysed. Statistical differences were found in both measures. Higher levels of training were associated with fewer interjections, and a higher proportion of interactive questioning to detect erroneous assessments and actions by the incoming provider. All groups were observed to use the least assertive level of a collaborative cross-check, which contributed to misunderstandings. Nurses used less assertive collaborative cross-checks than physicians. Differences across clinician type and levels of clinical training were found in both measures during patient handovers. The findings suggest that training could enable physicians and nurses to learn communication competencies during patient handovers which were used more frequently by more experienced practitioners, including interjecting less frequently and using interactive questioning strategies to clarify understanding, and assertively question the appropriateness of diagnoses, treatment plans and prognoses. Accompanying cultural change initiatives might be required to routinely employ these strategies in the clinical setting, particularly for nursing

  6. Collaborative Efforts to Promote Emergent Literacy and Efficient Word Recognition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Froma P.; Troia, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, 3 models of collaboration between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers are discussed to promote emergent literacy and accurate and fluent word recognition. These models are demonstration lessons, team teaching, and consultation. A number of instructional principles are presented for emergent literacy and decoding…

  7. Construction of efficient, tuber-specific, and cold-inducible promoters in potato.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Xie, Conghua; Song, Botao; Ou, Yongbin; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Xun; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Promoter activity is crucial for precise gene expression. Previously, a synthetic tuber-specific and cold-inducible promoter, pCL, containing a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) cassette and a tuber-specific fragment, was constructed in order to regulate cold-induced sweetening (CIS) in potatoes. However, the utility of pCL is limited due to its low activity. To improve its inducibility in response to low temperatures, we modified the CRT/DRE and flanking sequences. In particular, promoter activity was significantly improved by site-specific mutation of flanking sequences next to the core element (CCGAC) of CRT/DRE. We also inserted a modified CRT/DRE cassette into pCL; although this enhanced activity, it was not more effective than mutation of the flanking sequences. Indeed, up to 20-fold enhanced pCL activity could be achieved by replacing the CRT/DRE cassette in pCL with tandem repeats of two mutated CRT/DRE cassettes. This improvement was due to an enhanced affinity between the CRT/DRE cassette(s) and the StCBF1 transcription factor. Together, these data suggest that altering the structure of CRT/DRE can enhance CBF-related transcription complex formation and thus improve the activity of this cold-inducible promoter.

  8. Enhancement of a high efficient autoinducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis by promoter engineering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jintao; Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhongmei; Li, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhemin

    2016-11-01

    Quorum-sensing related promoter srfA (PsrfA) was used to construct autoinducible expression system for production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. PsrfA was prominent in the unique property of inducer-free activity that is closely correlated with cell density. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter protein, PsrfA was optimized by shortening its sequences and changing the nucleotides at the conserved regions of -35 -15 and -10 regions, obtaining a library of PsrfA derivatives varied in the strength of GFP production. Among all the promoter mutants, the strongest promoter P10 was selected and the strength in GFP expression was 150% higher than that of PsrfA. Heterologous protein of aminopeptidase and nattokinase could be overexpressed by P10, the activities of which were 360% and 50% higher than that of PsrfA, respectively. These results suggested that the enhanced promoter P10 could be used to develop autoinducible expression system for overexpression of heterologous proteins in B. subtilis.

  9. KF/Clinoptilolite: an efficient promoter for the synthesis of thioethers.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Sadegh; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Hosseini, Abolfazl

    2013-06-01

    Potassium fluoride impregnated on natural zeolite as a new solid base system effectively catalyzes the coupling of thiophenols with electron-deficient fluoro-, chloro- and bromo-arenes in DMSO. This versatile and efficient solid base has been demonstrated to afford the corresponding desired products in good to excellent yields. This procedure provides a convenient, efficient and practical method for the preparation of diaryl thioethers.

  10. Stalled on the road to the market: Analysis of field experience with a project to promote lighting efficiency in India

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Sastry, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Several factors have been recognized in the energy policy literature as constraints that have retarded the wide-scale diffusion of high-efficiency appliances. In the developing countries, despite the apparent benefits of energy efficiency as an answer to problems in both environment and development arenas, the diffusion of highly-efficient appliances has been limited. Research suggests that these appliances appear more attractive from the collective or societal perspective than from any one actor`s viewpoint, and that current market and institutional arrangements do not automatically allow for an efficient sharing of costs and benefits. There is little incentive for individuals or organizations to promote increased energy efficiency on their own. This paper outlines the differing perspectives of consumers, utilities, and appliance manufacturers and describes the resulting barriers that appear in the Indian electric sector. An attempt to overcome these constraints, by means of a field experiment in Bombay, is then described. The project was to lease high-efficiency lamps to households where their use would reduce evening demand, thus saving or freeing up badly-needed peak power. A consortium of the north Bombay utility, a lighting manufacturer, and a local research institution was convened and jointly developed the Bombay Efficient Lighting Large-scale Experiment (or BELLE). The practical progress of BELLE and the lessons learned in attempting to get it off the ground are described. Participants learned that the purely economic constraints that BELLE was designed to address are not the only factors that can influence the diffusion of increased-efficiency appliances: the project encountered resistance from other organizations, leading to the refusal by a review committee of the consortium`s request for access to hard currency. The paper concludes with an assessment of factors that led to the proposal`s failure and some thoughts on next steps.

  11. Efficient and Site-specific Antibody Labeling by Strain-promoted Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanggil; Ko, Wooseok; Park, Hyunji; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-12-23

    There are currently many chemical tools available to introduce chemical probes into proteins to study their structure and function. A useful method is protein conjugation by genetically introducing an unnatural amino acid containing a bioorthogonal functional group. This report describes a detailed protocol for site-specific antibody conjugation. The protocol includes experimental details for the genetic incorporation of an azide-containing amino acid, and the conjugation reaction by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). This strain-promoted reaction proceeds by simple mixing of the reacting molecules at physiological pH and temperature, and does not require additional reagents such as copper(I) ions and copper-chelating ligands. Therefore, this method would be useful for general protein conjugation and development of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs).

  12. The 5′UTR-intron of the Gladiolus polyubiquitin promoter GUBQ1 enhances translation efficiency in Gladiolus and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many non-cereal monocots of agronomic, horticultural, and biofuel importance. Successful transformation of these species requires an understanding of factors controlling expression of their genes. Introns have been known to affect both the level and tissue-specific expression of genes in dicots and cereal monocots, but there have been no studies on an intron isolated from a non-cereal monocot. This study characterizes the levels of GUS expression and levels of uidA mRNA that code for β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in leaves of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis using GUBQ1, a polyubiquitin promoter with a 1.234 kb intron, isolated from the non-cereal monocot Gladiolus, and an intronless version of this promoter. Results Gladiolus and Arabidopsis were verified by Southern hybridization to be transformed with the uidA gene that was under control of either the GUBQ1 promoter (1.9 kb), a 5′ GUBQ1 promoter missing its 1.234 kb intron (0.68 kb), or the CaMV 35 S promoter. Histochemical staining showed that GUS was expressed throughout leaves and roots of Gladiolus and Arabidopsis with the 1.9 kb GUBQ1 promoter. GUS expression was significantly decreased in Gladiolus and abolished in Arabidopsis when the 5′UTR-intron was absent. In Arabidopsis and Gladiolus, the presence of uidA mRNA was independent of the presence of the 5′UTR-intron. The 5′-UTR intron enhanced translation efficiency for both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. Conclusions The GUBQ1 promoter directs high levels of GUS expression in young leaves of both Gladiolus and Arabidopsis. The 5′UTR-intron from GUBQ1 resulted in a similar pattern of β-glucuronidase translation efficiency for both species even though the intron resulted in different patterns of uidA mRNA accumulation for each species. PMID:22672685

  13. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  14. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    PubMed

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  15. Ca2+ Promoted the Low Transformation Efficiency of Plasmid DNA Exposed to PAH Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Long, Jian; Wang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72–3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg·L–1. The addition of Ca2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with “–POO––” groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments. PMID:23484001

  16. Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. PMID:24058711

  17. p53 isoform Δ133p53 promotes efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells and ensures genomic integrity during reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Haide; Rao, Lingjun; Zeng, Yelin; Hang, Honghui; Peng, Jinrong; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. p53 isoform Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene and functions to not only antagonize p53 mediated apoptosis, but also promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we report that Δ133p53 is induced in reprogramming. Knockdown of Δ133p53 results 2-fold decrease in reprogramming efficiency, 4-fold increase in chromosomal aberrations, whereas overexpression of Δ133p53 with 4 Yamanaka factors showes 4-fold increase in reprogamming efficiency and 2-fold decrease in chromosomal aberrations, compared to those in iPS cells induced only with 4 Yamanaka factors. Overexpression of Δ133p53 can inhibit cell apoptosis and promote DNA DSB repair foci formation during reprogramming. Our finding demonstrates that the overexpression of Δ133p53 not only enhances reprogramming efficiency, but also results better genetic quality in iPS cells. PMID:27874035

  18. Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter.

    PubMed

    Melton, D A; Krieg, P A; Rebagliati, M R; Maniatis, T; Zinn, K; Green, M R

    1984-09-25

    A simple and efficient method for synthesizing pure single stranded RNAs of virtually any structure is described. This in vitro transcription system is based on the unusually specific RNA synthesis by bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase which initiates transcription exclusively at an SP6 promoter. We have constructed convenient cloning vectors that contain an SP6 promoter immediately upstream from a polylinker sequence. Using these SP6 vectors, optimal conditions have been established for in vitro RNA synthesis. The advantages and uses of SP6 derived RNAs as probes for nucleic acid blot and solution hybridizations are demonstrated. We show that single stranded RNA probes of a high specific activity are easy to prepare and can significantly increase the sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization methods. Furthermore, the SP6 transcription system can be used to prepare RNA substrates for studies on RNA processing (1,5,9) and translation (see accompanying paper).

  19. The adenovirus-2 EIIa early gene promoter: sequences required for efficient in vitro and in vivo transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Elkaim, R; Goding, C; Kédinger, C

    1983-01-01

    A series of deletion mutants extending from -250 toward the capsite has been constructed in the early promoter region of the adenovirus 2 EIIa gene and tested both in vitro, and in vivo after transfection of HeLa cells, for the ability to act as a template for transcription. A region between positions -94 and -63 upstream from the major EIIa early cap site is essential both in vivo and in vitro for efficient promoter function. By cotransfection of the EIIa deletion mutants with the EIa transcription unit it has been possible to demonstrate that deletion to position -94 does not affect induction of transcription of the EIIa early gene by the EIa transcription unit, but deletion to position -63 results in loss of detectable levels of EIIa early specific RNA. Thus, sequences upstream from position -94 of the EIIa early gene are not involved in the induction of the EIIa early gene by the EIa transcription unit. Images PMID:6314275

  20. Retrovirus-like vectors for Saccharomyces cerevisiae: integration of foreign genes controlled by efficient promoters into yeast chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E; Dewerchin, M; Boeke, J D

    1988-07-30

    Using modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 elements located on a 2 mu plasmid, reverse-transcriptase-mediated transposition into yeast chromosomes of expression cassettes containing a foreign gene can be induced. These expression cassettes consist of the yeast ARG3 and CUP1 promoter sequences fused to the Escherichia coli galK structural gene. Expression cassettes as large as 2 kb can be inserted into Ty elements and transposed efficiently to various sites in the yeast genome. A third yeast promoter (from the yeast CAR1 gene) seems to be unsuitable for use in the expression cassette. This may be because it does not allow the transcription run-through necessary for Ty1 transposition. Ways of improving this vector system are discussed, as are its advantages over episomal vector systems.

  1. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  2. Promoting Accountability and Enhancing Efficiency: Using National Education Accounts to Track Expenditure Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Deepika; Forbes, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    Increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public and out-of-pocket financing in education are critical to realizing the maximum impact of the meager allocations to education in most developing countries. While broad estimates and numbers are routinely collected by most national ministries and state departments of education, the lack…

  3. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  4. 3 CFR 13589 - Executive Order 13589 of November 9, 2011. Promoting Efficient Spending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Effective, and Accountable Government). Sec. 3. Travel. (a) Agency travel is important to the effective functioning of Government and certain activities can be performed only by traveling to a different location. However, to ensure efficient travel spending, agencies are encouraged to devise strategic alternatives to...

  5. Development of a highly-efficient CHO cell line generation system with engineered SV40E promoter.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Larson, Jeffery L; Bowden, Daniel M; Frye, Christopher C

    2013-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been one of the most widely used host cells for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins. An effective and efficient clinical cell line development process, which could quickly identify those rare, high-producing cell lines among a large population of low and non-productive cells, is of considerable interest to speed up biological drug development. In the glutamine synthetase (GS)-CHO expression system, selection of top-producing cell lines is based on controlling the balance between the expression level of GS and the concentration of its specific inhibitor, l-methionine sulfoximine (MSX). The combined amount of GS expressed from plasmids that have been introduced through transfection and the endogenous CHO GS gene determine the stringency and efficiency of selection. Previous studies have shown significant improvement in selection stringency by using GS-knockout CHO cells, which eliminate background GS expression from the endogenous GS gene in CHOK1SV cells. To further improve selection stringency, a series of weakened SV40E promoters have been generated and used to modulate plasmid-based GS expression with the intent of manipulating GS-CHO selection, finely adjusting the balance between GS expression and GS inhibitor (MSX) levels. The reduction of SV40E promoter activities have been confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR and GFP expression profiling. Significant productivity improvements in both bulk culture and individual clonal cell line have been achieved with the combined use of GS-knockout CHOK1SV cells and weakened SV40E promoters driving GS expression in the current cell line generation process. The selection stringency was significantly increased, as indicated by the shift towards higher distribution of producing-cell populations, even with no MSX added into cell culture medium. The potential applications of weakened SV40E promoter and GS-knockout cells in development of targeted integration and transient CHO

  6. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    PubMed

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Planarity and multiple components promote organic photovoltaic efficiency by improving electronic transport.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Matthew B; Reid, Daniel; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Establishing how the conformation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers affects their electronic and transport properties is critical in order to determine design rules for new OPV materials and in particular to understand the performance enhancements recently reported for ternary blends. We report coupled classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that polymer linkage twisting significantly reduces optical absorption efficiency, as well as hole transport rates in donor polymers. We predict that blends with components favoring planar geometries contribute to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of ternary OPVs. Furthermore, our electronic structure calculations for the PTB7-PID2-PC71BM system show that hole transfer rates are enhanced in ternary blends with respect to their binary counterpart. Finally, our results point at thermal disorder in the blend as a key reason responsible for device voltage losses and at the need to carry out electronic structure calculations at finite temperature to reliably compare with experiments.

  8. Effective usage of shortest paths promotes transportation efficiency on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2013-09-01

    With rapid economic and social development, the problem of traffic congestion is getting more and more serious. Accordingly, network traffic models have attracted extensive attention. In this paper, we introduce a shortest-remaining-path-first queuing strategy into a network traffic model on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks under efficient routing protocol, where one packet’s delivery priority is related to its current distance to the destination. Compared with the traditional first-in-first-out queuing strategy, although the network capacity has no evident changes, some other indexes reflecting transportation efficiency are significantly improved in the congestion state. Extensive simulation results and discussions are carried out to explain the phenomena. Our work may be helpful for the designing of optimal networked-traffic systems.

  9. Pigment-targeted light wavelength and intensity promotes efficient photoautotrophic growth of Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bland, Erik; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-09-01

    A consensus is lacking whether monochromatic rather than broad-spectrum illumination is more efficient for photosynthetic microbe production platforms. Light wavelength and intensity were tuned to pigment composition for growth of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Phycocyanin (PC)-targeting LEDs (620nm) provided more than 6times the peak efficiency of white LEDs, with peak efficiency growth rates of 0.063h(-1) at 81μEm(-2)s(-1) and 0.039h(-1) at 126μEm(-2)s(-1) for red and white LEDs, respectively. Chlorophyll a (Chl a)-targeting LEDs (680- and 440-nm) performed poorly. Indeed, 10 times greater mass abundance was observed for PC than Chl a. PC levels did not change while Chl a levels decreased when Synechocystis transitioned from white light at 50μEm(-2)s(-1) to 250μEm(-2)s(-1) with 620nm, 680nm, or white LEDs. This work demonstrates that light wavelengths and intensity need to be optimized for each strain.

  10. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  11. Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Homologous Recombination Promotes the Rapid Generation of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes of Pseudorabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jin-Chao; Tang, Yan-Dong; Zhao, Kuan; Wang, Tong-Yun; Liu, Ji-Ting; Gao, Jia-Cong; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Cui, Hong-Yu; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; An, Tong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are powerful tools for the manipulation of the large genomes of DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses. However, the methods currently used to construct the recombinant viruses, an important intermediate link in the generation of BACs, involve the laborious process of multiple plaque purifications. Moreover, some fastidious viruses may be lost or damaged during these processes, making it impossible to generate BACs from these large-genome DNA viruses. Here, we introduce the CRISPR/Cas9 as a site-specific gene knock-in instrument that promotes the homologs recombination of a linearized transfer vector and the Pseudorabies virus genome through double incisions. The efficiency of recombination is as high as 86%. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency ever reported for Pseudorabies virus recombination. We also demonstrate that the positions and distances of the CRISPR/Cas9 single guide RNAs from the homology arms correlate with the efficiency of homologous recombination. Our work show a simple and fast cloning method of BACs with large genome inserted by greatly enhancing the HR efficiencies through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair mechanism, and this method could be of helpful for manipulating large DNA viruses, and will provide a successful model for insertion of large DNA fragments into other viruses. PMID:28066407

  12. Economic Analysis of Ilumex, A Project to Promote Energy-Efficient Residential Lighting in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Friedmann, R.; Meyers, S.; de Buen, O.; Gadgil, A.J.; Vargas, E.; Saucedo, R.

    1993-11-01

    A higher penetration of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for household lighting can reduce growth in peak electricity demand, reduce sales of subsidized electricity, and lessen environmental impacts. This paper describes an economic analysis of a project designed to promote high penetration rates of CFLs in two cities in Mexico. Our analysis indicates that the project will bring substantial net economic benefits to Mexico, the utility, and the average customer. In the absence of any subsidy to CFLs, most customers will see a payback period longer than two years. By sharing some of the anticipated net benefit, CFE, the utility company, can reduce the payback period to a maximum of two years for all customers. CFE's role is thus crucial to the successful implementation of the project. Expanding the Ilumex project to a Mexico-wide program would make a significant contribution towards meeting the planned addition of generation capacity by the year 2000.

  13. Affirmative action policies promote women and do not harm efficiency in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-02-03

    Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are one source of unequal labor market outcomes concerning wages and promotions. Given that studying the effects of policy interventions to support women is difficult with field data because of measurement problems and potential lack of control, we evaluated, in a set of controlled laboratory experiments, four interventions: quotas, where one of two winners of a competition must be female; two variants of preferential treatment, where a fixed increment is added to women's performance; and repetition of the competition, where a second competition takes place if no woman is among the winners. Compared with no intervention, all interventions encourage women to enter competitions more often, and performance is at least equally good, both during and after the competition.

  14. Efficiency of "Prescribe Vida Saludable", a health promotion innovation. Pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Guinea, Aitor; Espinosa, Maite; Grandes, Gonzalo; Sáncheza, Álvaro; Martínez, Catalina; Pombo, Haizea; Bully, Paola; Cortada, Josep

    "Prescribe Vida Saludable" (PVS) is an organisational innovation designed to optimise the promotion of multiple healthy habits in primary healthcare. It aims to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost-utility of prescribing physical activity in the pilot phase of the PVS programme, compared to the routine clinical practice of promoting physical activity in primary healthcare. An economic evaluation of the quasi-experimental pilot phase of PVS was carried out. In the four control centres, a systematic sample was selected of 194 patients who visited the centre in a single year and who did not comply with physical activity recommendations. In the four intervention centres, 122 patients who received their first physical activity prescription were consecutively enrolled. The costs were evaluated from the perspective of the PVS programme using bottom-up methodology. The effectiveness (proportion of patients who changed their physical activity) as well as the utility were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and a sensitivity analysis was performed with bootstrapping and 1,000 replications. Information was obtained from 35% of control cases and 62% of intervention cases. The ICUR was €1,234.66/Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and the ICER was €4.12. In 98.3% of the simulations, the ICUR was below the €30,000/QALY threshold. The prescription of physical activity was demonstrably within acceptable cost-utility limits in the pilot PVS phase, even from a conservative perspective. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of efficient plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Sulla coronaria resistant to cadmium and to other heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Abdelkrim, Souhir; Abid, Ghassen; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2016-01-01

    The inoculation of plants with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria has become a priority in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. A total of 82 bacteria were isolated from Sulla coronaria root nodules cultivated on four soil samples differently contaminated by heavy metals. The phenotypic characterization of these isolates demonstrated an increased tolerance to cadmium reaching 4.1mM, and to other metals, including Zn, Cu and Ni. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) analysis showed a large diversity represented by genera related to Agrobacterium sp., R. leguminosarum, Sinorhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhizobium sp. Their symbiotic effectiveness was evaluated by nodulation tests. Taking into consideration efficiency and cadmium tolerance, four isolates were chosen; their 16SrRNA gene sequence showed that they belonged to Pseudomonas sp. and the Rhizobium sullae. The selected consortium of soil bacteria had the ability to produce plant-growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid and siderophore. The intracellular Cd accumulation was enhanced by increasing the time of incubation of the four soil bacteria cultivated in a medium supplemented with 0.1mM Cd. The existence of a cadmium-resistant gene was confirmed by PCR. These results suggested that Sulla coronaria in symbiosis with the consortium of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be useful in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

  16. Manganese powder promoted highly efficient and selective synthesis of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Weili; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Shirong; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asao, Naoki; Han, Liyuan; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2015-09-01

    Discovery of an efficient, practical, and flexible synthetic method to produce various important electron acceptors for low-cost organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is highly desirable. Although the most commonly used acceptor materials, such as PC61BM, PC71BM, IC60BA, bisPC61BM have been proved to be promising for the OPVs, they are still very expensive mainly due to their low production yields and limited synthetic methods. Herein, we report an unprecedented and innovative synthetic method of a variety of fullerene mono- and biscycloadducts by using manganese powder as a promotor. The reaction of fullerenes with various dibromides proceeds efficiently and selectively under very mild conditions to give the corresponding cycloadducts in good to excellent yields. The combination of manganese power with DMSO additive is crucial for the successful implementation of the present cycloaddition. Notably, the standard OPV acceptors, such as PCBMs, have been obtained in extraordinarily high yields, which cannot be achieved under the previously reported methods.

  17. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Chandler, Jess; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ally, Moonis

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  18. Phleomycin Increases Transformation Efficiency and Promotes Single Integrations in Schizophyllum commune▿

    PubMed Central

    van Peer, Arend F.; de Bekker, Charissa; Vinck, Arman; Wösten, Han A. B.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    Phleomycin is mutagenic by introducing double-strand breaks in DNA. The ble gene of Streptoalloteychus hindustanus, which confers resistance to this substance, is widely used as a selection marker for transformation. Schizophyllum commune grows on 25 μg of phleomycin ml−1 after introduction of a resistance cassette based on the ble gene. However, we here report that growth of resistant colonies on this concentration of phleomycin resulted in aberrant colony morphologies. Apparently, phleomycin was mutagenic despite acquired resistance. Therefore, a new selection system was developed based on resistance to the antibiotic nourseothricin. However, the transformation efficiency was tenfold lower than that obtained with phleomycin as a selection agent. This low transformation efficiency could be rescued by addition of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin during protoplast regeneration. This was accompanied by a higher incidence of single-copy integrations and with an increase of expression of key genes involved in double-strand break repair. Taken together, we conclude that the effect of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin strongly resembles the effect of restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) but, unlike REMI, it does not depend on the presence of a target restriction site. PMID:19114524

  19. Information flow and its significance in coherently integrated policymaking for promoting energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kua, Harn Wei

    2007-05-01

    Why do negative, unexpected outcomes occur in sustainable development policies? What can we learn from them? Studies have shown clearly that, to be effective, sustainable development policies must be as coherent and integrated as possible; however, policy integration should not evolve into a tool that restricts creativity and undermines the relevance of local policy initiatives. The Coherently Integrated Policymaking frameworks, based on the precept that information flow is pivotal to the success of policymaking, are proposed and then applied to design an integrated energy efficiency policy that coaddresses a set of indicators. These indicators are energy and greenhouse gas reduction, improvement of public's health, increase in material efficiency, enhancementof energy equity, provision of employment and education opportunities, improvement of workers' health, improvement of local economy, and reduction in derived costs for the business community. Our framework also provides guidance for the magnitude of change a policy should introduce at one time, guided by five distinct types of feedback loops that link the different stakeholders involved in the design, implementation, and monitoring of integrated policies.

  20. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation by silica supported and platinum promoted titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Meenal M.; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Parwate, D.V.; Rayalu, Sadhana S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor. Hydrogen yield observed is 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} and that for P-25 is 161 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The value is 30 times higher than benchmark material Degussa P-25. This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. - Highlights: • Semiconductor titanium dioxide has been supported on silica gel and promoted with Pt by simple wet impregnation route. • This synthesized photocatalyst is showing high surface area of 140.6 m{sup 2}/g with crystallite size in the range of 15.44 Å. • This photocatalyst is showing enhanced hydrogen yield of about 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2}. • This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. • The effect of various operating parameters on supported photocatalyst also has been studied. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor

  1. Environmentally friendly efficient one-pot esterification of cyclohexane with CuO-promoted sulfated zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo

    2008-09-15

    The production of dibutyl phthalate directly from oxidation and esterification of cyclohexane, catalyzed by CuO-modified sulfated zirconia (SZCu) by one-pot under mild condition, was studied. The esterification reaction process was monitored by UV-vis spectra and the distribution of the products was analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result revealed that the SZCu catalyst was efficient in the direct oxidation and esterification of cyclohexane to ester. The selectivity for ester (dibutyl phthalate) can reach up to 72.2 wt.%, and the yield of ester was 29.5 wt.%. The esterification reaction, that offers several advantages such as usage of environmental friendly oxidant, simple work-up procedure, no-solvent conditions, short reaction times, easy recovery and reusability of the catalyst, is necessary for chemosynthesis industry from the environment standpoint. The regeneration property of SZCu was also tested in this work.

  2. Multilayered films fabricated from an oligoarginine-conjugated protein promote efficient surface-mediated protein transduction.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Christopher M; Fuchs, Stephen M; Flessner, Ryan M; Raines, Ronald T; Lynn, David M

    2007-03-01

    The conjugation of cationic protein transduction domains to proteins results in an increase in the extent to which proteins are internalized by cells. This investigation sought to determine whether the conjugation of a protein transduction domain to a functional protein could be used to facilitate the incorporation of the protein into multilayered polyelectrolyte films and, subsequently, whether these films could be used to promote surface-mediated protein transduction. We demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate multilayered assemblies 80 nm thick using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) conjugated to the cationic protein transduction domain nonaarginine (R(9)) using an entirely aqueous layer-by-layer process. We demonstrate further that the conjugation of R(9) to RNase A permits the assembly of multilayered films under conditions that do not allow for the incorporation of the unmodified protein. This result suggests that R(9) functions as a cationic anchor and serves to increase the strength of electrostatic interactions with SPS and facilitate layer-by-layer assembly. We also demonstrate that RNase A-R(9)/SPS films dissolve rapidly in physiologically relevant media and that macroscopic objects coated with these materials can be used to mediate high levels of protein transduction in mammalian cells. These results suggest the basis of general methods that could contribute to the design of materials that permit spatial and temporal control over the delivery of therapeutic proteins to cells and tissues.

  3. Efficiency promotion for an on-ramp system based on intelligent transportation system information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Gao, Zi-You; Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    2010-08-01

    The effect of cars with intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) on traffic flow near an on-ramp is investigated by car-following simulations. By numerical simulations, the dependences of flux on the inflow rate are investigated for various proportions of cars with ITSs. The phase diagrams as well as the spatiotemporal diagrams are presented to show different traffic flow states on the main road and the on-ramp. The results show that the saturated flux on the main road increases and the free flow region is enlarged with the increase of the proportion of cars with ITS. Interestingly, the congested regions of the main road disappear completely when the proportion is larger than a critical value. Further investigation shows that the capacity of the on-ramp system can be promoted by 13% by using the ITS information, and the saturated flux on the on-ramp can be kept at an appropriate value by adjusting the proportion of cars with ITS.

  4. Enhancing the specificity of the enterokinase cleavage reaction to promote efficient cleavage of a fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Shahravan, S Hesam; Qu, Xuanlu; Chan, I-San; Shin, Jumi A

    2008-06-01

    In our work with designed minimalist proteins based on the bZIP motif, we have found our His-tagged proteins to be prone to inclusion body formation and aggregation; we suspect this problem is largely due to the His tag, known to promote aggregation. Using AhR6-C/EBP, a hybrid of the AhR basic region and C/EBP leucine zipper, as representative of our bZIP-like protein family, we attempted removal of the His tag with enterokinase (EK) but obtained the desired cleavage product in very small yield. EK is known for proteolysis at noncanonical sites, and most cleavage occurred at unintended sites. We manipulated experimental conditions to improve specificity of proteolysis and analyzed the cleavage products; no effect was observed after changing pH, temperature, or the amount of EK. We then suspected the accessibility of the EK site was impeded due to protein aggregation. We found that the easily implemented strategy of addition of urea (1-4 M) greatly improved EK cleavage specificity at the canonical site and reduced adventitious cleavage. We believe that this enhancement in specificity is due to a more "open" protein structure, in which the now accessible canonical target can compete effectively with adventitious cleavage sites of related sequence.

  5. Efficient compressed sensing SENSE parallel MRI reconstruction with joint sparsity promotion and mutual incoherence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Il Yong Chun; Adcock, Ben; Talavage, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a key modality for the future as it offers several advantages, including the use of non-ionizing radiation and having no known side effects on the human body, and has recently begun to serve as a key component of multi-modal neuroimaging. However, two major intrinsic problems exist: slow acquisition and intrusive acoustic noise. Parallel MRI (pMRI) techniques accelerate acquisition by reducing the duration and coverage of conventional gradient encoding. The under-sampled k-space data is detected with several receiver coils surrounding the object, using distinct spatial encoding information for each coil element to reconstruct the image. However, this scanning remains slow compared to typical clinical imaging (e.g. X-ray CT). Compressed Sensing (CS), a sampling theory based on random sub-sampling, has potential to further reduce the sampling used in pMRI, accelerating acquisition further. In this work, we propose a new CS SENSE pMRI reconstruction model promoting joint sparsity across channels and enhancing mutual incoherence to improve reconstruction accuracy from limited k-space data. For fast image reconstruction and fair comparisons, all reconstructions are computed with split-Bregman and variable splitting techniques. Numerical results show that, with the introduced methods, reconstruction performance can be crucially improved with limited amount of k-space data.

  6. Tethering of SCFDia2 to the Replisome Promotes Efficient Ubiquitylation and Disassembly of the CMG Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Maculins, Timurs; Nkosi, Pedro Junior; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Labib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Summary Disassembly of the Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) DNA helicase, which unwinds the parental DNA duplex at eukaryotic replication forks, is the key regulated step during replication termination but is poorly understood [1, 2]. In budding yeast, the F-box protein Dia2 drives ubiquitylation of the CMG helicase at the end of replication, leading to a disassembly pathway that requires the Cdc48 segregase [3]. The substrate-binding domain of Dia2 comprises leucine-rich repeats, but Dia2 also has a TPR domain at its amino terminus that interacts with the Ctf4 and Mrc1 subunits of the replisome progression complex [4, 5], which assembles around the CMG helicase at replication forks [6]. Previous studies suggested two disparate roles for the TPR domain of Dia2, either mediating replisome-specific degradation of Mrc1 and Ctf4 [4] or else tethering SCFDia2 (SCF [Skp1/cullin/F-box protein]) to the replisome to increase its local concentration at replication forks [5]. Here, we show that SCFDia2 does not mediate replisome-specific degradation of Mrc1 and Ctf4, either during normal S phase or in response to replication stress. Instead, the tethering of SCFDia2 to the replisome progression complex increases the efficiency of ubiquitylation of the Mcm7 subunit of CMG, both in vitro and in vivo. Correspondingly, loss of tethering reduces the efficiency of CMG disassembly in vivo and is synthetic lethal in combination with a disassembly-defective allele of CDC48. Residual ubiquitylation of Mcm7 in dia2-ΔTPR cells is still CMG specific, highlighting the complex regulation of the final stages of chromosome replication, about which much still remains to be learned. PMID:26255844

  7. Tumor-targeted efficiency of shRNA vector harboring chimera hTERT/U6 promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Penghui; Chen, Yaqin; Jiang, Xixin; Tu, Zhiguang; Zou, Lin

    2010-05-01

    Telomerase is closely related to tumor, and hTERT is the rate-limiting factor for telomerase activity. The transcription and expression of hTERT is determined by hTERT promoter, which has the ability of anchoring telomerase positive cells. RNA interference (RNAi) has been potentially used in the functional genomics and gene therapy recently. However, the limitations of RNAi uncertain interference and safety hamper its wide applications. To overcome these limitations, we constructed shRNA vectors harboring either U6 promoter or chimera hTERT/U6 promoter aiming at EGFP and hTERT genes (shRNA-EGFP-U6, shRNA-EGFP-hTERT/U6, shRNA-hTERT-U6 and shRNA-hTERT-hTERT/U6), to suppress the expression of GFP and hTERT in telomerase negative human normal fibroblast HELF cells and telomerase positive human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells, respectively. HELF-EGFP and SMMC-7721-EGFP cells stably expressing EGFP or hTERT were constructed. GFP expression was inhibited in both HELF-EGFP and SMMC-7721-EGFP cells expressing shRNA-EGFP-U6. Further results showed that GFP expression was suppressed only in telomerase positive SMMC-7721 cells and HepG2 cells, but not in telomerase negative HELF cells expressing shRNA-EGFP-hTERT/U6. Further results found that hTERT expression was effectively inhibited from liver cancer cells expressing shRNA-hTERT-U6 or shRNA-hTERT-hTERT/U6 both in vitro and in vivo. Our study illustrates the tumor-targeted efficiency of shRNA vectors harboring chimera hTERT/U6 promoter in telomerase positive cells, which will benefit tumor therapy.

  8. Fast and secure handover of intra-ASN IEEE802.16 network by proposed certificate based pre-authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Supriya, T. S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    The current generation of wireless networks has been designed predominantly to support voice and more recently data traffic. WiMAX is currently one of the hottest technologies in wireless. The main motive of the mobile technologies is to provide seamless cost effective mobility. But this is affected by Authentication cost and handover delay since on each handoff the Mobile Station (MS) has to undergo all steps of authentication. Pre-Authentication is used to reduce the handover delay and increase the speed of the Intra-ASN Handover. Proposed Pre-Authentication method is intended to reduce the authentication delay by getting pre authenticated by central authority called Pre Authentication Authority (PAA). MS requests PAA for Pre Authentication Certificate (PAC) before performing handoff. PAA verifies the identity of MS and provides PAC to MS and also to the neighboring target Base Stations (tBSs). MS having time bound PAC can skip the authentication process when recognized by target BS during handoff. It also prevents the DOS (Denial Of Service) attack and Replay attack. It has no wastage of unnecessary key exchange of the resources. The proposed work is simulated by NS2 model and by MATLAB.

  9. Evidence That Masking of Synapsis Imperfections Counterbalances Quality Control to Promote Efficient Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarczyk-Evans, Susanna; Roelens, Baptiste; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in ploidy to generate haploid gametes during sexual reproduction is accomplished by the specialized cell division program of meiosis. Pairing between homologous chromosomes and assembly of the synaptonemal complex at their interface (synapsis) represent intermediate steps in the meiotic program that are essential to form crossover recombination-based linkages between homologs, which in turn enable segregation of the homologs to opposite poles at the meiosis I division. Here, we challenge the mechanisms of pairing and synapsis during C. elegans meiosis by disrupting the normal 1∶1 correspondence between homologs through karyotype manipulation. Using a combination of cytological tools, including S-phase labeling to specifically identify X chromosome territories in highly synchronous cohorts of nuclei and 3D rendering to visualize meiotic chromosome structures and organization, our analysis of trisomic (triplo-X) and polyploid meiosis provides insight into the principles governing pairing and synapsis and how the meiotic program is “wired” to maximize successful sexual reproduction. We show that chromosomes sort into homologous groups regardless of chromosome number, then preferentially achieve pairwise synapsis during a period of active chromosome mobilization. Further, comparisons of synapsis configurations in triplo-X germ cells that are proficient or defective for initiating recombination suggest a role for recombination in restricting chromosomal interactions to a pairwise state. Increased numbers of homologs prolong markers of the chromosome mobilization phase and/or boost germline apoptosis, consistent with triggering quality control mechanisms that promote resolution of synapsis problems and/or cull meiocytes containing synapsis defects. However, we also uncover evidence for the existence of mechanisms that “mask” defects, thus allowing resumption of prophase progression and survival of germ cells despite some asynapsis. We propose that

  10. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2014-11-24

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm-800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  11. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  12. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350 nm–800 nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced. PMID:25418477

  13. Promoting wired links in wireless mesh networks: an efficient engineering solution.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes.

  14. Phenotypic constraints promote latent versatility and carbon efficiency in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Bardoscia, Marco; Marsili, Matteo; Samal, Areejit

    2015-07-01

    System-level properties of metabolic networks may be the direct product of natural selection or arise as a by-product of selection on other properties. Here we study the effect of direct selective pressure for growth or viability in particular environments on two properties of metabolic networks: latent versatility to function in additional environments and carbon usage efficiency. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling based on flux balance analysis (FBA), we sample from a known biochemical universe random viable metabolic networks that differ in the number of directly constrained environments. We find that the latent versatility of sampled metabolic networks increases with the number of directly constrained environments and with the size of the networks. We then show that the average carbon wastage of sampled metabolic networks across the constrained environments decreases with the number of directly constrained environments and with the size of the networks. Our work expands the growing body of evidence about nonadaptive origins of key functional properties of biological networks.

  15. Promoting Wired Links in Wireless Mesh Networks: An Efficient Engineering Solution

    PubMed Central

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes. PMID:25793516

  16. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae–independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17508.001 PMID:27528195

  17. Timeless preserves telomere length by promoting efficient DNA replication through human telomeres.

    PubMed

    Leman, Adam R; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Deng, Zhong; Lee, Seung Woo; Das, Mukund M; Lieberman, Paul M; Noguchi, Eishi

    2012-06-15

    A variety of telomere protection programs are utilized to preserve telomere structure. However, the complex nature of telomere maintenance remains elusive. The Timeless protein associates with the replication fork and is thought to support efficient progression of the replication fork through natural impediments, including replication fork block sites. However, the mechanism by which Timeless regulates such genomic regions is not understood. Here, we report the role of Timeless in telomere length maintenance. We demonstrate that Timeless depletion leads to telomere shortening in human cells. This length maintenance is independent of telomerase, and Timeless depletion causes increased levels of DNA damage, leading to telomere aberrations. We also show that Timeless is associated with Shelterin components TRF1 and TRF2. Timeless depletion slows telomere replication in vitro, and Timeless-depleted cells fail to maintain TRF1-mediated accumulation of replisome components at telomeric regions. Furthermore, telomere replication undergoes a dramatic delay in Timeless-depleted cells. These results suggest that Timeless functions together with TRF1 to prevent fork collapse at telomere repeat DNA and ensure stable maintenance of telomere length and integrity.

  18. A Novel Sequence in AP180 and CALM Promotes Efficient Clathrin Binding and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Xue, Jing; Wark, Jesse Ray; Robinson, Phillip James

    2016-01-01

    The clathrin heavy chain N-terminal domain interacts with endocytic adapter proteins via clathrin binding motifs to assemble clathrin triskelia into cages. However, the precise mechanism of clathrin assembly is not yet known. Clathrin assembly protein AP180 has more clathrin binding motifs than any other endocytic protein and has a major role in the assembly of the clathrin coat during synaptic vesicle biogenesis. We now demonstrate that some of the previously identified binding motifs in AP180 may be non-functional and that a non-conventional clathrin binding sequence has a major influence on AP180 function. The related protein, clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM), has fewer clathrin binding motifs and functions ubiquitously in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The C-terminal ~16 kDa sub-domain in AP180, which has relatively high similarity with CALM, was shown in earlier work to have an unexplained role in clathrin binding. We identified the specific sequences in this sub-domain that bind to clathrin. Evidence for a role for these sequences in promoting clathrin binding was examined using in vitro and ex vivo experiments that compared the clathrin binding ability of site mutants with the wild type sequence. A sequence conserved in both AP180 and CALM (LDSSLA[S/N]LVGNLGI) was found to be the major interaction site and mutation caused a deficit in clathrin assembly, which is the first example of a mutation having this effect. In contrast, single or double mutation of DL(L/F) motifs in full length AP180 had no significant effect on clathrin binding, despite higher clathrin affinity for isolated peptides containing these motifs. We conclude that the novel clathrin interaction sites identified here in CALM and AP180 have a major role in how these proteins interface with clathrin. This work advances the case that AP180 and CALM are required to use a combination of standard clathrin N-terminal domain binding motifs and the sequence identified here

  19. Efficiency of ligation-mediated PCR and TAIL-PCR methods for isolation of RbcS promoter sequences from green microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran; Chi, Vu Thi Quynh; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Napis, Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of promoter sequences from known gene sequences is a tedious task in genome-related research. An efficient method of obtaining the promoter sequences is necessary in order to successfully use targeted promoters for genetic manipulations. Here, efficiency and usefulness of two PCR-based methods, namely: ligation-mediated PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR, for isolation of promoter sequences of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS) gene from green microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus (A. convolutus) were evaluated. The results showed that the amplification efficiency of TAIL-PCR was higher than that of the ligation-mediated PCR method, i.e. the amplified promoter fragments of 1.2 and 0.8 kb in length or promoter sequences of 813 and 606 bp (after eliminating the unreadable sequences). The use of TAIL-PCR described here presents a low cost and efficient strategy for the isolation of promoter sequences of known genes, especially in GC-rich regions, and species with little or no available genome information such as A. convolutus.

  20. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Arnold; Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T; Dawes, Brian E; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur

    2016-05-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins.

  1. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  2. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T.; Dawes, Brian E.; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins. PMID:27203423

  3. Stable and efficient Q-compensated least-squares migration with compressive sensing, sparsity-promoting, and preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xintao; Wang, Shangxu; Tang, Genyang; Meng, Xiangcui

    2017-10-01

    The anelastic effects of subsurface media decrease the amplitude and distort the phase of propagating wave. These effects, also referred to as the earth's Q filtering effects, diminish seismic resolution. Ignoring anelastic effects during seismic imaging process generates an image with reduced amplitude and incorrect position of reflectors, especially for highly absorptive media. The numerical instability and the expensive computational cost are major concerns when compensating for anelastic effects during migration. We propose a stable and efficient Q-compensated imaging methodology with compressive sensing, sparsity-promoting, and preconditioning. The stability is achieved by using the Born operator for forward modeling and the adjoint operator for back propagating the residual wavefields. Constructing the attenuation-compensated operators by reversing the sign of attenuation operator is avoided. The method proposed is always stable. To reduce the computational cost that is proportional to the number of wave-equation to be solved (thereby the number of frequencies, source experiments, and iterations), we first subsample over both frequencies and source experiments. We mitigate the artifacts caused by the dimensionality reduction via promoting sparsity of the imaging solutions. We further employ depth- and Q-preconditioning operators to accelerate the convergence rate of iterative migration. We adopt a relatively simple linearized Bregman method to solve the sparsity-promoting imaging problem. Singular value decomposition analysis of the forward operator reveals that attenuation increases the condition number of migration operator, making the imaging problem more ill-conditioned. The visco-acoustic imaging problem converges slower than the acoustic case. The stronger the attenuation, the slower the convergence rate. The preconditioning strategy evidently decreases the condition number of migration operator, which makes the imaging problem less ill-conditioned and

  4. Gdown1 Associates Efficiently with RNA Polymerase II after Promoter Clearance and Displaces TFIIF during Transcript Elongation

    PubMed Central

    DeLaney, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Pausing during the earliest stage of transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a nearly universal control point in metazoan gene expression. The substoichiometric Pol II subunit Gdown1 facilitates promoter proximal pausing in vitro in extract-based transcription reactions, out-competes the initiation/elongation factor TFIIF for binding to free Pol II and co-localizes with paused Pol II in vivo. However, we have shown that Gdown1 cannot functionally associate with the Pol II preinitiation complex (PIC), which contains TFIIF. In the present study, we determined at what point after initiation Gdown1 can associate with Pol II and how rapidly this competition with TFIIF occurs. We show that, as with the PIC, Gdown1 cannot functionally load into open complexes or complexes engaged in abortive synthesis of very short RNAs. Gdown1 can load into early elongation complexes (EECs) with 5–9 nt RNAs, but efficient association with EECs does not take place until the point at which the upstream segment of the long initial transcription bubble reanneals. Tests of EECs assembled on a series of promoter variants confirm that this bubble collapse transition, and not transcript length, modulates Gdown1 functional affinity. Gdown1 displaces TFIIF effectively from all complexes downstream of the collapse transition, but this displacement is surprisingly slow: complete loss of TFIIF stimulation of elongation requires 5 min of incubation with Gdown1. The relatively slow functional loading of Gdown1 in the presence of TFIIF suggests that Gdown1 works in promoter-proximal pausing by locking in the paused state after elongation is already antagonized by other factors, including DSIF, NELF and possibly the first downstream nucleosome. PMID:27716820

  5. Autoantigen La promotes efficient RNAi, antiviral response, and transposon silencing by facilitating multiple-turnover RISC catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren’s syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. PMID:22055194

  6. Towards an understanding of the information dynamics of the handover process in aged care settings--a prerequisite for the safe and effective use of ICT.

    PubMed

    Lyhne, Svend; Georgiou, Andrew; Marks, Anne; Tariq, Amina; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2012-07-01

    Poor clinical handover has been associated with inaccurate clinical assessment and diagnosis, delays in diagnosis and test ordering, medication errors and decreased patient satisfaction in the acute care setting. Research on the handover process in the residential aged care sector is very limited. The aims of this study were to: (i) Develop an in-depth understanding of the handover process in aged care by mapping all the key activities and their information dynamics, (ii) Identify gaps in information exchange in the handover process and analyze implications for resident safety, (iii) Develop practical recommendations on how information communication technology (ICT) can improve the process and resident safety. The study was undertaken at a large metropolitan facility in NSW with more than 300 residents and a staff including 55 registered nurses (RNs) and 146 assistants in nursing (AINs). A total of 3 focus groups, 12 interviews and 3 observation sessions were conducted over a period from July to October 2010. Process mapping was undertaken by translating the qualitative data via a five-category code book that was developed prior to the analysis. Three major sub-processes were identified and mapped. The three major stages are Handover process (HOP) I "Information gathering by RN", HOP II "Preparation of preliminary handover sheet" and HOP III "Execution of handover meeting". Inefficient processes were identified in relation to the handover including duplication of information, utilization of multiple communication modes and information sources, and lack of standardization. By providing a robust process model of handover this study has made two critical contributions to research in aged care: (i) a means to identify important, possibly suboptimal practices; and (ii) valuable evidence to plan and improve ICT implementation in residential aged care. The mapping of this process enabled analysis of gaps in information flow and potential impacts on resident safety. In

  7. Impact of a modified nursing handover model for improving nursing care and documentation in the emergency department: A pre- and post-implementation study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Debra; Klim, Sharon; Kelly, Anne-Maree; McCann, Terence

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of a new nursing handover model led to improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation. A pre- and post-implementation study, using a survey and document audit, was conducted in a hospital ED in Melbourne. A convenience sample of nurses completed the survey at baseline (n = 67) and post-intervention (n = 59), and the audit was completed at both time points. Results showed significant improvements in several processes: handover in front of the patient (P < 0.001), patients contributed and/or listened to handover discussions (P < 0.001), and provision of adequate information about all patients in the department (P < 0.001). Nurses also reported a reduction in omission of vital signs (P = 0.022) during handover. Three hundred sixty-eight medical records were audited in the two study periods: 173 (pre-intervention) and 195 (post-intervention). Statistically significant improvements in the completion of two nursing care tasks and three documentation items were identified. The findings suggest that implementation of a new handover model improved completion of nursing care activities and documentation, and transfer of important information to nurses on oncoming shifts.

  8. Serum Lipoproteins Promote Efficient Presentation of the Malaria Virulence Protein PfEMP1 at the Erythrocyte Surface▿

    PubMed Central

    Frankland, Sarah; Elliott, Salenna R.; Yosaatmadja, Francisca; Beeson, James G.; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Adisa, Akinola; Tilley, Leann

    2007-01-01

    The virulence of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is related to its ability to express a family of adhesive proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) at the infected red blood cell surface. The mechanism for the transport and delivery of these adhesins to the erythrocyte membrane is only poorly understood. In this work, we have used specific immune reagents in a flow cytometric assay to monitor the effects of serum components on the surface presentation of PfEMP1. We show that efficient presentation of the A4 and VAR2CSA variants of PfEMP1 is dependent on the presence of serum in the bathing medium during parasite maturation. Lipid-loaded albumin supports parasite growth but allows much less efficient presentation of PfEMP1 at the red blood cell surface. Analysis of the serum components reveals that lipoproteins, especially those of the low-density lipoprotein fraction, promote PfEMP1 presentation. Cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to the host cell receptors CD36 and ICAM-1 is also decreased in infected erythrocytes cultured in the absence of serum. The defect appears to be in the transfer of PfEMP1 from parasite-derived structures known as the Maurer's clefts to the erythrocyte membrane or in surface conformation rather than a down-regulation or switching of particular PfEMP1 variants. PMID:17644656

  9. IL-7 surface-engineered lentiviral vectors promote survival and efficient gene transfer in resting primary T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Verhoeyen, Els; Dardalhon, Valerie; Ducrey-Rundquist, Odile; Trono, Didier; Taylor, Naomi; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2003-03-15

    Important gene therapy target cells such as resting human T cells are refractory to transduction with lentiviral vectors. Completion of reverse transcription, nuclear import, and subsequent integration of the lentiviral genome occur in these cells only if they have been activated. In T-cell-based gene therapy trials performed to date, cells have been activated via their cognate antigen receptor. To couple activation with gene transfer, we previously generated lentiviral vectors displaying an anti-CD3 scFv fragment that allowed up to 48% transduction of freshly isolated T cells. However, transduction of highly purified resting T cells with these anti-CD3-displaying lentiviral vectors was inefficient and shifted the T cells from the naive to the memory phenotype. Here, we describe interleukin-7 (IL-7)-displaying HIV-1-derived vectors. Like recombinant IL-7, these modified particles could promote the survival of primary T cells placed in culture without inducing a naive-to-memory phenotypic switch. Furthermore, a single exposure to the IL-7-displaying vectors resulted in efficient gene transfer in both resting memory adult T cells and naive cord blood T cells. With adult naive T cells, preactivation with recombinant IL-7 was necessary for efficient gene transfer. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-7-displaying vectors could constitute interesting tools for T-cell-targeted gene therapy.

  10. A method for detecting characteristic patterns in social interactions with an application to handover interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Andrew; Lacey, Lindsey; Fennell, John G.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions are a defining behavioural trait of social animals. Discovering characteristic patterns in the display of such behaviour is one of the fundamental endeavours in behavioural biology and psychology, as this promises to facilitate the general understanding, classification, prediction and even automation of social interactions. We present a novel approach to study characteristic patterns, including both sequential and synchronous actions in social interactions. The key concept in our analysis is to represent social interactions as sequences of behavioural states and to focus on changes in behavioural states shown by individuals rather than on the duration for which they are displayed. We extend techniques from data mining and bioinformatics to detect frequent patterns in these sequences and to assess how these patterns vary across individuals or changes in interaction tasks. To illustrate our approach and to demonstrate its potential, we apply it to novel data on a simple physical interaction, where one person hands a cup to another person. Our findings advance the understanding of handover interactions, a benchmark scenario for social interactions. More generally, we suggest that our approach permits a general perspective for studying social interactions. PMID:28280570

  11. Introduction of a Microsoft Excel-based unified electronic weekend handover document in Acute and General Medicine in a DGH: aims, outcomes and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma. PMID:28352468

  12. Introduction of a Microsoft Excel-based unified electronic weekend handover document in Acute and General Medicine in a DGH: aims, outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma.

  13. Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Promotes Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral M1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carina F; Read, Eliot K C; Wise, Helen M; Amorim, Maria J; Digard, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Segment 7 produces two major transcripts: an unspliced mRNA that encodes the M1 matrix protein and a spliced transcript that encodes the M2 ion channel. Export of both mRNAs is dependent on the cellular NXF1/TAP pathway, but it is unclear how they are recruited to the export machinery or how the intron-containing but unspliced M1 mRNA bypasses the normal quality-control checkpoints. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to monitor segment 7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs reconstituted by plasmid transfection and in mutant virus-infected cells. This effect was independent of any major effect on steady-state levels of segment 7 mRNA or splicing but corresponded to a ∼5-fold reduction in the accumulation of M1. A similar defect in intronless hemagglutinin (HA) mRNA nuclear export was seen with an NS1 mutant virus. Efficient export of M1 mRNA required both an intact NS1 RNA-binding domain and effector domain. Furthermore, while wild-type NS1 interacted with cellular NXF1 and also increased the interaction of segment 7 mRNA with NXF1, mutant NS1 polypeptides unable to promote mRNA export did neither. Thus, we propose that NS1 facilitates late viral gene expression by acting as an adaptor between viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery to promote their nuclear export.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species that threatens public health and food security. A fuller understanding of the virus life cycle is important to aid control strategies. The virus has a small genome that encodes relatively few proteins that are often multifunctional. Here, we characterize a new function for the NS1 protein, showing that, as well as

  14. HIMIPv6: An Efficient IP Mobility Management Protocol for Broadband Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunku; Maeng, Seungryoul; Chae, Youngsu

    With the increasing deployment of mobile devices and the advent of broadband wireless access systems such as WiBro, mWiMAX, and HSDPA, an efficient IP mobility management protocol becomes one of the most important technical issues for the successful deployment of the broadband wireless data networking service. IETF has proposed the Mobile IPv6 as the basic mobility management protocol for IPv6 networks. To enhance the performance of the basic MIPv6, researchers have been actively working on HMIPv6 and FMIPv6 protocols. In this paper, we propose a new mobility management protocol, HIMIPv6 (Highly Integrated MIPv6), which tightly integrates the hierarchical mobility management mechanism of the HMIPv6 and the proactive handover support of the FMIPv6 to enhance the handover performance especially for the cellular networking environment with high frequent handover activities. We have performed extensive simulation study using ns2 and the results show that the proposed HIMIPv6 outperforms FMIPv6 and HMIPv6. There is no packet loss and consequent service interruption caused by IP handover in HIMIP.

  15. Implementation of a Transfer Intervention Procedure (TIP) to improve handovers from hospital to home: interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    van Seben, Rosanne; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Verhaegh, Kim J M; Hilders, Carina G J M; Buurman, Bianca M

    2016-09-07

    Accurate and timely patient handovers from hospital to other health care settings are essential in order to provide high quality of care and to ensure patient safety. We aim to investigate the effect of a comprehensive discharge bundle, the Transfer Intervention Procedure (TIP), on the time between discharge and the time when the medical, medication and nursing handovers are sent to the next health care provider. Our goal is to reduce this time to 24 h after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are length of hospital stay and unplanned readmission within 30 days rates. The current study is set to implement the TIP, a structured discharge process for all patients admitted to the hospital, with the purpose to provide a safe, reliable and accurate discharge process. Eight hospitals in the Netherlands will implement the TIP on one internal medicine and one surgical ward. An interrupted time series (ITS) analysis, with pre-defined pre and post intervention periods, will be conducted. Patients over the age of 18 admitted for more than 48 h to the participating wards are eligible for inclusion. At least 1000 patients will be included in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation group. The primary outcome is the number of medical, medication and nursing handovers being sent within 24 h after discharge. Secondary outcomes are length of hospital stay and unplanned readmission within 30 days. With regard to potential confounders, data will be collected on patient's characteristics and information regarding the hospitalization. We will use segmented regression methods for analyzing the data, which allows assessing how much TIP changed the outcomes of interest immediately and over time. This study protocol describes the implementation of TIP, which provides the foundation for a safe, reliable and accurate discharge process. If effective, nationwide implementation of the discharge bundle may result from this study protocol. Dutch Trial Registry: NTR5951.

  16. ‘HighChest’: An Augmented Freezer Designed for Smart Food Management and Promotion of Eco-Efficient Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorsi, Manuele; Betti, Stefano; Rateni, Giovanni; Esposito, Dario; Brischetto, Alessia; Marseglia, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Cavallo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces HighChest, an innovative smart freezer designed to promote energy efficient behavior and the responsible use of food. Introducing a novel human–machine interface (HMI) design developed through assessment phases and a user involvement stage, HighChest is state of the art, featuring smart services that exploit embedded sensors and Internet of things functionalities, which enhance the local capabilities of the appliance. The industrial design thinking approach followed for the advanced HMI is intended to maximize the social impact of the food management service, enhancing both the user experience of the product and the user’s willingness to adopt eco- and energy-friendly behaviors. The sensor equipment realizes automatic recognition of food by learning from the users, as well as automatic localization inside the deposit space. Moreover, it provides monitoring of the appliance’s usage, avoiding temperature and humidity issues related to improper use. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the localization system, and the results showed 100% accuracy for weights greater or equal to 0.5 kg. Drifts due to the lid opening and prolonged usage time were also measured, to implement automatic reset corrections. PMID:28604609

  17. Ball milled h-BN: an efficient holes transfer promoter to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianliang; Hu, Yingfei; Yang, Yunguang; Liu, We; Chen, Shifu

    2013-01-15

    High activity hexagonal-BN (h-BN)/TiO(2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by ball milling method. The structural and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and fluorescence emission spectra. The effect of the loading amount of h-BN and the ball milling time on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) could be improved substantially by coupling with a proper amount of milled h-BN. The optimal loading amount of h-BN was found to be 0.5 wt% and the milling time was 30 min. Under this condition, the photocatalytic removal efficiencies of TiO(2) for RhB and MB could be increased as high as 15 and 8 times. The role of the milling process and the mechanism for the enhancements was finally discussed in terms of creation of negatively charged h-BN surface and promotion the separation of photoinduced holes, respectively.

  18. 'HighChest': An Augmented Freezer Designed for Smart Food Management and Promotion of Eco-Efficient Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Manuele; Betti, Stefano; Rateni, Giovanni; Esposito, Dario; Brischetto, Alessia; Marseglia, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Cavallo, Filippo

    2017-06-11

    This paper introduces HighChest, an innovative smart freezer designed to promote energy efficient behavior and the responsible use of food. Introducing a novel human-machine interface (HMI) design developed through assessment phases and a user involvement stage, HighChest is state of the art, featuring smart services that exploit embedded sensors and Internet of things functionalities, which enhance the local capabilities of the appliance. The industrial design thinking approach followed for the advanced HMI is intended to maximize the social impact of the food management service, enhancing both the user experience of the product and the user's willingness to adopt eco- and energy-friendly behaviors. The sensor equipment realizes automatic recognition of food by learning from the users, as well as automatic localization inside the deposit space. Moreover, it provides monitoring of the appliance's usage, avoiding temperature and humidity issues related to improper use. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the localization system, and the results showed 100% accuracy for weights greater or equal to 0.5 kg. Drifts due to the lid opening and prolonged usage time were also measured, to implement automatic reset corrections.

  19. CarD integrates three functional modules to promote efficient transcription, antibiotic tolerance, and pathogenesis in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Garner, Ashley L; Weiss, Leslie A; Manzano, Ana Ruiz; Galburt, Eric A; Stallings, Christina L

    2014-08-01

    Although the basic mechanisms of prokaryotic transcription are conserved, it has become evident that some bacteria require additional factors to allow for efficient gene transcription. CarD is an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding protein conserved in numerous bacterial species and essential in mycobacteria. Despite the importance of CarD, its function at transcription complexes remains unclear. We have generated a panel of mutations that individually target three independent functional modules of CarD: the RNAP interaction domain, the DNA-binding domain, and a conserved tryptophan residue. We have dissected the roles of each functional module in CarD activity and built a model where each module contributes to stabilizing RNAP-promoter complexes. Our work highlights the requirement of all three modules of CarD in the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but not in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We also report divergent use of the CarD functional modules in resisting oxidative stress and pigmentation. These studies provide new information regarding the functional domains involved in transcriptional regulation by CarD while also improving understanding of the physiology of M. tuberculosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Promoting Morphology with a Favorable Density of States Using Diiodooctane to Improve Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency and Charge Carrier Lifetimes

    DOE PAGES

    Garner, Logan E.; Bera, Abhijit; Larson, Bryon W.; ...

    2017-06-06

    Due to the inherent challenges in probing nanoscale properties within bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, the relationship between morphology and nanoscale electronic structure is not well understood. Here, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) dI/dV imaging and localized density of states (DOS) spectra to investigate the influence of additives on morphology in a high-performance OPV system. In short, we are able to correlate the use of diiodooctane (DIO) additive with significant changes to the distribution of the localized DOS, most notably a broader distribution of PCE10 polymer HOMO levels and PC70BM fullerene LUMO levels, asmore » well as significantly smaller domain sizes and significantly higher overall device efficiencies. We further correlate this data with a nearly 3-fold increase in charge carrier lifetimes in the active layer when DIO is employed, determined by time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements. In conclusion, the results are consistent with the growing body of literature evidence that DIO promotes the formation of a polymer/fullerene mixed phase and therefore highlight the unique information that this combination of techniques can provide when investigating OPV active layer morphology.« less

  1. Caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid and its analogues using a practical building block.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, Takashi; Iwatsuka, Kinya; Wada, Akimori

    2008-12-21

    A highly efficient and rapid total synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid was accomplished by caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction; using a common building block, 9Z-retinoic acid analogues were also prepared by the same method without isomerisation of the Z-double bond.

  2. Indigenous bacteria with antagonistic and plant-growth-promoting activities improve slow-filtration efficiency in soilless cultivation.

    PubMed

    Déniel, F; Rey, P; Chérif, M; Guillou, A; Tirilly, Y

    2004-07-01

    In tomato soilless culture, slow filtration allows one to control the development of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. During the disinfecting process, microbial elimination is ensured by mechanical and biological factors. In this study, system efficacy was enhanced further to a biological activation of filter by inoculating the pozzolana grains contained in the filtering unit with 5 selected bacteria. Three strains identified as Pseudomonas putida and 2 as Bacillus cereus came from a filter whose high efficiency to eliminate pathogens has been proven over years. These 5 bacteria displayed either a plant growth promoting activity (P. putida strains) or antagonistic properties (B. cereus strains). Over the first months following their introduction in the filter, the bacterial colonisation of pozzolana grains was particularly high as compared to the one observed in the control filter. Conversely to Bacillus spp. populations, Pseudomonas spp. ones remained abundant throughout the whole cultural season. The biological activation of filter unit very significantly enhanced fungal elimination with respect to the one displayed by the control filter. Indeed, the 6-month period needed by the control filter to reach its best efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum was shortened for the bacteria-amended filter; in addition, a high efficacy filtration was got as soon as the first month. Fast colonization of pozzolana grains by selected bacteria and their subsequent interaction with F. oxysporum are likely responsible for filter efficiency. Our results suggest that Pseudomonas spp. act by competition for nutrients, and Bacillus spp. by antibiosis and (or) direct parasitism. Elimination of other fungal pathogens, i.e., Pythium spp., seems to differ from that of Fusarium since both filters demonstrated a high efficacy at the experiment start. Pythium spp. elimination appears to mainly rely on physical factors. It is worth noting that a certain percentage of the 5 pozzolana

  3. Efficient Transformation of the Cephamycin C Producer Nocardia lactamdurans and Development of Shuttle and Promoter-Probe Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Vasant; Coque, Juan-Jose R.; Martín, Juan F.

    1994-01-01

    A high transformation efficiency (1 × 105 to 7 × 105 transformants per μg of DNA) of Nocardia lactamdurans LC411 was obtained by direct treatment of mycelium with polyethylene glycol 1000 and cesium chloride. A variety of vectors from Streptomyces lividans, Brevibacterium lactofermentum, Rhodococcus fascians, and a Nocardia (Amycolatopsis) sp. were tested; transformants could be obtained only with vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain DSM 43387. Vectors carrying the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) as a selective marker were constructed. The transformation procedure has been optimized by using one of these vectors (pULVK1) and studying the influence of the age of the culture, concentrations of cesium chloride and polyethylene glycol, amount of plasmid DNA, and nutrient supplementations of the growth medium. Versatile shuttle cloning vectors (pULVK2 and pULVK3) have been developed by subcloning the pBluescript KS(+) multiple cloning site or a synthetic polylinker containing several unique restriction sites (EcoRV, DraI, BamHI, SstI, EcoRI, and HindIII). A second marker, the apramycin resistance gene (amr) has been added to the vectors (pULVK2A), allowing insertional inactivation of one of the markers while using the second one for selection. An alternative marker, the amy gene of Streptomyces griseus (pULAM2), which is easily detected by the release of extracellular amylase in transformants of N. lactamdurans carrying this vector, has been added. Two promoter-probe plasmids, pULVK4 and pULVK5, have been constructed, with the promoterless xylE gene as a reporter, for utilization in N. lactamdurans. Images PMID:16349436

  4. Efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion program following diet modification for fat loss in Japanese obese men.

    PubMed

    Eto, Miki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion (PAP) program following a diet modification program for fat loss. Fifty obese men, aged 51.4±7.0 y, received a 6-mo regimen consisting of 2 phases. Weekly 90-min free-living PAP sessions were provided for 3 mo immediately after a 3-mo diet modification phase. Fat mass (FM) was measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6 using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was monitored by a validated single-axis accelerometer. The total energy intake of all participants was assessed at baseline and during weeks 9 and 10 of both the diet modification and PAP programs. The change (Δ) in FM was -1.4±1.9 kg (p<0.05) during the PAP program after the diet modification program (-4.3±2.9 kg, p<0.01). Although there was no significant relationship between ΔFM and ΔMVPA during the PAP phase (p=0.11), MVPA was significantly increased during the PAP phase (+76.0±146.5 min/wk, p<0.01). However, a significant correlation was observed between energy intake/weight and MVPA during the PAP program (r=0.39). Our results suggest that the magnitude of expected FM loss induced by an increase in PA may be suppressed as a result of increased energy intake, even during a PAP program after a diet modification program.

  5. A TOTP-Based Enhanced Route Optimization Procedure for Mobile IPv6 to Reduce Handover Delay and Signalling Overhead

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B.; Lawal, Ibrahim A.; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO). PMID:24688398

  6. A TOTP-based enhanced route optimization procedure for mobile IPv6 to reduce handover delay and signalling overhead.

    PubMed

    Shah, Peer Azmat; Hasbullah, Halabi B; Lawal, Ibrahim A; Aminu Mu'azu, Abubakar; Tang Jung, Low

    2014-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of handheld mobile devices, multimedia applications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, network music, and online gaming are gaining popularity in recent years. These applications are well known to be delay sensitive and resource demanding. The mobility of mobile devices, running these applications, across different networks causes delay and service disruption. Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6-based mobile nodes for continuous communication when they roam across different networks. However, the Route Optimization procedure in Mobile IPv6 involves the verification of mobile node's reachability at the home address and at the care-of address (home test and care-of test) that results in higher handover delays and signalling overhead. This paper presents an enhanced procedure, time-based one-time password Route Optimization (TOTP-RO), for Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization that uses the concepts of shared secret Token, time based one-time password (TOTP) along with verification of the mobile node via direct communication and maintaining the status of correspondent node's compatibility. The TOTP-RO was implemented in network simulator (NS-2) and an analytical analysis was also made. Analysis showed that TOTP-RO has lower handover delays, packet loss, and signalling overhead with an increased level of security as compared to the standard Mobile IPv6's Return-Routability-based Route Optimization (RR-RO).

  7. Integration of promoters, inverted repeat sequences and proteomic data into a model for high silencing efficiency of coeliac disease related gliadins in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Fernando; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco

    2013-09-17

    Wheat gluten has unique nutritional and technological characteristics, but is also a major trigger of allergies and intolerances. One of the most severe diseases caused by gluten is coeliac disease. The peptides produced in the digestive tract by the incomplete digestion of gluten proteins trigger the disease. The majority of the epitopes responsible reside in the gliadin fraction of gluten. The location of the multiple gliadin genes in blocks has to date complicated their elimination by classical breeding techniques or by the use of biotechnological tools.As an approach to silence multiple gliadin genes we have produced 38 transgenic lines of bread wheat containing combinations of two endosperm-specific promoters and three different inverted repeat sequences to silence three fractions of gliadins by RNA interference. The effects of the RNA interference constructs on the content of the gluten proteins, total protein and starch, thousand seed weights and SDSS quality tests of flour were analyzed in these transgenic lines in two consecutive years. The characteristics of the inverted repeat sequences were the main factor that determined the efficiency of silencing. The promoter used had less influence on silencing, although a synergy in silencing efficiency was observed when the two promoters were used simultaneously. Genotype and the environment also influenced silencing efficiency. We conclude that to obtain wheat lines with an optimum reduction of toxic gluten epitopes one needs to take into account the factors of inverted repeat sequences design, promoter choice and also the wheat background used.

  8. Integration of promoters, inverted repeat sequences and proteomic data into a model for high silencing efficiency of coeliac disease related gliadins in bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten has unique nutritional and technological characteristics, but is also a major trigger of allergies and intolerances. One of the most severe diseases caused by gluten is coeliac disease. The peptides produced in the digestive tract by the incomplete digestion of gluten proteins trigger the disease. The majority of the epitopes responsible reside in the gliadin fraction of gluten. The location of the multiple gliadin genes in blocks has to date complicated their elimination by classical breeding techniques or by the use of biotechnological tools. As an approach to silence multiple gliadin genes we have produced 38 transgenic lines of bread wheat containing combinations of two endosperm-specific promoters and three different inverted repeat sequences to silence three fractions of gliadins by RNA interference. Results The effects of the RNA interference constructs on the content of the gluten proteins, total protein and starch, thousand seed weights and SDSS quality tests of flour were analyzed in these transgenic lines in two consecutive years. The characteristics of the inverted repeat sequences were the main factor that determined the efficiency of silencing. The promoter used had less influence on silencing, although a synergy in silencing efficiency was observed when the two promoters were used simultaneously. Genotype and the environment also influenced silencing efficiency. Conclusions We conclude that to obtain wheat lines with an optimum reduction of toxic gluten epitopes one needs to take into account the factors of inverted repeat sequences design, promoter choice and also the wheat background used. PMID:24044767

  9. Analysis of the sericin1 promoter and assisted detection of exogenous gene expression efficiency in the silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lupeng; Qian, Qiujie; Zhang, Yuyu; You, Zhengying; Che, Jiaqian; Song, Jia; Zhong, Boxiong

    2015-02-06

    In genetics, the promoter is one of the most important regulatory elements controlling the spatiotemporal expression of a target gene. However, most studies have focused on core or proximal promoter regions, and information on regions that are more distant from the 5'-flanking region of the proximal promoter is often lacking. Here, approximately 4-kb of the sericin1 (Ser1) promoter was predicted to contain many potential transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs). Transgenic experiments have revealed that more TFBSs included in the promoter improved gene transcription. However, multi-copy proximal Ser1 promoter combinations did not improve gene expression at the transcriptional level. Instead, increasing the promoter copy number repressed transcription. Furthermore, a correlation analysis between two contiguous genes, firefly luciferase (FLuc) and EGFP, was conducted at the transcriptional level; a significant correlation was obtained regardless of the insertion site. The ELISA results also revealed a significant correlation between the transcriptional and translational EGFP levels. Therefore, the exogenous gene expression level can be predicted by simply detecting an adjacent EGFP. In conclusion, our results provide important insights for further investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying promoter function. Additionally, a new approach was developed to quickly screen transgenic strains that highly express exogenous genes.

  10. The 5'UTR-intron of the Gladiolus polyubiquitin promoter GUBQ1 enhances translation efficiency in Gladiolus and Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A GUBQ1 polyubiquitin promoter isolated from Gladiolus was used for transformation of Gladiolus plants. The levels of GUS expression were determined by measuring specific activity of ß–glucuronidase, and it was found that GUS expression with the GUBQ1 promoter in callus, roots, and young leaves was...

  11. Oxygen as a promoter for efficient degradation of organic pollutants by high-temperature and high-pressure electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Lei, Lecheng; Dai, Qizhou

    2007-07-07

    The introduction of oxygen in electrochemical oxidation at relatively high temperature and pressure as a promoter resulting in synergetic effects, greatly improves the mineralization of high-concentrated organic pollutants.

  12. The first zinc-promoted, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient acetoxyallylation of aldehydes in aqueous ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, M; Girotti, R; Morganti, S; Trombini, C

    2001-11-21

    An exceptionally mild acetoxyallylation of aldehydes in water promoted by zinc is reported, using 3-bromo-1-acetoxyprop-1-ene as starting material; simple diastereoselectivity mainly depends on the nature of the aldehyde.

  13. Hepatitis B virus genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicate less efficiently than genotype B isolates but possess higher virion secretion capacity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-10-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C.

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Isolates with Wild-Type Core Promoter Sequence Replicate Less Efficiently than Genotype B Isolates but Possess Higher Virion Secretion Capacity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C. PMID:21775451

  15. Lewis acid promoted highly diastereoselective Petasis Borono-Mannich reaction: efficient synthesis of optically active β,γ-unsaturated α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ming-Hua

    2012-04-20

    An efficient and straightforward method for the preparation of highly enantiomerically enriched β,γ-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives by a Lewis acid promoted diastereoselective Petasis reaction of vinylboronic acid, N-tert-butanesulfinamide, and glyoxylic acid has been developed. The synthetic utilities of the approach were demonstrated by the rapid and convenient construction of challenging cyclopenta[c]proline derivatives. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 promotes photosynthetic efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to elevated levels of UV-B.

    PubMed

    Davey, Matthew P; Susanti, Novita I; Wargent, Jason J; Findlay, Jane E; Paul Quick, W; Paul, Nigel D; Jenkins, Gareth I

    2012-12-01

    The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 regulates expression of genes in response to UV-B, some encoding chloroplast proteins, but the importance of UVR8 in maintaining photosynthetic competence is unknown. The maximum quantum yield of PSII (F (v)/F(m)) and the operating efficiency of PSII (Φ(PSII)) were measured in wild-type and uvr8 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana. The importance of specific UVR8-regulated genes in maintaining photosynthetic competence was examined using mutants. Both F (v)/F(m) and Φ(PSII) decreased when plants were exposed to elevated UV-B, in general more so in uvr8 mutant plants than wild-type. UV-B increased the level of psbD-BLRP (blue light responsive promoter) transcripts, encoding the PSII D2 protein. This increase was mediated by the UVR8-regulated chloroplast RNA polymerase sigma factor SIG5, but SIG5 was not required to maintain photosynthetic efficiency at elevated UV-B. Levels of the D1 protein of PSII decreased markedly when plants were exposed to elevated UV-B, but there was no significant difference between wild-type and uvr8 under conditions where the mutant showed increased photoinhibition. The results show that UVR8 promotes photosynthetic efficiency at elevated levels of UV-B. Loss of the DI polypeptide is probably important in causing photoinhibition, but does not entirely explain the reduced photosynthetic efficiency of the uvr8 mutant compared to wild-type.

  17. Improving clinical handover: Development of a web-based intensive care unit consultation system with structured reply generation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jasperine Ka-yee

    2016-01-01

    Clinical handover is a process of transferring a patient's clinical information from one team to another. Poor quality of handover of critically ill patients associates with misunderstanding, delay in treatment, and adverse outcomes. Therefore, a high quality and standardized information flow process and documentation are definitely crucial. We have developed a web-based platform for generating printed ICU consultation reply and data collection. Baseline measurement was performed by randomly identified 50 case records among 220 ICU consultations in March 2015, before the implementation of the system. We found that there were only 16% of cases had printed ICU consultation reply, 42% had documented patient's premorbid activity of daily living, 30% had recorded patient's mobility, 74% had written down patient's past medical history, 72% had clearly stated the ICU admission decision, 18% had provided the reasons for rejecting ICU admission, and 32% had remarked the mechanism for contacting ICU senior to review the admission. After implementation of the ICU consultation reply platform, the percentage of using printed consultation reply has increased to more than 90%, documentation of patient's morbidity and mobility have raised to over 80% and patient's past medical history has been recorded in over 95% of cases. Standardised ICU admission decision tree has been designed to assist ICU doctor to clearly state the ICU admission decision and the reasons behind. Appeal mechanism for doctors in general ward to contact ICU seniors for case discussion is included in every consultation reply. In short, ICU consultation platform improves the quality of ICU consultation reply and enhances communication among ICU doctors and general ward staff. It also serves as a big data pool for audit cycles which in turns direct ICU consultation service improvement. PMID:27158498

  18. Molecular effects of autoimmune-risk promoter polymorphisms on expression, exon choice, and translational efficiency of interferon regulatory factor 5.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel N; Lambert, Jared P; Till, Rodney E; Argueta, Lissenya B; Greenhalgh, Kathryn E; Henrie, Brandon; Bills, Trieste; Hawkley, Tyson F; Roznik, Marinya G; Sloan, Jason M; Mayhew, Vera; Woodland, Loc; Nelson, Eric P; Tsai, Meng-Hsuan; Poole, Brian D

    2014-05-01

    The rs2004640 single nucleotide polymorphism and the CGGGG copy-number variant (rs77571059) are promoter polymorphisms within interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5). They have been implicated as susceptibility factors for several autoimmune diseases. IRF5 uses alternative promoter splicing, where any of 4 first exons begin the mRNA. The CGGGG indel is in exon 1A's promoter; the rs2004640 allele creates a splicing recognition site, enabling usage of exon 1B. This study aimed at characterizing alterations in IRF5 mRNA due to these polymorphisms. Cells with risk polymorphisms exhibited ~2-fold higher levels of IRF5 mRNA and protein, but demonstrated no change in mRNA stability. Quantitative PCR demonstrated decreased usage of exons 1C and 1D in cell lines with the risk polymorphisms. RNA folding analysis revealed a hairpin in exon 1B; mutational analysis showed that the hairpin shape decreased translation 5-fold. Although translation of mRNA that uses exon 1B is low due to a hairpin, increased IRF5 mRNA levels in individuals with the rs2004640 risk allele lead to higher overall protein expression. In addition, several new splice variants of IRF5 were sequenced. IRF5's promoter polymorphisms alter first exon usage and increase transcription levels. High levels of IRF5 may bias the immune system toward autoimmunity.

  19. Multimedia learning for increasing knowledge on energy efficiency and promotion of proenvironmental behavior: A study of undergraduate students in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh-Zuniga, Yoselyn

    Promotion of energy efficiency practices among household has been employed in many interventions with a varying degree of success, mainly on developed countries. The purpose of the study is to promote and measure knowledge of proenvironmental behavior in undergraduate students in the Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The intervention used for this purpose provided personal and altruistic information about the impact of energy consumption activities in household. People's perceptions and attitudes about behaviors that contribute and mitigate climate change were also investigated. Participants were students from undergraduate programs who are also inhabitants of the residence hall provided by the institution. The participation consisted in two surveys and a learning module. Students responded a survey before and after exposure to a learning module. Surveys focused on identifying knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The learning module provided information about three hypothetical scenarios and corresponding energy consumption estimates for each one. Participants did not significantly improve their knowledge on energy efficiency topics and did not change perceptions about the topic of climate change. Yet for both, knowledge and perceptions, participants demonstrated an average knowledge on topics associated to climate change. In addition, participants did not use technical information to explain concepts and perceptions. Another important finding was that participants wrote their responses more third-person than in first person singular or plural, meaning that, excluding themselves from the solution and the problem. Results suggest that there is an average knowledge among participants about 2.5 out of 5 points that represent a start point to design more successful interventions that promote energy efficiency behaviors. A major recommendation to improve energy efficiency behaviors is to place a greater emphasis and awareness in personal consequences of the misuse of

  20. Efficient transduction and optogenetic stimulation of retinal bipolar cells by a synthetic adeno-associated virus capsid and promoter

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Therese; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Hantz, Péter; Juttner, Josephine; Reimann, Andreas; Kacsó, Ágota–Enikő; Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Busskamp, Volker; Kohler, Hubertus; Lagali, Pamela S; Roska, Botond; Bennett, Jean

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe the development of a modified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid and promoter for transduction of retinal ON-bipolar cells. The bipolar cells, which are post-synaptic to the photoreceptors, are important retinal targets for both basic and preclinical research. In particular, a therapeutic strategy under investigation for advanced forms of blindness involves using optogenetic molecules to render ON-bipolar cells light-sensitive. Currently, delivery of adequate levels of gene expression is a limiting step for this approach. The synthetic AAV capsid and promoter described here achieves high level of optogenetic transgene expression in ON-bipolar cells. This evokes high-frequency (∼100 Hz) spiking responses in ganglion cells of previously blind, rd1, mice. Our vector is a promising vehicle for further development toward potential clinical use. PMID:25092770

  1. Perylene and coronene derivatives binding to G-rich promoter oncogene sequences efficiently reduce their expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Emanuela; Altieri, Alessandro; Cianni, Lorenzo; Cingolani, Chiara; Iachettini, Sara; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Leonetti, Carlo; Cacchione, Stefano; Biroccio, Annamaria; Franceschin, Marco; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-06-01

    A novel approach to cancer therapeutics is emerging in the field of G-quadruplex (G4) ligands, small molecules designed to stabilize four-stranded structures that can form at telomeres as well as in other genomic sequences, including oncogene promoter sequences, 5'-UTR regions and introns. In this study, we investigated the binding activity of perylene and coronene derivatives PPL3C, CORON and EMICORON to G4 structures formed within the promoter regions of two important cancer-related genes, c-MYC and BCL-2, and their biochemical effects on gene and protein expression. In order to fully characterize the ability of the selected ligands to bind and stabilize the G4 structures originated by the c-MYC and BCL-2 promoter sequences, we performed electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements, Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra and polymerase stop assay. Altogether our results showed that the ligands had a high capacity in binding and stabilizing the G4 structures within the c-MYC and BCL-2 promoter sequences in vitro. Notably, when we evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, the effects of treatment with the different G4 ligands on c-MYC and BCL2 expression in a human melanoma cell line, EMICORON appeared the most effective compound in reducing the mRNA and protein levels of both genes. These results encourage to consider EMICORON as a promising example of multimodal class of an antineoplastic drug, affecting different tumor crucial pathways simultaneously: telomere maintenance (as previously described), cell proliferation and apoptosis via down-regulation of both c-MYC and BCL-2 (this paper).

  2. Ligand-activated PPARbeta efficiently represses the induction of LXR-dependent promoter activity through competition with RXR.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, Kimihiko; Miyoshi, Aya; Yamano, Shigeru; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2006-08-15

    Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (angptl3), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family, was shown to play an important role in regulating lipid metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism by which PPARbeta represses angptl3 promoter activity, reporter constructs were prepared and transfection analysis carried out. PPARbeta repressed angptl3-Luc promoter activity and activation of PPARbeta by L-165041, a PPARbeta-specific ligand, increased the extent of repression. The repression by L-165041 was lost in angptl3-Luc plasmids having a deleted or mutated LXRalpha binding site (DR4). PPARbetaL405R, deficient in RXRalpha binding, had no effect on angptl3-Luc promoter activity. PPARbeta did not repress the activity of GAL4-LXRalpha which activates of GAL4DBD TK-Luc independent of RXR. Addition of RXRalpha completely abolished the repression of angptl3-Luc activity by PPARbeta. Mammalian two-hybrid analysis revealed that PPARbeta ligand binding enhanced the dissociation of the LXRalpha-RXRalpha heterodimer. Gel shift assays also indicated that PPARbeta ligand binding increased dissociation of LXRalpha/RXRalpha binding to a DR4 oligonucleotide probe; addition of RXRalpha restored the binding lost by addition of PPARbeta. Collectively, these results suggest that the binding of PPARbeta-specific ligand enhances the affinity between RXRalpha and activated PPARbeta and thus may regulate angptl3 gene expression through a DR4 element by competing with LXRalpha for RXRalpha.

  3. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  4. Using RT-prone recombination to promote re-building of complete retroviral vectors from two defective precursors: low efficiency and sequence specificities.

    PubMed

    Bru, Thierry; Galetto, Román; Piver, Eric; Collin, Christine; Negroni, Matteo; Pagès, Jean-Christophe

    2007-06-01

    Retroviral recombination has been suggested as a useful way to modify retroviral vectors. The possibility to combine two multiply deleted retroviral vectors into a novel vector was evaluated. To investigate this possibility we have constructed two defective vectors containing a shared internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The IRES was selected for its complex secondary structure, a feature described to favour retroviral recombination. The IRES was expected to promote a recombination event leading to the formation of a unique, functional retroviral vector. By supporting expression of two transgenes from a single promoter, this sequence was also expected to allow straightforward detection of the recombination event. The present data confirms the achievement of recombination-dependent rescue, albeit at low efficiency. Unexpectedly, a preferential use of the packaging signal (Psi) for recombination was observed, as compared to the IRES. Together these observations mitigate the idea of using this technique for the design of retroviral vectors.

  5. Efficient Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement terminated by a Cu(II)-promoted oxidation: synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Lebœuf, David; Theiste, Eric; Gandon, Vincent; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Neidig, Michael L; Frontier, Alison J

    2013-04-08

    The discovery and elucidation of a new Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement/oxidation sequence is described that constitutes an efficient strategy for the synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones. DFT computations and EPR experiments were conducted to gain further mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Efficient Nazarov Cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement Terminated by a Cu(II)-Promoted Oxidation: Synthesis of 4-Alkylidene Cyclopentenones

    PubMed Central

    Lebœuf, David; Theiste, Eric; Gandon, Vincent; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Neidig, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of a novel Nazarov cyclization/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement/oxidation sequence is described, which constitutes an efficient strategy for the synthesis of 4-alkylidene cyclopentenones. DFT computations and EPR experiments were conducted to gain further mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways. PMID:23436470

  7. Crossing the handover chasm: Clinicians' perceptions of barriers to the early detection and timely management of severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Matthaeus-Kraemer, Claudia T; Thomas-Rueddel, Daniel O; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Rueddel, Hendrik; Poidinger, Bernhard; Reinhart, Konrad; Bloos, Frank

    2016-12-01

    The purpose was to identify barriers to the early detection and timely management of severe sepsis throughout the emergency department (ED), general ward (GW), intermediate care unit (IMC), and the intensive care unit (ICU). Five multicenter focus group discussions with 29 clinicians were conducted. Discussions were based on a moderation guide were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was performed according to the principles of the concept mapping method and the framework approach. The major causes of the delayed detection and treatment could be summarized in a framework of communication errors and handover difficulties throughout patients' course of treatment, which can be divided into 5 core areas: inadequate histories before hospital admission; poorly coordinated handovers between the ambulance service and the ED; delayed patient transfer between the ED and the GW as well as delays in patient transfers between the GW and the ICU by, for example, a lack of bed capacity and a shortage of staff. Generally, participants from all wards mentioned that the urgency with which septic patients needed to be treated was not communicated. Our study shows the need to improve intra- and interunit handover processes in hospital care, which would ensure a holistic treatment concept, thereby improving patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mobile self-splicing group I introns from the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: highly efficient homing of an exogenous intron containing its own promoter.

    PubMed

    Odom, O W; Holloway, S P; Deshpande, N N; Lee, J; Herrin, D L

    2001-05-01

    Introns 2 and 4 of the psbA gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts (Cr.psbA2 and Cr.psbA4, respectively) contain large free-standing open reading frames (ORFs). We used transformation of an intronless-psbA strain (IL) to test whether these introns undergo homing. Each intron, plus short exon sequences, was cloned into a chloroplast expression vector in both orientations and then cotransformed into IL along with a spectinomycin resistance marker (16S rrn). For Cr.psbA2, the sense construct gave nearly 100% cointegration of the intron whereas the antisense construct gave 0%, consistent with homing. For Cr.psbA4, however, both orientations produced highly efficient cointegration of the intron. Efficient cointegration of Cr.psbA4 also occurred when the intron was introduced as a restriction fragment lacking any known promoter. Deletion of most of the ORF, however, abolished cointegration of the intron, consistent with homing. The Cr.psbA4 constructs also contained a 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea resistance marker in exon 5, which was always present when the intron integrated, thus demonstrating exon coconversion. Remarkably, primary selection for this marker gave >100-fold more transformants (>10,000/microgram of DNA) than did the spectinomycin resistance marker. A trans homing assay was developed for Cr.psbA4; the ORF-minus intron integrated when the ORF was cotransformed on a separate plasmid. This assay was used to identify an intronic region between bp -88 and -194 (relative to the ORF) that stimulated homing and contained a possible bacterial (-10, -35)-type promoter. Primer extension analysis detected a transcript that could originate from this promoter. Thus, this mobile, self-splicing intron also contains its own promoter for ORF expression. The implications of these results for horizontal intron transfer and organelle transformation are discussed.

  9. SecA alone can promote protein translocation and ion channel activity: SecYEG increases efficiency and signal peptide specificity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-hsin; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Bor-ruei; Cui, Ningren; Na, Bing; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Sui, Sen-fang; Tai, Phang C

    2011-12-30

    SecA is an essential component of the Sec-dependent protein translocation pathway across cytoplasmic membranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli SecA binds to cytoplasmic membranes at SecYEG high affinity sites and at phospholipid low affinity sites. It has been widely viewed that SecYEG functions as the essential protein-conducting channel through which precursors cross the membranes in bacterial Sec-dependent pathways, and that SecA functions as a motor to hydrolyze ATP in translocating precursors through SecYEG channels. We have now found that SecA alone can promote precursor translocation into phospholiposomes. Moreover, SecA-liposomes elicit ionic currents in Xenopus oocytes. Patch-clamp recordings further show that SecA alone promotes signal peptide- or precursor-dependent single channel activity. These activities were observed with the functional SecA at about 1-2 μM. The results show that SecA alone is sufficient to promote protein translocation into liposomes and to elicit ionic channel activity at the phospholipids low affinity binding sites, thus indicating that SecA is able to form the protein-conducting channels. Even so, such SecA-liposomes are less efficient than those with a full complement of Sec proteins, and lose the signal-peptide proofreading function, resembling the effects of PrlA mutations. Addition of purified SecYEG restores the signal peptide specificity and increases protein translocation and ion channel activities. These data show that SecA can promote protein translocation and ion channel activities both when it is bound to lipids at low affinity sites and when it is bound to SecYEG with high affinity. The latter of the two interactions confers high efficiency and specificity.

  10. L-Proline as an efficient and reusable promoter for the synthesis of coumarins in ionic liquid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu-hong; Fan, Ji-cai; Liu, Yang; Shang, Zhi-cai

    2008-01-01

    The effect of L-proline as a promoter on the condensation reaction of salicylaldehyde or its derivatives with ethyl acetoacetate in neutral ionic liquid [emim]BF4 was studied. All reactions were carried out under mild reaction conditions and achieved high yields. Moreover, the ionic liquid containing L-proline could be recycled and reused for several times without noticeably decreasing in productivity. The results show that the L-proline-[emim]BF4 system has a potential in contribution to the development of environmentally friendly and inexpensive processes in organic syntheses. PMID:19067468

  11. Unexpected sequences and structures of mtDNA required for efficient transcription from the first heavy-strand promoter

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Akira; Murugesapillai, Divakaran; Kastner, Markus; Wang, Yao; Lodeiro, Maria F; Prabhakar, Shaan; Oliver, Guinevere V; Arnold, Jamie J; Maher, L James; Williams, Mark C; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Human mtDNA contains three promoters, suggesting a need for differential expression of the mitochondrial genome. Studies of mitochondrial transcription have used a reductionist approach, perhaps masking differential regulation. Here we evaluate transcription from light-strand (LSP) and heavy-strand (HSP1) promoters using templates that mimic their natural context. These studies reveal sequences upstream, hypervariable in the human population (HVR3), and downstream of the HSP1 transcription start site required for maximal yield. The carboxy-terminal tail of TFAM is essential for activation of HSP1 but not LSP. Images of the template obtained by atomic force microscopy show that TFAM creates loops in a discrete region, the formation of which correlates with activation of HSP1; looping is lost in tail-deleted TFAM. Identification of HVR3 as a transcriptional regulatory element may contribute to between-individual variability in mitochondrial gene expression. The unique requirement of HSP1 for the TFAM tail may enable its regulation by post-translational modifications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27283.001 PMID:28745586

  12. Promoting Active Species Generation by Electrochemical Activation in Alkaline Media for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution in Neutral Media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Cheng, Han; Liu, Linqi; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-01-11

    In this study, by using dicobalt phosphide nanoparticles as precatalysts, we demonstrated that electrochemical activation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media (comparing with directly electrochemical activation in neutral media) could significantly promote the OER catalysis in neutral media, specifically realizing a 2-fold enhanced activity and meanwhile showing a greatly decreased overpotential of about 100 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). Compared directly with electrochemical activation in neutral media, the electrochemical activation in harsh alkaline media could easily break the strong Co-Co bond and promote active species generation on the surface of metallic Co2P, thus accounting for the enhancement of neutral OER activity, which is also evidenced by HRTEM and the electrochemical double-layer capacitance measurement. The activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media enhanced neutral OER catalysis could also be observed on CoP nanoparticles and Ni2P nanoparticles, suggesting this is a generic strategy. Our work highlights that the activation of electrochemical oxidation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media would pave new avenues for the design of advanced neutral OER electrocatalysts.

  13. Mesoporous Mn promoted Co3O4 oxides as an efficient and stable catalyst for low temperature oxidation of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changxiang; Gong, Lei; Dai, Runying; Lu, Meijuan; Sun, Tingting; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xigen; Huang, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Mesoporous Mn-doped Co3O4 catalysts were successfully prepared via a dry soft reactive grinding method based on solid state reaction, and their catalytic performances on CO oxidation were evaluated at a high space velocity of 49,500 mL g-1 h-1. A significant promoted effect was observed once the atomic ratios of Mn/(Co+Mn) were lower than 10%, for instance, the temperature for 50% conversion decreased to about -60 °C, showing superior catalytic performance compared to the single metal oxide. Especially, the Mn-promoted Co3O4 catalyst with a Mn/(Co+Mn) molar ratio of 10% could convert 100% CO after 3000 min of time-on-steam without any deactivation at room temperature. As prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption/desorption, TEM, H2-TPR, O2-TPD and CO-titration analysis. The significant enhancement of performance for oxidation of CO over Mn-Co-O mixed oxides was associated with the high active oxygen species concentrations formed during the pretreatment in O2 atmosphere.

  14. 207 EFFICIENT GENERATION OF MYOSTATIN PROMOTER MUTATIONS IN BOVINE EMBRYOS USING THE CRISPR/Cas9 SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, C A; Snyder, M; Pryor, J; Thompson, B; Golding, M; Long, C

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin gene or growth differentiation factor 8 is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that acts as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mutations inactivating this gene occur naturally in Piedmontese and Belgian Blue cattle breeds, resulting in a dramatic increase in muscle mass, albeit with unwanted consequences of increased dystocia and decreased fertility. Modulation of muscle mass increase without the unwanted effects would be of great value for improving livestock growth and economic value of livestock. The objective of our work was to use the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic engineering tool to generate deletions of different elements in the myostatin promoter in order to decrease the level of expression and obtain an attenuated phenotype without the detrimental consequences of an inactivating mutation. To achieve this objective 4 different small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the promoter near the mutation were designed with PAM positions from transcription starting site of -1577, -689, -555, and -116. These sgRNA were cloned individually into the Cas9 plasmids (px461, and px462; Addgene®). These plasmids allow for a dual puromycin resistance (px462) and green fluorescent protein (px461) selection. We first tested the functionality of these sgRNA in vitro by co-transfecting bovine fetal fibroblasts with a combination of both plasmids (Set 1=sgRNA 1-4; Set 2=sgRNA 2-3). Cells were exposed to puromycin (0.2µgmL(-1)) for 72h, then single and mixed colonies positive for green fluorescent protein expression were separated for propagation. The DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of the targeted region. Multiple deletions and a few insertion events were observed after PCR, bands were cloned into TOPO® vector (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) and sequenced. Sequencing results confirmed the PCR products as insertions or deletions in the myostatin promoter region. We proceeded to modify the myostatin promoter directly in bovine zygotes

  15. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. Results The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. Conclusions This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens. PMID:24559060

  16. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968

  17. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dille, Marilyn F; McMillan, Garnett P; Helt, Wendy J; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. A repeated measures design was used in this study. Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. American Academy of Audiology.

  18. Intramolecular nucleophilic activation promoting efficient hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by (aqua)bis(dipyridoquinoxaline)copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shanta; Reddy, Pattubala A N; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2004-03-07

    The axial aqua bound copper(II) complex [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)](ClO4)2, having a planar NN-donor heterocyclic base dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) as the DNA minor groove binder, shows efficient hydrolytic cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the dark and in the absence of any external reagents, as evidenced from T4 ligase experiments, with a rate of 5.58 +/- 0.4 h(-1) and a rate enhancement of 1.55 x 10(8).

  19. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lampis, Silvia; Santi, Chiara; Ciurli, Adriana; Andreolli, Marco; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: (i) non-inoculated plants; (ii) plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A); (iii) plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B), and (iv) plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB). The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community. PMID:25741356

  20. Efficient production of lycopene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of synthetic crt genes from a plasmid harboring the ADH2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Gadalla, Nour O; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Almehdar, Hussein; Noor, Samah; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Murata, Norio

    2014-03-01

    Lycopene is an effective antioxidant proposed as a possible treatment for some cancers and other degenerative human conditions. This study aims at generation of a yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of efficient productivity of lycopene by overexpressing synthetic genes derived from crtE, crtB and crtI genes of Erwinia uredovora. These synthetic genes were constructed in accordance with the preferred codon usage in S. cerevisiae but with no changes in amino acid sequences of the gene products. S. cerevisiae cells were transformed with these synthetic crt genes, whose expression was regulated by the ADH2 promoter, which is de-repressed upon glucose depletion. The RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses indicated that the synthetic crt genes were efficiently transcribed and translated in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells. The highest level of lycopene in one of the transformed lines was 3.3mglycopene/g dry cell weight, which is higher than the previously reported levels of lycopene in other microorganisms transformed with the three genes. These results suggest the excellence of using the synthetic crt genes and the ADH2 promoter in generation of recombinant S. cerevisiae that produces a high level of lycopene. The level of ergosterol was reversely correlated to that of lycopene in crt-transformed S. cerevisiae cells, suggesting that two pathways for lycopene and ergosterol syntheses compete for the use of farnesyl diphosphate.

  1. A native promoter and inclusion of an intron is necessary for efficient expression of GFP or mRFP in Armillaria mellea

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathryn L.; Baumgartner, Kendra; Henricot, Béatrice; Bailey, Andy M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Armillaria mellea is a significant pathogen that causes Armillaria root disease on numerous hosts in forests, gardens and agricultural environments worldwide. Using a yeast-adapted pCAMBIA0380 Agrobacterium vector, we have constructed a series of vectors for transformation of A. mellea, assembled using yeast-based recombination methods. These have been designed to allow easy exchange of promoters and inclusion of introns. The vectors were first tested by transformation into basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus to ascertain vector functionality then used to transform A. mellea. We show that heterologous promoters from the basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium that were used successfully to control the hygromycin resistance cassette were not able to support expression of mRFP or GFP in A. mellea. The endogenous A. mellea gpd promoter delivered efficient expression, and we show that inclusion of an intron was also required for transgene expression. GFP and mRFP expression was stable in mycelia and fluorescence was visible in transgenic fruiting bodies and GFP was detectable in planta. Use of these vectors has been successful in giving expression of the fluorescent proteins GFP and mRFP in A. mellea, providing an additional molecular tool for this pathogen. PMID:27384974

  2. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8⁺ T Cell Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pablo D; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-07-22

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  3. The intestinal micro-environment imprints stromal cells to promote efficient Treg induction in gut-draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cording, S; Wahl, B; Kulkarni, D; Chopra, H; Pezoldt, J; Buettner, M; Dummer, A; Hadis, U; Heimesaat, M; Bereswill, S; Falk, C; Bode, U; Hamann, A; Fleissner, D; Huehn, J; Pabst, O

    2014-03-01

    De novo induction of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is particularly efficient in gut-draining mesenteric and celiac lymph nodes (mLN and celLN). Here we used LN transplantations to dissect the contribution of stromal cells and environmental factors to the high Treg-inducing capacity of these LN. After transplantation into the popliteal fossa, mLN and celLN retained their high Treg-inducing capacity, whereas transplantation of skin-draining LN into the gut mesenteries did not enable efficient Treg induction. However, de novo Treg induction was abolished in the absence of dendritic cells (DC), indicating that this process depends on synergistic contributions of stromal and DC. Stromal cells themselves were influenced by environmental signals as mLN grafts taken from germ-free donors and celLN grafts taken from vitamin A-deficient donors did not show any superior Treg-inducing capacity. Collectively, our observations reveal a hitherto unrecognized role of LN stromal cells for the de novo induction of Foxp3⁺ Tregs.

  4. Histone Demethylase Expression Enhances Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Efficiency and Promotes Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young Gie; Matoba, Shogo; Liu, Yuting; Eum, Jin Hee; Lu, Falong; Jiang, Wei; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Sepilian, Vicken; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Dong Ryul; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-03

    The extremely low efficiency of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) limits its potential application. Blastocyst formation from human SCNT embryos occurs at a low rate and with only some oocyte donors. We previously showed in mice that reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) through ectopic expression of the H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d greatly improves SCNT embryo development. Here we show that overexpression of a related H3K9me3 demethylase KDM4A improves human SCNT, and that, as in mice, H3K9me3 in the human somatic cell genome is an SCNT reprogramming barrier. Overexpression of KDM4A significantly improves the blastocyst formation rate in human SCNT embryos by facilitating transcriptional reprogramming, allowing efficient derivation of SCNT-derived ESCs using adult Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patient somatic nuclei donors. This conserved mechanistic insight has potential applications for improving SCNT in a variety of contexts, including regenerative medicine.

  5. Assembly of Xylanases into Designer Cellulosomes Promotes Efficient Hydrolysis of the Xylan Component of a Natural Recalcitrant Cellulosic Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Moraïs, Sarah; Barak, Yoav; Hadar, Yitzhak; Wilson, David B.; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In nature, the complex composition and structure of the plant cell wall pose a barrier to enzymatic degradation. Nevertheless, some anaerobic bacteria have evolved for this purpose an intriguing, highly efficient multienzyme complex, the cellulosome, which contains numerous cellulases and hemicellulases. The rod-like cellulose component of the plant cell wall is embedded in a colloidal blend of hemicelluloses, a major component of which is xylan. In order to enhance enzymatic degradation of the xylan component of a natural complex substrate (wheat straw) and to study the synergistic action among different xylanases, we have employed a variation of the designer cellulosome approach by fabricating a tetravalent complex that includes the three endoxylanases of Thermobifida fusca (Xyn10A, Xyn10B, and Xyn11A) and an Xyl43A β-xylosidase from the same bacterium. Here, we describe the conversion of Xyn10A and Xyl43A to the cellulosomal mode. The incorporation of the Xyl43A enzyme together with the three endoxylanases into a common designer cellulosome served to enhance the level of reducing sugars produced during wheat straw degradation. The enhanced synergistic action of the four xylanases reflected their immediate juxtaposition in the complex, and these tetravalent xylanolytic designer cellulosomes succeeded in degrading significant (~25%) levels of the total xylan component of the wheat straw substrate. The results suggest that the incorporation of xylanases into cellulosome complexes is advantageous for efficient decomposition of recalcitrant cellulosic substrates—a distinction previously reserved for cellulose-degrading enzymes. PMID:22086489

  6. Biomimicry Promotes the Efficiency of a 10-Step Sequential Enzymatic Reaction on Nanoparticles, Converting Glucose to Lactate.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Chinatsu; Gao, Lizeng; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Lata, James P; Cohen, Roy; Wu, Lauren; Hinchman, Meleana M; Bergkvist, Magnus; Sherwood, Robert W; Zhang, Sheng; Travis, Alexander J

    2017-01-02

    For nanobiotechnology to achieve its potential, complex organic-inorganic systems must grow to utilize the sequential functions of multiple biological components. Critical challenges exist: immobilizing enzymes can block substrate-binding sites or prohibit conformational changes, substrate composition can interfere with activity, and multistep reactions risk diffusion of intermediates. As a result, the most complex tethered reaction reported involves only 3 enzymes. Inspired by the oriented immobilization of glycolytic enzymes on the fibrous sheath of mammalian sperm, here we show a complex reaction of 10 enzymes tethered to nanoparticles. Although individual enzyme efficiency was higher in solution, the efficacy of the 10-step pathway measured by conversion of glucose to lactate was significantly higher when tethered. To our knowledge, this is the most complex organic-inorganic system described, and it shows that tethered, multi-step biological pathways can be reconstituted in hybrid systems to carry out functions such as energy production or delivery of molecular cargo.

  7. Synergistic promotion of photoelectrochemical water splitting efficiency of TiO2 nanorods using metal-semiconducting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Li, Hongfei; Zhou, Lisha; Li, Wanfei; Qiu, Yongcai; Xu, Yijun; Hou, Yuan; Muzi, Chen; Zhang, Yuegang

    2017-10-01

    Highly efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been achieved by TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) decorated with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The experimental analysis has indicated that the AuNPs has contributed to the plasmon resonance energy transfer/surface plasmon resonance-mediated hot electron injection and the GQDs contributed to the improved electron injection. The synergistic effect, which could be due to exciton-plasmon interactions and/or nonresonance energy transfer between the AuNPs and GQDs, is attributed to the superior PEC activity of the TNRs, which lead to a high photocurrent density of 1.75 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs RHE.

  8. DNA damage induces nuclear actin filament assembly by Formin -2 and Spire-½ that promotes efficient DNA repair. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Belin, Brittany J; Lee, Terri; Mullins, R Dyche

    2015-08-19

    Actin filaments assemble inside the nucleus in response to multiple cellular perturbations, including heat shock, protein misfolding, integrin engagement, and serum stimulation. We find that DNA damage also generates nuclear actin filaments-detectable by phalloidin and live-cell actin probes-with three characteristic morphologies: (i) long, nucleoplasmic filaments; (ii) short, nucleolus-associated filaments; and (iii) dense, nucleoplasmic clusters. This DNA damage-induced nuclear actin assembly requires two biologically and physically linked nucleation factors: Formin-2 and Spire-1/Spire-2. Formin-2 accumulates in the nucleus after DNA damage, and depletion of either Formin-2 or actin's nuclear import factor, importin-9, increases the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), linking nuclear actin filaments to efficient DSB clearance. Nuclear actin filaments are also required for nuclear oxidation induced by acute genotoxic stress. Our results reveal a previously unknown role for nuclear actin filaments in DNA repair and identify the molecular mechanisms creating these nuclear filaments.

  9. Hydrogen Photogeneration Promoted by Efficient Electron Transfer from Iridium Sensitizers to Colloidal MoS2 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jun; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cai, Jian-Guang; Guan, Zhong-Jie; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We report the utilization of colloidal MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) for multicomponent photocatalytic water reduction systems in cooperation with a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) sensitizers. The effects of the particle size and particle dispersion of MoS2 NPs catalyst, reaction solvent and the concentration of the components on hydrogen evolution efficiency were investigated. The MoS2 NPs exhibited higher catalytic performance than did other commonly used water reduction catalysts under identical experiment conditions. The introduction of the carboxylate anchoring groups in the iridium complexes allows the species to be favorably chem-adsorbed onto the MoS2 NPs surface to increase the electron transfer, resulting in enhancement of hydrogen evolution relative to the non-attached systems. The highest apparent quantum yield, which was as high as 12.4%, for hydrogen evolution, was obtained (λ = 400 nm). PMID:24509729

  10. Melatonin promotes the in vitro development of pronuclear embryos and increases the efficiency of blastocyst implantation in murine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Liu, GuoShi

    2013-10-01

    When a defect occurs in the in vitro development of a pronuclear embryo, the interruption of the subsequent implantation limits the success of assisted conception. This common problem remains to be solved. In this study, we observed that melatonin at its physiological concentration (10(-7)  m) significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine pronuclear embryos. This was indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate, and blastocyst cell number with melatonin treatment. In addition, when these blastocysts were implanted into female recipient mice, the pregnancy rates (95.0% versus control 67.8%), litter sizes (4.1 pups/litter versus control 2.7 pups/litter), and postnatal survival rates of offspring (96.84% versus control 81.24%) were significantly improved compared with their non-melatonin-treated counterparts. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment upregulates gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the anti-apoptotic factor bcl-2 while downregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and caspase-3. Due to these changes, melatonin treatment reduces ROS production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improves the quality of blastocysts. The implantation of blastocysts with higher quality leads to more healthy offspring and increased pup survival.

  11. Efficient yeast cell-surface display of exo- and endo-cellulase using the SED1 anchoring region and its original promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recombinant yeast strains displaying the heterologous cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are considered promising biocatalysts for direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol. However, the cellulolytic activities of the conventional cellulase-displaying yeast strains are insufficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study, we constructed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cellulose utilization by cellulase-displaying yeast strains. Results The novel gene cassettes for the cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reeseii endoglucanase II (EGII) were constructed using the promoter and the GPI anchoring region derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1. The gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome, then the β-glucosidase activity of these recombinant strains was evaluated. We revealed that simultaneous utilization of the SED1 promoter and Sed1 anchoring domain in a gene cassette enabled highly-efficient enzyme integration into the cell wall. The β-glucosidase activity of recombinant yeast cells transduced with the novel gene cassette was 8.4-fold higher than that of a conventional strain. The novel EGII-displaying strain also achieved 106-fold higher hydrolysis activity against the water-insoluble cellulose than a conventional strain. Furthermore, direct ethanol production from hydrothermally processed rice straw was improved by the display of T. reeseii EGII using the novel gene cassette. Conclusions We have developed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cell-surface display of exo- and endo-type cellulolytic enzymes. The results suggest that this gene cassette has the wide applicability for cell-surface display and that cellulase-displaying yeasts have significant potential for cost-effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24423072

  12. Hst3p, a histone deacetylase, promotes maintenance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III lacking efficient replication origins.

    PubMed

    Irene, Carmela; Theis, James F; Gresham, David; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Newlon, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    Long gaps between active replication origins probably occur frequently during chromosome replication, but little is known about how cells cope with them. To address this issue, we deleted replication origins from S. cerevisiae chromosome III to create chromosomes with long interorigin gaps and identified mutations that destabilize them [originless fragment maintenance (Ofm) mutations]. ofm6-1 is an allele of HST3, a sirtuin that deacetylates histone H3K56Ac. Hst3p and Hst4p are closely related, but hst4Δ does not cause an Ofm phenotype. Expressing HST4 under the control of the HST3 promoter suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3Δ, indicating Hst4p, when expressed at the appropriate levels and/or at the correct time, can fully substitute for Hst3p in maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes. H3K56Ac is the Hst3p substrate critical for chromosome maintenance. H3K56Ac-containing nucleosomes are preferentially assembled into chromatin behind replication forks. Deletion of the H3K56 acetylase and downstream chromatin assembly factors suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3, indicating that persistence of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin is deleterious for the maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes, and experiments with synchronous cultures showed that it is replication of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin that causes chromosome loss. This work shows that while normal chromosomes can tolerate hyperacetylation of H3K56Ac, deacetylation of histone H3K56Ac by Hst3p is required for stable maintenance of a chromosome with a long interorigin gap. The Ofm phenotype is the first report of a chromosome instability phenotype of an hst3 single mutant.

  13. Parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal compartments promotes efficient cell death with autophagy: The case of the pentacyclic triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Waleska K.; Costa, Érico T.; Cruz, Mário C.; Stolf, Beatriz S.; Miotto, Ronei; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M.; Baptista, Maurício S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cell death is still controversial and a lot of debate has concerned the transition from its pro-survival to its pro-death roles. The similar structure of the triterpenoids Betulinic (BA) and Oleanolic (OA) acids allowed us to prove that this transition involves parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosome. After treating immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) with either BA or OA, we evaluated cell viability, proliferation and mechanism of cell death, function and morphology of mitochondria and lysosomes, and the status of the autophagy flux. We also quantified the interactions of BA and OA with membrane mimics, both in-vitro and in-silico. Essentially, OA caused mitochondrial damage that relied on autophagy to rescue cellular homeostasis, which failed upon lysosomal inhibition by Chloroquine or Bafilomycin-A1. BA caused parallel damage on mitochondria and lysosome, turning autophagy into a destructive process. The higher cytotoxicity of BA correlated with its stronger efficiency in damaging membrane mimics. Based on these findings, we underlined the concept that autophagy will turn into a destructive outcome when there is parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. We trust that this concept will help the development of new drugs against aggressive cancers. PMID:26213355

  14. Toward 3D graphene oxide gels based adsorbents for high-efficient water treatment via the promotion of biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chong Sage; Deng, Jie; Lei, Bei; He, Ai; Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Lang; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-12-15

    Recent studies showed that graphene oxide (GO) presented high adsorption capacities to various water contaminants. However, the needed centrifugation after adsorption and the potential biological toxicity of GO restricted its applications in wastewater treatment. In this study, a facile method is provided by using biopolymers to mediate and synthesize 3D GO based gels. The obtained hybrid gels present well-defined and interconnected 3D porous network, which allows the adsorbate molecules to diffuse easily into the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments indicate that the obtained porous GO-biopolymer gels can efficiently remove cationic dyes and heavy metal ions from wastewater. Methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV), two cationic dyes, are chosen as model adsorbates to investigate the adsorption capability and desorption ratio; meanwhile, the influence of contacting time, initial concentration, and pH value on the adsorption capacity of the prepared GO-biopolymer gels are also studied. The GO-biopolymer gels displayed an adsorption capacity as high as 1100 mg/g for MB dye and 1350 mg/g for MV dye, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the MB were studied in details. The experimental data of MB adsorption fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm, and the results indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by the intraparticle diffusion. Moreover, the adsorption data revealed that the porous GO-biopolymer gels showed good selective adsorbability to cationic dyes and metal ions.

  15. Efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using strain-promoted copper-free click reaction.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jongho; Kang, Jung Ae; Shim, Ha Eun; Nam, You Ree; Yoon, Seonhye; Kim, Hye Rim; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Sang Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Herein we report an efficient method for iodine radioisotope labeling of cyclooctyne-containing molecules using copper-free click reaction. For this study, radioiodination using the tin precursor 2 was carried out at room temperature to give (125)I-labeled azide ([(125)I]1) with high radiochemical yield (85%) and excellent radiochemical purity. Dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) containing cRGD peptide and gold nanoparticle were labeled with [(125)I]1 at 37°C for 30min to give triazoles with good radiochemical yields (67-95%). We next carried out tissue biodistribution study of [(125)I]1 in normal ICR mice to investigate the level of organ accumulation which needs to be considered for pre-targeted in vivo imaging. Large amount of [(125)I]1 distributed rapidly in liver and kidney from bloodstream and underwent rapid renal and hepatobiliary clearance. Moreover [(125)I]1 was found to be highly stable (>92%) in mouse serum for 24h. Therefore [(125)I]1 could be used as a potentially useful radiotracer for pre-targeted imaging. Those results clearly indicated that the present radiolabeling method using copper free click reaction would be quite useful for both in vitro and in vivo labeling of DBCO group containing molecules with iodine radioisotopes.

  16. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2005-10-10

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F{sub 0}, and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein.

  17. Parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal compartments promotes efficient cell death with autophagy: The case of the pentacyclic triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Martins, Waleska K; Costa, Érico T; Cruz, Mário C; Stolf, Beatriz S; Miotto, Ronei; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M; Baptista, Maurício S

    2015-07-27

    The role of autophagy in cell death is still controversial and a lot of debate has concerned the transition from its pro-survival to its pro-death roles. The similar structure of the triterpenoids Betulinic (BA) and Oleanolic (OA) acids allowed us to prove that this transition involves parallel damage in mitochondria and lysosome. After treating immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) with either BA or OA, we evaluated cell viability, proliferation and mechanism of cell death, function and morphology of mitochondria and lysosomes, and the status of the autophagy flux. We also quantified the interactions of BA and OA with membrane mimics, both in-vitro and in-silico. Essentially, OA caused mitochondrial damage that relied on autophagy to rescue cellular homeostasis, which failed upon lysosomal inhibition by Chloroquine or Bafilomycin-A1. BA caused parallel damage on mitochondria and lysosome, turning autophagy into a destructive process. The higher cytotoxicity of BA correlated with its stronger efficiency in damaging membrane mimics. Based on these findings, we underlined the concept that autophagy will turn into a destructive outcome when there is parallel damage in mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. We trust that this concept will help the development of new drugs against aggressive cancers.

  18. Tolerance to lipopolysaccharide promotes an enhanced neutrophil extracellular traps formation leading to a more efficient bacterial clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Landoni, V I; Chiarella, P; Martire-Greco, D; Schierloh, P; van-Rooijen, N; Rearte, B; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A; Fernández, G C

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a stress adaptation, in which a primary contact with LPS results in a minimal response when a second exposure with the same stimulus occurs. However, active important defence mechanisms are mounted during the tolerant state. Our aim was to assess the contribution of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the clearance of bacterial infection in a mouse model of tolerance to LPS. After tolerance was developed, we investigated in vivo different mechanisms of bacterial clearance. The elimination of a locally induced polymicrobial challenge was more efficient in tolerant mice both in the presence or absence of local macrophages. This was related to a higher number of PMN migrating to the infectious site as a result of an increased number of PMN from the marginal pool with higher chemotactic capacity, not because of differences in their phagocytic activity or reactive species production. In vivo, neutrophils extracellular trap (NET) destruction by nuclease treatment abolished the observed increased clearance in tolerant but not in control mice. In line with this finding, in vitro NETs formation was higher in PMN from tolerant animals. These results indicate that the higher chemotactic response from an increased PMN marginal pool and the NETs enhanced forming capacity are the main mechanisms mediating bacterial clearance in tolerant mice. To sum up, far from being a lack of response, tolerance to LPS causes PMN priming effects which favour distant and local anti-infectious responses. PMID:22385250

  19. Promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Africa: a framework to evaluate employment generation and cost effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing debate over the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) deployment often hinges on the current cost of incumbent fossil-fuel technologies versus the long-term benefit of clean energy alternatives. This debate is often focused on mature or ‘industrialized’ economies and externalities such as job creation. In many ways, however, the situation in developing economies is at least as or even more interesting due to the generally faster current rate of economic growth and of infrastructure deployment. On the one hand, RE and EE could help decarbonize economies in developing countries, but on the other hand, higher upfront costs of RE and EE could hamper short-term growth. The methodology developed in this paper confirms the existence of this trade-off for some scenarios, yet at the same time provides considerable evidence about the positive impact of EE and RE from a job creation and employment perspective. By extending and adopting a methodology for Africa designed to calculate employment from electricity generation in the U.S., this study finds that energy savings and the conversion of the electricity supply mix to renewable energy generates employment compared to a reference scenario. It also concludes that the costs per additional job created tend to decrease with increasing levels of both EE adoption and RE shares.

  20. Hexahedron Prism-Anchored Octahedronal CeO2: Crystal Facet-Based Homojunction Promoting Efficient Solar Fuel Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Zongyan; Xu, Qinfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-08-05

    An unprecedented, crystal facet-based CeO2 homojunction consisting of hexahedron prism-anchored octahedron with exposed prism surface of {100} facets and octahedron surface of {111} facets was fabricated through solution-based crystallographic-oriented epitaxial growth. The photocatalysis experiment reveals that growth of the prism arm on octahedron allows to activate inert CeO2 octahedron for an increase in phototocatalytic reduction of CO2 into methane. The pronounced photocatalytic performance is attributed to a synergistic effect of the following three factors: (1) band alignment of the {100} and {111} drives electrons and holes to octahedron and prism surfaces, respectively, aiming to reach the most stable energy configuration and leading to a spatial charge separation for long duration; (2) crystallographic-oriented epitaxial growth of the CeO2 hexahedron prism arm on the octahedron verified by the interfacial lattice fringe provides convenient and fast channels for the photogenerated carrier transportation between two units of homojuntion; (3) different effective mass of electrons and holes on {100} and {111} faces leads to high charge carrier mobility, more facilitating the charge separation. The proposed facet-based homojunction in this work may provide a new concept for the efficient separation and fast transfer of photoinduced charge carriers and enhancement of the photocatalytic performance.

  1. DNA damage induces nuclear actin filament assembly by Formin-2 and Spire-1/2 that promotes efficient DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Brittany J; Lee, Terri; Mullins, R Dyche

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments assemble inside the nucleus in response to multiple cellular perturbations, including heat shock, protein misfolding, integrin engagement, and serum stimulation. We find that DNA damage also generates nuclear actin filaments—detectable by phalloidin and live-cell actin probes—with three characteristic morphologies: (i) long, nucleoplasmic filaments; (ii) short, nucleolus-associated filaments; and (iii) dense, nucleoplasmic clusters. This DNA damage-induced nuclear actin assembly requires two biologically and physically linked nucleation factors: Formin-2 and Spire-1/Spire-2. Formin-2 accumulates in the nucleus after DNA damage, and depletion of either Formin-2 or actin's nuclear import factor, importin-9, increases the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), linking nuclear actin filaments to efficient DSB clearance. Nuclear actin filaments are also required for nuclear oxidation induced by acute genotoxic stress. Our results reveal a previously unknown role for nuclear actin filaments in DNA repair and identify the molecular mechanisms creating these nuclear filaments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07735.001 PMID:26287480

  2. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Blanca I; Sánchez, Jorge; Martínez de Castro, Diana L; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxins are engineered versions of Cry1Ab that lack the amino-terminal end, including domain I helix α-1 and part of helix α-2. This deletion improves oligomerization of these toxins in solution in the absence of cadherin receptor and counters resistance to Cry1A toxins in different lepidopteran insects, suggesting that oligomerization plays a major role in their toxicity. However, Cry1AbMod toxins are toxic to Escherichia coli cells, since the cry1A promoter that drives its expression in B. thuringiensis has readthrough expression activity in E. coli, making difficult the construction of these CryMod toxins. In this work, we show that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod toxins can be cloned efficiently under regulation of the cry3A promoter region to drive its expression in B. thuringiensis without expression in E. coli cells. However, p3A-Cry1Ab(c)Mod construction promotes the formation of Cry1AMod crystals in B. thuringiensis cells that were not soluble at pH 10.5 and showed no toxicity to Plutella xylostella larvae. Cysteine residues in the protoxin carboxyl-terminal end of Cry1A toxins have been shown to be involved in disulfide bond formation, which is important for crystallization. Six individual cysteine substitutions for serine residues were constructed in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of the p3A-Cry1AbMod construct and one in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of p3A-Cry1AcMod. Interestingly, p3A-Cry1AbMod C654S and C729S and p3A-Cry1AcMod C730S recover crystal solubility at pH 10.5 and toxicity to P. xylostella. These results show that combining the cry3A promoter expression system with single cysteine mutations is a useful system for efficient expression of Cry1AMod toxins in B. thuringiensis.

  3. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  4. Mu-like prophage strong gyrase site sequences: analysis of properties required for promoting efficient mu DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Oram, Mark; Pato, Martin L

    2004-07-01

    The bacteriophage Mu genome contains a centrally located strong gyrase site (SGS) that is required for efficient prophage replication. To aid in studying the unusual properties of the SGS, we sought other gyrase sites that might be able to substitute for the SGS in Mu replication. Five candidate sites were obtained by PCR from Mu-like prophage sequences present in Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai, Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18, and two strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Each of the sites was used to replace the natural Mu SGS to form recombinant prophages, and the effects on Mu replication and host lysis were determined. The site from the E. coli prophage supported markedly enhanced replication and host lysis over that observed with a Mu derivative lacking the SGS, those from the N. meningitidis prophages allowed a small enhancement, and the sites from the Haemophilus and Salmonella prophages gave none. Each of the candidate sites was cleaved specifically by E. coli DNA gyrase both in vitro and in vivo. Supercoiling assays performed in vitro, with the five sites or the Mu SGS individually cloned into a pUC19 reporter plasmid, showed that the Mu SGS and the E. coli or N. meningitidis sequences allowed an enhancement of processive, gyrase-dependent supercoiling, whereas the H. influenzae or Salmonella serovar Typhi sequences did not. While consistent with a requirement for enhanced processivity of supercoiling for a site to function in Mu replication, these data suggest that other factors are also important. The relevance of these observations to an understanding of the function of the SGS is discussed. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  5. Adrenaline administration promotes the efficiency of granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mediated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Cao, Jiang; Song, Xuguang; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Li, Yong; Xu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    A high dose of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), but G-CSF is relatively inefficient and may cause adverse effects. Recently, adrenaline has been found to play important roles in HSPC mobilization. In this study, we explored whether adrenaline combined with G-CSF could induce HSPC mobilization in a mouse model. Mice were treated with adrenaline and either a high or low dose of G-CSF alone or in combination. Peripheral blood HSPC counts were evaluated by flow cytometry. Levels of bone marrow SDF-1 were measured by ELISA, the transcription of CXCR4 and SDF-1 was measured by real-time RT-PCR, and CXCR4 protein was detected by Western blot. Our results showed that adrenaline alone fails to mobilize HSPCs into the peripheral blood; however, when G-CSF and adrenaline are combined, the WBC counts and percentages of HSPCs are significantly higher compared to those in mice that received G-CSF alone. The combined use of adrenaline and G-CSF not only accelerated HSPC mobilization, but also enabled the efficient mobilization of HSPCs into the peripheral blood at lower doses of G-CSF. Adrenaline/G-CSF treatment also extensively downregulated levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in mouse bone marrow. These results demonstrated that adrenaline combined with G-CSF can induce HSPC mobilization by down-regulating the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis, indicating that the use of adrenaline may enable the use of reduced dosages or durations of G-CSF treatment, minimizing G-CSF-associated complications.

  6. The DOE s In-Plant Training (INPLT) Model to Promote Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; De Fontaine, Mr. Andre; Schoeneborn, Fred C

    2013-01-01

    In-Plant Training (INPLT) is a new model for developing energy efficiency expertise within the US manufacturing companies participating in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program-a nationwide initiative to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity in 10 years. INPLTs are designed to fill a market niche by providing hands on training in a real world manufacturing plant environment. Through INPLTs, participants from multiple manufacturing plants, supply chains, utilities, and other external stakeholders learn how to conduct energy assessments, use energy analysis tools to analyze energy saving opportunities, develop energy management systems, and implement energy savings projects. Typical INPLT events are led by DOE-certified Energy Experts and range from 2-4 days. Topics discussed include: identification of cross-cutting or system specific opportunities; introduction to ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems; and energy project implementation and replication. This model is flexible, and can be tailored to suit the needs of specific industries. The INPLTs are a significant departure from the traditional single plant energy assessment model previously employed by DOE. INPLTs shift the focus from the concept of a single-plant s energy profile to a broader focus on training and capacity building among multiple industrial participants. The objective is to enable trainees to identify, quantify, implement and replicate future energy saving projects without continued external assistance. This paper discusses the INPLT model and highlights some of the initial outcomes from the successfully delivered INPLTs and the overall impact in terms of numbers of plants/participants trained, impacted energy footprints, and potential replication of identified opportunities.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of different liquid inoculant formulations on the survival and plant-growth-promoting efficiency of Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain PS3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kuan; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Lo, Kai-Jiun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Chuang, Chun-Chao; Tang, Shiueh-Jung; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Chi-Te

    2016-09-01

    Biofertilizers can help improve soil quality, promote crop growth, and sustain soil health. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain PS3 (hereafter, PS3), which was isolated from Taiwanese paddy soil, can not only exert beneficial effects on plant growth but also enhance the efficiency of nutrient uptake from applied fertilizer. To produce this elite microbial isolate for practical use, product development and formulation are needed to permit the maintenance of the high quality of the inoculant during storage. The aim of this study was to select a suitable formulation that improves the survival and maintains the beneficial effects of the PS3 inoculant. Six additives (alginate, polyethylene glycol [PEG], polyvinylpyrrolidone-40 [PVP], glycerol, glucose, and horticultural oil) were used in liquid-based formulations, and their capacities for maintaining PS3 cell viability during storage in low, medium, and high temperature ranges were evaluated. Horticultural oil (0.5 %) was chosen as a potential additive because it could maintain a relatively high population and conferred greater microbial vitality under various storage conditions. Furthermore, the growth-promoting effects exerted on Chinese cabbage by the formulated inoculants were significantly greater than those of the unformulated treatments. The fresh and dry weights of the shoots were significantly increased, by 10-27 and 22-40 %, respectively. Horticultural oil is considered a safe, low-cost, and easy-to-process material, and this formulation would facilitate the practical use of strain PS3 in agriculture.

  8. A genomic island of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough promotes survival under stress conditions while decreasing the efficiency of anaerobic growth.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Shawna; Lin, Shiping; Lee, Phoebe; Caffrey, Sean M; Wildschut, Janine; Voordouw, Johanna K; da Silva, Sofia M; Pereira, Ines A C; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2009-04-01

    A 47 kb genomic island (GEI) bracketed by 50 bp direct repeats, containing 52 annotated genes, was found to delete spontaneously from the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. The island contains genes for site-specific recombinases and transposases, rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase-1 (Roo1) and hybrid cluster protein-1 (Hcp1), which promote survival in air and nitrite stress. The numbering distinguishes these from the Roo2 and Hcp2 homologues for which the genes are located elsewhere in the genome. Cells with and without the island (GEI(+) and GEI(-) cells respectively) were obtained by colony purification. GEI(-) cells arise in anaerobic cultures of colony-purified GEI(+) cells, indicating that the site-specific recombinases encoded by the island actively delete this region. GEI(+) cells survive better in microaerophilic conditions due to the presence of Roo1, whereas the Hcps appear to prevent inhibition by sulfur and polysulfide, which are formed by chemical reaction of sulfide and nitrite. Hence, the island confers resistance to oxygen and nitrite stress. However, GEI(-) cells have a higher growth rate in anaerobic media. Microarrays and enzyme activity stains indicated that the GEI(-) cells have increased expression of genes, which promote anaerobic energy conservation, explaining the higher growth rate. Hence, while lowering the efficiency of anaerobic metabolism, the GEI increases the fitness of D. vulgaris under stress conditions, a feature reminiscent of pathogenicity islands which allow more effective colonization of environments provided by the targeted hosts.

  9. Agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency of rice can be increased by driving OsNRT2.1 expression with the OsNAR2.1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Zhang, Yong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Longlong; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2016-08-01

    The importance of the nitrate (NO3-) transporter for yield and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice was previously demonstrated using map-based cloning. In this study, we enhanced the expression of the OsNRT2.1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity NO3- transporter, using a ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter and the NO3--inducible promoter of the OsNAR2.1 gene to drive OsNRT2.1 expression in transgenic rice plants. Transgenic lines expressing pUbi:OsNRT2.1 or pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 constructs exhibited the increased total biomass including yields of approximately 21% and 38% compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The agricultural NUE (ANUE) of the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines decreased to 83% of that of the WT plants, while the ANUE of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines increased to 128% of that of the WT plants. The dry matter transfer into grain decreased by 68% in the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines and increased by 46% in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines relative to the WT. The expression of OsNRT2.1 in shoot and grain showed that Ubi enhanced OsNRT2.1 expression by 7.5-fold averagely and OsNAR2.1 promoters increased by about 80% higher than the WT. Interestingly, we found that the OsNAR2.1 was expressed higher in all the organs of pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines; however, for pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines, OsNAR2.1 expression was only increased in root, leaf sheaths and internodes. We show that increased expression of OsNRT2.1, especially driven by OsNAR2.1 promoter, can improve the yield and NUE in rice.

  10. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our home-made device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)-1β expression, and downregulating IL-10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen I and III were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD-induced PP on wound healing by regulating inflammation, secretion

  11. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-04-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our homemade device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)‑1β expression, and downregulating IL‑10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)‑1 and TIMP‑2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP‑1 and TIMP‑2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD‑induced PP on wound healing by

  12. Combining a regeneration-promoting ipt gene and site-specific recombination allows a more efficient apricot transformation and the elimination of marker genes.

    PubMed

    López-Noguera, Sonia; Petri, César; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2009-12-01

    The presence of marker genes conferring antibiotic resistance in transgenic plants represents a serious obstacle for their public acceptance and future commercialization. In addition, their elimination may allow gene stacking by the same selection strategy. In apricot, selection using the selectable marker gene nptII, that confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, is relatively effective. An attractive alternative is offered by the MAT system (multi-auto-transformation), which combines the ipt gene for positive selection with the recombinase system R/RS for removal of marker genes from transgenic cells after transformation. Transformation with an MAT vector has been attempted in the apricot cultivar 'Helena'. Regeneration from infected leaves with Agrobacterium harboring a plasmid containing the ipt gene was significantly higher than that from non-transformed controls in a non-selective medium. In addition, transformation efficiencies were much higher than those previously reported using antibiotic selection, probably due to the integration of the regeneration-promoting ipt gene. However, the lack of an ipt expression-induced differential phenotype in apricot made difficult in detecting the marker genes excision and plants had to be evaluated at different times. PCR analysis showed that cassette excision start occurring after 6 months approximately and 1 year in culture was necessary for complete elimination of the cassette in all the transgenic lines. Excision was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. We report here for the first time in a temperate fruit tree that the MAT vector system improves regeneration and transformation efficiency and would allow complete elimination of marker genes from transgenic apricot plants by site-specific recombination.

  13. Efficient promotion of charge transfer and separation in hydrogenated TiO2/WO3 with rich surface-oxygen-vacancies for photodecomposition of gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan-Juan; Weng, Bo; Cai, Song-Cai; Chen, Jing; Jia, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2017-09-09

    Oxygen-deficient TiO2/WO3 constructed via the controllable temperature of hydrogen annealing is designed in view of combining the broad visible spectrum absorption with the prominent coupled semiconductor properties. Surface lattice disorder of TiO2/WO3 arises at hydrogen annealing temperature of 200 and 300°C, while critical phase transition from TiO2/WO3 to TiO2/WO2.9 occurs at 400°C, both of which can introduce oxygen vacancies. The hydrogenated TiO2/WO3 with rich surface-oxygen-vacancies exhibits much higher photocatalytic activity for decomposition of gaseous toluene than pristine TiO2/WO3 under visible-light illumination (λ>420nm). The photoelectrochemical analysis shows that the improved electronic properties of oxygen-deficient TiO2/WO3 enable dramatically efficient promotion of photoinduced charge transfer and separation, which is the key factor for the improved photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that the present work could boost ongoing interest for preparing various hydrogenated coupled semiconductors with enhanced activity for diverse photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An unsaturated metal site-promoted approach to construct strongly coupled noble metal/HNb3O8 nanosheets for efficient thermo/photo-catalytic reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijuan; Xia, Yuzhou; Lin, Sen; Liang, Shijing; Wu, Ling

    2017-10-05

    Creating two-dimensional (2D) crystal-metal heterostructures with an ultrathin thickness has spurred increasing research endeavors in catalysis because of its fascinating opportunities in tuning the electronic state at the surface and enhancing the chemical reactivity. Here we report a novel and facile Nb(4+)-assisted strategy for the in situ growth of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on monolayer HNb3O8 nanosheets (HNb3O8 NS) constituting a 2D Pd/HNb3O8 NS heterostructure composite without using extra reducing agents and stabilizing agents. The Pd NP formation is directed via a redox reaction between an oxidative Pd salt precursor (H2PdCl4) and reductive unsaturated surface metal (Nb(4+)) sites induced by light irradiation on monolayer HNb3O8 NS. The periodic arrangement of metal Nb nodes on HNb3O8 NS leads to a homogeneous distribution of Pd NPs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the direct redox reaction between the Nb(4+) and Pd(2+) ions leads to a strong chemical interaction between the formed Pd metal NPs and the monolayer HNb3O8 support. Consequently, the as-obtained Pd/HNb3O8 composite serves as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst in both heterogeneous thermocatalytic and photocatalytic selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in water under ambient conditions. The achieved high activity originates from the unique 2D nanosheet configuration and in situ Pd incorporation, which leads to a large active surface area, strong metal-support interaction and enhanced charge transport capability. Moreover, this facile Nb(4+)-assisted synthetic route has demonstrated to be general, which can be applied to load other metals such as Au and Pt on monolayer HNb3O8 NS. It is anticipated that this work can extend the facile preparation of noble metal/nanosheet 2D heterostructures, as well as promote the simultaneous capture of duple renewable thermal and photon energy sources to drive an energy efficient catalytic process.

  15. Promoting Recruitment using Information Management Efficiently (PRIME): study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial within the REstart or STop Antithrombotics Randomised Trial (RESTART).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Amy E; Dennis, Martin; Rudd, Anthony; Weir, Christopher J; Parker, Richard A; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2017-03-01

    Research into methods to boost recruitment has been identified as the highest priority for randomised controlled trial (RCT) methodological research in the United Kingdom. Slow recruitment delays the delivery of research and inflates costs. Using electronic patient records has been shown to boost recruitment to ongoing RCTs in primary care by identifying potentially eligible participants, but this approach remains relatively unexplored in secondary care, and for stroke in particular. The REstart or STop Antithrombotics Randomised Trial (RESTART; ISRCTN71907627) is an ongoing RCT of secondary prevention after stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Promoting Recruitment using Information Management Efficiently (PRIME) is a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial of a complex intervention to help RESTART sites increase their recruitment and attain their own target numbers of participants. Seventy-two hospital sites that were located in England, Wales or Scotland and were active in RESTART in June 2015 opted into PRIME. Sites were randomly allocated (using a computer-generated block randomisation algorithm, stratified by hospital location in Scotland vs. England/Wales) to one of 12 months in which the intervention would be delivered. All sites began in the control state. The intervention was delivered by a recruitment co-ordinator via a teleconference with each site. The intervention involved discussing recruitment strategies, providing software for each site to extract from their own stroke audit data lists of patients who were potentially eligible for RESTART, and a second teleconference to review progress 6 months later. The recruitment co-ordinator was blinded to the timing of the intervention until 2 months before it was due at a site. Staff at RESTART sites were blinded to the nature and timing of the intervention. The primary outcome is the total number of patients randomised into RESTART per month per site and will be analysed in a negative binomial

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Wesley Melo; Thijs, Sofie; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Rineau, Francois

    2016-03-10

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. Copyright © 2016 Rangel et al.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  18. T-DNA tagging in Brassica napus as an efficient tool for the isolation of new promoters for selectable marker genes.

    PubMed

    Bade, Jacob; van Grinsven, Emiel; Custers, Jerome; Hoekstra, Sietske; Ponstein, Anne

    2003-05-01

    A simple strategy to identify and isolate new promoters suitable for driving the expression of selectable marker genes is described. By employing a Brassica napus hypocotyl transformation protocol and a promoterless gus::nptII tagging construct, a series of 20 kanamycin-resistant tagged lines was produced. Most of the regenerated plants showed hardly any GUS activity in leaf, stem and root tissues. However, expression was readily restored in callus tissue induced on in vitro leaf segments. Genomic sequences upstream of the gus::nptII insertions were isolated via plasmid rescue. Three clones originating from single copy T-DNA lines were selected for further evaluation. The rescued plasmids were cloned as linear fragments in binary vectors and re-transformed to Brassica napus hypocotyl and Solanum tuberosum stem segments. The new sequences maintained their promoter activity, demonstrated by transient and stable GUS activity after transformation. Furthermore, the promoters provided sufficient expression of the nptII gene to yield transgenic plants when using kanamycin as selective agent. Database searching (BLASTN) revealed that the promoters have significant homology with three Arabidopsis BAC clones, one Arabidopsis cDNA and one Brassica napus cDNA. The results presented in this paper illustrate the strength of combined methods for identification, isolation and testing of new plant promoters.

  19. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-01-01

    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  20. Regular Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 10% and Promoted Stability by Ligand- and Thermal Annealing-Free Al-Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Li, Yaru; Gui, Zhenzhen; Ming, Shuaiqiang; Usman, Khurram; Zhang, Wenjun; Fang, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Landmark power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 10% has been accomplished in the past year for single-junction organic solar cell (OSCs), suggesting a promising potential application of this technology. However, most of the high efficient OSCs are based on inverted configuration. Regular structure OSCs with both high efficiency and good stability are still rarely reported to date. In this work, by utilizing a new designed ligand-free and non-thermal-annealing-treated Al-doped ZnO cathode interlayer, high efficiency and greatly improved stability are simultaneously realized in regular OSCs. The highest PCE of 10.14% is accomplished for single-junction regular OSCs with active blend of poly [[2,6'-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]dithiophene][3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno [3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. Synthetic promoters in planta.

    PubMed

    Dey, Nrisingha; Sarkar, Shayan; Acharya, Sefali; Maiti, Indu B

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the importance, prospective and development of synthetic promoters reported in planta. A review of the synthetic promoters developed in planta would help researchers utilize the available resources and design new promoters to benefit fundamental research and agricultural applications. The demand for promoters for the improvement and application of transgenic techniques in research and agricultural production is increasing. Native/naturally occurring promoters have some limitations in terms of their induction conditions, transcription efficiency and size. The strength and specificity of native promoter can be tailored by manipulating its 'cis-architecture' by the use of several recombinant DNA technologies. Newly derived chimeric promoters with specific attributes are emerging as an efficient tool for plant molecular biology. In the last three decades, synthetic promoters have been used to regulate plant gene expression. To better understand synthetic promoters, in this article, we reviewed promoter structure, the scope of cis-engineering, strategies for their development, their importance in plant biology and the total number of such promoters (188) developed in planta to date; we then categorized them under different functional regimes as biotic stress-inducible, abiotic stress-inducible, light-responsive, chemical-inducible, hormone-inducible, constitutive and tissue-specific. Furthermore, we identified a set of 36 synthetic promoters that control multiple types of expression in planta. Additionally, we illustrated the differences between native and synthetic promoters and among different synthetic promoter in each group, especially in terms of efficiency and induction conditions. As a prospective of this review, the use of ideal synthetic promoters is one of the prime requirements for generating transgenic plants suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and plant molecular farming.

  2. Efficient and novel one-pot synthesis of polycycles bearing cyclols by FeCl3-promoted [2 + 2] cycloaddition: application to cannabicyclol, cannabicyclovarin, and ranhuadujuanine A.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-02-28

    Simple and facile synthetic routes for the preparation of biologically interesting cyclol bearing polycycles were developed using FeCl3-promoted [2 + 2] cycloaddition from readily available benzopyrans possessing a variety of substituents. As examples of this methodology, one-step syntheses of cannabicyclol, cannabicyclovarin, and ranhuadujuanine A were accomplished in good yield.

  3. The use of information technology to enhance patient safety and nursing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Sun, Gi-Tseng; Kou, Li-Tseng; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2017-08-08

    Issues in patient safety and nursing efficiency have long been of concern. Advancing the role of nursing informatics is seen as the best way to address this. The aim of this study was to determine if the use, outcomes and satisfaction with a nursing information system (NIS) improved patient safety and the quality of nursing care in a hospital in Taiwan. This study adopts a quasi-experimental design. Nurses and patients were surveyed by questionnaire and data retrieval before and after the implementation of NIS in terms of blood drawing, nursing process, drug administration, bar code scanning, shift handover, and information and communication integration. Physiologic values were easier to read and interpret; it took less time to complete electronic records (3.7 vs. 9.1 min); the number of errors in drug administration was reduced (0.08% vs. 0.39%); bar codes reduced the number of errors in blood drawing (0 vs. 10) and transportation of specimens (0 vs. 0.42%); satisfaction with electronic shift handover increased significantly; there was a reduction in nursing turnover (14.9% vs. 16%); patient satisfaction increased significantly (3.46 vs. 3.34). Introduction of NIS improved patient safety and nursing efficiency and increased nurse and patient satisfaction. Medical organizations must continually improve the nursing information system if they are to provide patients with high quality service in a competitive environment.

  4. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production.

  5. GPNMB cooperates with neuropilin-1 to promote mammary tumor growth and engages integrin α5β1 for efficient breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Maric, G; Annis, M G; Dong, Z; Rose, A A N; Ng, S; Perkins, D; MacDonald, P A; Ouellet, V; Russo, C; Siegel, P M

    2015-10-01

    Glycoprotein nmb (GPNMB) promotes breast tumor growth and metastasis and its expression in tumor epithelium correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Despite its biological and clinical significance, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms engaged by GPNMB. Herein, we show that GPNMB engages distinct functional domains and mechanisms to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrate that neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression is increased in breast cancer cells that overexpress GPNMB. Interestingly, the GPNMB-driven increase in NRP-1 expression potentiated vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in breast cancer cells and was required for the growth, but not metastasis, of these cells in vivo. Interrogation of RNAseq data sets revealed a positive correlation between GPNMB and NRP-1 levels in human breast tumors. Furthermore, we ascribe pro-growth and pro-metastatic functions of GPNMB to its ability to bind α5β1 integrin and increase downstream signaling in breast cancer cells. We show that GPNMB enhances breast cancer cell adhesion to fibronectin, increases α5β1 expression and associates with this receptor through its RGD motif. GPNMB recruitment into integrin complexes activates Src and Fak signaling pathways in an RGD-dependent manner. Importantly, both the RGD motif and cytoplasmic tail of GPNMB are required to promote primary mammary tumor growth; however, only mutation of the RGD motif impaired the formation of lung metastases. Together, these findings identify novel and distinct molecular mediators of GPNMB-induced breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  6. Regular Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 10% and Promoted Stability by Ligand‐ and Thermal Annealing‐Free Al‐Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Yaru; Gui, Zhenzhen; Ming, Shuaiqiang; Usman, Khurram; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Landmark power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 10% has been accomplished in the past year for single‐junction organic solar cell (OSCs), suggesting a promising potential application of this technology. However, most of the high efficient OSCs are based on inverted configuration. Regular structure OSCs with both high efficiency and good stability are still rarely reported to date. In this work, by utilizing a new designed ligand‐free and non‐thermal‐annealing‐treated Al‐doped ZnO cathode interlayer, high efficiency and greatly improved stability are simultaneously realized in regular OSCs. The highest PCE of 10.14% is accomplished for single‐junction regular OSCs with active blend of poly [[2,6′‐4,8‐di(5‐ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2‐b;3,3‐b]dithiophene][3‐fluoro‐2[(2‐ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno [3,4‐b]thiophenediyl

  7. Simultaneously promoting charge separation and photoabsorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) for efficient visible-light photocatalysis and photosensitization by compositing low-cost biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Huang, Hongwei; Yu, Shixin; Tian, Na; Dong, Fan; Du, Xin; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-11-01

    Exploration of novel and efficient composite photocatalysts is of great significance for advancing the practical application of photocatalysis. BiOX (X = Cl, Br) is a kind of promising photocatalysts, but the charge separation efficiency and photoabsorption need to be ameliorated. In this work, we first employ a low-cost and easily accessable carbon material biochar to modify BiOX (X = Cl, Br) and develop biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composite photocatalysts via a facile in-situ deposition method. The as-prepared composites are detailedly characterized by SEM, SEM-mapping, TEM, XRD and XPS, and DRS result demonstrates that the visible-light absorption of BiOX (X = Cl, Br) catalysts can be exceedingly enhanced by biochar. The biochar/BiOX (X = Cl, Br) composites are found to unfold remarkably enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MO and photocurrent generation. The strengthened photocatalytic performance mainly stems from the profoundly improved charge separation and delivery efficiency, as evidenced by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved PL decay spectra. Additionally, the biochar exerts importance in enhancing the two different types of photochemical reactions of BiOBr and BiOCl, in which the photocatalytic mechanisms are found to be photocatalysis and photosensitization process, respectively. The present work may open up a new avenue for framing economic and efficient photocatalytic materials and new composite materials for photoelectric application.

  8. The CDK regulators Cdh1 and Sic1 promote efficient usage of DNA replication origins to prevent chromosomal instability at a chromosome arm

    PubMed Central

    Ayuda-Durán, Pilar; Devesa, Fernando; Gomes, Fábia; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Ávila-Zarza, Carmelo; Gómez, María; Calzada, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Robustness and completion of DNA replication rely on redundant DNA replication origins. Reduced efficiency of origin licensing is proposed to contribute to chromosome instability in CDK-deregulated cell cycles, a frequent alteration in oncogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this instability occurs is largely unknown. Current models suggest that limited origin numbers would reduce fork density favouring chromosome rearrangements, but experimental support in CDK-deregulated cells is lacking. We have investigated the pattern of origin firing efficiency in budding yeast cells lacking the CDK regulators Cdh1 and Sic1. We show that each regulator is required for efficient origin activity, and that both cooperate non-redundantly. Notably, origins are differentially sensitive to CDK deregulation. Origin sensitivity is independent on normal origin efficiency, firing timing or chromosomal location. Interestingly, at a chromosome arm, there is a shortage of origin firing involving active and dormant origins, and the extent of shortage correlates with the severity of CDK deregulation and chromosome instability. We therefore propose that CDK deregulation in G1 phase compromises origin redundancy by decreasing the number of active and dormant origins, leading to origin shortage and increased chromosome instability. PMID:24753426

  9. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2017-07-10

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. HPC-A dose prediction on the optia® cell separator based on a benchmark CE2 collection efficiency: Promoting clinical efficiency, minimizing toxicity, and allowing quality control.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Antony F; Sinclair, Joy E; Alcorn, Michael J; H A Green, Rachel; Douglas, Kenny W

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that it is possible to predict the CD 34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell dose from collection procedures on TerumoBCT COBE Spectra® cell separator platform using simple variables available at the start of the procedure. In this article, we demonstrate that this can be done simply and reliably using TerumoBCT Spectra Optia® ("Optia") cell separator platform with a very close correlation between predicted and actual results (correlation coefficient 0.956). This knowledge can be used to optimize apheresis sessions and to minimize harmful effects and costs. In addition, we have shown differences in collection efficiency between healthy donors and cancer patients undergoing autologous donation. Finally, we have shown a small but significant improvement in collection efficiency for the Optia platform compared with the COBE Spectra platform. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Visible light-driven water oxidation promoted by host-guest interaction between photosensitizer and catalyst with a high quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Li, Fei; Zhang, Biaobiao; Zhou, Xu; Yu, Fengshou; Sun, Licheng

    2015-04-08

    A highly active supramolecular system for visible light-driven water oxidation was developed with cyclodextrin-modified ruthenium complex as the photosensitizer, phenyl-modified ruthenium complexes as the catalysts, and sodium persulfate as the sacrificial electron acceptor. The catalysts were found to form 1:1 host-guest adducts with the photosensitizer. Stopped-flow measurement revealed the host-guest interaction is essential to facilitate the electron transfer from catalyst to sensitizer. As a result, a remarkable quantum efficiency of 84% was determined under visible light irradiation in neutral aqueous phosphate buffer. This value is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than that of noninteraction system, indicating that the noncovalent incorporation of sensitizer and catalyst is an appealing approach for efficient conversion of solar energy into fuels.

  12. Efficient colonization of plant roots by the plant growth promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, engineered to express green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ben; Chen, Xiao Hua; Budiharjo, Anto; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Vater, Joachim; Borriss, Rainer

    2011-02-20

    A single copy of the gfp gene linked with the P(spac) promoter and flanked by the terminal FZB42 amyE sequences was stably integrated into the chromosome of plant growth promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 via homologous recombination. A spontaneous mutant, FB01mut, emitting bright fluorescence was detected among the transformants and found suitable for colonization experiments performed with Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana and Lemna minor. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that FB01mut expressed 2.5 times more of the gfp transcript than the original GFP-labeled strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of plant roots infected with gfp+ tagged FZB42 revealed that the bacterium behaves different in colonizing surfaces of plant roots of different species. In contrast to maize, FZB42 colonized preferentially root tips when colonizing Arabidopsis. FZB42 colonized heavily Lemna fronds and roots by forming biofilms consisting of extracellular matrix and cells with altered morphology. Surfactin, but no other lipopeptide or polyketide synthesized by FZB42 under laboratory conditions, was detected in extracts of Lemna plantlets colonized by FZB42. Due to its stable and long-lasting emission of bright fluorescence without antibiotic pressure FB01mut is an excellent tool for studying plant colonization under competitive, environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RNA helicase YTHDC2 promotes cancer metastasis via the enhancement of the efficiency by which HIF-1α mRNA is translated.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Atsushi; Tanikawa, Kenya; Tsunetomi, Mai; Takai, Kaori; Ikeda, Hiroto; Konno, Junpei; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Okita, Kenji; Mori, Mitsuru; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2016-06-28

    YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) is a member of the DExD/H-box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. We previously found that YTHDC2 expression is up-regulated in several human cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate novel roles for YTHDC2 in metastasis of colon tumor cells via translation-dependent pathway. Knockdown of YTHDC2 attenuated protein expression of metastasis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and inhibited metastasis of colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm that YTHDC2 promotes translation initiation by unwinding the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of mRNA, we constructed a firefly luciferase reporter containing the 5'UTR of the HIF-1α mRNA and showed reduction in luciferase activity in YTHDC2-silenced cells. Furthermore, we examined expression levels of YTHDC2 by immunohistochemical staining in human colon cancer tissues from 72 patients and found a significantly positive correlation between YTHDC2 expression and the tumor stage, including metastasis. In conclusion, these results suggest that the RNA helicase YTHDC2 contributes to colon tumor metastasis by promoting translation of HIF-1α and that YTHDC2 is potentially a diagnostic marker and target gene for treating colon cancer patients.

  14. Ethanol-induced yeast flocculation directed by the promoter of TPS1 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 for efficient ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chang, Alan K; Zhang, Qiu-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Yeast flocculation is an important trait in the brewing industry as well as in ethanol production, through which biomass can be recovered by cost-effective sedimentation. However, mass transfer limitation may affect yeast growth and ethanol fermentation if the flocculation occurs earlier before fermentation is completed. In this article, a novel type of cell-cell flocculation induced by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1) promoter was presented. The linear cassette HO-P(TPS1)-FLO1(SPSC01)-KanMX4-HO was constructed to transform the non-flocculating industrial yeast S. cerevisiae 4126 by chromosome integration to obtain a new flocculating yeast strain, ZLH01, whose flocculation was induced by ethanol produced during fermentation. The experimental results illustrated that flocculation of ZLH01 was triggered by 3% (v/v) ethanol and enhanced as ethanol concentration increased till complete flocculation was achieved at ethanol concentration of 8% (v/v). Real time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of FLO1(SPSC01) was dependent on ethanol concentration. The growth and ethanol fermentation of ZLH01 were improved significantly, compared with the constitutive flocculating yeast BHL01 engineered with the same FLO gene but directed by the constitutive 3-phosphoglycerate kinase promoter PGK1, particularly under high temperature conditions. These characteristics make the engineered yeast more suitable for ethanol production from industrial substrates under high gravity and temperature conditions. In addition, this strategy offers advantage in inducing differential expression of other genes for metabolic engineering applications of S. cerevisiae.

  15. Why Do Health Economists Promote Technology Adoption Rather Than the Search for Efficiency? A Proposal for a Change in Our Approach to Economic Evaluation in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Graham; Bryan, Stirling

    2017-02-01

    At a time of intense pressure on health care budgets, the technology management challenge is for disinvestment in low-value technologies and reinvestment in higher value alternatives. The aim of this article is to explore ways in which health economists might begin to redress the observed imbalance between the evaluation of new and existing in-use technologies. The argument is not against evaluating new technologies but in favor of the "search for efficiency," where the ultimate objective is to identify reallocations that improve population health in the face of resource scarcity. We explore why in-use technologies may be of low value and consider how economic evaluation analysts might embrace a broader efficiency lens, first through "technology management" (a process of analysis and evidence-informed decision making throughout a technology's life cycle) and progressing through "pathway management" (the search for efficiency gains across entire clinical care pathways). A number of model-based examples are used to illustrate the approaches.

  16. Promoting Charge Separation and Injection by Optimizing the Interfaces of GaN:ZnO Photoanode for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiliang; Zong, Xu; Gao, Yuying; Han, Jingfeng; Xu, Zhiqiang; Li, Zheng; Ding, Chunmei; Wang, Shengyang; Li, Can

    2017-09-13

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting provides an attractive way to store solar energy in molecular hydrogen as a kind of sustainable fuel. To achieve high solar conversion efficiency, the most stringent criteria are effective charge separation and injection in electrodes. Herein, efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation is realized by optimizing charge separation and surface charge transfer of GaN:ZnO photoanode. The charge separation can be greatly improved through modified moisture-assisted nitridation and HCl acid treatment, by which the interfaces in GaN:ZnO solid solution particles are optimized and recombination centers existing at the interfaces are depressed in GaN:ZnO photoanode. Moreover, a multimetal phosphide of NiCoFeP was employed as water oxidation cocatalyst to improve the charge injection at the photoanode/electrolyte interface. Consequently, it significantly decreases the overpotential and brings the photocurrent to a benchmark of 3.9 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs RHE and a solar conversion efficiency over 1% was obtained.

  17. Efficiency of High Molecular Weight Backbone Degradable HPMA Copolymer – Prostaglandin E1 Conjugate in Promotion of Bone Formation in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C.; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by post-polymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone-targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. PMID:23731780

  18. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) Promotes Efficient Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis Infection by Enhancing the Antigen-Specific IL-9 Response

    PubMed Central

    Srimanote, Potjanee; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Pootong, Anek; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee; Dong, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian hosts often develop distinct immune response against the diverse parasitic helminths that have evolved for immune evasion. Interleukin-25 (IL-25), an IL-17 cytokine family member, plays a key role in initiating the protective immunity against several parasitic helminths; however, the involvement and underlying mechanisms by which IL-25 mediates immune response against Trichinella spiralis infection have not been investigated. Here we showed that IL-25 functions in promoting protective immunity against T. spiralis infection. Mice treated with IL-25 exhibited a lower worm burden and fewer muscle larvae in the later stage of T. spiralis infection. In contrast, mice treated with neutralizing antibody against IL-25 failed to expel T. spiralis effectively. During T. spiralis infection, intestinal IL-25 expression was rapidly elevated before the onset of IL-4 and IL-9 induction. While antigen-specific Th2 and Th9 immune responses were both developed during T. spiralis infection, an antigen-specific Th9 response appeared to be transiently induced in the early stage of infection. Mice into which antigen-specific T cells deficient in IL-9 were transferred were less effective in worm clearance than those given wild-type T cells. The strength of the antigen-specific Th9 immune response against T. spiralis could be enhanced or attenuated after treatment with IL-25 or neutralizing antibody against IL-25, respectively, correlating positively with the levels of intestinal mastocytosis and the expression of IL-9-regulated genes, including mast cell- and Paneth cell-specific genes. Thus, our study demonstrates that intestinal IL-25 promotes protective immunity against T. spiralis infection by inducing antigen-specific Th9 immune response. PMID:23897610

  19. An inner membrane protein N-terminal signal sequence is able to promote efficient localisation of an outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M E; Pratt, J M; Stoker, N G; Holland, I B

    1985-01-01

    To test the importance of N-terminal pre-sequences in translocation of different classes of membrane proteins, we exchanged the normal signal sequence of an Escherichia coli outer membrane protein, OmpF, for the pre-sequence of the inner membrane protein, DacA. The DacA-OmpF hybrid was efficiently assembled into the outer membrane in a functionally active form. Thus the pre-sequence of DacA, despite its relatively low hydrophobicity compared with that of OmpF, contains all the essential information necessary to initiate the translocation of OmpF to the outer membrane. Since processing of DacA was also shown to be dependent upon SecA we conclude that the initiation of translocation of this inner membrane polypeptide across the envelope occurs by the same mechanism as outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. The N-terminal 11 amino acids of mature OmpF, which in the hybrid are replaced by the N-terminal nine amino acids of DacA, carry no essential assembly signals since the hybrid protein is apparently assembled with equal efficiency to OmpF. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3908094

  20. Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic β subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs.

    PubMed

    Meza-Sánchez, David; Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; Sánchez-García, Javier; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura C

    2011-10-01

    The nature of CD4(+) T-cell responses after skin immunization and the role of migrating DCs in the presence of adjuvants in the elicited response are interesting issues to be investigated. Here, we evaluated the priming of CD4(+) T cells following ear immunization with low doses of model antigens in combination with either cholera toxin (CT) or the non-toxic β CT subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant. Following immunization with CT, we found efficient antigen presentation that is reflected in the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells over IL-4 or IL-5 production. The CTB-induced activation of DCs in the ear occurred without visible inflammation, which reflects a similar type of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. In both cases, the elicited response was dependent on the presence of migrating skin cells. Remarkably, immunization with CT or with CTB led to the induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the ear. The DTH response that was induced by CT immunization was dependent on IL-17 and partially dependent on IFN-γ activity. These results indicate that both CT and CTB induce an efficient CD4(+) T-cell response to a co-administered antigen following ear immunization that is dependent on migrating DCs.

  1. Networks of primary and secondary care services: how to organise services so as to promote efficiency and quality in access while reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Ricardo; Oliveira, Mónica Duarte; de Sá, Armando Brito

    2008-01-01

    Governments in countries with national health systems have been concerned with how to organise services so as to achieve improvements in efficiency and quality in healthcare delivery, as well as to control costs. In this study, a stochastic discrete event simulation model to study the organisation of primary and secondary care services is proposed. The model was built with reference to the context of the Portuguese NHS, was implemented in the Simul8 software program and was applied to the Portuguese Setúbal healthcare subregion (SHCR). For its application, a database with 2005 production, resource and cost indicators was built to calibrate and validate the applied model. After validation, three different policy scenarios were tested: the first one concerning a 10% increase in demand for primary care services; the second considering a shift between specialists and generalist physicians; and a third regarding restructuring of primary care services. Results show that although the current system is not prepared to cope with a rise in demand, the other scenarios indicate that there is room for primary care reforms to increase the system's efficiency and accessibility, while lowering total costs.

  2. Aqueous SDS micelle-promoted acid-catalyzed domino ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction: a mild and efficient synthesis of privileged 2-methyl-tetrahydroquinoline scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Merchán Arenas, Diego R; Martínez Bonilla, Carlos A; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

    2013-06-14

    A new green protocol for the efficient synthesis of pharmacologically relevant 4-amidyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) through the domino type ABB' imino Diels-Alder reaction in acidified water in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant was developed for the first time. The influence of the SDS micelles and their different concentrations (5.0, 8.2 and 12.0 mM) on reactivity of the imino Diels-Alder reaction was studied. It was found that the best THQ yields (70-99%) are achieved above the critical micellar concentration (12 mM) using pH 1.0-2.5. This procedure resulted in a general and clean environmentally benign protocol to obtain the privileged diastereospecific cis 2,4-disubstituted THQ molecules of highest biological interest.

  3. Mn-Promoted Co3O4/TiO2 as an efficient catalyst for catalytic oxidation of dibromomethane (CH2Br2).

    PubMed

    Mei, Jian; Zhao, Songjian; Huang, Wenjun; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang

    2016-11-15

    Brominated hydrocarbon is the typical pollutant in the exhaust gas from the synthesis process of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA), which may cause various environmental problems once emitted into atmosphere. Dibromomethane (DBM) was employed as the model compound in this study, and a series of TiO2-supported manganese and cobalt oxide catalysts with different Mn/Co molar ratio were prepared by the impregnation method and used for catalytic oxidation of DBM. It was found that the addition of Mn significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of Co/TiO2 catalyst. Among all the prepared catalysts, Mn(1)-Co/TiO2 (Mn/Co molar ratio was 1) catalyst exhibited the highest activity with T90 at about 325°C and good stability maintained for at least 30h at 500ppm DBM and 10% O2 at GHSV=60,000h(-1), and the final products in the reaction were COx, HBr and Br2, without the formation of Br-containing organics. The high activity and high stability might be attributed to the redox cycle (Co(2+)+Mn(4+)↔Co(3+)+Mn(3+)) over Mn-promoted Co3O4/TiO2 catalyst. Based on the results of in situ DRIFT studies and analysis of products, a plausible reaction mechanism for catalytic oxidation of DBM over Mn-Co/TiO2 catalysts was also proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The anti-tumor efficiency of pterostilbene is promoted with a combined treatment of Fas signaling or autophagy inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Kuei-Yang; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Yang, Ning-Sun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    High expression of vimentin, a canonical mesenchymal marker, is linked with poor prognosis in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), implying that vimentin may be a potential biomarker in the application of TNBC therapy. Pterostilbene (PTE) has shown anti-invasion activity, and thus, we investigated whether PTE inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in TNBC. Here, we show that PTE decreases the vimentin expression, but that the effect was transient. PTE stimulated Fas signaling, which drives EMT by the ERK1/2 and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, supporting Fas signaling induction involved in EMT regulation. PTE also triggered autophagy in TNBC. The treatment of TNBC with 3-methyladenine an autophagy inhibitor, not only sustained PTE-inhibited EMT but also significantly promoted anti-proliferation, which indicates that autophagy plays a cyto-protective role and is associated with EMT. Taken together, these data showed that Fas signaling and autophagy accelerated the aggressiveness of TNBC. Inhibition of autophagy or Fas signaling may provide novel targets for TNBC therapy.

  5. Surface reconstruction of titania with g-C3N4 and Ag for promoting efficient electrons migration and enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Liu, Sze Ling; Sim, Lan Ching; Saravanan, Pichiah; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-12-01

    The developments of heterogeneous photocatalysts are one among the competent reconstruction approach to enrich the visible light responsiveness of conventional TiO2. In the present work the TiO2 was reconstructed with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and silver (Ag) to form a ternary (g-C3N4)-Ag/TiO2. The graphitic carbon nitride an intriguing material was prepared through a facile pyrolysis by using urea as a precursor. The silver (Ag) that plays a role as electron-conduction mobiliser in the ternary was synthesised through solar mediated photodeposition method. The synthesised ternary composite characteristics were thoroughly investigated through various physical and chemical analyses. The presence of g-C3N4 in the ternary photocatalysts promoted the formation of interface between the Ag/TiO2 and g-C3N4 and stimulated the electron transfer between them. These electrons migration acknowledged by the synergic effect prolonged the lifetime of charge carriers. The g-C3N4 also significantly tuned the energy band of conventional TiO2. The prepared ternary exhibited significantly high visible light photocatalytic performance by degrading Amoxicillin (AMX) a poor photosensitising pollutant at highest rate.

  6. Conjugation efficiency depends on intra and intercellular interactions between distinct plasmids: Plasmids promote the immigration of other plasmids but repress co-colonizing plasmids.

    PubMed

    Gama, João Alves; Zilhão, Rita; Dionisio, Francisco

    2017-08-24

    Conjugative plasmids encode the genes responsible for the synthesis of conjugative pili and plasmid transfer. Expression of the conjugative machinery (including conjugative pili) may be costly to bacteria, not only due to the energetic/metabolic cost associated with their expression but also because they serve as receptors for certain viruses. Consequently, the presence of two plasmids in the same cell may be disadvantageous to each plasmid, because they may impose a higher fitness cost on the host. Therefore, plasmids may encode mechanisms to cope with co-resident plasmids. Moreover, it is possible that the transfer rate of a plasmid is affected by the presence of a distinct plasmid in the recipient cell. In this work, we measured transfer rates of twelve natural plasmids belonging to seven incompatibility groups in three situations, namely when: (i) donor cells contain a plasmid and recipient cells are plasmid-free; (ii) donor cells contain two unrelated plasmids and recipient cells are plasmid-free; and (iii) half of the cells contain a given plasmid and the other half contain another, unrelated, plasmid. In the third situation, recipient cells of a plasmid are the donor cells of the other plasmid. We show that there are more negative interactions (reduction of a plasmid's conjugative efficiency) between plasmids if they reside in the same cell than if they reside in different cells. However, if plasmids interacted intercellularly, the transfer rate of one of the plasmids was often higher (when the unrelated conjugative plasmid was present in the recipient cell) than if the recipient cell was plasmid-free - a positive effect. Experimental data retrieved from the study of mutant plasmids not expressing conjugative pili on the cell surface suggest that positive effects result from a higher efficiency of mating pair formation. Overall, our results suggest that negative interactions are significantly more frequent when plasmids occupy the same cell. Such

  7. The imperative for systems thinking to promote access to medicines, efficient delivery, and cost-effectiveness when implementing health financing reforms: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Achoki, Tom; Lesego, Abaleng

    2017-03-21

    Health systems across Africa are faced with a multitude of competing priorities amidst pressing resource constraints. Expansion of health insurance coverage offers promise in the quest for sustainable healthcare financing for many of the health systems in the region. However, the broader policy implications of expanding health insurance coverage have not been fully investigated and contextualized to many African health systems. We interviewed 37 key informants drawn from public, private and civil society organizations involved in health service delivery in Botswana. The objective was to determine the potential health system impacts that would result from expanding the health insurance scheme covering public sector employees. Study participants were selected through purposeful sampling, stakeholder mapping, and snowballing. We thematically synthesized their views, focusing on the key health system areas of access to medicines, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as intermediate milestones towards universal health coverage. Participants suggested that expansion of health insurance would be characterized by increased financial resources for health and catalyze an upsurge in utilization of health services particularly among those with health insurance cover. As a result, the health system, particularly within the private sector, would be expected to see higher demand for medicines and other health technologies. However, majority of the respondents cautioned that, realizing the full benefits of improved population health, equitable distribution and financial risk protection, would be wholly dependent on having sound policies, regulations and functional accountability systems in place. It was recommended that, health system stewards should embrace efficient and cost-effective delivery, in order to make progress towards universal health coverage. Despite the prospects of increasing financial resources available for health service delivery, expansion of health insurance

  8. Copper-promoted circumneutral activation of H2O2 by magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles: Mechanism, stoichiometric efficiency, and pathway of degrading sulfanilamide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the heterogeneous degradation of sulfanilamide by external energy-free Fenton-like reactions, magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and used as catalysts for activation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The physicochemical properties of the CuFe2O4 NPs were characterized with several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetometry. In the catalytic experiments, CuFe2O4 NPs/H2O2 oxidation showed the best degradation performance in the circumneutral conditions that resulted from the presence of Cu(II) on the surface of the CuFe2O4 NPs. The surface area-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constants were calculated as 2.60 × 10(-2) L m(-1) min(-1), 2.58 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), 1.92 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), and 7.30 × 10(-4) L m(-1) min(-1) for CuO, CuFe2O4 NPs, Fe3O4, and α-Fe2O3 catalysts, respectively. Thus, solid state Cu(II) was more reactive and efficient than Fe(III) in the circumneutral activation of H2O2; this finding was further supported by the results regarding the stoichiometric efficiency of H2O2. The effects of experimental parameters such as the oxidant dosage and catalyst loading were investigated. The mechanism for H2O2 activation on the spinel surface was explored and could be explained by the solid redox cycles of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Cu(II)/Cu(I). Based on the products detected, a degradation pathway via the CS bond cleavage is proposed for the degradation of sulfanilamide. The findings of this study suggest that copper can be used as a doping metal to improve the reactivity and expand the effective pH range of iron oxides.

  9. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Efficiently Promotes the Proliferation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Activating NO-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongyeon; Lee, Hyunyoung; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Kim, Do Young; Han, Sungbum; Song, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at atmospheric pressure. Our study showed that exposure to NTAPP generated in a helium-based dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device increased the proliferation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) by 1.57-fold on an average, compared with untreated cells at 72 h after initial NTAPP exposure. NTAPP-exposed ASCs maintained their stemness, capability to differentiate into adipocytes but did not show cellular senescence. Therefore, we suggested that NTAPP can be used to increase the proliferation of ASCs without affecting their stem cell properties. When ASCs were exposed to NTAPP in the presence of a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the proliferation-enhancing effect of NTAPP was not obvious. Meanwhile, the proliferation of NTAPP-exposed ASCs was not much changed in the presence of scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, Akt, ERK1/2, and NF-κB were activated in ASCs after NTAPP exposure. These results demonstrated that NO rather than ROS is responsible for the enhanced proliferation of ASCs following NTAPP exposure. Taken together, this study suggests that NTAPP would be an efficient tool for use in the medical application of ASCs both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27991548

  10. Vitrectomy Before Intravitreal Injection of AAV2/2 Vector Promotes Efficient Transduction of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Dogs and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Tshilenge, Kizito-Tshitoko; Ameline, Baptiste; Weber, Michel; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Nedellec, Steven; Biget, Marine; Provost, Nathalie; Libeau, Lyse; Blouin, Véronique; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Le Meur, Guylène; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Pichard, Virginie; Rolling, Fabienne

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as a promising vector for retinal gene delivery to restore visual function in certain forms of inherited retinal dystrophies. Several studies in rodent models have shown that intravitreal injection of the AAV2/2 vector is the optimal route for efficient retinal ganglion cell (RGC) transduction. However, translation of these findings to larger species, including humans, is complicated by anatomical differences in the eye, a key difference being the comparatively smaller volume of the vitreous chamber in rodents. Here, we address the role of the vitreous body as a potential barrier to AAV2/2 diffusion and transduction in the RGCs of dogs and macaques, two of the most relevant preclinical models. We intravitreally administered the AAV2/2 vector carrying the CMV-eGFP reporter cassette in dog and macaque eyes, either directly into the vitreous chamber or after complete vitrectomy, a surgical procedure that removes the vitreous body. Our findings suggest that the vitreous body appears to trap the injected vector, thus impairing the diffusion and transduction of AAV2/2 to inner retinal neurons. We show that vitrectomy before intravitreal vector injection is an effective means of overcoming this physical barrier, improving the transduction of RGCs in dog and macaque retinas. These findings support the use of vitrectomy in clinical trials of intravitreal gene transfer techniques targeting inner retinal neurons.

  11. Partial-Redox-Promoted Mn Cycling of Mn(II)-Doped Heterogeneous Catalyst for Efficient H2O2-Mediated Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Tao; Gao, Qiang; Han, Bo; Ren, Zheng-Hui; Xia, Kai-Sheng; Zhou, Cheng-Gang

    2017-01-11

    The development of a heterogeneous catalyst with high catalytic activity and durability for H2O2-mediated oxidation is one of the most important industrial and environmental issues. In this study, a Mn(II)-doped TiO2 heterogeneous catalyst was developed for H2O2-mediated oxidation. The TiO2 substrate-dependent partial-redox behavior of Mn was identified on the basis of our density functional theory simulations. This unique redox cycle was induced by a moderate electron transfer from Ti to Mn, which compensated for the electron loss of Mn and finally resulted in a high-efficiency cycling of Mn between its oxidized and reduced forms. In light of the theoretical results, a Mn(II)-doped TiO2 composite with well-defined morphology and large surface area (153.3 m(2) g(-1)) was elaborately fabricated through incorporating Mn(II) ions into a TiO2 nanoflower, and further tested as the catalyst for oxidative degradation of organic pollutants in the presence of H2O2. Benefiting from the remarkable textural features and excellent Mn cycling property, this composite exhibited superior catalytic performance for organic pollutant degradation. Moreover, it could retain 98.40% of its initial activity even in the fifth cycle. Our study provides an effective strategy for designing heterogeneous catalytic systems for H2O2-mediated oxidations.

  12. The β-hairpin of 40S exit channel protein Rps5/uS7 promotes efficient and accurate translation initiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaraiah, Jyothsna; Pittman, Yvette; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic 43S pre-initiation complex bearing tRNAiMet scans the mRNA leader for an AUG start codon in favorable context. Structural analyses revealed that the β-hairpin of 40S protein Rps5/uS7 protrudes into the 40S mRNA exit-channel, contacting the eIF2∙GTP∙Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC) and mRNA context nucleotides; but its importance in AUG selection was unknown. We identified substitutions in β-strand-1 and C-terminal residues of yeast Rps5 that reduced bulk initiation, conferred ‘leaky-scanning’ of AUGs; and lowered initiation fidelity by exacerbating the effect of poor context of the eIF1 AUG codon to reduce eIF1 abundance. Consistently, the β-strand-1 substitution greatly destabilized the ‘PIN’ conformation of TC binding to reconstituted 43S·mRNA complexes in vitro. Other substitutions in β-hairpin loop residues increased initiation fidelity and destabilized PIN at UUG, but not AUG start codons. We conclude that the Rps5 β-hairpin is as crucial as soluble initiation factors for efficient and accurate start codon recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07939.001 PMID:26134896

  13. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley

    PubMed Central

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000–2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing

  14. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000-2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing water

  15. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  16. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human

  17. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  18. 76 FR 70861 - Promoting Efficient Spending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... pursued an aggressive agenda for reducing administrative costs since taking office and, most recently... aggressive steps to ensure the Government is a good steward of taxpayer money. Sec. 2. Agency Reduction...

  19. SP6616 as a new Kv2.1 channel inhibitor efficiently promotes β-cell survival involving both PKC/Erk1/2 and CaM/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T T; Quan, L L; Chen, L P; Du, T; Sun, K X; Zhang, J C; Yu, L; Li, Y; Wan, P; Chen, L L; Jiang, B H; Hu, L H; Chen, J; Shen, X

    2016-05-05

    Kv2.1 as a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunit has a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, and is believed to be a promising target for anti-diabetic drug discovery, although the mechanism underlying the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell apoptosis is obscure. Here, the small molecular compound, ethyl 5-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-7-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (SP6616) was discovered to be a new Kv2.1 inhibitor. It was effective in both promoting GSIS and protecting β cells from apoptosis. Evaluation of SP6616 on either high-fat diet combined with streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice or db/db mice further verified its efficacy in the amelioration of β-cell dysfunction and glucose homeostasis. SP6616 treatment efficiently increased serum insulin level, restored β-cell mass, decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, and improved oral glucose tolerance. Mechanism study indicated that the promotion of SP6616 on β-cell survival was tightly linked to its regulation against both protein kinases C (PKC)/extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) and calmodulin(CaM)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this may be the first report on the underlying pathway responsible for the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell protection. In addition, our study has also highlighted the potential of SP6616 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. SP6616 as a new Kv2.1 channel inhibitor efficiently promotes β-cell survival involving both PKC/Erk1/2 and CaM/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, T T; Quan, L L; Chen, L P; Du, T; Sun, K X; Zhang, J C; Yu, L; Li, Y; Wan, P; Chen, L L; Jiang, B H; Hu, L H; Chen, J; Shen, X

    2016-01-01

    Kv2.1 as a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunit has a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, and is believed to be a promising target for anti-diabetic drug discovery, although the mechanism underlying the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell apoptosis is obscure. Here, the small molecular compound, ethyl 5-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-7-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2–a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (SP6616) was discovered to be a new Kv2.1 inhibitor. It was effective in both promoting GSIS and protecting β cells from apoptosis. Evaluation of SP6616 on either high-fat diet combined with streptozocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice or db/db mice further verified its efficacy in the amelioration of β-cell dysfunction and glucose homeostasis. SP6616 treatment efficiently increased serum insulin level, restored β-cell mass, decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, and improved oral glucose tolerance. Mechanism study indicated that the promotion of SP6616 on β-cell survival was tightly linked to its regulation against both protein kinases C (PKC)/extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) and calmodulin(CaM)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this may be the first report on the underlying pathway responsible for the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell protection. In addition, our study has also highlighted the potential of SP6616 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27148689

  1. RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by methyltransferase RlmAII in 23S rRNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae; interplay between two rRNA methylations responsible for telithromycin susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Tatsuma; Takaya, Akiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Adenine at position 752 in a loop of helix 35 from positions 745 to 752 in domain II of 23S rRNA is involved in binding to the ribosome of telithromycin (TEL), a member of ketolides. Methylation of guanine at position 748 by the intrinsic methyltransferase RlmAII enhances binding of telithromycin (TEL) to A752 in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have found that another intrinsic methylation of the adjacent uridine at position 747 enhances G748 methylation by RlmAII, rendering TEL susceptibility. U747 and another nucleotide, U1939, were methylated by the dual-specific methyltransferase RlmCD encoded by SP_1029 in S. pneumoniae. Inactivation of RlmCD reduced N1-methylated level of G748 by RlmAII in vivo, leading to TEL resistance when the nucleotide A2058, located in domain V of 23S rRNA, was dimethylated by the dimethyltransferase Erm(B). In vitro methylation of rRNA showed that RlmAII activity was significantly enhanced by RlmCD-mediated pre-methylation of 23S rRNA. These results suggest that RlmCD-mediated U747 methylation promotes efficient G748 methylation by RlmAII, thereby facilitating TEL binding to the ribosome. PMID:26365244

  2. Efficient conditional and promoter-specific in vivo expression of cDNAs of choice by taking advantage of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange using FlEx gene traps.

    PubMed

    Schebelle, Laura; Wolf, Claudia; Stribl, Carola; Javaheri, Tahereh; Schnütgen, Frank; Ettinger, Andreas; Ivics, Zoltán; Hansen, Jens; Ruiz, Patricia; von Melchner, Harald; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) exploits the possibility to unidirectionally exchange any genetic material flanked by heterotypic recombinase recognition sites (RRS) with target sites in the genome. Due to a limited number of available pre-fabricated target sites, RMCE in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells has not been tapped to its full potential to date. Here, we introduce a universal system, which allows the targeted insertion of any given transcriptional unit into 85 742 previously annotated retroviral conditional gene trap insertions, representing 7013 independent genes in mouse ES cells, by RMCE. This system can be used to express any given cDNA under the control of endogenous trapped promoters in vivo, as well as for the generation of transposon 'launch pads' for chromosomal region-specific 'Sleeping Beauty' insertional mutagenesis. Moreover, transcription of the gene-of-interest is only activated upon Cre-recombinase activity, a feature that adds conditionality to this expression system, which is demonstrated in vivo. The use of the RMCE system presented in this work requires one single-cloning step followed by one overnight gateway clonase reaction and subsequent cassette exchange in ES cells with efficiencies of 40% in average.

  3. Efficient conditional and promoter-specific in vivo expression of cDNAs of choice by taking advantage of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange using FlEx gene traps

    PubMed Central

    Schebelle, Laura; Wolf, Claudia; Stribl, Carola; Javaheri, Tahereh; Schnütgen, Frank; Ettinger, Andreas; Ivics, Zoltán; Hansen, Jens; Ruiz, Patricia; von Melchner, Harald; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) exploits the possibility to unidirectionally exchange any genetic material flanked by heterotypic recombinase recognition sites (RRS) with target sites in the genome. Due to a limited number of available pre-fabricated target sites, RMCE in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells has not been tapped to its full potential to date. Here, we introduce a universal system, which allows the targeted insertion of any given transcriptional unit into 85 742 previously annotated retroviral conditional gene trap insertions, representing 7013 independent genes in mouse ES cells, by RMCE. This system can be used to express any given cDNA under the control of endogenous trapped promoters in vivo, as well as for the generation of transposon ‘launch pads’ for chromosomal region-specific ‘Sleeping Beauty’ insertional mutagenesis. Moreover, transcription of the gene-of-interest is only activated upon Cre-recombinase activity, a feature that adds conditionality to this expression system, which is demonstrated in vivo. The use of the RMCE system presented in this work requires one single-cloning step followed by one overnight gateway clonase reaction and subsequent cassette exchange in ES cells with efficiencies of 40% in average. PMID:20139417

  4. Signing ISS RS Handover Protocol

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-123948 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the Zvezda Service Module, Russian cosmonaut Maxim Suraev (right), Expedition 41 commander, signs a ceremonial document as the new commander of the International Space Station following the traditional Change of Command Ceremony. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov, Expedition 40 flight engineer, looks on.

  5. High-level expression, purification and characterisation of porcine β-defensin 2 in Pichia pastoris and its potential as a cost-efficient growth promoter in porcine feed.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Feng, Qiuyue; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ivanova, Iskra Vitanova; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun; Song, Weiping

    2014-06-01

    Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2), a recently discovered porcine defensin that is produced by the intestine, exerts antimicrobial activities and innate immune effects that are linked to intestinal diseases in pigs. Here, we report a codon-optimised protein corresponding to mature pBD2 cDNA that was expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris yeast. The highest amount of secreted protein (3,694.0 mg/L) was reached 144 h into a 150-h induction during high-density cultivation. Precipitation followed by gel exclusion chromatography yielded 383.7 mg/L purified recombinant pBD2 (rpBD2) with a purity of ~93.7 %. Two recombinant proteins of 5,458.5 and 5,258.4 Da were detected in the mass spectrum due to variation in the amino-terminus. The rpBD2 exhibited high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pig pathogenic bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] 32-128 μg/mL); the highest activity was observed against Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis (MIC 32-64 μg/mL). However, rpBD2 also inhibited the growth of probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but at lower efficacies than the pathogens. Purified or unpurified rpBD2 also maintained high activity over a wide range of pH values (2.0-10.0), a high thermal stability at 100 °C for 40 min and significant resistance to papain, pepsin and trypsin. In addition, the activity of rpBD2 towards S. aureus was unaffected by 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 20 % dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that pBD2 could be produced efficiently in large quantities in P. pastoris and be a substitute for traditional antibiotics for growth promotion in the porcine industry.

  6. An approach to efficient mobility management in intelligent networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, K. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Providing personal communication systems supporting full mobility require intelligent networks for tracking mobile users and facilitating outgoing and incoming calls over different physical and network environments. In realizing the intelligent network functionalities, databases play a major role. Currently proposed network architectures envision using the SS7-based signaling network for linking these DB's and also for interconnecting DB's with switches. If the network has to support ubiquitous, seamless mobile services, then it has to support additionally mobile application parts, viz., mobile origination calls, mobile destination calls, mobile location updates and inter-switch handovers. These functions will generate significant amount of data and require them to be transferred between databases (HLR, VLR) and switches (MSC's) very efficiently. In the future, the users (fixed or mobile) may use and communicate with sophisticated CPE's (e.g. multimedia, multipoint and multisession calls) which may require complex signaling functions. This will generate volumness service handling data and require efficient transfer of these message between databases and switches. Consequently, the network providers would be able to add new services and capabilities to their networks incrementally, quickly and cost-effectively.

  7. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  8. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  9. Promoting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  10. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel

    1992-01-01

    Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a

  11. Promoting Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechanic, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…

  12. Health Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    Dependents Schools and Section 6 schools. (4) Information on the health consequences of smoking shall be incorporated with the information on alcohol...departments. 2. A Health Promotion Coordinating Committee shall be established to enhance communication among the Military Services, recommend joint policy...about the patient’s tobacco use, including use of smokeless tobacco products; to advise him or her of the risks associated with use, the health bcnefits

  13. Conciliating binding efficiency and polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Jordi; Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet

    2009-09-01

    The association between molecular size and risk of failure has promoted the use of binding efficiency as a prioritization metric in lead selection. Even though by extension it is often referred to as "ligand efficiency", the concept was originally conceived to be strictly applicable to comparing the binding efficiencies of ligands for a single target. With current trends in designing drugs to bind efficiently to multiple targets, a revision of the original binding efficiency definition is carried out. To this aim, the dependency of binding efficiency on polypharmacology is highlighted in a retrospective analysis of a set of antipsychotic drugs. Statistical standardization of target binding efficiencies relative to basal values obtained from a large background of medicinal chemistry compounds is proposed as a means to conciliate the concepts of binding efficiency and polypharmacology. Finally, the interplay between binding efficiency and therapeutic efficacy for optimizing natural products, random hits, and fragments is discussed.

  14. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  15. Sulphur promoted C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) cross dehydrogenative cyclisation of acetophenone hydrazones with aldehydes: efficient synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1H-pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Vanjari, Rajeshwer; Guntreddi, Tirumaleswararao; Kumar, Saurabh; Singh, Krishna Nand

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy for the cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of acetophenone hydrazones and aldehydes has been developed for the synthesis of highly substituted pyrazoles. This work, for the first time, uses elemental sulfur as a promoter as well as a hydrogen acceptor in effecting the Csp(3)-Csp(2) bond formation via C-H activation.

  16. Promoting Retention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, LaToya N.; Ficker, Lisa J.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Green, Carmen R.; Jackson, James S.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a research volunteer registry to retain community-dwelling African American older adults, and to explore demographic and health factors associated with retention. Method: A logistic regression model was used to determine the influence of demographics, health factors, and registry logic model activities on retention in a sample of 1,730 older African American adults. Results: Almost 80% of participants active in the volunteer research registry between January 2012 and June 2015 were retained. Employment, being referred to research studies, a higher number of medical conditions, and more follow-up contacts were associated with an increased likelihood of retention. Older age, more months in the registry, and more mobility problems decreased the likelihood of retention. Discussion: These results suggest the Michigan Center for Urban African American Aging Research logic model promotes retention through involving older African American adults in research through study referrals and intensive follow-up. The loss of participants due to age- and mobility-related issues indicate the registry may be losing its most vulnerable participants. PMID:28138501

  17. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  18. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... marketing, distribution, consumption, or efficient production of hazelnuts. The Board may also provide for... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their...

  19. Ultrasound promoted mild and facile one-pot, three component synthesis of 2H-indazoles by consecutive condensation, CN and NN bond formations catalysed by copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as an efficient heterogeneous nano-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Soltani Rad, Mohammad Navid

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasonic promoted facile and convenient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of 2H-indazole derivatives using copper-doped silica cuprous sulphate (CDSCS) as a heterogeneous nano-catalyst has been described. In this approach, ultrasonic mediated reaction of different substituted 2-bromobenzaldehydes, structurally diverse primary amines, and tetrabutylammonium azide (TBAA) as an azide source in the presence of CDSCS in DMSO at room temperature furnishes 2H-indazoles in good to excellent yields. Utilizing ultrasonic irradiation techniques provided the dramatic improvements in terms of higher yields and shorter reaction times compared with conventional heating method.

  20. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  1. The first molecular level monitoring of carbohydrate conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquids. B2O3--an efficient dual-function metal-free promoter for environmentally benign applications.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Elena A; Kachala, Vadim V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2012-04-01

    The mechanistic nature of the conversion of carbohydrates to the sustainable platform chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) was revealed at the molecular level. A detailed study of the key sugar units involved in the biomass conversion process has shown that the simple dissolution of fructose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride significantly changes the anomeric composition and favors the formation of the open fructoketose form. A special NMR approach was developed for the determination of molecular structures and monitoring of chemical reactions directly in ionic liquids. The transformation of glucose to 5-HMF has been followed in situ through the detection of intermediate species. A new environmentally benign, easily available, metal-free promoter with a dual functionality (B(2)O(3)) was developed for carbohydrate conversion to 5-HMF.

  2. Co-delivery of Dual Toll-Like Receptor Agonists and Antigen in Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic) Acid/Polyethylenimine Cationic Hybrid Nanoparticles Promote Efficient In Vivo Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh; Hashemi, Maryam; Maleki, Mohsen; Hashemitabar, Gholamreza; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Haghparast, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to design delivery vehicles are critical in modern vaccine-adjuvant development. Nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating antigen(s) and adjuvant(s) are promising vehicles to deliver antigen(s) and adjuvant(s) to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), allowing optimal immune responses against a specific pathogen. In this study, we developed a novel adjuvant delivery approach for induction of efficient in vivo immune responses. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was physically conjugated to poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) to form PLGA/PEI NPs. This complex was encapsulated with resiquimod (R848) as toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist, or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as TLR4 agonist and co-assembled with cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) as TLR9 agonist to form a tripartite formulation [two TLR agonists (inside and outside NPs) and PLGA/PEI NPs as delivery system]. The physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of these synthesized delivery vehicles were investigated. Cellular viability test revealed no pronounced cytotoxicity as well as increased cellular uptake compared to control groups in murine macrophage cells (J774 cell line). In the next step, PLGA (MPLA or R848)/PEI (CpG ODN) were co-delivered with ovalbumin (OVA) encapsulated into PLGA NPs to enhance the induction of immune responses. The immunogenicity properties of these co-delivery formulations were examined in vivo by evaluating the cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-1β) secretion and antibody (IgG1, IgG2a) production. Robust and efficient immune responses were achieved after in vivo administration of PLGA (MPLA or R848)/PEI (CpG ODN) co-delivered with OVA encapsulated in PLGA NPs in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrate a rational design of using dual TLR agonists in a context-dependent manner for efficient nanoparticulate adjuvant-vaccine development.

  3. Batch efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  4. Effects of alkoxy groups on arene rings of lignin β-O-4 model compounds on the efficiencies of single electron transfer-promoted photochemical and enzymatic C-C Bond Cleavage Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk Hyun; Nahm, Keepyung; Ra, Choon Sup; Cho, Dae Won; Yoon, Ung Chan; Latham, John A; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Mariano, Patrick S

    2013-09-20

    To gain information about how alkoxy substitution in arene rings of β-O-4 structural units within lignin governs the efficiencies/rates of radical cation C1-C2 bond cleavage reactions, single electron transfer (SET) photochemical and lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation reactions of dimeric/tetrameric model compounds have been explored. The results show that the radical cations derived from less alkoxy-substituted dimeric β-O-4 models undergo more rapid C1-C2 bond cleavage than those of more alkoxy-substituted analogues. These findings gained support from the results of DFT calculations, which demonstrate that C1-C2 bond dissociation energies of β-O-4 radical cations decrease as the degree of alkoxy substitution decreases. In SET reactions of tetrameric compounds consisting of two β-O-4 units, containing different degrees of alkoxy substitution, regioselective radical cation C-C bond cleavage was observed to occur in one case at the C1-C2 bond in the less alkoxy-substituted β-O-4 moiety. However, regioselective C1-C2 cleavage in the more alkoxy-substituted β-O-4 moiety was observed in another case, suggesting that other factors might participate in controlling this process. These observations show that lignins containing greater proportions of less rather than more alkoxylated rings as part of β-O-4 units would be more efficiently cleaved by SET mechanisms.

  5. Efficiency Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The lighting of learning environments is an important focus in designing new schools and renovating older schools. Studies long have shown that appropriate lighting levels and daylighting improve learning; now, climbing energy budgets have spurred school administrators to seek more efficient use of lighting. Electricity rates are expected to rise…

  6. Efficiency Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The lighting of learning environments is an important focus in designing new schools and renovating older schools. Studies long have shown that appropriate lighting levels and daylighting improve learning; now, climbing energy budgets have spurred school administrators to seek more efficient use of lighting. Electricity rates are expected to rise…

  7. Non-Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Supported on Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient and Durable Catalyst for Promoting H2 Production from Ammonia Borane under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Meicheng; Cui, Yiwen; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-08-24

    In this work, we propose a straightforward method to enhance the catalytic activity of AB dehydrogenation by using non-noble-metal nanoparticle supported on chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101). It was demonstrated to be effective for hydrogen generation from ammonia borane under assistance of visible light irradiation as a noble-metal-free catalyst. The catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles supported on MIL-101 under visible light irradiation is remarkably higher than that without light irradiation. The TOFs of Cu/MIL-101, Co/MIL-101, and Ni/MIL-101 are 1693, 1571, and 3238 h(-1), respectively. The enhanced activity of catalysts can be primarily attributed to the cooperative promoting effects from both non-noble-metal nanoparticles and photoactive metal-organic framework in activating the ammonia borane molecule and strong ability in the photocatalytic production of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and electron-rich non-noble-metal nanoparticle. This work sheds light on the exploration of active non-noble metals supported on photoactive porous materials for achieving high catalytic activity of various redox reactions under visible light irradiation.

  8. Superior preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich stream under visible light irradiation over gold loaded hedgehog-shaped titanium dioxide nanospheres: Identification of copper oxide decoration as an efficient promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Kun; Lin, Liuliu; Chen, Xun; Dai, Wenxin; Fu, Xianzhi

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles loaded on the special three-dimensional urchin-like micro/nano hierarchical TiO2 microspheres, with CuO layer modification, are performed for the CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich stream at room temperature under visible light irradiation or not. It is found that the suitable outer decoration of CuO in TiO2 microspheres can obviously improve the catalytic activity of Au/TiO2, and adding visible light can further promote the performance. Based on the characterizations of catalysts, it is proposed that the CuO layer distributed on the shell of TiO2 urchin-like microspheres can enhance the electron transfer among Au, TiO2 and CuO sites to drive the increase in surface electron densities of Au and support sites induced by both the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles and the photo-excitation of CuO under visible light irradiation, resulting in the adsorptions and activations of CO and O2. Therefore, as a synactic result of its unique band gap relation, its unique electron property and its morphologic effect, the novel CuO modified TiO2 support not only enhances the microstrain itself on the stabilization of the size of Au nanoparticles, but more importantly also reinforces the electron interaction between support and Au sites.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein promotes efficient strand transfer and specific viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting TAR-dependent self-priming from minus-strand strong-stop DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J; Henderson, L E; Bess, J; Kane, B; Levin, J G

    1997-01-01

    During the first strand transfer in reverse transcription, minus-strand strong-stop DNA [(-) SSDNA] is annealed to the 3' end of the acceptor RNA in a reaction mediated by base-pairing between terminal repeat sequences in the RNA and their complement in the DNA. The large stem-loop structure in the repeat region known as TAR could interfere with this annealing reaction. We have developed an in vitro human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) system to investigate the effect of TAR on strand transfer. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the presence of TAR in the donor and acceptor templates inhibits strand transfer and is correlated with extensive synthesis of heterogeneous DNAs formed by self-priming from (-) SSDNA. These DNAs are not precursors to the transfer product. Interestingly, products of self-priming are not detected in HIV-1 endogenous reactions; this suggests that virions contain a component which prevents self-priming. Our results show that the viral nucleocapsid protein (NC), which can destabilize secondary structures, drastically reduces self-priming and dramatically increases the efficiency of strand transfer. In addition, the data suggest that the ability to eliminate self-priming is a general property of NC which is manifested during reverse transcriptase pausing at sites of secondary structure in the template. We conclude that this activity of NC is critical for achieving highly efficient and specific viral DNA synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that inactivation of NC could provide a new approach for targeting reverse transcription in anti-HIV therapy. PMID:9188585

  10. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  11. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  13. Efficient Synthesis of Tris-Heteroleptic Iridium(III) Complexes Based on the Zn(2+)-Promoted Degradation of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes and Their Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Kumar, Sarvendra; Itoh, Taiki; Sato, Kyouhei; Kuroda, Reiko; Aoki, Shin

    2017-01-17

    We report on the efficient synthesis of tris-heteroleptic iridium (Ir) complexes based on the degradation of tris-cyclometalated Ir complexes (IrL3, L: cyclometalating ligand) in the presence of Brønsted and Lewis acids such as HCl (in 1,4-dioxane), AlCl3, TMSCl, and ZnX2 (X = Br or Cl), which affords the corresponding halogen-bridged Ir dimers (μ-complexes). Tris-cyclometalated Ir complexes containing electron-withdrawing groups such as fluorine, nitro, or CF3 moieties on the ligands were less reactive. This different reactivity was applied to the selective degradation of heteroleptic Ir complexes such as fac-Ir(tpy)2(F2ppy) (fac-12) (tpy: 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine and F2ppy: 2-(4',6'-difluorophenyl)pyridine), mer-Ir(tpy)2(F2ppy) (mer-12), and mer-Ir(mpiq)2(F2ppy) (mer-15) (mpiq: 1-(4'-methylphenyl)isoquinoline). For example, the reaction of mer-12 with ZnBr2 gave the heteroleptic μ-complex [{Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(μ-Br)}2] 27b as a major product, resulting from the selective elimination of the tpy ligand of mer-12, and treatment of 27b with acetylacetone (acacH) afforded the corresponding tris-heteroleptic Ir complex Ir(tpy)(F2ppy)(acac)18. In addition, another tris-heteroleptic Ir complex 35a having 8-benzenesulfonylamidoquinoline (8BSQ) ligand was synthesized. Mechanistic studies of this degradation reaction and the photochemical properties, especially a dual emission, of these newly synthesized tris-heteroleptic Ir complexes are also reported.

  14. Vector promoters used in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Zhu, Chengqian; Lin, Jie; Li, Jingkang; Fu, Shuilin; Gong, Heng

    2016-09-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the metabolic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, our knowledge of the actual expression level of promoters used in K. pneumoniae is limited. In this study, the expression levels of three promoters were compared systematically by using the lacZ reporter gene with different carbon sources in K. pneumoniae. The results showed that, although promoters PT5 and Ptac designed for Escherichia coli were functional, PT5 appeared more efficient and the induction/repression ratio of Ptac was decreased extremely in K. pneumoniae. The basal level of Ptac for lacZ expression reached 396.5 U/mg, which was 9.5-fold higher compared with PT5 in LB medium, indicating Ptac can be used as an efficient "constitutive" promoter as well as an efficient induced promoter in K. pneumoniae. In different carbon sources medium, a newly constructed endogenous constitutive Pbud proved to be a stable and weak promoter. On the basis of our data, a set of Pbud and Ptac promoters could meet the broad range (about 1,000 orders of magnitude) of gene expression needed for engineered K. pneumoniae in glycerol-based medium.

  15. Efficient fireplace

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.

    1985-10-01

    Among the efforts to overcome the inherent inefficiency of fireplaces, the most effective to date is a fireplace insert, which is an air-tight wood-burning heater made to fit inside an existing fireplace. New aesthetically pleasing designs combine the latest in heating technology (including catalytic combustors). Features to look for are strong construction with double walls and smooth welds, a good warranty, and proper sizing. Efficiency ratings of the new inserts are 40-45%, compared to 10-15% for a conventional fireplace. Disadvantages include the difficulty of handling and installing the inserts, creosote formation because of lingering smoke, and possible fires. The National Fire Protection Association has adopted a positive connect requirement to carry smoke directly into the chimney. Prices range from $600 to $1300 for the inserts.

  16. Patient and nurse preferences for nurse handover—using preferences to inform policy: a discrete choice experiment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Jean; Chaboyer, Wendy; Bucknall, Tracey; Tobiano, Georgia; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nursing bedside handover in hospital has been identified as an opportunity to involve patients and promote patient-centred care. It is important to consider the preferences of both patients and nurses when implementing bedside handover to maximise the successful uptake of this policy. We outline a study which aims to (1) identify, compare and contrast the preferences for various aspects of handover common to nurses and patients while accounting for other factors, such as the time constraints of nurses that may influence these preferences.; (2) identify opportunities for nurses to better involve patients in bedside handover and (3) identify patient and nurse preferences that may challenge the full implementation of bedside handover in the acute medical setting. Methods and analysis We outline the protocol for a discrete choice experiment (DCE) which uses a survey design common to both patients and nurses. We describe the qualitative and pilot work undertaken to design the DCE. We use a D-efficient design which is informed by prior coefficients collected during the pilot phase. We also discuss the face-to-face administration of this survey in a population of acutely unwell, hospitalised patients and describe how data collection challenges have been informed by our pilot phase. Mixed multinomial logit regression analysis will be used to estimate the final results. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by a university ethics committee as well as two participating hospital ethics committees. Results will be used within a knowledge translation framework to inform any strategies that can be used by nursing staff to improve the uptake of bedside handover. Results will also be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and will be presented at national and international conferences. PMID:26560060

  17. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  18. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  19. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben; Kamilova, Faina

    2009-01-01

    Several microbes promote plant growth, and many microbial products that stimulate plant growth have been marketed. In this review we restrict ourselves to bacteria that are derived from and exert this effect on the root. Such bacteria are generally designated as PGPR (plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria). The beneficial effects of these rhizobacteria on plant growth can be direct or indirect. This review begins with describing the conditions under which bacteria live in the rhizosphere. To exert their beneficial effects, bacteria usually must colonize the root surface efficiently. Therefore, bacterial traits required for root colonization are subsequently described. Finally, several mechanisms by which microbes can act beneficially on plant growth are described. Examples of direct plant growth promotion that are discussed include (a) biofertilization, (b) stimulation of root growth, (c) rhizoremediation, and (d) plant stress control. Mechanisms of biological control by which rhizobacteria can promote plant growth indirectly, i.e., by reducing the level of disease, include antibiosis, induction of systemic resistance, and competition for nutrients and niches.

  20. Solar cooking in India--Promotion aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, R.P.; Rajagopal, L.S.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes efforts to promote the use of solar cookers in India. The advantages of the cookers are presented followed by a description of solar cooking research, education activities, and government programs to promote use of solar energy. Major constraints to solar use are discussed and these include a range of situations: adapting cookers for various types of food preparation; safety factors in leaving cookers outside; weather problems; and expense of equipment. The author concludes with a list of recommendations to promote more efficient use of non-conventional energy sources.

  1. The Equity Imperative in Tertiary Education: Promoting Fairness and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-01-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population…

  2. The Equity Imperative in Tertiary Education: Promoting Fairness and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-01-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population…

  3. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  4. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  5. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Yujae; Choi, Wooyeol; Baek, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs) together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT) to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS) of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy.

  6. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yujae; Choi, Wooyeol; Baek, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs) together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT) to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS) of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP), by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy. PMID:28241083

  7. Morning report: combining education with patient handover.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, H; Stiles, B; Hedrick, T; Sawyer, R G

    2008-04-01

    The advent of resident work hour restrictions has challenged us to train residents within a shorter working week, while ensuring continuity of patient care. We instituted morning report (MR) at the University of Virginia primarily as a means to accomplish these objectives. Serendipitously MR has become an integral educational tool for the surgical residents. The rationale for the format and instructional design are discussed in the context of learning theory. The chief residents as primary stakeholders were strongly encouraged to play a leadership role in designing MR. A faculty- led didactic format was rejected because of the importance of focusing on resident team building, and leadership, but poor faculty participation was also an issue. The initial obstacles included timing, and designing the format. MR is an opportunity for residents to exercise and improve their knowledge, leadership, presentation and problem-solving skills. We would hypothesise that the advantages for teaching are many and include that residents are prepared for actual clinical problems in a supportive environment with opportunities for immediate feedback and assessment. Reports of educational effectiveness of MR are mostly anecdotal and further studies are needed to characterise the types of learning and teaching that occur during MR and to document educational effectiveness.

  8. Clinical efficiency in a simulated emergency and relationship to team behaviours: a multisite cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Siassakos, D; Bristowe, K; Draycott, T J; Angouri, J; Hambly, H; Winter, C; Crofts, J F; Hunt, L P; Fox, R

    2011-04-01

    To identify specific aspects of teamworking associated with greater clinical efficiency in simulated obstetric emergencies. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of video recordings from the Simulation & Fire-drill Evaluation (SaFE) randomised controlled trial. Six secondary and tertiary maternity units. A total of 114 randomly selected healthcare professionals, in 19 teams of six members. Two independent assessors, a clinician and a language communication specialist identified specific teamwork behaviours using a grid derived from the safety literature. Relationship between teamwork behaviours and the time to administration of magnesium sulfate, a validated measure of clinical efficiency, was calculated. More efficient teams were likely to (1) have stated (recognised and verbally declared) the emergency (eclampsia) earlier (Kendall's rank correlation coefficient τ(b) = -0.53, 95% CI from -0.74 to -0.32, P=0.004); and (2) have managed the critical task using closed-loop communication (task clearly and loudly delegated, accepted, executed and completion acknowledged) (τ(b) = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17-0.74, P=0.022). Teams that administered magnesium sulfate within the allocated time (10 minutes) had significantly fewer exits from the labour room compared with teams who did not: a median of three (IQR 2-5) versus six exits (IQR 5-6) (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney U-test). Using administration of an essential drug as a valid surrogate of team efficiency and patient outcome after a simulated emergency, we found that more efficient teams were more likely to exhibit certain team behaviours relating to better handover and task allocation. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  9. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  10. Carbon source dependent promoters in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene expression in yeasts in the past; their different behaviours were a reflection of the different needs of individual processes. Within this review we summarize the majority of the large available set of carbon source dependent promoters for protein expression in yeasts, either induced or derepressed by the particular carbon source provided. We examined the most common derepressed promoters for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, and described carbon source inducible promoters and promoters induced by non-sugar carbon sources. A special focus is given to promoters that are activated as soon as glucose is depleted, since such promoters can be very effective and offer an uncomplicated and scalable cultivation procedure. PMID:24401081

  11. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  12. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  13. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  14. An Investigation of How Lecturers' Teaching Strategies Promote Productive Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sit, Helena Hing Wa

    2013-01-01

    Both the Mainland and Hong Kong have witnessed the trend of educational internationalisation since the handover. The recruitment of non-local students is regarded as an important strategy to internalise universities in Hong Kong. Within Hong Kong's western-style educational setting, an increasing number of Mainland students attracted by the…

  15. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  16. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  17. Promoting Resilience in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2002-01-01

    This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…

  18. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  19. Promoting Resilience in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2002-01-01

    This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…

  20. Generation of an Artificial Double Promoter for Protein Expression in Bacillus subtilis through a Promoter Trap System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ji, Shengyue; Cao, Pinghua; Chen, Yulin; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an attractive host for production of recombinant proteins. Promoters and expression plasmid backbones have direct impacts on the efficiency of gene expression. To screen and isolate strong promoters, a promoter trap vector pShuttleF was developed in this study. Using the vector, approximately 1000 colonies containing likely promoters from Bacillus licheniformis genomic DNA were obtained. Amongst them, pShuttle-09 exhibited the highest β-Gal activities in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The activity of pShuttle-09 in B. subtilis was eight times of that of the P43 promoter, a commonly used strong promoter for B. subtilis. A sequence analysis showed that pShuttle-09 contained PluxS and truncated luxS in-frame fused with the reporter gene as well as another fragment upstream of PluxS containing a putative promoter. This putative promoter was a hybrid promoter and its β-Gal activity was higher than PluxS. Reconstructing the hybrid promoter from pShuttle-09 to PlapS further improved the β-Gal production by 60%. The usefulness of our promoter trap system is likely due to random shuffling and recombination of DNA fragments and adoption of a rapid and high-throughput screening. Thus, our data provide additional evidence to support the concept of using a promoter trap system to create new promoters. PMID:23409173

  1. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... participate in any legal proceedings against invention promoters or promotion firms. Complaints submitted to... promotion firm, explain the basis for the complaint, and include the signature of the complainant....

  2. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.

  3. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  4. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  5. Characterizing yeast promoters used in Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Hu, Shenglin; Zhu, Songli; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation at higher temperatures can potentially reduce the cooling cost in large-scale fermentation and reduce the contamination risk. Thus, the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which can grow and ferment at elevated temperatures, is a promising biotechnological tool for future applications. However, the promoters used in K. marxianus are not well characterized, especially at elevated temperatures, which is important in efficient metabolic pathway construction. In this study, six constitutive promoters (P(TDH3), P(PGK), and P(ADH1) from both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. marxianus) were evaluated in K. marxianus through the heterologous expression of the KlLAC4, GUSA, and SH BLE genes at various temperatures, with various carbon sources and oxygen conditions. The expression was evaluated at the transcription and protein level using real-time PCR and protein activity determination to eliminate the effect of heterologous protein stability. While the transcription of all the promoters decreased at higher temperatures, the order of their promoting strength at various temperatures with glucose as the carbon source was P(KmPGK) > P(KmTDH3) > P(ScPGK) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1). When glycerol or xylose was supplied as the carbon source at 42 °C, the order of promoter strength was P(KmPGK) > P(ScPGK) > P(KmADH1) > P(ScADH1) > P(ScTDH3) > P(KmTDH3). The promoter activity of P TDH3 decreased significantly, while the promoter activity of both of the P(ADH1) promoters increased. Oxygen conditions had non-significant effect. The results of this study provide important information for fine-tuned pathway construction for the metabolic engineering of K. marxianus.

  6. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology.

    PubMed

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression levels using libraries of synthetic promoters now exist.

  7. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  8. Growth-promotant implants: managing the tools.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Chris

    2007-07-01

    Great contemplation, conversation, and controversy have surrounded the use of growth-promotant implants since their inception in the 1950s. Since the very beginning, the purpose of growth promotants has been to enhance production efficiency, reduce the cost of production, and improve profitability. Changes in our understanding of the physiologic mechanisms involved in growth promotion have not altered this fundamental purpose. With enhanced knowledge of the impact of various compounds and doses on different classes of animals, and with the introduction of numerous products providing those compounds and doses, planning implant programs has become difficult. However, the net return from a well-designed implant program may mean the difference between profit and loss on a given set of cattle.

  9. Construction and application of a promoter-trapping vector with methyl parathion hydrolase gene mpd as the reporter.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Zhong-Hui; Li, Shun-Peng

    2004-07-01

    A facilitative and efficient promoter-trapping vector, pUC-mpd, was constructed with the promoterless methyl parathion hydrolase gene as the reporter. This reporter gene is easily used to clone promoters with different promoting strength on selective plates. Promoter regions of the ytkA and ywoF genes with strong promoting and signal peptide functions were cloned from the Bacillus subtilis 168 genomic promoter library with this vector.

  10. Cloning of a marine cyanobacterial promoter for foreign gene expression using a promoter probe vector

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Koji; Hatano, Naoaki; Tatara, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    A marine cyanobacterial promoter was cloned to allow efficient foreign gene expression. This was carried out using chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) as a marker protein. For rapid and simple measurement of CAT activity, a method based on a fluorescently labeled substrate was improved by utilizing HPLC equipped with a flow-through fluorescent spectrophotometer. This method was used in conjunction with a newly constructed promoter probe vector. Cyanobacterial transformants, harboring plasmid containing a cloned 2-kbp marine cyanobacterial genomic fragment, showed a 10-fold higher CAT activity, compared with that achieved using the kanamycin-resistant gene promoter. From the sequence analysis of the cloned fragment, a putative promoter region was found. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Brassinosteroid-promoted growth.

    PubMed

    Müssig, C

    2005-03-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are highly potent growth-promoting sterol derivatives. BR-deficient or BR-insensitive mutants display dwarfism. Whole plants and excised tissues have been used to analyse the mechanisms involved in BR-promoted growth. BR stimulates cell elongation and cell division, and BR has specific effects on differentiation. Underlying physiological pathways include modification of cell wall properties, effects on carbohydrate assimilation and allocation, and control of aquaporin activities. BR apparently coordinates and integrates diverse processes required for growth, partly via interactions with other phytohormones setting the frame for BR responses. Ultimately, BR-promoted growth is mediated through genomic pathways. Positive regulators of the BR response (such as BZR1 and BES1) and putative downstream components (such as EXO) are involved in the regulation of BR-responsive genes and growth promotion. BR-responsive genes have been identified in several plant species. However, causal links between physiological effects and changes of transcript patterns, for the most part, are still unresolved. This review focuses on physiology and molecular mechanisms underlying BR-promoted growth in the different plant organs. Interactions with other phytohormones are discussed.