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Sample records for promotes episomal replication

  1. Identification of a 450-bp region of human papillomavirus type 1 that promotes episomal replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Schmidt, Martin C.; Khan, Saleem A. . E-mail: khan@pitt.edu

    2005-09-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate as nuclear plasmids in infected cells. Since the DNA replication machinery is generally conserved between humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied whether HPV-1 DNA can replicate in yeast. Plasmids containing a selectable marker (with or without a yeast centromere) and either the full-length HPV-1 genome or various regions of the viral long control region (LCR) and the 3' end of the L1 gene were introduced into S. cerevisiae and their ability to replicate episomally was investigated. Our results show that HPV-1 sequences promote episomal replication of plasmids although the yeast centromere is required for plasmid retention. We have mapped the autonomously replicating sequence activity of HPV-1 DNA to a 450 base-pair sequence (HPV-1 nt 6783-7232) that includes 293 nucleotides from the 5' region of the viral LCR and 157 nucleotides from the 3' end of the L1 gene. The HPV-1 ARS does not include the binding sites for the viral E1 and E2 proteins, and these proteins are dispensable for replication in S. cerevisiae.

  2. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P.; Robertson, Erle S.; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:26837574

  3. Physiological levels of HBB transgene expression from S/MAR element-based replicating episomal vectors.

    PubMed

    Sgourou, Argyro; Routledge, Samantha; Spathas, Dionysios; Athanassiadou, Aglaia; Antoniou, Michael N

    2009-08-20

    Replicating episomal vectors (REV) are in principle able to provide long-term transgene expression in the absence of integration into the target cell genome. The scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) located 5' of the human beta-interferon gene (IFNB1) has been shown to confer a stable episomal replication and retention function within plasmid vectors when stably transfected and selected in mammalian cells. The minimal requirement for the IFNB1 S/MAR to function in DNA replication and episomal retention is transcription through this element. We used the erythroid beta-globin locus control region-beta-globin gene (betaLCR-HBB) microlocus cassette as a model to assess tissue-specific expression from within an IFNB1 S/MAR-based plasmid REV. The betaLCR-HBB plus S/MAR combination constructs provided either high or low levels of transcription through the S/MAR element. Our results show that the betaLCR-HBB microlocus is able to reproducibly and stably express at full physiological levels on an episome copy number basis. In addition, our data show that even low levels of transcription from betaLCR-HBB through the S/MAR element are sufficient to allow efficient episomal replication and retention. These data provide the principles upon which generic and flexible expression cassette-S/MAR-based REVs can be designed for a wide range of applications.

  4. Glucocorticoid regulation of transcription at an amplified, episomal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, M C; Richard-Foy, H; Wolford, R G; Berard, D S; Hager, G L

    1983-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) has been introduced into cultured murine cells, using the 69% transforming fragment of bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV). Transformed cells contain up to 200 copies of the chimeric molecules per diploid genome. The restriction endonuclease map of the acquired recombinants, as well as the physical structure of the DNA, indicates that the LTR-BPV molecules present in these cells occur exclusively as unintegrated, extrachromosomal episome. When a 72-base pair direct repeat "enhancer" element (derived from the Harvey sarcoma retrovirus) was included in the MMTV LTR-BPV chimeric plasmids, DNA acquired through transfection, with a single exception, was integrated or rearranged or both. The transcriptional potential of the episomal MMTV promoter present in these cells was tested in two ways. First, steady-state levels of MMTV-initiated RNA were measured by quantitative S1 mapping. Second, the relative number of transcription complexes initiated in vivo was determined by using a subnuclear fraction highly enriched for MMTV-BPV minichromosomes in an in vitro transcription extension assay. Both approaches showed that the MMTV LTR present in the episomal state was capable of supporting glucocorticoid hormone-regulated transcription. We have therefore demonstrated the hormone response for the first time in a totally defined primary sequence environment. Significant differences both in the basal level of MMTV-initiated transcription and in the extent of glucocorticoid induction were observed in individual cell lines with similar episomal copy numbers. These phenotypic variations suggest that epigenetic structure is an important component of the mechanism of regulation. Images PMID:6318079

  5. A Vector Based on the Chicken Hypersensitive Site 4 Insulator Element Replicates Episomally in Mammalian Cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Yin; Jia, Yan-Long; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-02-02

    Gene therapy in mammalian cells requires vectors exhibiting long-term stability and high expression. Episomal gene expression vectors offer a safe and attractive alternative to those that integrate into the host cell genome. In the present study, we developed a new episomal vector based on the insulator, chicken hypersensitive site 4 (cHS4). The cHS4 element was artificially synthesized, cloned into the pEGFP-C1 vector, and used to transfect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human Chang liver cells. The stably transfected cell colonies were further cultured in either the presence or absence of G418 selection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and vector rescue experiments demonstrated that the vector replicated episomally in both CHO and human Chang liver cells. Compared with episomal vectors mediated by matrix attachment region sequences, the cHS4 element-containing vector yielded increased transgene expression levels, transfection efficiency, and stability during long-term culture. The vector was present at a very low copy number in the cells and was stably maintained over more than 100 generations without selection pressure. In conclusion, apart from a few free vector forms, the cHS4-containing vector mainly replicates episomally in mammalian cells and out-performs comparable systems in terms of yielding both higher expression levels and stability levels.

  6. Epstein-Barr-based episomal chromosomes shuttle 100 kb of self-replicating circular human DNA in mouse cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Z.T.; Fu, H.; Livanos, E.; Wendelburg, B.; Gulino, S.; Vos, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the microcell fusion transfer of 100--200 kb self-replicating circular human minichromosomes from human into mouse cells. This experimental approach is illustrated through the shuttling of the latent 170 kb double-stranded DNA genome from the human herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, into nonpermissive rodent cells. Using this interspecies transfer strategy, circular episomes carrying 95--105 kb of human DNA were successfully established at low copy number in mouse A9 cells. Selected episomes were stably maintained for 6 months, and unselected episomes were characterized by a 95% episomal retention per cell division. The establishment of a mouse artificial episomal chromosome system should facilitate evolutionary and therapeutic studies of large human DNA in rodent genetic backgrounds.

  7. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  8. Replication of chromosomal and episomal DNA in X-ray-damaged human cells: A cis- or trans-acting mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Rose, R.; Mitchell, D.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Episomal plasmids and viruses in mammalian cells present small targets for X-ray-induced DNA damage. At doses up to 100 Gy, DNA strand breaks or endonuclease III-sensitive sites were not discernible in 10.3-kb Epstein-Barr virus-based plasmid DNA or in 4.9-kb defective simian virus 40 DNA. DNA replication in these small molecules, however, was inhibited strongly by X-ray doses of greater than or equal to 20 Gy, decreasing to only 20 to 40% of control values. Inhibition was relieved slightly by growth in caffeine but was increased by growth in 3-aminobenzamide. Inhibition of DNA replication in episomal DNA molecules that are too small to sustain significant damage directly to their DNA may be due to either (a) a trans-acting diffusible factor that transfers the consequences of DNA breakage to episomes and to other replicating molecules, (b) a cis-acting mechanism in which episomes are structurally linked to genomic chromatin, and replication of both episomal and chromosomal replicons is under common control, or (c) radiation damage on other cellular structures unrelated to DNA. The resolution of these cellular mechanisms may shed light on the X-ray-resistant replication in ataxia-telangiectasia and may suggest strategies for molecular characterization of potential trans- or cis-acting factors.

  9. The Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen DNA Binding Domain Dorsal Positive Electrostatic Patch Facilitates DNA Replication and Episome Persistence.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Tan, Min; Juillard, Franceline; Ponnusamy, Rajesh; Correia, Bruno; Simas, J Pedro; Carrondo, Maria A; McVey, Colin E; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2015-11-20

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates persistence of viral episomes in latently infected cells. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and segregates episomes to progeny nuclei. The structure of the LANA DNA binding domain was recently solved, revealing a positive electrostatic patch opposite the DNA binding surface, which is the site of BET protein binding. Here we investigate the functional role of the positive patch in LANA-mediated episome persistence. As expected, LANA mutants with alanine or glutamate substitutions in the central, peripheral, or lateral portions of the positive patch maintained the ability to bind DNA by EMSA. However, all of the substitution mutants were deficient for LANA DNA replication and episome maintenance. Mutation of the peripheral region generated the largest deficiencies. Despite these deficiencies, all positive patch mutants concentrated to dots along mitotic chromosomes in cells containing episomes, similar to LANA. The central and peripheral mutants, but not the lateral mutants, were reduced for BET protein interaction as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. However, defects in BET protein binding were independent of episome maintenance function. Overall, the reductions in episome maintenance closely correlated with DNA replication deficiencies, suggesting that the replication defects account for the reduced episome persistence. Therefore, the electrostatic patch exerts a key role in LANA-mediated DNA replication and episome persistence and may act through a host cell partner(s) other than a BET protein or by inducing specific structures or complexes.

  10. The β-globin Replicator greatly enhances the potential of S/MAR based episomal vectors for gene transfer into human haematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Eleana F.; Lazaris, Vassileios M.; Giannakopoulos, Aristeidis; Papapetrou, Eirini; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Zoumbos, Nikolas C.; Gkountis, Antonis; Athanassiadou, Aglaia

    2017-01-01

    Specific human chromosomal elements enhance the performance of episomal gene-transfer vectors. S/MAR-based episomal vector pEPI-eGFP transfects CD34+ haematopoietic cells, but only transiently. To address this issue we reinforced (1) transgene transcription by replacing the CMV promoter driving eGFP with the EF1/HTLV or SFFV promoters to produce vectors pEPI-EF1/HTLV and pEPI-SFFV, respectively; and (2) plasmid replication by inserting the replication-Initiation Region (IR) from the β-globin locus into vector pEPI-SFFV to produce vector pEP-IR. All vectors supported stable transfections in K562 cells. Transfections of CD34+ cells from peripheral blood of healthy donors reached 30% efficiency. Upon evaluation of CD34+/eGFP+ cells in colony-forming cell (CFC) assays, vector pEP-IR showed superior performance after 14 days, by fluorescent microscopy: 100% eGFP+-colonies against 0% for pEPI-eGFP, 56.9% for pEPI-SFFV and 49.8% for pEPI-EF1/HTLV; 50% more plasmid copies per cell and 3-fold eGFP expression compared to the latter two constructs, by quantitative (q)PCR and RT-qPCR, respectively. Importantly, the establishment rate in CFC assays was 15% for pEP-IR against 5.5% for pEPI-SFFV and 5% for pEPI-EF1/HTLV. Vector pEP-IR shows extremely low delivery rate but supports eGFP expression in thalassaemic mouse haematopoietic progenitor cells. The IR is a novel human control element for improved episomal gene transfer into progenitor cells. PMID:28106085

  11. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Cardona, Esteban; Chuang, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs) on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration. PMID:27736950

  12. Non-viral S/MAR vectors replicate episomally in vivo when provided with a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Wong, S P; Argyros, O; Coutelle, C; Harbottle, R P

    2011-01-01

    The ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent expression without the limitations of safety and reproducibility. We previously reported that a prototype plasmid vector, containing a scaffold matrix attachment region (S/MAR) domain and the luciferase reporter gene, showed transgene expression for at least 6 months following a single administration to MF1 mice. Following partial hepatectomy of the animals, however, we found no detectable vector replication and subsequent propagation in vivo. To overcome this drawback, we have now developed an in vivo liver selection strategy by which liver cells transfected with an S/MAR plasmid are provided with a survival advantage over non-transfected cells. This allows an enrichment of vectors that are capable of replicating and establishing themselves as extra-chromosomal entities in the liver. Accordingly, a novel S/MAR plasmid encoding the Bcl-2 gene was constructed; Bcl-2 expression confers resistance against apoptosis-mediated challenges by the Fas-activating antibody Jo2. Following hydrodynamic delivery to the livers of mice and frequent Jo2 administrations, we demonstrate that this Bcl-luciferase S/MAR plasmid is indeed capable of providing sustained luciferase reporter gene expression for over 3 months and that this plasmid replicates as an episomal entity in vivo. These results provide proof-of-principle that S/MAR vectors are capable of preventing transgene silencing, are resistant to integration and are able to confer mitotic stability in vivo when provided with a selective advantage.

  13. Epstein-barr virus shuttle vector for stable episomal replication of cDNA expression libraries in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Margolskee, R.F.; Kavathas, P.; Berg, P.

    1988-07-01

    Efficient transfection and expression of cDNA libraries in human cells has been achieved with an Epstein-Barr virus-based subcloning vector (EBO-pcD). The plasmid vector contains a resistance marker for hygromcying B to permit selection for transformed cells. The Epstein-Barr virus origin for plasmid replication (oriP) and the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen gene have also been incorporated into the vector to ensure that the plasmids are maintained stably and extrachromosomally. Human lymphoblastodi cells can be stably transformed at high efficiency (10 to 15%) by such plasmids, thereby permitting the ready isolation of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/ independent transformants. Consequently, entire high-complexity EBO-pcD expression libraries can be introduced into these cells. Furthermore, since EBP-pcD plasmids are maintained as episomes at two to eight copies per cell, intact cDNA clones can be readily isolated from transformants and recovered by propagation in Escherichia coli. By using such vectors, human cells have been stably transformed with EBO-pcD-hprt to express hypoxanthing-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and with EBO-pcD-Leu-2 to express the human T-cell surface marker Leu-2. Reconstruction experiments with mixtures of EBO-pcD plasmids demonstrated that one clone of EBO-pcD-hprt per 10/sup 6/ total clones or one clone of EBO-pcD-Leu-2 per 2 x 10/sup 4/ total clones can be recovered intact from the transformed cells. The ability to directly select for expression of very rare EBO-pcD clones and to then recover these episomes should make it possible to clone certain genes where hybridization and immunological screening methods are not applicable but where a phenotype can be scored or selected in human cell lines.

  14. Cloned origin of DNA replication in c-myc gene can function and be transmitted in transgenic mice in an episomal state.

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, K; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1990-01-01

    The c-myc protein has recently been shown to interact with a region possessing putative origin of DNA replication and enhancer activities located 2 kb upstream of the c-myc gene itself. Transgenic mice were obtained by injecting constructs containing this region, termed pmyc(H-P), into fertilized mouse eggs. The transgenic elements were capable of efficient replication in all mouse tissues examined and were maintained in an episomal state even in highly differentiated cells. Moreover, pmyc(H-P) was transmittable to the progeny throughout several generations, which suggests that the fragment derived from the region upstream of the c-myc gene possesses sequences necessary for partition, stability and DNA replication of the plasmid in the cells. In addition, we have shown that the plasmid might be captured only by eggs, not by sperm. Images PMID:2216716

  15. An Interaction between Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 Is Required for Optimum Viral DNA Replication and Episomal Genome Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Mary M.; Mackintosh, Lorna J.; Bodily, Jason M.; Dornan, Edward S.; Laimins, Laimonis A.

    2012-01-01

    In human papillomavirus DNA replication, the viral protein E2 forms homodimers and binds to 12-bp palindromic DNA sequences surrounding the origin of DNA replication. Via a protein-protein interaction, it then recruits the viral helicase E1 to an A/T-rich origin of replication, whereupon a dihexamer forms, resulting in DNA replication initiation. In order to carry out DNA replication, the viral proteins must interact with host factors that are currently not all known. An attractive cellular candidate for regulating viral replication is TopBP1, a known interactor of the E2 protein. In mammalian DNA replication, TopBP1 loads DNA polymerases onto the replicative helicase after the G1-to-S transition, and this process is tightly cell cycle controlled. The direct interaction between E2 and TopBP1 would allow E2 to bypass this cell cycle control, resulting in DNA replication more than once per cell cycle, which is a requirement for the viral life cycle. We report here the generation of an HPV16 E2 mutant compromised in TopBP1 interaction in vivo and demonstrate that this mutant retains transcriptional activation and repression functions but has suboptimal DNA replication potential. Introduction of this mutant into a viral life cycle model results in the failure to establish viral episomes. The results present a potential new antiviral target, the E2-TopBP1 interaction, and increase our understanding of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the E2-TopBP1 interaction is essential. PMID:22973044

  16. A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription. Images PMID:8065368

  17. LCR-mediated, long-term tissue-specific gene expression within replicating episomal plasmid and cosmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Chow, C-M; Athanassiadou, A; Raguz, S; Psiouri, L; Harland, L; Malik, M; Aitken, M A; Grosveld, F; Antoniou, M

    2002-03-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are transcriptional regulatory elements, which possess a dominant chromatin remodelling and transcriptional activating capability conferring full physiological levels of expression on a gene linked in cis, when integrated into the host cell genome. Using the human beta-globin LCR (betaLCR) as a model, we show that this class of control element can drive high levels of tissue-specific gene expression in stably transfected cultured cells from within an Epstein-Barr virus-based plasmid REV. Furthermore, a 38-kb betaLCR minilocus-REV cosmid vector was efficiently retained and maintained therapeutic levels of beta-globin transgene expression in the absence of drug selective pressure over a 2-month period of continuous culture equivalent to at least 60 generations. This demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using REVs for gene therapy of the haemoglobinopathies. Importantly, our results demonstrate that as in the case of integrated transgenes, expression from within REVs is prone to silencing but that the inclusion of the betaLCR prevented this repression of gene function. Therefore, appropriate control elements to provide and maintain tissue-specific gene expression, as well as the episomal status of REVs is a crucial feature in vector design. Our data suggest that LCRs can contribute to this vital function.

  18. Chk1 promotes replication fork progression by controlling replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Eva; Woodcock, Mick; Helleday, Thomas

    2010-09-14

    DNA replication starts at initiation sites termed replication origins. Metazoan cells contain many more potential origins than are activated (fired) during each S phase. Origin activation is controlled by the ATR checkpoint kinase and its downstream effector kinase Chk1, which suppresses origin firing in response to replication blocks and during normal S phase by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. In addition to increased origin activation, cells deficient in Chk1 activity display reduced rates of replication fork progression. Here we investigate the causal relationship between increased origin firing and reduced replication fork progression. We use the Cdk inhibitor roscovitine or RNAi depletion of Cdc7 to inhibit origin firing in Chk1-inhibited or RNAi-depleted cells. We report that Cdk inhibition and depletion of Cdc7 can alleviate the slow replication fork speeds in Chk1-deficient cells. Our data suggest that increased replication initiation leads to slow replication fork progression and that Chk1 promotes replication fork progression during normal S phase by controlling replication origin activity.

  19. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bilousova, Ganna; Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C; Cardiff, Robert D; DeGregori, James

    2005-12-01

    Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  20. Tetracycline-inducible promoter-based conditionally replicative adenoviruses for the control of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Takayama, K; Zhang, L; Uchino, J; Harada, A; Harada, T; Hisasue, J; Nakagaki, N; Zhou, C; Nakanishi, Y

    2009-05-01

    The use of conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) as a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy has been developed to overcome inefficient transduction of solid tumor masses by replication-deficient adenoviruses. Many modifications have been made to CRAds to enlarge tropism, increase selectivity and lytic ability, and improve safety. However, safety is still a concern in the context of future clinical application of CRAds. Particularly, after injection into the body, viral replication cannot be controlled externally. Therefore, we constructed a novel CRAd using a tetracycline-inducible promoter system to realize external pharmacological control of its replication. The effect of this CRAd in vitro was measured at the levels of viral DNA replication, cell death and progeny production. We showed that CRAd replication was tightly controlled by the presence or absence of doxycycline (Dox). Moreover, this system showed a significant gene expression in vivo, in which the viral replication was controlled by the oral administration of Dox. This strategy may help improve the safety of cancer gene therapy.

  1. Episomal vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Anja; Haase, Rudolf; Schepers, Aloys; Deutsch, Manuel J; Lipps, Hans Joachim; Baiker, Armin

    2008-06-01

    The increasing knowledge of the molecular and genetic background of many different human diseases has led to the vision that genetic engineering might be used one day for their phenotypic correction. The main goal of gene therapy is to treat loss-of-function genetic disorders by delivering correcting therapeutic DNA sequences into the nucleus of a cell, allowing its long-term expression at physiologically relevant levels. Manifold different vector systems for the therapeutic gene delivery have been described over the recent years. They all have their individual advantages but also their individual limitations and must be judged on a careful risk/benefit analysis. Integrating vector systems can deliver genetic material to a target cell with high efficiency enabling long-term expression of an encoded transgene. The main disadvantage of integrating vector systems, however, is their potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Episomal vector systems have the potential to avoid these undesired side effects, since they behave as separate extrachromosomal elements in the nucleus of a target cell. Within this article we present a comprehensive survey of currently available episomal vector systems for the genetic modification of mammalian cells. We will discuss their advantages and disadvantages and their applications in the context of basic research, biotechnology and gene therapy.

  2. Transpositionally active episomal hAT elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background hAT elements and V(D)J recombination may have evolved from a common ancestral transposable element system. Extrachromosomal, circular forms of transposable elements (referred to here as episomal forms) have been reported yet their biological significance remains unknown. V(D)J signal joints, which resemble episomal transposable elements, have been considered non-recombinogenic products of V(D)J recombination and a safe way to dispose of excised chromosomal sequences. V(D)J signal joints can, however, participate in recombination reactions and the purpose of this study was to determine if hobo and Hermes episomal elements are also recombinogenic. Results Up to 50% of hobo/Hermes episomes contained two intact, inverted-terminal repeats and 86% of these contained from 1-1000 bp of intercalary DNA. Episomal hobo/Hermes elements were recovered from Musca domestica (a natural host of Hermes), Drosophila melanogaster (a natural host of hobo) and transgenic Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti (with autonomous Hermes elements). Episomal Hermes elements were recovered from unfertilized eggs of M. domestica and D. melanogaster demonstrating their potential for extrachromosomal, maternal transmission. Reintegration of episomal Hermes elements was observed in vitro and in vivo and the presence of Hermes episomes resulted in lower rates of canonical Hermes transposition in vivo. Conclusion Episomal hobo/Hermes elements are common products of element excision and can be maternally transmitted. Episomal forms of Hermes are capable of integration and also of influencing the transposition of canonical elements suggesting biological roles for these extrachromosomal elements in element transmission and regulation. PMID:20003420

  3. An episomal expression vector for screening mutant gene libraries in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles C; Williams, Tina G; Wong, Dominic W S; Robertson, George H

    2005-07-01

    Screening mutant gene libraries for isolating improved enzyme variants is a powerful technique that benefits from effective and reliable biological expression systems. Pichia pastoris is a very useful organism to express proteins that are inactive in other hosts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, most P. pastoris expression plasmids are designed to integrate into the host chromosome and hence are not as amenable to high-throughput screening projects. We have designed a P. pastoris expression vector, pBGP1, incorporating an autonomous replication sequence that allows the plasmid to exist as an episomal element. This vector contains the alpha-factor signal sequence to direct secretion of the mutant enzymes. Expression of the genes is driven by the constitutive GAP promoter, thus eliminating the need for timed or cell density-specific inductions. The pBGP1 plasmid was used to screen a xylanase gene library to isolate higher activity mutants.

  4. DDX59 promotes DNA replication in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    You, Jin; Wang, Xingshun; Wang, Jiuling; Yuan, Baolei; Zhang, Yandong

    2017-01-01

    DEAD box proteins are multifunctional proteins involved in every aspect in RNA metabolism and have essential roles in many cellular activities. Despite their importance, many DEAD box proteins remain uncharacterized. In this report, we found DDX59 overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. DDX59 knockdown reduced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and caused reduction of tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. In multiple lung cancer cells, we found that DDX59 knockdown inhibits DNA synthesis; wild-type DDX59 but not helicase-defective mutant of DDX59 enhances DNA synthesis. DDX59 knockdown caused reduction of MCM protein levels, decreased the loading of MCM ring protein onto chromatin, and therefore inhibited DNA replication. Our study reveals for the first time that DDX59 has an important role in lung cancer development through promoting DNA replication. PMID:28090355

  5. AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ekeowa-Anderson, Arucha L; Purdie, Karin J; Gibbon, Karen; Byrne, Carolyn R; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Harwood, Catherine A; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV), particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma-) PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.

  6. Specific replication origins promote DNA amplification in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lee; Heichinger, Christian; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg; Nurse, Paul

    2010-09-15

    To ensure equal replication of the genome in every eukaryotic cell cycle, replication origins fire only once each S phase and do not fire after passive replication. Failure in these controls can lead to local amplification, contributing to genome instability and the development of cancer. To identify features of replication origins important for such amplification, we have investigated origin firing and local genome amplification in the presence of excess helicase loaders Cdc18 and Cdt1 in fission yeast. We find that S phase controls are attenuated and coordination of origin firing is lost, resulting in local amplification. Specific origins are necessary for amplification but act only within a permissive chromosomal context. Origins associated with amplification are highly AT-rich, fire efficiently and early during mitotic S phase, and are located in large intergenic regions. We propose that these features predispose replication origins to re-fire within a single S phase, or to remain active after passive replication.

  7. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  8. S/MAR sequence confers long-term mitotic stability on non-integrating lentiviral vector episomes without selection.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Santhosh Chakkaramakkil; Goloviznina, Natalya A; Skinner, Amy M; Lipps, Hans J; Kurre, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Insertional oncogene activation and aberrant splicing have proved to be major setbacks for retroviral stem cell gene therapy. Integrase-deficient human immunodeficiency virus-1-derived vectors provide a potentially safer approach, but their circular genomes are rapidly lost during cell division. Here we describe a novel lentiviral vector (LV) that incorporates human ß-interferon scaffold/matrix-associated region sequences to provide an origin of replication for long-term mitotic maintenance of the episomal LTR circles. The resulting 'anchoring' non-integrating lentiviral vector (aniLV) achieved initial transduction rates comparable with integrating vector followed by progressive establishment of long-term episomal expression in a subset of cells. Analysis of aniLV-transduced single cell-derived clones maintained without selective pressure for >100 rounds of cell division showed sustained transgene expression from episomes and provided molecular evidence for long-term episome maintenance. To evaluate aniLV performance in primary cells, we transduced lineage-depleted murine hematopoietic progenitor cells, observing GFP expression in clonogenic progenitor colonies and peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism following transplantation into conditioned hosts. In aggregate, our studies suggest that scaffold/matrix-associated region elements can serve as molecular anchors for non-integrating lentivector episomes, providing sustained gene expression through successive rounds of cell division and progenitor differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W.; Bryne, Dominic P.; Myers, Katie N.; Patil, Abhijit A.; Eyers, Claire E.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Eyers, Patrick A.; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity. PMID:27382066

  10. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W; Bryne, Dominic P; Myers, Katie N; Patil, Abhijit A; Eyers, Claire E; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Eyers, Patrick A; Collis, Spencer J

    2016-10-14

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity.

  11. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant ‘Cdc6-E224Q’ promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05795.001 PMID:26305410

  12. FANCM interacts with PCNA to promote replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Rohleder, Florian; Huang, Jing; Xue, Yutong; Kuper, Jochen; Round, Adam; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong; Kisker, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    FANCM is a highly conserved DNA remodeling enzyme that promotes the activation of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway and facilitates replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, how FANCM interacts with the replication machinery to promote traverse remains unclear. Here, we show that FANCM and its archaeal homolog Hef from Thermoplasma acidophilum interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential co-factor for DNA polymerases in both replication and repair. The interaction is mediated through a conserved PIP-box; and in human FANCM, it is strongly stimulated by replication stress. A FANCM variant carrying a mutation in the PIP-box is defective in promoting replication traverse of interstrand crosslinks and is also inefficient in promoting FANCD2 monoubiquitination, a key step of the Fanconi anemia pathway. Our data reveal a conserved interaction mode between FANCM and PCNA during replication stress, and suggest that this interaction is essential for FANCM to aid replication machines to traverse DNA interstrand crosslinks prior to post-replication repair. PMID:26825464

  13. The large episomes of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316T have arisen through intragenomic gene shuttling from the chromosome to smaller Butyrivibrio-specific plasmids.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Carl J; Kelly, William J; Rakonjac, Jasna; Leahy, Sinead C; Altermann, Eric; Attwood, Graeme T

    2011-07-01

    The genome of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316(T) contains three large episomes including a 302 kb chromid (BPc2) and two large plasmids of 361 (pCY360) and 186 kb (pCY186). The two plasmids are largely cryptic and it is therefore difficult to gauge their contributions or importance to the biology of B. proteoclasticus. Here, we provide evidence that at least BPc2 and pCY360 are essential as neither could be cured using several previously described curing techniques. We show that BPc2 exists at a copy number of 1, while pCY360 and pCY186 exist at copy numbers of 4 and 0.9, respectively. Yet the transcriptional activities of each episome are much less than that of the 3.5 Mb chromosome. Codon usage analyses did not support the hypothesis that the genes of all three episomes were acquired horizontally. Instead our analyses suggest that the vast majority of genes on each episome were transferred from the 3.5 Mb B. proteoclasticus chromosome. Analysis of their replication origins, however, suggests the plasmid backbones share an evolutionary lineage with the smaller Butyrivibrio specific plasmids, pRJF1 and pRJF2. A survey of 13 species of the Butyrivibrio/Pseudobutyrivibrio assemblage identified similar large episomes in nine strains. DNA hybridization experiments revealed none contained an rRNA operon and only a 145 kb episome from Pseudobutyrivibrioruminis possessed an ortholog of the pCY360 plasmid replication initiation protein. The size and distribution of episomes within the nine strains of Butyrivibrio/Pseudobutyrivibrio showed no correlation with 16S rRNA based phylogeny, leading to a hypothesis that the large episomes of Butyrivibrio spp., have arisen through intragenomic gene transfer events from the chromosome to small horizontally acquired elements.

  14. Controlled removal of a nonviral episomal vector from transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Sina; Hagedorn, Claudia; Seruggia, Davide; Magnusson, Terese; Wagner, Ernst; Ogris, Manfred; Lipps, Hans J

    2010-10-15

    An ideal vector to be used in gene therapy should allow long-term and regulated expression of the therapeutic sequence, but in many cases, it would be most desirable to remove all ectopic vector sequences from the cell once expression is no longer required. The vector pEPI is the first nonviral autonomous replicon that was constructed for mammalian cells. It represents a minimal model system to study the epigenetic regulation of replication and transcription but is also regarded as a promising alternative to currently used viral vector systems in gene therapy. Its function relies on a transcription unit linked to an S/MAR sequence. We constructed an inducible pEPI vector system based on the Tet ON system in which transcription is switched on in the presence of doxycycline. We show that for vector replication and long-term maintenance an ongoing transcription running into the S/MAR element is required. Once established, the vector is lost from the cell upon switching off transcription from the gene linked to the S/MAR. This feature provides not only controlled transgene expression but also the possibility to remove all vector molecules from the cells upon demand. This inducible episomal nonviral vector system will find broad application in gene therapy but also in reprogramming of somatic cells or modification of stem cells.

  15. FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom's helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex ('BLMcx') containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI.

  16. The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

  17. Human Choline Kinase-α Promotes Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through Modulation of Membranous Viral Replication Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mun-Teng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection reorganizes cellular membranes to create an active viral replication site named the membranous web (MW). The role that human choline kinase-α (hCKα) plays in HCV replication remains elusive. Here, we first showed that hCKα activity, not the CDP-choline pathway, promoted viral RNA replication. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of HCV-infected cells revealed that a small fraction of hCKα colocalized with the viral replication complex (RC) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that HCV infection increased hCKα localization to the ER. In the pTM-NS3-NS5B model, NS3-NS5B expression increased the localization of the wild-type, not the inactive D288A mutant, hCKα on the ER, and hCKα activity was required for effective trafficking of hCKα and NS5A to the ER. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that hCKα was recruited onto the viral RC presumably through its binding to NS5A domain 1 (D1). hCKα silencing or treatment with CK37, an hCKα activity inhibitor, abolished HCV-induced MW formation. In addition, hCKα depletion hindered NS5A localization on the ER, interfered with NS5A and NS5B colocalization, and mitigated NS5A-NS5B interactions but had no apparent effect on NS5A-NS4B and NS4B-NS5B interactions. Nevertheless, hCKα activity was not essential for the binding of NS5A to hCKα or NS5B. These findings demonstrate that hCKα forms a complex with NS5A and that hCKα activity enhances the targeting of the complex to the ER, where hCKα protein, not activity, mediates NS5A binding to NS5B, thereby promoting functional membranous viral RC assembly and viral RNA replication. IMPORTANCE HCV infection reorganizes the cellular membrane to create an active viral replication site named the membranous web (MW). Here, we report that human choline kinase-α (hCKα) acts as an essential host factor for HCV RNA replication. A fraction of hCKα colocalizes with the viral replication complex (RC) on the endoplasmic reticulum

  18. RECQ5 helicase promotes resolution of conflicts between replication and transcription in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Vaclav; Dobrovolna, Jana; Hühn, Daniela; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Collisions between replication and transcription machineries represent a significant source of genomic instability. RECQ5 DNA helicase binds to RNA-polymerase (RNAP) II during transcription elongation and suppresses transcription-associated genomic instability. Here, we show that RECQ5 also associates with RNAPI and enforces the stability of ribosomal DNA arrays. We demonstrate that RECQ5 associates with transcription complexes in DNA replication foci and counteracts replication fork stalling in RNAPI- and RNAPII-transcribed genes, suggesting that RECQ5 exerts its genome-stabilizing effect by acting at sites of replication-transcription collisions. Moreover, RECQ5-deficient cells accumulate RAD18 foci and BRCA1-dependent RAD51 foci that are both formed at sites of interference between replication and transcription and likely represent unresolved replication intermediates. Finally, we provide evidence for a novel mechanism of resolution of replication-transcription collisions wherein the interaction between RECQ5 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promotes RAD18-dependent PCNA ubiquitination and the helicase activity of RECQ5 promotes the processing of replication intermediates. PMID:27502483

  19. A Promoter Region Mutation Affecting Replication of the Tetrahymena Ribosomal DNA Minichromosome

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Renata C.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    1998-01-01

    In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) minichromosome replicates partially under cell cycle control and is also subject to a copy number control mechanism. The relationship between rDNA replication and rRNA gene transcription was investigated by the analysis of replication, transcription, and DNA-protein interactions in a mutant rDNA, the rmm3 rDNA. The rmm3 (for rDNA maturation or maintenance mutant 3) rDNA contains a single-base deletion in the rRNA promoter region, in a phylogenetically conserved sequence element that is repeated in the replication origin region of the rDNA minichromosome. The multicopy rmm3 rDNA minichromosome has a maintenance defect in the presence of a competing rDNA allele in heterozygous cells. No difference in the level of rRNA transcription was found between wild-type and rmm3 strains. However, rmm3 rDNA replicating intermediates exhibited an enhanced pause in the region of the replication origin, roughly 750 bp upstream from the rmm3 mutation. In footprinting of isolated nuclei, the rmm3 rDNA lacked the wild-type dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprint in the promoter region adjacent to the base change. In addition, a DMS footprint in the origin region was lost in the rmm3 rDNA minichromosome. This is the first reported correlation in this system between an rDNA minichromosome maintenance defect and an altered footprint in the origin region. Our results suggest that a promoter region mutation can affect replication without detectably affecting transcription. We propose a model in which interactions between promoter and origin region complexes facilitate replication and maintenance of the Tetrahymena rDNA minichromosome. PMID:9566921

  20. Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the βC1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the βC1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between −390 nt and −418 nt), which includes a 5′UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5′UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the βC1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5′UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both βC1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

  1. Episomal maintenance of S/MAR-containing non-viral vectors for RPE-based diseases.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Adarsha; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of non-viral genetic therapies has historically been limited by transient gene expression and vector loss. Scaffold matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) have been shown to augment transcription, promote episomal maintenance, and provide insulator-like function to DNA in in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we explore the ability of S/MAR elements to mediate these effects in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with the eventual goal of improving the persistence of expression of our non-viral gene delivery tools. We engineered an RPE-specific reporter vector with or without an S/MAR immediately downstream of the eGFP expression cassette. We show that the S/MAR vector is maintained as an episome for up to 1 year. Experiments in which rhodamine-labeled DNA was delivered to the subretinal space of mice show better persistence of the S/MAR-containing vector in the RPE than the non-S/MAR vector. These results suggest that inclusion of the S/MAR region promotes episomal maintenance of plasmid DNA in the RPE after subretinal delivery and that inclusion of this DNA element may be beneficial for non-viral ocular gene transfer.

  2. Promotion of Hendra Virus Replication by MicroRNA 146a

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Glenn A.; Jenkins, Kristie A.; Gantier, Michael P.; Tizard, Mark L.; Middleton, Deborah; Lowenthal, John W.; Haining, Jessica; Izzard, Leonard; Gough, Tamara J.; Deffrasnes, Celine; Stambas, John; Robinson, Rachel; Heine, Hans G.; Pallister, Jackie A.; Foord, Adam J.; Bean, Andrew G.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus. Thirty-nine outbreaks of Hendra virus have been reported since its initial identification in Queensland, Australia, resulting in seven human infections and four fatalities. Little is known about cellular host factors impacting Hendra virus replication. In this work, we demonstrate that Hendra virus makes use of a microRNA (miRNA) designated miR-146a, an NF-κB-responsive miRNA upregulated by several innate immune ligands, to favor its replication. miR-146a is elevated in the blood of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus and is upregulated by Hendra virus in human cells in vitro. Blocking miR-146a reduces Hendra virus replication in vitro, suggesting a role for this miRNA in Hendra virus replication. In silico analysis of miR-146a targets identified ring finger protein (RNF)11, a member of the A20 ubiquitin editing complex that negatively regulates NF-κB activity, as a novel component of Hendra virus replication. RNA interference-mediated silencing of RNF11 promotes Hendra virus replication in vitro, suggesting that increased NF-κB activity aids Hendra virus replication. Furthermore, overexpression of the IκB superrepressor inhibits Hendra virus replication. These studies are the first to demonstrate a host miRNA response to Hendra virus infection and suggest an important role for host miRNAs in Hendra virus disease. PMID:23345523

  3. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

    1999-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement.

  4. Possible function of the c-myc product: promotion of cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Itani, T; Kiji, Y; Ariga, H

    1987-01-01

    We have recently cloned a plasmid, pARS65, containing the sequences derived from mouse liver DNA which can autonomously replicate in mouse and human cells (Ariga et al., 1987). In this report, we show that replication of pARS65 in HL-60 cells can be inhibited by co-transfection with anti-c-myc antibody. In an in-vitro replication system using HL-60 nuclear extract, pARS65 functioned as a template. This in-vitro replication was also blocked by addition of anti-c-myc antibody. Specific binding activity of the c-myc product to pARS65 was detected by an immunobinding assay, suggesting that the c-myc protein promotes DNA replication through binding to the initiation site of replication. This has been substantiated using the antibody to help isolate a human DNA segment that can autonomously replicate in the cells. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3665880

  5. Mapping of an Origin of DNA Replication in the Promoter of Fragile X Gene FMR1

    PubMed Central

    Brylawski, Bruna P.; Chastain, Paul D.; Cohen, Stephanie M.; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufman, David G.

    2007-01-01

    An origin of bidirectional DNA replication was mapped to the promoter of the FMR1 gene in human chromosome Xq27.3, which has been linked to the fragile X syndrome. This origin is adjacent to a CpG island and overlaps the site of expansion of the triplet repeat (CGG) at the fragile X instability site, FRAXA. The promoter region of FMR2 in the FRAXE site (approximately 600 kb away, in chromosome band Xq28) also includes an origin of replication, as previously described. FMR1 transcripts were detected in foreskin and male fetal lung fibroblasts, while FMR2 transcripts were not. However, both FMR1 and FMR2 were found to replicate late in S phase (approximately six hours into the S phase of normal human fibroblasts). The position of the origin of replication relative to the CGG repeat, and perhaps the late replication of these genes, might be important factors in the susceptibility to triplet repeat amplification at the FRAXA and FRAXE sites. PMID:17196195

  6. Structural homologies and functional similarities between mammalian origins of replication and amplification promoting sequences.

    PubMed

    Stolzenburg, F; Gerwig, R; Dinkl, E; Grummt, F

    1994-06-01

    MuNTS2, a 423 bp sequence isolated from the non-transcribed spacer of murine rDNA stimulates the amplification of cis-linked plasmid DNA in mouse cells under selective conditions. Here we demonstrate that a 180 bp subdomain of muNTS2 is highly homologous (approximately 70%) to three domains of the first well-characterized origin of replication of mammalian chromosomes, i.e. the origin of bidirectional replication (OBR) of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. When subcloned, the 180 bp homology region of muNTS2 was revealed to be essential for the amplification promoting activity of muNTS2. Fragments of the initiation zone of DNA replication from the DHFR locus of hamster cells containing the domains of homology to the mouse muNTS2 element proved also to promote DNA amplification. Thus, the screening system for amplification promoting elements turned out to detect an origin of bidirectional replication.

  7. MAR characteristic motifs mediate episomal vector in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Li, Zhaoxi; Wang, Tianyun; Wang, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li; Dong, Weihua; Jing, Changqin; Yang, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations in safety and reproducibility. Recent researches' insight into the ability of chromosomal matrix attachment regions (MARs) to mediate episomal maintenance of genetic elements allowed the development of a circular episomal vector. Although a MAR-mediated engineered vector has been developed, little is known on which motifs of MAR confer this function during interaction with the host genome. Here, we report an artificially synthesized DNA fragment containing only characteristic motif sequences that served as an alternative to human beta-interferon matrix attachment region sequence. The potential of the vector to mediate gene transfer in CHO cells was investigated. The short synthetic MAR motifs were found to mediate episomal vector at a low copy number for many generations without integration into the host genome. Higher transgene expression was maintained for at least 4 months. In addition, MAR was maintained episomally and conferred sustained EGFP expression even in nonselective CHO cells. All the results demonstrated that MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can function as stable episomes in CHO cells, supporting long-term and effective transgene expression.

  8. Replication licensing promotes cyclin D1 expression and G1 progression in untransformed human cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peijun; Slater, Damien M.; Lenburg, Marc; Nevis, Kathleen; Cook, Jeanette Gowen; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    Defects in DNA replication are implicated as early and causal events in malignancy. However, the immediate effects of impaired DNA replication licensing on cell cycle progression of non-malignant human cells are unknown. Therefore, we have investigated the acute effects of Mcm7 ablation using synchronized cultures of untransformed Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDF). Mcm7 ablation elicited a G1 delay associated with impaired activation of CDK4 and CDK2 and reduced Rb phosphorylation. The cell cycle delay of Mcm7-ablated cells was not associated with a DNA damage response. However, levels of cyclin D1 mRNA were specifically reduced and binding of RNA Polymerase II to the CYCD1 promoter was decreased in Mcm7-depleted cells. Similar to Mcm7-deficiency, Mcm2- or Cdc6-depletion led to impaired cyclin D expression. Ectopic overexpression of Cdc6 in quiescent cells promoted cyclin D1 expression, CDK4 activation and G1 progression. Therefore timely and efficient expression of cyclin D1 during G1 phase requires replication licensing. Reconstitution of cyclin D1 expression was insufficient to correct the G1 delay of Mcm7-depleted cells, indicating that additional cell cycle events during G1 are dependent on replication licensing. However, ectopic expression of the HPV-E7 oncoprotein, and the resulting bypass of the requirement for cyclin D1-Rb signaling enabled Mcm7-depleted cells to enter S-phase. HPV-E7-induced S-phase entry of Mcm7-depleted cells led to a DNA damage response, a hallmark of pre-malignancy. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of a ‘replication licensing restriction point’ that couples pre-RC assembly with G1 progression in normal cells to minimize replication stress, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. PMID:19106611

  9. Legionella pneumophila-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles Promote Bacterial Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Anna Lena; Stoiber, Cornelia; Herkt, Christina E.; Schulz, Christine; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Schmeck, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria. This includes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), a causative agent of severe pneumonia. Upon its transmission into the lung, L. pneumophila primarily infects and replicates within macrophages. Here, we analyzed the influence of L. pneumophila OMVs on macrophages. To this end, differentiated THP-1 cells were incubated with increasing doses of Legionella OMVs, leading to a TLR2-dependent classical activation of macrophages with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of TLR2 and NF-κB signaling reduced the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs prior to infection reduced replication of L. pneumophila in THP-1 cells. Blocking of TLR2 activation or heat denaturation of OMVs restored bacterial replication in the first 24 h of infection. With prolonged infection-time, OMV pre-treated macrophages became more permissive for bacterial replication than untreated cells and showed increased numbers of Legionella-containing vacuoles and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Additionally, miRNA-146a was found to be transcriptionally induced by OMVs and to facilitate bacterial replication. Accordingly, IRAK-1, one of miRNA-146a’s targets, showed prolonged activation-dependent degradation, which rendered THP-1 cells more permissive for Legionella replication. In conclusion, L. pneumophila OMVs are initially potent pro-inflammatory stimulators of macrophages, acting via TLR2, IRAK-1, and NF-κB, while at later time points, OMVs facilitate L. pneumophila replication by miR-146a-dependent IRAK-1 suppression. OMVs might thereby promote spreading of L. pneumophila in the host. PMID:27105429

  10. Laser controlled singlet oxygen generation in mitochondria to promote mitochondrial DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yupei; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Di, Cuixia; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Hong

    2015-11-18

    Reports have shown that a certain level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. However, it is unclear whether it is the mitochondrial ROS that stimulate mtDNA replication and this requires further investigation. Here we employed a photodynamic system to achieve controlled mitochondrial singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation. HeLa cells incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were exposed to laser irradiation to induce (1)O2 generation within mitochondria. Increased mtDNA copy number was detected after low doses of 630 nm laser light in ALA-treated cells. The stimulated mtDNA replication was directly linked to mitochondrial (1)O2 generation, as verified using specific ROS scavengers. The stimulated mtDNA replication was regulated by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mtDNA polymerase γ. MtDNA control region modifications were induced by (1)O2 generation in mitochondria. A marked increase in 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) level was detected in ALA-treated cells after irradiation. HeLa cell growth stimulation and G1-S cell cycle transition were also observed after laser irradiation in ALA-treated cells. These cellular responses could be due to a second wave of ROS generation detected in mitochondria. In summary, we describe a controllable method of inducing mtDNA replication in vitro.

  11. MicroRNA-649 promotes HSV-1 replication by directly targeting MALT1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Dai, Jun; Tang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mengzhou

    2016-11-03

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the Herpes viridae, is associated with a wide variety of nervous system diseases including meningitis and encephalitis. The data presented here demonstrate that miR-649 promotes the replication of HSV-1 without affecting cell viability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is directly targeted by miR-649. We then found that MALT1 and the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway, are involved in miR-649-induced HSV-1 replication. Interestingly, miR-649 levels were downregulated after HSV-1 infection, and miR-649 expression was negatively associated with MALT1 expression in HSV-1-infected HeLa cells. Taken together, this present study indicates that miR-649 promotes HSV-1 replication through regulation of the MALT1-mediated antiviral signaling pathway and suggests a promising target for antiviral therapies. J. Med. Virol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ochratoxin A promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Zhang, Zheqian; Hu, Zhihua; Hesketh, John; Xue, Hongxia; Chen, Xingxiang; Hao, Shu; Huang, Yu; Cole Ezea, Patience; Parveen, Fahmida; Huang, Kehe

    2015-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a worldwide mycotoxin found in food and feeds, is a potent nephrotoxin in animals and humans. Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, is a worldwide swine disease. To date, little is known concerning the relationship between OTA and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the primary causative agent of PCVAD. The effects of OTA on PCV2 replication and their mechanisms were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results in vitro showed that low doses of OTA significantly increased PCV2 DNA copies and the number of infected cells. Maximum effects were observed at 0.05 μg/ml OTA. The results in vivo showed that PCV2 replication was significantly increased in serum and tissues of pigs fed 75 μg/kg OTA compared with the control group and pigs fed 150 μg/kg OTA. In addition, low doses of OTA significantly depleted reduced glutathione and mRNA expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase; increased reactive oxygen species, oxidants, and malondialdehyde; and induced p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PK15 cells. Adding N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed the changes induced by OTA. Knockdown of p38 and ERK1/2 by their respective specific siRNAs or inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by their respective inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126) eliminated the increase in PCV2 replication induced by OTA. These data indicate that low doses of OTA promoted PCV2 replication in vitro and in vivo via the oxidative stress-mediated p38/ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. This suggests that low doses of OTA are potentially harmful to animals, as they enhance virus replication, and partly explains why the morbidity and severity of PCVAD vary significantly in different pig farms.

  13. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  14. Promotion of human adipocyte precursor replication by 17beta-estradiol in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Roncari, D A; Van, R L

    1978-01-01

    The influence of 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-estradiol on adult human omental adipocyte precursors grown in a propagating culture system was studied. Cells were grown in subculture in the presence or absence of hormone. 17beta-estradiol resulted in significant promotion of adipocyte precursor replication, as determined by cell counting and incorporation of radioactive thymidine into DNA. The hormone stimulated cell multiplication in the concentration range 0.5--500 ng/ml growth medium. The highest level tested was 500 ng/ml. The maximal effects were obtained at 50 ng/ml (P less than 0.001 by paired t test, 48 h after hormone addition). All 10 cell strains (five were derived from men and five from women) that were tested responded similarly to the hormone. 17beta-estradiol did not affect cell size. 17alpha-estradiol did not promote the replication of adipocyte precursors, nor did it influence cell size. Thus, 17beta-estradiol, which is the active isomer in known target tissues, stimulates the multiplication of human adipocyte precursors in culture. Images PMID:690182

  15. TRAF2 Facilitates Vaccinia Virus Replication by Promoting Rapid Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Ismar R.; Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Griffiths, Samantha J.; Haas, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a pivotal intracellular mediator of signaling pathways downstream of TNFR1 and -2 with known pro- and antiviral effects. We investigated its role in the replication of the prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV). Loss of TRAF2 expression, either through small interfering RNA treatment of HeLa cells or through genetic knockout in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), led to significant reductions in VACV growth following low-multiplicity infection. In single-cycle infections, there was delayed production of both early and late VACV proteins as well as accelerated virus-induced alterations to cell morphology, indicating that TRAF2 influences early stages of virus replication. Consistent with an early role, uncoating assays showed normal virus attachment but delayed virus entry in the absence of TRAF2. Although alterations to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling were apparent in VACV-infected TRAF2−/− MEFs, treatment of wild-type cells with a JNK inhibitor did not affect virus entry. Instead, treatment with an inhibitor of endosomal acidification greatly reduced virus entry into TRAF2−/− MEFs, suggesting that VACV is reliant on the endosomal route of entry in the absence of TRAF2. Thus, TRAF2 is a proviral factor for VACV that plays a role in promoting efficient viral entry, most likely via the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are key facilitators of intracellular signaling with roles in innate and adaptive immunity and stress responses. We have discovered that TRAF2 is a proviral factor in vaccinia virus replication in both HeLa cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts and that its influence is exercised through promotion of efficient virus entry. PMID:24429366

  16. Accurate Quantification of Episomal HIV-1 Two-Long Terminal Repeat Circles by Use of Optimized DNA Isolation and Droplet Digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Malatinkova, Eva; Kiselinova, Maja; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Trypsteen, Wim; Messiaen, Peter; Vermeire, Jolien; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vervisch, Karen; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2014-01-01

    Episomal HIV-1 two-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles are considered markers for ongoing viral replication. Two sample processing procedures were compared to accurately quantify 2-LTR in patients by using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Here, we show that plasmid isolation with a spiked non-HIV plasmid for normalization enables more accurate 2-LTR quantification than genomic DNA isolation. PMID:25502524

  17. Induction of Interferon-Stimulated Genes by IRF3 Promotes Replication of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Dhar, Jayeeta; Goswami, Ramansu; Sen, Ganes C.; Barik, Sailen

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense against microbial insult. The transcription factor, IRF3, is needed by mammalian cells to mount innate immune responses against many microbes, especially viruses. IRF3 remains inactive in the cytoplasm of uninfected cells; upon virus infection, it gets phosphorylated and then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to the promoters of antiviral genes and induces their expression. Such genes include type I interferons (IFNs) as well as Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs). IRF3-/- cells support enhanced replication of many viruses and therefore, the corresponding mice are highly susceptible to viral pathogenesis. Here, we provide evidence for an unexpected pro-microbial role of IRF3: the replication of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was significantly impaired in IRF3-/- cells. In exploring whether the transcriptional activity of IRF3 was important for its pro-parasitic function, we found that ISGs induced by parasite-activated IRF3 were indeed essential, whereas type I interferons were not important. To delineate the signaling pathway that activates IRF3 in response to parasite infection, we used genetically modified human and mouse cells. The pro-parasitic signaling pathway, which we termed PISA (Parasite-IRF3 Signaling Activation), activated IRF3 without any involvement of the Toll-like receptor or RIG-I-like receptor pathways, thereby ruling out a role of parasite-derived RNA species in activating PISA. Instead, PISA needed the presence of cGAS, STING, TBK1 and IRF3, indicating the necessity of DNA-triggered signaling. To evaluate the physiological significance of our in vitro findings, IRF3-/- mice were challenged with parasite infection and their morbidity and mortality were measured. Unlike WT mice, the IRF3-/- mice did not support replication of the parasite and were resistant to pathogenesis caused by it. Our results revealed a new paradigm in which the antiviral host factor, IRF3, plays a cell

  18. Induction of interferon-stimulated genes by IRF3 promotes replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Dhar, Jayeeta; Goswami, Ramansu; Sen, Ganes C; Barik, Sailen

    2015-03-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense against microbial insult. The transcription factor, IRF3, is needed by mammalian cells to mount innate immune responses against many microbes, especially viruses. IRF3 remains inactive in the cytoplasm of uninfected cells; upon virus infection, it gets phosphorylated and then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to the promoters of antiviral genes and induces their expression. Such genes include type I interferons (IFNs) as well as Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs). IRF3-/- cells support enhanced replication of many viruses and therefore, the corresponding mice are highly susceptible to viral pathogenesis. Here, we provide evidence for an unexpected pro-microbial role of IRF3: the replication of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was significantly impaired in IRF3-/- cells. In exploring whether the transcriptional activity of IRF3 was important for its pro-parasitic function, we found that ISGs induced by parasite-activated IRF3 were indeed essential, whereas type I interferons were not important. To delineate the signaling pathway that activates IRF3 in response to parasite infection, we used genetically modified human and mouse cells. The pro-parasitic signaling pathway, which we termed PISA (Parasite-IRF3 Signaling Activation), activated IRF3 without any involvement of the Toll-like receptor or RIG-I-like receptor pathways, thereby ruling out a role of parasite-derived RNA species in activating PISA. Instead, PISA needed the presence of cGAS, STING, TBK1 and IRF3, indicating the necessity of DNA-triggered signaling. To evaluate the physiological significance of our in vitro findings, IRF3-/- mice were challenged with parasite infection and their morbidity and mortality were measured. Unlike WT mice, the IRF3-/- mice did not support replication of the parasite and were resistant to pathogenesis caused by it. Our results revealed a new paradigm in which the antiviral host factor, IRF3, plays a cell

  19. Establishment of a promoter-based chromatin architecture on recently replicated DNA can accommodate variable inter-nucleosome spacing

    PubMed Central

    Fennessy, Ross T.; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosomes, the fundamental subunits of eukaryotic chromatin, are organized with respect to transcriptional start sites. A major challenge to the persistence of this organization is the disassembly of nucleosomes during DNA replication. Here, we use complimentary approaches to map the locations of nucleosomes on recently replicated DNA. We find that nucleosomes are substantially realigned with promoters during the minutes following DNA replication. As a result, the nucleosomal landscape is largely re-established before newly replicated chromosomes are partitioned into daughter cells and can serve as a platform for the re-establishment of gene expression programmes. When the supply of histones is disrupted through mutation of the chaperone Caf1, a promoter-based architecture is generated, but with increased inter-nucleosomal spacing. This indicates that the chromatin remodelling enzymes responsible for spacing nucleosomes are capable of organizing nucleosomes with a range of different linker DNA lengths. PMID:27106059

  20. Molecular chaperone Jiv promotes the RNA replication of classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kangkang; Li, Haimin; Tan, Xuechao; Wu, Mengmeng; Lv, Qizhuang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-03-24

    The nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a self-splicing ribozyme wherein the precursor protein NS2-3 is cleaved, and the cleavage efficiency of NS2-3 is crucial to the replication of viral RNA. However, the proteolytic activity of NS2 autoprotease may be achieved through a cellular chaperone called J-domain protein interacting with viral protein (Jiv) or its fragment Jiv90, as evidence suggests that Jiv is required for the proper functioning of the NS2 protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Hence, the expression of Jiv may be correlated with the replication efficiency of CSFV RNA. We investigated the expression levels of Jiv and viral RNA in CSFV-infected cells and tissues using Real-time RT-PCR or Western blot analysis. The obtained results show that Jiv90 possibly plays an important role in the lifecycle of CSFV because the distribution of Jiv90 protein shows a positive correlation with the viral load of CSFV. Furthermore, the overexpression or knockdown of Jiv90 in swine cells can also significantly promote or decrease the viral load, respectively. The detection of Flow cytometry shows that the overexpression of Jiv90 prolongs the G1 phase of cell cycles but has no effect on apoptosis. These findings are likely to be of benefit in clarifying the pathogenesis of the CSFV.

  1. RAD18, WRNIP1 and ATMIN promote ATM signalling in response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Kanu, Nnennaya; Zhang, Tianyi; Burrell, Rebecca A.; Chakraborty, Atanu; Cronshaw, Janet; Da Costa, Clive; Grönroos, Eva; Pemberton, Helen N.; Anderton, Emma; Gonzalez, Laure; Sabbioneda, Simone; Ulrich, Helle D.; Swanton, Charles; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The DNA replication machinery invariably encounters obstacles that slow replication fork progression, and threaten to prevent complete replication and faithful segregation of sister chromatids. The resulting replication stress activates ATR, the major kinase involved in resolving impaired DNA replication. In addition, replication stress also activates the related kinase ATM, which is required to prevent mitotic segregation errors. However, the molecular mechanism of ATM activation by replication stress is not defined. Here we show that monoubiquitinated Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), a marker of stalled replication forks, interacts with the ATM cofactor ATMIN via WRN interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1). ATMIN, WRNIP1 and RAD18, the E3 ligase responsible for PCNA monoubiquitination, are specifically required for ATM signalling and 53BP1 focus formation induced by replication stress, not ionising radiation. Thus, WRNIP1 connects PCNA monoubiquitination with ATMIN/ATM to activate ATM signalling in response to replication stress and contribute to the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:26549024

  2. Bloom syndrome complex promotes FANCM recruitment to stalled replication forks and facilitates both repair and traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chen; Huang, Jing; Yan, Zhijiang; Li, Yongjiang; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Xu, Dongyi; Takata, Minoru; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of FANCM, a conserved DNA translocase and key component of several DNA repair protein complexes, to replication forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is a step upstream of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. However, detection of the FANCM recruitment has been technically challenging so that its mechanism remains exclusive. Here, we successfully observed recruitment of FANCM at stalled forks using a newly developed protocol. We report that the FANCM recruitment depends upon its intrinsic DNA translocase activity, and its DNA-binding partner FAAP24. Moreover, it is dependent on the replication checkpoint kinase, ATR; but is independent of the FA core and FANCD2–FANCI complexes, two essential components of the FA pathway, indicating that the FANCM recruitment occurs downstream of ATR but upstream of the FA pathway. Interestingly, the recruitment of FANCM requires its direct interaction with Bloom syndrome complex composed of BLM helicase, Topoisomerase 3α, RMI1 and RMI2; as well as the helicase activity of BLM. We further show that the FANCM–BLM complex interaction is critical for replication stress-induced FANCM hyperphosphorylation, for normal activation of the FA pathway in response to ICLs, and for efficient traverse of ICLs by the replication machinery. Epistasis studies demonstrate that FANCM and BLM work in the same pathway to promote replication traverse of ICLs. We conclude that FANCM and BLM complex work together at stalled forks to promote both FA repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. PMID:28058110

  3. Bloom syndrome complex promotes FANCM recruitment to stalled replication forks and facilitates both repair and traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Huang, Jing; Yan, Zhijiang; Li, Yongjiang; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Xu, Dongyi; Takata, Minoru; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of FANCM, a conserved DNA translocase and key component of several DNA repair protein complexes, to replication forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is a step upstream of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. However, detection of the FANCM recruitment has been technically challenging so that its mechanism remains exclusive. Here, we successfully observed recruitment of FANCM at stalled forks using a newly developed protocol. We report that the FANCM recruitment depends upon its intrinsic DNA translocase activity, and its DNA-binding partner FAAP24. Moreover, it is dependent on the replication checkpoint kinase, ATR; but is independent of the FA core and FANCD2-FANCI complexes, two essential components of the FA pathway, indicating that the FANCM recruitment occurs downstream of ATR but upstream of the FA pathway. Interestingly, the recruitment of FANCM requires its direct interaction with Bloom syndrome complex composed of BLM helicase, Topoisomerase 3α, RMI1 and RMI2; as well as the helicase activity of BLM. We further show that the FANCM-BLM complex interaction is critical for replication stress-induced FANCM hyperphosphorylation, for normal activation of the FA pathway in response to ICLs, and for efficient traverse of ICLs by the replication machinery. Epistasis studies demonstrate that FANCM and BLM work in the same pathway to promote replication traverse of ICLs. We conclude that FANCM and BLM complex work together at stalled forks to promote both FA repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs.

  4. LUC7L3/CROP inhibits replication of hepatitis B virus via suppressing enhancer II/basal core promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Ito, Masahiko; Sun, Suofeng; Chida, Takeshi; Nakashima, Kenji; Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    The core promoter of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome is a critical region for transcriptional initiation of 3.5 kb, pregenome and precore RNAs and for the viral replication. Although a number of host-cell factors that potentially regulate the viral promoter activities have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of the viral gene expression, in particular, regulatory mechanisms of the transcriptional repression remain elusive. In this study, we identified LUC7 like 3 pre-mRNA splicing factor (LUC7L3, also known as hLuc7A or CROP) as a novel interacting partner of HBV enhancer II and basal core promoter (ENII/BCP), key elements within the core promoter, through the proteomic screening and found that LUC7L3 functions as a negative regulator of ENII/BCP. Gene silencing of LUC7L3 significantly increased expression of the viral genes and antigens as well as the activities of ENII/BCP and core promoter. In contrast, overexpression of LUC7L3 inhibited their activities and HBV replication. In addition, LUC7L3 possibly contributes to promotion of the splicing of 3.5 kb RNA, which may also be involved in negative regulation of the pregenome RNA level. This is the first to demonstrate the involvement of LUC7L3 in regulation of gene transcription and in viral replication. PMID:27857158

  5. Tumor promoters alter the temporal program of adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, P B; Young, C S; Weinstein, I B; Carter, T H

    1981-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the kinetics of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication in human cells. When added at the time of infection, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) accelerated the appearance of an early virus antigen (72,000-molecular-weight [72K] deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein), the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and the production of infectious virus. The appearance of an Ad5-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) was also accelerated in infected cultures exposed to TPA, whereas phorbol, 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate and 4-OmeTPA, which are inactive as tumor promoters, were ineffective in inducing this morphological change. The acceleration of the CPE seen in TPA-treated Ad5-infected cells was not caused by TPA induction of the protease plasminogen activator, since the protease inhibitors leupeptin and antipain do not inhibit the earlier onset of this CPE and, in contrast, epidermal growth factor, which induces plasminogen activator in HeLa cells, does not induce an earlier CPE. Evidence for a direct effect of TPA on viral gene expression was obtained by analyzing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis. TPA accelerated the appearance of mRNA from all major early regions of Ad5, transiently stimulated the accumulation of region III mRNA, and accelerated the appearance of late Ad5 mRNA. Thus, TPA altered the temporal program of Ad5 mRNA production and accelerated the appearance of at least some Ad5-specific polypeptides during lytic infection of human cells. These effects presumably explain the earlier onset of the Ad5-specific CPE in TPA-treated cells and may have relevance to the effects of TPA on viral gene expression in nonpermissive cells carrying integrated viral deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. Images PMID:6965103

  6. Tumor promoters alter the temporal program of adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P B; Young, C S; Weinstein, I B; Carter, T H

    1981-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the kinetics of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication in human cells. When added at the time of infection, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) accelerated the appearance of an early virus antigen (72,000-molecular-weight [72K] deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein), the onset of viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and the production of infectious virus. The appearance of an Ad5-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) was also accelerated in infected cultures exposed to TPA, whereas phorbol, 4 alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate and 4-OmeTPA, which are inactive as tumor promoters, were ineffective in inducing this morphological change. The acceleration of the CPE seen in TPA-treated Ad5-infected cells was not caused by TPA induction of the protease plasminogen activator, since the protease inhibitors leupeptin and antipain do not inhibit the earlier onset of this CPE and, in contrast, epidermal growth factor, which induces plasminogen activator in HeLa cells, does not induce an earlier CPE. Evidence for a direct effect of TPA on viral gene expression was obtained by analyzing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis. TPA accelerated the appearance of mRNA from all major early regions of Ad5, transiently stimulated the accumulation of region III mRNA, and accelerated the appearance of late Ad5 mRNA. Thus, TPA altered the temporal program of Ad5 mRNA production and accelerated the appearance of at least some Ad5-specific polypeptides during lytic infection of human cells. These effects presumably explain the earlier onset of the Ad5-specific CPE in TPA-treated cells and may have relevance to the effects of TPA on viral gene expression in nonpermissive cells carrying integrated viral deoxyribonucleic acid sequences.

  7. Quinacrine promotes replication and conformational mutation of chronic wasting disease prions.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jifeng; Kang, Hae-Eun; Telling, Glenn C

    2014-04-22

    Quinacrine's ability to reduce levels of pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in mouse cells infected with experimentally adapted prions led to several unsuccessful clinical studies in patients with prion diseases, a 10-y investment to understand its mechanism of action, and the production of related compounds with expectations of greater efficacy. We show here, in stark contrast to this reported inhibitory effect, that quinacrine enhances deer and elk PrP(Sc) accumulation and promotes propagation of prions causing chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder of cervids of uncertain zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, despite increased prion titers in quinacrine-treated cells, transmission of the resulting prions produced prolonged incubation times and altered PrP(Sc) deposition patterns in the brains of diseased transgenic mice. This unexpected outcome is consistent with quinacrine affecting the intrinsic properties of the CWD prion. Accordingly, quinacrine-treated CWD prions were comprised of an altered PrP(Sc) conformation. Our findings provide convincing evidence for drug-induced conformational mutation of prions without the prerequisite of generating drug-resistant variants of the original strain. More specifically, they show that a drug capable of restraining prions in one species/strain setting, and consequently used to treat human prion diseases, improves replicative ability in another and therefore force reconsideration of current strategies to screen antiprion compounds.

  8. BRCA1-regulated RRM2 expression protects glioblastoma cells from endogenous replication stress and promotes tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Rikke D.; Gajjar, Madhavsai K.; Tuckova, Lucie; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Holst, Camilla B.; Møllgaard, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Jane S.; Brennum, Jannick; Bartek, Jiri; Syrucek, Martin; Sedlakova, Eva; Andersen, Klaus K.; Frederiksen, Marie H.; Bartek, Jiri; Hamerlik, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-evoked replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability in diverse cancer types. Here we report that BRCA1, traditionally regarded a tumour suppressor, plays an unexpected tumour-promoting role in glioblastoma (GBM), safeguarding a protective response to supraphysiological RS levels. Higher BRCA1 positivity is associated with shorter survival of glioma patients and the abrogation of BRCA1 function in GBM enhances RS, DNA damage (DD) accumulation and impairs tumour growth. Mechanistically, we identify a novel role of BRCA1 as a transcriptional co-activator of RRM2 (catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase), whereby BRCA1-mediated RRM2 expression protects GBM cells from endogenous RS, DD and apoptosis. Notably, we show that treatment with a RRM2 inhibitor triapine reproduces the BRCA1-depletion GBM-repressive phenotypes and sensitizes GBM cells to PARP inhibition. We propose that GBM cells are addicted to the RS-protective role of the BRCA1-RRM2 axis, targeting of which may represent a novel paradigm for therapeutic intervention in GBM. PMID:27845331

  9. Tousled-like kinases phosphorylate Asf1 to promote histone supply during DNA replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimovskaia, Ilnaz M.; Young, Clifford; Strømme, Caroline B.; Menard, Patrice; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Mejlvang, Jakob; Ask, Katrine; Ploug, Michael; Nielsen, Michael L.; Jensen, Ole N.; Groth, Anja

    2014-03-01

    During DNA replication, nucleosomes are rapidly assembled on newly synthesized DNA to restore chromatin organization. Asf1, a key histone H3-H4 chaperone required for this process, is phosphorylated by Tousled-like kinases (TLKs). Here, we identify TLK phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and dissect how phosphorylation has an impact on human Asf1 function. The divergent C-terminal tail of Asf1a is phosphorylated at several sites, and this is required for timely progression through S phase. Consistent with this, biochemical analysis of wild-type and phospho-mimetic Asf1a shows that phosphorylation enhances binding to histones and the downstream chaperones CAF-1 and HIRA. Moreover, we find that TLK phosphorylation of Asf1a is induced in cells experiencing deficiency of new histones and that TLK interaction with Asf1a involves its histone-binding pocket. We thus propose that TLK signalling promotes histone supply in S phase by targeting histone-free Asf1 and stimulating its ability to shuttle histones to sites of chromatin assembly.

  10. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells. Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.

  11. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; ...

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells.more » Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.« less

  12. FANCD2, FANCJ and BRCA2 cooperate to promote replication fork recovery independently of the Fanconi Anemia core complex.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan, Maya; Chaudhury, Indrajit; Kelich, Stephanie L; Hanenberg, Helmut; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an inherited multi-gene cancer predisposition syndrome that is characterized on the cellular level by a hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). To repair these lesions, the FA pathway proteins are thought to act in a linear hierarchy: Following ICL detection, an upstream FA core complex monoubiquitinates the central FA pathway members FANCD2 and FANCI, followed by their recruitment to chromatin. Chromatin-bound monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and FANCI subsequently coordinate DNA repair factors including the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 to repair the DNA ICL. Importantly, we recently showed that FANCD2 has additional independent roles: it binds chromatin and acts in concert with the BLM helicase complex to promote the restart of aphidicolin (APH)-stalled replication forks, while suppressing the firing of new replication origins. Here, we show that FANCD2 fulfills these roles independently of the FA core complex-mediated monoubiquitination step. Following APH treatment, nonubiquitinated FANCD2 accumulates on chromatin, recruits the BLM complex, and promotes robust replication fork recovery regardless of the absence or presence of a functional FA core complex. In contrast, the downstream FA pathway members FANCJ and BRCA2 share FANCD2's role in replication fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Our results support a non-linear FA pathway model at stalled replication forks, where the nonubiquitinated FANCD2 isoform - in concert with FANCJ and BRCA2 - fulfills a specific function in promoting efficient replication fork recovery independently of the FA core complex.

  13. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by Phospholipase D Promotes RNA Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Taniguchi, Takako; Manabe, Yuki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+)RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids), but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+)RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate. PMID:26020241

  14. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture.

  15. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  16. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Debra L.; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4Cdt2) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. PMID:26771714

  17. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra L; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4(Cdt2)) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression.

  18. EEPD1 Rescues Stressed Replication Forks and Maintains Genome Stability by Promoting End Resection and Homologous Recombination Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuehan; Lee, Suk-Hee; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Reinert, Brian L.; Cho, Ju Hwan; Xia, Fen; Jaiswal, Aruna Shanker; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Patel, Bhavita; Brantley, Alexis; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian; Pathak, Rupak; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Singh, Sudha; Kong, Kimi; Wu, Xaiohua; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Beissbarth, Timothy; Gaedcke, Jochen; Burma, Sandeep; Nickoloff, Jac A.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Replication fork stalling and collapse is a major source of genome instability leading to neoplastic transformation or cell death. Such stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR) or non-conservatively repaired using micro-homology mediated end joining (MMEJ). HR repair of stressed forks is initiated by 5’ end resection near the fork junction, which permits 3’ single strand invasion of a homologous template for fork restart. This 5’ end resection also prevents classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ), a competing pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Unopposed NHEJ can cause genome instability during replication stress by abnormally fusing free double strand ends that occur as unstable replication fork repair intermediates. We show here that the previously uncharacterized Exonuclease/Endonuclease/Phosphatase Domain-1 (EEPD1) protein is required for initiating repair and restart of stalled forks. EEPD1 is recruited to stalled forks, enhances 5’ DNA end resection, and promotes restart of stalled forks. Interestingly, EEPD1 directs DSB repair away from cNHEJ, and also away from MMEJ, which requires limited end resection for initiation. EEPD1 is also required for proper ATR and CHK1 phosphorylation, and formation of gamma-H2AX, RAD51 and phospho-RPA32 foci. Consistent with a direct role in stalled replication fork cleavage, EEPD1 is a 5’ overhang nuclease in an obligate complex with the end resection nuclease Exo1 and BLM. EEPD1 depletion causes nuclear and cytogenetic defects, which are made worse by replication stress. Depleting 53BP1, which slows cNHEJ, fully rescues the nuclear and cytogenetic abnormalities seen with EEPD1 depletion. These data demonstrate that genome stability during replication stress is maintained by EEPD1, which initiates HR and inhibits cNHEJ and MMEJ. PMID:26684013

  19. Delivery of episomal vectors into primary cells by means of commercial transfection reagents.

    PubMed

    Han, Na Rae; Lee, Hyun; Baek, Song; Yun, Jung Im; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2015-05-29

    Although episomal vectors are commonly transported into cells by electroporation, a number of electroporation-derived problems have led to the search for alternative transfection protocols, such as the use of transfection reagents, which are inexpensive and easy to handle. Polyplex-mediated transport of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm has been conducted successfully in immortalized cell lines, but no report exists of successful transfection of primary cells using this method. Accordingly, we sought to optimize the conditions for polyplex-mediated transfection for effective delivery of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Episomal vectors were complexed with the commercially available transfection reagents Lipofectamine 2000, FuGEND HD and jetPEI. The ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vectors was varied, and the subsequent transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of the complexes were analyzed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. No cytotoxicity and the highest transfection yield were observed when the ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vector was 4 (v/wt) in the cases of Lipofectamine 2000 and FuGENE HD, and 2 in the case of jetPEI. Of the three transfection reagents tested, jetPEI showed the highest transfection efficiency without any cytotoxicity. Thus, we confirmed that the transfection reagent jetPEI could be used to effectively deliver episomal vectors into primary cells without electroporation.

  20. AP1 enhances polyomavirus DNA replication by promoting T-antigen-mediated unwinding of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Tang, W J; Bu, X; Bermudez, V; Martin, M; Folk, W R

    1996-01-01

    An early step in the initiation of polyomavirus DNA replication is viral large-T-antigen-mediated unwinding of the origin. We report that components of the AP1 transcription factor, Fos and Jun, interact with T antigen in vitro to enhance unwinding of the viral origin. This provides a biochemical basis for the capacity of AP1 to activate viral DNA replication in vivo. PMID:8763994

  1. Mouse Norovirus infection promotes autophagy induction to facilitate replication but prevents final autophagosome maturation

    SciTech Connect

    O’Donnell, Tanya B.; Hyde, Jennifer L.; Mintern, Justine D.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2016-05-15

    Autophagy is a cellular process used to eliminate intracellular pathogens. Many viruses however are able to manipulate this cellular process for their own advantage. Here we demonstrate that Mouse Norovirus (MNV) infection induces autophagy but does not appear to utilise the autophagosomal membrane for establishment and formation of the viral replication complex. We have observed that MNV infection results in lipidation and recruitment of LC3 to the autophagosome membrane but prevents subsequent fusion of the autophagosomes with lysosomes, as SQSTM1 (an autophagy receptor) accumulates and Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein1 is sequestered to the MNV replication complex (RC) rather than to autophagosomes. We have additionally observed that chemical modulation of autophagy differentially affects MNV replication. From this study we can conclude that MNV infection induces autophagy, however suppresses the final maturation step of this response, indicating that autophagy induction contributes to MNV replication independently of RC biogenesis. - Highlights: • MNV induces autophagy in infected murine macrophages. • MNV does not utilise autophagosomal membranes for replication. • The MNV-induced autophagosomes do not fuse with lysosomes. • MNV sequesters SQSTM1 to prevent autophagy degradation and turnover. • Chemical modulation of autophagy enhances MNV replication.

  2. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex promotes viral RNA translation and replication by differential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jungfleisch, Jennifer; Chowdhury, Ashis; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Tharun, Sundaresan; Díez, Juana

    2015-08-01

    The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds to the 3' end of cellular mRNAs and promotes 3' end protection and 5'-3' decay. Interestingly, this complex also specifically binds to cis-acting regulatory sequences of viral positive-strand RNA genomes promoting their translation and subsequent recruitment from translation to replication. Yet, how the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex regulates these two processes remains elusive. Here, we show that Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex acts differentially in these processes. By using a collection of well-characterized lsm1 mutant alleles and a system that allows the replication of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) in yeast we show that the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex integrity is essential for both, translation and recruitment. However, the intrinsic RNA-binding ability of the complex is only required for translation. Consistent with an RNA-binding-independent function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex on BMV RNA recruitment, we show that the BMV 1a protein, the sole viral protein required for recruitment, interacts with this complex in an RNA-independent manner. Together, these results support a model wherein Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds consecutively to BMV RNA regulatory sequences and the 1a protein to promote viral RNA translation and later recruitment out of the host translation machinery to the viral replication complexes.

  3. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by the E1A antisense transcript initiated from hsp70 and VA-1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, O I; Borisenko, A S; Ponomareva, T I; Tikhonenko, T I

    1990-03-01

    The E1A region of the adenoviral genome, important for initiation of virus infection and activation of other viral genes, was chosen as a target for engineering antisense RNA (asRNA) to inhibit adenovirus 5 (Ad5) replication in COS-1 cell culture in vitro. The hsp70 promoter, taken from the appropriate heat-shock-protein gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and the VA-1 RNA promoter, derived from the Ad5 gene coding for low-molecular-mass VA-1 RNA and recognized by RNA polymerase III were used as regulatory elements of transcription. The two types of recombinant constructs contained E1A fragments of 710 bp (hsp70 constructs) or 380 or 740 bp (VA-1 RNA constructs) in reverse orientation relative to the promoter position, as well as a transcription termination signal, the SV40 ori, and the gene controlling Geneticin (antibiotic G418) resistance (G418R). After selection of transfected COS-1 cells in the presence of G418, a number of stable G418R cell lines were raised which expressed engineered asRNAs. Plating of Ad5 suspensions of known titre on monolayers of transfected COS-1 cells clearly showed strong inhibition of adenovirus replication by asRNAs: 75% with the hsp70 promoter and 90% with the VA-1 RNA promoter.

  4. Human RECQ1 promotes restart of replication forks reversed by DNA topoisomerase I inhibition.

    PubMed

    Berti, Matteo; Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Kenig, Sasa; Vujanovic, Marko; Odreman, Federico; Glatter, Timo; Graziano, Simona; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Marino, Francesca; Lucic, Bojana; Biasin, Valentina; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sidorova, Julia M; Monnat, Raymond J; Lopes, Massimo; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors are an important class of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxicity of TOP1 inhibitors can be modulated by replication fork reversal through a process that requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Whether regressed forks can efficiently restart and what factors are required to restart fork progression after fork reversal are still unknown. We have combined biochemical and EM approaches with single-molecule DNA fiber analysis to identify a key role for human RECQ1 helicase in replication fork restart after TOP1 inhibition that is not shared by other human RecQ proteins. We show that the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP1 stabilizes forks in the regressed state by limiting their restart by RECQ1. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into the roles of RECQ1 and PARP in DNA replication and offer molecular perspectives to potentiate chemotherapeutic regimens based on TOP1 inhibition.

  5. Human RECQ1 promotes restart of replication forks reversed by DNA topoisomerase I inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Matteo; Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Kenig, Sasa; Vujanovic, Marko; Odreman, Federico; Glatter, Timo; Graziano, Simona; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Marino, Francesca; Lucic, Bojana; Biasin, Valentina; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sidorova, Julia M.; Monnat, Raymond J.; Lopes, Massimo; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors are an important class of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxicity of TOP1 inhibitors can be modulated by replication fork reversal, in a process that requires PARP activity. Whether regressed forks can efficiently restart and the factors required to restart fork progression after fork reversal are still unknown. Here we combined biochemical and electron microscopy approaches with single-molecule DNA fiber analysis, to identify a key role for human RECQ1 helicase in replication fork restart after TOP1 inhibition, not shared by other human RecQ proteins. We show that the poly(ADPribosyl)ation activity of PARP1 stabilizes forks in their regressed state by limiting their restart by RECQ1. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into the roles of RECQ1 and PARP in DNA replication and offer molecular perspectives to potentiate chemotherapeutic regimens based on TOP1 inhibition. PMID:23396353

  6. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. PMID:25462347

  7. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential.

  8. A critical Sp1 element in the rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) Rta promoter confers high-level activity that correlates with cellular permissivity for viral replication.

    PubMed

    DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2014-01-05

    KSHV establishes characteristic latent infections in vitro, while RRV, a related macaque rhadinovirus, establishes characteristic permissive infections with virus replication. We identified cells that are not permissive for RRV replication and recapitulate the latent KSHV infection and reactivation processes. The RRV replication and transactivator (Rta) promoter was characterized in permissive and non-permissive cells and compared to the KSHV Rta promoter. Both promoters contained a critical Sp1 element, had equivalent activities in different cell types, and were inhibited by LANA. RRV and KSHV infections were non-permissive in cells with low Rta promoter activity. While RRV infections were permissive in cells with high basal promoter activity, KSHV infections remained non-permissive. Our studies suggest that RRV lacks the Rta-inducible LANA promoter that is responsible for LANA inhibition of the KSHV Rta promoter and induction of latency during KSHV infection. Instead, the outcome of RRV infection is determined by host factors, such as Sp1.

  9. Replication of an association of a promoter polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Christopher; Brookes, Keeley; Simpson, Jennifer; Park, Joanne; Scott, Sarah; Coghill, David R; Hawi, Ziarah; Kirley, Aiveen; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey

    2009-09-22

    Genetic associations for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a common highly heritable childhood behavioural disorder, require replication in order to establish whether they are true positive findings. The current study aims to replicate recent association findings from the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project in one of the most studied genes related to ADHD, the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene. In a family-based sample of 450 ADHD probands, three Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers have been genotyped using TaqMan assays. Transmission Disequilibrium Test analysis demonstrates that one of three SNP markers (rs11564750) in the 5' promoter region of the gene is significantly associated with ADHD (P=0.02). This provides further evidence that in addition to the well-known and investigated 3'UTR polymorphism associated with ADHD, there is potentially a further association signal emanating from the 5' promoter region of the gene. Further replication and functional studies are now required to fully understand the consequence of polymorphisms present at both the 5' and 3' ends of the DAT1 gene and their role in ADHD pathophysiology.

  10. Stable transformation of an episomal protein-tagging shuttle vector in the piscine diplomonad Spironucleus vortens

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Scott C; Pham, Jonathan K; House, Susan A; Slawson, Elizabeth E; Cronembold, Daniela; Cande, W Zacheus

    2008-01-01

    Background Diplomonads are common free-living inhabitants of anoxic aquatic environments and are also found as intestinal commensals or parasites of a wide variety of animals. Spironucleus vortens is a putatively commensal diplomonad of angelfish that grows to high cell densities in axenic culture. Genomic sequencing of S. vortens is in progress, yet little information is available regarding molecular and cellular aspects of S. vortens biology beyond descriptive ultrastructural studies. To facilitate the development of S. vortens as an additional diplomonad experimental model, we have constructed and stably transformed an episomal plasmid containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag, an AU1 epitope tag, and a tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag. This construct also contains selectable antibiotic resistance markers for both S. vortens and E. coli. Results Stable transformants of S. vortens grew relatively rapidly (within 7 days) after electroporation and were maintained under puromycin selection for over 6 months. We expressed the enhanced GFP variant, eGFP, under transcriptional control of the S. vortens histone H3 promoter, and visually confirmed diffuse GFP expression in over 50% of transformants. Next, we generated a histone H3::GFP fusion using the S. vortens conventional histone H3 gene and its native promoter. This construct was also highly expressed in the majority of S. vortens transformants, in which the H3::GFP fusion localized to the chromatin in both nuclei. Finally, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the episomal plasmid to show that the transformed plasmid localized to only one nucleus/cell and was present at roughly 10–20 copies per nucleus. Because S. vortens grows to high densities in laboratory culture, it is a feasible diplomonad from which to purify native protein complexes. Thus, we also included a TAP tag in the plasmid constructs to permit future tagging and subsequent purification of protein complexes by

  11. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  12. Hst3p, a histone deacetylase, promotes maintenance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III lacking efficient replication origins.

    PubMed

    Irene, Carmela; Theis, James F; Gresham, David; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Newlon, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    Long gaps between active replication origins probably occur frequently during chromosome replication, but little is known about how cells cope with them. To address this issue, we deleted replication origins from S. cerevisiae chromosome III to create chromosomes with long interorigin gaps and identified mutations that destabilize them [originless fragment maintenance (Ofm) mutations]. ofm6-1 is an allele of HST3, a sirtuin that deacetylates histone H3K56Ac. Hst3p and Hst4p are closely related, but hst4Δ does not cause an Ofm phenotype. Expressing HST4 under the control of the HST3 promoter suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3Δ, indicating Hst4p, when expressed at the appropriate levels and/or at the correct time, can fully substitute for Hst3p in maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes. H3K56Ac is the Hst3p substrate critical for chromosome maintenance. H3K56Ac-containing nucleosomes are preferentially assembled into chromatin behind replication forks. Deletion of the H3K56 acetylase and downstream chromatin assembly factors suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3, indicating that persistence of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin is deleterious for the maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes, and experiments with synchronous cultures showed that it is replication of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin that causes chromosome loss. This work shows that while normal chromosomes can tolerate hyperacetylation of H3K56Ac, deacetylation of histone H3K56Ac by Hst3p is required for stable maintenance of a chromosome with a long interorigin gap. The Ofm phenotype is the first report of a chromosome instability phenotype of an hst3 single mutant.

  13. TRAIP promotes DNA damage response during genome replication and is mutated in primordial dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Harley, Margaret E; Murina, Olga; Leitch, Andrea; Higgs, Martin R; Bicknell, Louise S; Yigit, Gökhan; Blackford, Andrew N; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Mackenzie, Karen J; Reddy, Kaalak; Halachev, Mihail; McGlasson, Sarah; Reijns, Martin A M; Fluteau, Adeline; Martin, Carol-Anne; Sabbioneda, Simone; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Chessa, Luciana; Maghnie, Mohamad; Salim, Mahmoud; Bober, Michael B; Nürnberg, Peter; Jackson, Stephen P; Hurles, Matthew E; Wollnik, Bernd; Stewart, Grant S; Jackson, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    DNA lesions encountered by replicative polymerases threaten genome stability and cell cycle progression. Here we report the identification of mutations in TRAIP, encoding an E3 RING ubiquitin ligase, in patients with microcephalic primordial dwarfism. We establish that TRAIP relocalizes to sites of DNA damage, where it is required for optimal phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA2 during S-phase in response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, as well as fork progression through UV-induced DNA lesions. TRAIP is necessary for efficient cell cycle progression and mutations in TRAIP therefore limit cellular proliferation, providing a potential mechanism for microcephaly and dwarfism phenotypes. Human genetics thus identifies TRAIP as a component of the DNA damage response to replication-blocking DNA lesions.

  14. Activation of COX-2/PGE2 Promotes Sapovirus Replication via the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Deok-Song; Seo, Ja-Young; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Kang, Mun-Il; Hosmillo, Myra; Goodfellow, Ian; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-02-01

    Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to infection and the replicative cycles of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COX/PGE2 pathway regulates sapovirus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, infection with porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 h postinfection (hpi), with only a transient increase in COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi. The treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-1 and COX-2, significantly reduced PGE2 production, as well as PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We observed that pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 dramatically increased NO production, causing a reduction in PSaV replication that could be restored by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase via the inhibitor N-nitro-l-methyl-arginine ester. This study identified a pivotal role for the COX/PGE2 pathway in the regulation of NO production during the sapovirus life cycle, providing new insights into the life cycle of this poorly characterized family of viruses. Our findings also reveal potential new targets for treatment of sapovirus infection.

  15. Slx5/Slx8 promotes replication stress tolerance by facilitating mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Yee Mon; Van Riper, Susan Kaye; Higgins, LeeAnn; Zhang, Tianji; Becker, Jordan Robert; Markowski, Todd William; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Griffin, Timothy Jon; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Loss of minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) causes replication stress. We uncovered that S. cerevisiae mcm10-1 mutants rely on the E3 SUMO ligase Mms21 and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex Slx5/8 for survival. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified changes in the SUMO proteome of mcm10-1 mutants and revealed candidates regulated by Slx5/8. Such candidates included subunits of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), Bir1 and Sli15, known to facilitate spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. We show here that Slx5 counteracts SAC activation in mcm10-1 mutants under conditions of moderate replication stress. This coincides with the proteasomal degradation of sumoylated Bir1. Importantly, Slx5-dependent mitotic relief was not only triggered by Mcm10 deficiency but also by treatment with low doses of the alkylating drug methyl methanesulfonate. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which Slx5/8 allows for passage through mitosis when replication stress is tolerable. PMID:27134171

  16. Slx5/Slx8 Promotes Replication Stress Tolerance by Facilitating Mitotic Progression.

    PubMed

    Thu, Yee Mon; Van Riper, Susan Kaye; Higgins, LeeAnn; Zhang, Tianji; Becker, Jordan Robert; Markowski, Todd William; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Griffin, Timothy Jon; Bielinsky, Anja Katrin

    2016-05-10

    Loss of minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) causes replication stress. We uncovered that S. cerevisiae mcm10-1 mutants rely on the E3 SUMO ligase Mms21 and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex Slx5/8 for survival. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified changes in the SUMO proteome of mcm10-1 mutants and revealed candidates regulated by Slx5/8. Such candidates included subunits of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), Bir1 and Sli15, known to facilitate spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. We show here that Slx5 counteracts SAC activation in mcm10-1 mutants under conditions of moderate replication stress. This coincides with the proteasomal degradation of sumoylated Bir1. Importantly, Slx5-dependent mitotic relief was triggered not only by Mcm10 deficiency but also by treatment with low doses of the alkylating drug methyl methanesulfonate. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which Slx5/8 allows for passage through mitosis when replication stress is tolerable.

  17. Structural Insights into Bunyavirus Replication and Its Regulation by the vRNA Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Piotr; Malet, Hélène; Cusack, Stephen; Reguera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Segmented negative-strand RNA virus (sNSV) polymerases transcribe and replicate the viral RNA (vRNA) within a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We present cryo-EM and X-ray structures of, respectively, apo- and vRNA bound La Crosse orthobunyavirus (LACV) polymerase that give atomic-resolution insight into how such RNPs perform RNA synthesis. The complementary 3′ and 5′ vRNA extremities are sequence specifically bound in separate sites on the polymerase. The 5′ end binds as a stem-loop, allosterically structuring functionally important polymerase active site loops. Identification of distinct template and product exit tunnels allows proposal of a detailed model for template-directed replication with minimal disruption to the circularised RNP. The similar overall architecture and vRNA binding of monomeric LACV to heterotrimeric influenza polymerase, despite high sequence divergence, suggests that all sNSV polymerases have a common evolutionary origin and mechanism of RNA synthesis. These results will aid development of replication inhibitors of diverse, serious human pathogenic viruses. PMID:26004069

  18. Replication of the TNFSF4 (OX40L) Promoter Region Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Abelson, Anna-Karin; Sánchez, Elena; Witte, Torsten; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Galeazzi, Mauro; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 gene (TNFSF4) encodes the OX40 ligand (OX40L), a co-stimulatory molecule involved in T-cell activation. A recent study demonstrated the association ofTNFSF4 haplotypes located in the upstream region with risk for- or protection from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (Graham et al, 2008). In order to replicate this association, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the previously associated haplotypes and passing the proper quality control filters were tested in 1312 cases and 1801 controls from Germany, Italy, Spain, and Argentina. The association of TNFSF4 with SLE was replicated in all the sets except Spain. There was a unique risk haplotype tagged by the minor alleles of the SNPs rs1234317 (pooled OR=1.39, p=0.0009) and rs12039904 (pooled OR=1.38, p=0.0012). We did not observe association to a single protective marker (rs844644) or haplotype as the first study reported; instead, we observed different protective haplotypes, all carrying the major alleles of both SNPs rs1234317 and rs12039904. Association analysis conditioning on the haplotypic background confirmed that these two SNPs explain the entire haplotype effect. This is the first replication study that confirms the association of genetic variation in the upstream region of TNFSF4 with susceptibility to SLE. PMID:19092840

  19. Cell Type-Specific Replication of Simian Virus 40 Conferred by Hormone Response Elements in the Late Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael L.; Mertz, Janet E.

    2002-01-01

    The late genes of SV40 are not expressed at significant levels until after the onset of viral DNA replication. We previously identified two hormone response elements (HREs) in the late promoter that contribute to this delay. Mutants defective in these HREs overexpress late RNA at early, but not late, times after transfection of CV-1PD cells. Overexpression of nuclear receptors (NRs) that recognize these HREs leads to repression of the late promoter in a sequence-specific and titratable manner, resulting in a delay in late gene expression. These observations led to a model in which the late promoter is repressed at early times after infection by NRs, with this repression being relieved by titration of these repressors through simian virus 40 (SV40) genome replication to high copy number. Here, we tested this model in the context of the viral life cycle. SV40 genomes containing mutations in either or both HREs that significantly reduce NR binding without altering the coding of any proteins were constructed. Competition for replication between mutant and wild-type viruses in low-multiplicity coinfections indicated that the +1 HRE offered a significant selective advantage to the virus within a few cycles of infection in African green monkey kidney cell lines CV-1, CV-1P, TC-7, MA-134, and Vero but not in CV-1PD′ cells. Interestingly, the +55 HRE offered a selective disadvantage in MA-134 cells but had no effect in CV-1, CV-1P, TC-7, Vero, and CV-1PD′ cells. Thus, we conclude that these HREs are biologically important to the virus, but in a cell type-specific manner. PMID:12050389

  20. Dual gene expression in embryoid bodies derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells using episomal vectors.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Sueishi, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Transcription factors are essential for the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) into specialized cell types. Embryoid body (EB) formation promotes the differentiation of iPS cells. We sought to establish an efficient method of transfection and rotary culture to generate EBs that stably express two genes. The pMetLuc2-Reporter vector was transfected using FuGENE HD (FuGENE), Lipofectamine LTX (LTX), X-tremeGENE, or TransIT-2020 transfection reagents. The media was analyzed using a Metridia luciferase (MetLuc) assay. Transfections were performed on cells adherent to plates/dishes (adherent method) or suspended in the media (suspension method). The 201B7 cells transfected with episomal vectors were selected using G418 (200 μg/mL) or hygromycin B (300 μg/mL). Rotary culture was performed at 2.5 or 9.9 rpm. Efficiency of EB formation was compared among plates and dishes. Cell density was compared at 1.6×10(3),×10(4), and×10(5) cells/mL. The suspended method of transfection using the FuGENE HD reagent was the most efficient. The expression of pEBMulti/Met-Hyg was detected 11 days posttransfection. Double transformants were selected 6 days posttransfection with pEBNK/EGFP-Neo and pEBNK/Cherry-Hyg. Both EGFP and CherryPicker were expressed in all of the surviving cells. EBs were formed most efficiently from cells cultured at a density of 1.6×10(5) cells/mL in six-well plates or 6 cm dishes. The selected cells formed EBs. FuGENE-mediated transfection of plasmids using the suspension method was effective in transforming iPS cells. Furthermore, the episomal vectors enabled us to perform a stable double transfection of EB-forming iPS cells.

  1. Midkine promoter-driven suicide gene expression and -mediated adenovirus replication produced cytotoxic effects to immortalised and tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Hamada, K; Namba, M; Kadomatsu, K; Muramatsu, T; Matsubara, S; Tagawa, M

    2004-07-01

    We examined possible application of a regulatory region of midkine (MK) gene, which is frequently upregulated in a number of human tumours but not in normal cells, to cancer gene therapy. We examined transcriptional activity of the MK genomic fragments in paired cell lines, immortalized cells and their parental normal fibroblasts, and found that the MK fragments activated a fused reporter or a suicide gene preferentially in the immortalized cells. Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad), in which the MK fragment was inserted upstream to the E1A gene (AdMK), replicated preferentially in the immortalized cells and were cytotoxie to them. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly susceptible to AdMK compared with human normal fibroblasts in vitro and the replication of AdMK was less than that of wild-type Ad in the infected fibroblasts. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells infected with AdMK did not form tumours in immunocompromised mice and intratumoural injection of AdMK into the hepatocellular carcinoma developed in mice retarded the subsequent tumour growth. Expression of E1A and necrosis of tumours were detected in AdMK-injected but not control Ad-injected cases. The MK promoter-driven suicide gene therapy and -mediated replicative Ad can thereby produce cytotoxic effects to immortalized and tumour cells with minimal damage to normal cells.

  2. Characterization of a protein tyrosine phosphatase as a host factor promoting baculovirus replication in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xue, Renju; Li, Xianyang; Hu, Cuimei; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) to host-pathogen interaction is highlighted in mammalian studies, whereas less is known in insects. Here we presented the categorization of the PTP complement of silkworm and characterized their homologous relationship with human and fruit fly PTPs. Among the 36 PTP genes, ptp-h, which was proposed to be the origin of baculovirus ptp belongs to atypical VH1-like dual-specific PTP subset and encodes a catalytic active protein. The maximum expression level of Bmptp-h was at 5th instar and in fat body. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection potently induced its expression in silkworm larvae and in BmE cells. Knock-down of Bmptp-h by RNA interference significantly inhibited viral replication, and over-expression enhanced viral replication as determined by viral DNA abundance and BmNPV-GFP positive cells. These results suggest that BmPTP-h might be one of the host factors that is beneficial to baculovirus infection by promoting viral replication.

  3. Dichloroacetate blocks aerobic glycolytic adaptation to attenuated measles virus and promotes viral replication leading to enhanced oncolysis in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lei; Chen, Aiping; Xia, Mao; Xu, Chun; Yu, Decai; Jiang, Aiqin; Wei, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Targeting reprogrammed energy metabolism such as aerobic glycolysis is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. However, tumors exhibiting low-rate glycolysis or metabolic heterogeneity might be resistant to such treatment. We hypothesized that a therapeutic modality that drove cancer cells to high-rate glycolysis might sensitize cancer cells to interference directed against metabolic flux. In this study, we found that attenuated oncolytic measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm) caused glioblastoma cells to shift to high-rate aerobic glycolysis; this adaptation was blocked by dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of glycolysis, leading to profound cell death of cancer cells but not of normal cells. DCA enhanced viral replication by mitigating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated innate immune responses. In a subcutaneous glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft mouse model, low-dose MV-Edm and DCA significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. We found that DCA impaired glycolysis (blocking bioenergetic generation) and enhanced viral replication (increasing bioenergetic consumption), which, in combination, accelerated bioenergetic exhaustion leading to necrotic cell death. Taken together, oncolytic MV-Edm sensitized cancer cells to DCA, and in parallel, DCA promoted viral replication, thus, improving oncolysis. This novel therapeutic approach should be readily incorporated into clinical trials. PMID:25575816

  4. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Kazlauskas, Arunas; Martikainen, Miika; Hinkkanen, Ari; Ahola, Tero; Saksela, Kalle

    2011-11-01

    Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a carboxyterminal proline-rich sequence motif shared by many alphaviral nsP3 proteins, and found it to serve as a preferred target site for the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains of amphiphysin-1 and -2. Nsp3 proteins of Semliki Forest (SFV), Sindbis (SINV), and Chikungunya viruses all showed avid and SH3-dependent binding to amphiphysins. Upon alphavirus infection the intracellular distribution of amphiphysin was dramatically altered and colocalized with nsP3. Mutations in nsP3 disrupting the amphiphysin SH3 binding motif as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of amphiphysin-2 expression resulted in impaired viral RNA replication in HeLa cells infected with SINV or SFV. Infection of Balb/c mice with SFV carrying an SH3 binding-defective nsP3 was associated with significantly decreased mortality. These data establish SH3 domain-mediated binding of nsP3 with amphiphysin as an important host cell interaction promoting alphavirus replication.

  5. Matriptase Proteolytically Activates Influenza Virus and Promotes Multicycle Replication in the Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place. PMID:23365447

  6. Matriptase proteolytically activates influenza virus and promotes multicycle replication in the human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric; Richter, Martin V

    2013-04-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place.

  7. Identification of Fic-1 as an enzyme that inhibits bacterial DNA replication by AMPylating GyrB, promoting filament formation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canhua; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Zhang, Li-Qun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-26

    The morphology of bacterial cells is important for virulence, evasion of the host immune system, and coping with environmental stresses. The widely distributed Fic proteins (filamentation induced by cAMP) are annotated as proteins involved in cell division because of the presence of the HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R motif. We showed that the presence of Fic-1 from Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly reduced the yield of plasmid DNA when expressed in Escherichia coli or P. fluorescens. Fic-1 interacted with GyrB, a subunit of DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. Fic-1 catalyzed the AMPylation of GyrB at Tyr(109), a residue critical for binding ATP, and exhibited auto-AMPylation activity. Mutation of the Fic-1 auto-AMPylated site greatly reduced AMPylation activity toward itself and toward GyrB. Fic-1-dependent AMPylation of GyrB triggered the SOS response, indicative of DNA replication stress or DNA damage. Fic-1 also promoted the formation of elongated cells when the SOS response was blocked. We identified an α-inhibitor protein that we named anti-Fic-1 (AntF), encoded by a gene immediately upstream of Fic-1. AntF interacted with Fic-1, inhibited the AMPylation activity of Fic-1 for GyrB in vitro, and blocked Fic-1-mediated inhibition of DNA replication in bacteria, suggesting that Fic-1 and AntF comprise a toxin-antitoxin module. Our work establishes Fic-1 as an AMPylating enzyme that targets GyrB to inhibit DNA replication and may target other proteins to regulate bacterial morphology.

  8. Ad-mTERT-delta19, a conditional replication-competent adenovirus driven by the human telomerase promoter, selectively replicates in and elicits cytopathic effect in a cancer cell-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Joo-Hang; Shin, Ha-Youn; Lee, Hansaem; Yang, Jai Myung; Kim, Jungho; Sohn, Joo-Hyuk; Kim, Hoguen; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2003-10-10

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, functions to stabilize telomere length during chromosomal replication. Previous studies have shown that hTERT promoter is highly active in most tumor and immortal cell lines but inactive in normal somatic cell types. The use of wild-type hTERT promoter, however, may be limited by its inability to direct high level and cancer cell-specific expression necessary for effective targeted gene therapy. To improve cancer cell specificity and the strength of the hTERT promoter, a modified hTERT, m-hTERT promoter was generated in which additional copies of c-Myc and Sp1 binding sites were incorporated adjacent to the promoter. As assessed using relative lacZ expression, hTERT and m-hTERT promoter activity was significantly upregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and within these upregulated cancer cells, m-hTERT promoter strength was substantially higher than that of the wild-type hTERT. Next, to restrict viral replication to tumor cells, a conditional replication-competent adenoviruses, Ad-TERT-Delta19 and Ad-mTERT-delta19 were generated in which the E1A gene, which is essential for viral replication, was placed under the control of the hTERT and m-hTERT promoter, respectively. While the wild-type Ad-TERT-delta19 replicated in and induced cytopathic effect in cancer and in some normal cell lines, Ad-mTERT-delta19 enhanced viral replication and cytopathic effect only in cancer cells. Furthermore, the growth of established human cervical carcinoma in nude mice was significantly suppressed by intratumoral injection of Ad-mTERT-delta19. Taken together, present results strongly suggest that the use of the m-hTERT promoter is not only useful in the regulation of therapeutic gene expression but also that replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus under the control of the m-hTERT promoter may be a new promising tool for the treatment of human malignancies.

  9. Activation of COX-2/PGE2 Promotes Sapovirus Replication via the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Deok-Song; Seo, Ja-Young; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Kang, Mun-Il; Hosmillo, Myra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to infection and the replicative cycles of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COX/PGE2 pathway regulates sapovirus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, infection with porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 h postinfection (hpi), with only a transient increase in COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi. The treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-1 and COX-2, significantly reduced PGE2 production, as well as PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We observed that pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 dramatically increased NO production, causing a reduction in PSaV replication that could be restored by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase via the inhibitor N-nitro-l-methyl-arginine ester. This study identified a pivotal role for the COX/PGE2 pathway in the regulation of NO production during the sapovirus life cycle, providing new insights into the life cycle of this poorly characterized family of viruses. Our findings also reveal potential new targets for treatment of sapovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Sapoviruses are among the major etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals, but little is known about sapovirus host factor requirements. Here, using only cultivable porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, we demonstrate that PSaV induced the vitalization of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2

  10. The Fanconi anemia pathway promotes replication-dependent DNA interstrand cross-link repair.

    PubMed

    Knipscheer, Puck; Räschle, Markus; Smogorzewska, Agata; Enoiu, Milica; Ho, The Vinh; Schärer, Orlando D; Elledge, Stephen J; Walter, Johannes C

    2009-12-18

    Fanconi anemia is a human cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in 13 Fanc genes. The disorder is characterized by genomic instability and cellular hypersensitivity to chemicals that generate DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). A central event in the activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway is the mono-ubiquitylation of the FANCI-FANCD2 complex, but how this complex confers ICL resistance remains enigmatic. Using a cell-free system, we showed that FANCI-FANCD2 is required for replication-coupled ICL repair in S phase. Removal of FANCD2 from extracts inhibits both nucleolytic incisions near the ICL and translesion DNA synthesis past the lesion. Reversal of these defects requires ubiquitylated FANCI-FANCD2. Our results show that multiple steps of the essential S-phase ICL repair mechanism fail when the Fanconi anemia pathway is compromised.

  11. The hemagglutinin protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses overcomes an early block in the replication cycle to promote productive replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cline, Troy D; Karlsson, Erik A; Seufzer, Bradley J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are known to be one of the first lines of defense against influenza virus infection. However, they may also contribute to severe disease caused by the highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses. One reason for this may be the ability of certain influenza virus strains to productively replicate in macrophages. However, studies investigating the productive replication of influenza viruses in macrophages have been contradictory, and the results may depend on both the type of macrophages used and the specific viral strain. In this work, we investigated the ability of H1 to H16 viruses to productively replicate in primary murine alveolar macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages. We show that only a subset of HPAI H5N1 viruses, those that cause high morbidity and mortality in mammals, can productively replicate in macrophages, as measured by the release of newly synthesized virus particles into the cell supernatant. Mechanistically, we found that these H5 strains can overcome a block early in the viral life cycle leading to efficient nuclear entry, viral transcription, translation, and ultimately replication. Studies with reassortant viruses demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin gene from an H5N1 virus rescued replication of H1N1 influenza virus in macrophages. This study is the first to characterize H5N1 influenza viruses as the only subtype of influenza virus capable of productive replication in macrophages and establishes the viral gene that is required for this characteristic. The ability to productively replicate in macrophages is unique to H5N1 influenza viruses and may contribute to their increased pathogenesis.

  12. Uncoupling of pathways that promote postmitotic life span and apoptosis from replicative immortality of Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shawn

    2006-12-01

    A dichotomy exists between germ and somatic cells in most organisms, such that somatic cell lineages proliferate for a single generation, whereas the germ cell lineage has the capacity to proliferate from one generation to the next, indefinitely. Several theories have been proposed to explain the unlimited replicative life span of germ cells, including the elimination of damaged germ cells by apoptosis or expression of high levels of gene products that prevent aging in somatic cells. These theories were tested in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by examining the consequences of eliminating either apoptosis or the daf-16, daf-18 or sir-2.1 genes that promote longevity of postmitotic somatic cells. However, germ cells of strains deficient for these activities displayed an unlimited proliferative capacity. Thus, C. elegans germ cells retain their youthful character via alternative pathways that prevent or eliminate damage that accumulates as a consequence of cell proliferation.

  13. Refinement of the Diatom Episome Maintenance Sequence and Improvement of Conjugation-Based DNA Delivery Methods

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Rachel E.; Bielinski, Vincent A.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Allen, Andrew E.; Weyman, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation of episomal plasmids from bacteria to diatoms advances diatom genetic manipulation by simplifying transgene delivery and providing a stable and consistent gene expression platform. To reach its full potential, this nascent technology requires new optimized expression vectors and a deeper understanding of episome maintenance. Here, we present the development of an additional diatom vector (pPtPBR1), based on the parent plasmid pBR322, to add a plasmid maintained at medium copy number in Escherichia coli to the diatom genetic toolkit. Using this new vector, we evaluated the contribution of individual yeast DNA elements comprising the 1.4-kb tripartite CEN6-ARSH4-HIS3 sequence that enables episome maintenance in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. While various combinations of these individual elements enable efficient conjugation and high exconjugant yield in P. tricornutum, individual elements alone do not. Conjugation of episomes containing CEN6-ARSH4 and a small sequence from the low GC content 3′ end of HIS3 produced the highest number of diatom exconjugant colonies, resulting in a smaller and more efficient vector design. Our findings suggest that the CEN6 and ARSH4 sequences function differently in yeast and diatoms, and that low GC content regions of greater than ~500 bp are a potential indicator of a functional diatom episome maintenance sequence. Additionally, we have developed improvements to the conjugation protocol including a high-throughput option utilizing 12-well plates and plating methods that improve exconjugant yield and reduce time and materials required for the conjugation protocol. The data presented offer additional information regarding the mechanism by which the yeast-derived sequence enables diatom episome maintenance and demonstrate options for flexible vector design. PMID:27551676

  14. Different Modes of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication during Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ralf; Hirt, Bernhard; Bechtold, Viviane; Beard, Peter; Raj, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) begins its life cycle by infecting the basal cells of the epithelium. Within these proliferating cells, the viral genomes are replicated, maintained, and passed on to the daughter cells. Using HPV episome-containing cell lines that were derived from naturally infected cervical tissues, we investigated the mode by which the viral DNAs replicate in these cells. We observed that, whereas HPV16 DNA replicated in an ordered once-per-S-phase manner in W12 cells, HPV31 DNA replicated via a random-choice mechanism in CIN612 cells. However, when HPV16 and HPV31 DNAs were separately introduced into an alternate keratinocyte cell line NIKS, they both replicated randomly. This indicates that HPV DNA is inherently capable of replicating by either random-choice or once-per-S-phase mechanisms and that the mode of HPV DNA replication is dependent on the cells that harbor the viral episome. High expression of the viral replication protein E1 in W12 cells converted HPV16 DNA replication to random-choice replication and, as such, it appears that the mode of HPV DNA replication in proliferating cells is dependent on the presence or the increased level of this protein in the host cell. The implications of these observations on maintenance, latency, and persistence are discussed. PMID:16611903

  15. The promoter regions of the Myb-regulated Adora2B and Mcm4 genes co-localize with origins of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Gundelach, Holger; Braas, Daniel; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Background The retroviral oncogene v-myb encodes a transcription factor (v-Myb) which is responsible for the transformation of myelomonocytic cells by avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). v-Myb is thought to exert its biological effects by deregulating the expression of specific target genes. We have recently demonstrated that the chicken Gas41 gene, whose promoter co-localizes with an origin of DNA replication, is a bona fide Myb target gene. Because of this finding we have asked whether other Myb-regulated genes are also associated with DNA replication origins. Results We show that the promoter region of the chicken adenosine receptor 2B gene (Adora2B), a known Myb-target gene, acts as a DNA replication origin. Furthermore, we have examined known replication origins for the presence of Myb binding sites. We found that the intergenic region between the genes for the minichromosome maintenance 4 protein (Mcm4) and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (Prkdc), whose human counterpart has been identified as a replication origin, contains a number of Myb binding sites. Our data show that this region also acts as an origin of replication in chicken cells. Interestingly, we found that the chicken Mcm4 gene is also Myb-regulated. Conclusion Our work identifies the chicken Mcm4 gene as a novel Myb target gene and presents evidence for the co-localization of two novel origins of DNA replication with Myb-regulated genes. Our work raises the possibility that a fraction of Myb target gene promoters is associated with DNA replication origins. PMID:17822556

  16. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Promotes Flaviviridae Entry and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Le Sommer, Caroline; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Pearson, James L.; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses cause a wide range of severe diseases ranging from encephalitis to hemorrhagic fever. Discovery of host factors that regulate the fate of flaviviruses in infected cells could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of infection and therefore facilitate the development of anti-flaviviral drugs. We performed genome-scale siRNA screens to discover human host factors required for yellow fever virus (YFV) propagation. Using a 2×2 siRNA pool screening format and a duplicate of the screen, we identified a high confidence list of YFV host factors. To find commonalities between flaviviruses, these candidates were compared to host factors previously identified for West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV). This comparison highlighted a potential requirement for the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, GRKs, for flaviviral infection. The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1) was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we showed that GRK2 was required for efficient propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting both entry and RNA synthesis. Together, our findings identified GRK2 as a novel regulator of flavivirus infection and suggest that inhibition of GRK2 function may constitute a new approach for treatment of flavivirus associated diseases. PMID:23029581

  17. Hepatitis B virus genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicate less efficiently than genotype B isolates but possess higher virion secretion capacity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-10-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C.

  18. An Epigenetic Compound Library Screen Identifies BET Inhibitors That Promote HSV-1 and -2 Replication by Bridging P-TEFb to Viral Gene Promoters through BRD4.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yingyu; Dai, Yue; Fan, Yimei; Hou, Yayi; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang

    2016-10-01

    The human HSV-1 and -2 are common pathogens of human diseases. Both host and viral factors are involved in HSV lytic infection, although detailed mechanisms remain elusive. By screening a chemical library of epigenetic regulation, we identified bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) as a critical player in HSV infection. We show that treatment with pan BD domain inhibitor enhanced both HSV infection. Using JQ1 as a probe, we found that JQ1, a defined BD1 inhibitor, acts through BRD4 protein since knockdown of BRD4 expression ablated JQ1 effect on HSV infection. BRD4 regulates HSV replication through complex formation involving CDK9 and RNAP II; whereas, JQ1 promotes HSV-1 infection by allocating the complex to HSV gene promoters. Therefore, suppression of BRD4 expression or inhibition of CDK9 activity impeded HSV infection. Our data support a model that JQ1 enhances HSV infection by switching BRD4 to transcription regulation of viral gene expression from chromatin targeting since transient expression of BRD4 BD1 or BD1/2 domain had similar effect to that by JQ1 treatment. In addition to the identification that BRD4 is a modulator for JQ1 action on HSV infection, this study demonstrates BRD4 has an essential role in HSV infection.

  19. An Epigenetic Compound Library Screen Identifies BET Inhibitors That Promote HSV-1 and -2 Replication by Bridging P-TEFb to Viral Gene Promoters through BRD4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yingyu; Dai, Yue; Fan, Yimei; Hou, Yayi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The human HSV-1 and -2 are common pathogens of human diseases. Both host and viral factors are involved in HSV lytic infection, although detailed mechanisms remain elusive. By screening a chemical library of epigenetic regulation, we identified bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) as a critical player in HSV infection. We show that treatment with pan BD domain inhibitor enhanced both HSV infection. Using JQ1 as a probe, we found that JQ1, a defined BD1 inhibitor, acts through BRD4 protein since knockdown of BRD4 expression ablated JQ1 effect on HSV infection. BRD4 regulates HSV replication through complex formation involving CDK9 and RNAP II; whereas, JQ1 promotes HSV-1 infection by allocating the complex to HSV gene promoters. Therefore, suppression of BRD4 expression or inhibition of CDK9 activity impeded HSV infection. Our data support a model that JQ1 enhances HSV infection by switching BRD4 to transcription regulation of viral gene expression from chromatin targeting since transient expression of BRD4 BD1 or BD1/2 domain had similar effect to that by JQ1 treatment. In addition to the identification that BRD4 is a modulator for JQ1 action on HSV infection, this study demonstrates BRD4 has an essential role in HSV infection. PMID:27764245

  20. IFIT1 Differentially Interferes with Translation and Replication of Alphavirus Genomes and Promotes Induction of Type I Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Atasheva, Svetlana; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; White, James P.; Diamond, Michael S.; Weaver, Scott C.; Frolova, Elena I.; Frolov, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human and animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-β, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry and nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5’UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5’UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5’end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5’UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, and thus could serve as novel vaccine candidates. PMID:25927359

  1. IFIT1 Differentially Interferes with Translation and Replication of Alphavirus Genomes and Promotes Induction of Type I Interferon.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Josephine M; Kim, Dal Young; Atasheva, Svetlana; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; White, James P; Diamond, Michael S; Weaver, Scott C; Frolova, Elena I; Frolov, Ilya

    2015-04-01

    Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human and animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-β, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry and nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5'UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5'UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5'end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5'UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, and thus could serve as novel vaccine candidates.

  2. Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Genomes Persist as Episomal Chromatin in Primate Muscle▿

    PubMed Central

    Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Nowrouzi, Ali; Toromanoff, Alice; Chérel, Yan; Chenuaud, Pierre; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Rolling, Fabienne; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are capable of mediating long-term gene expression following administration to skeletal muscle. In rodent muscle, the vector genomes persist in the nucleus in concatemeric episomal forms. Here, we demonstrate with nonhuman primates that rAAV vectors integrate inefficiently into the chromosomes of myocytes and reside predominantly as episomal monomeric and concatemeric circles. The episomal rAAV genomes assimilate into chromatin with a typical nucleosomal pattern. The persistence of the vector genomes and gene expression for years in quiescent tissues suggests that a bona fide chromatin structure is important for episomal maintenance and transgene expression. These findings were obtained from primate muscles transduced with rAAV1 and rAAV8 vectors for up to 22 months after intramuscular delivery of 5 × 1012 viral genomes/kg. Because of this unique context, our data, which provide important insight into in situ vector biology, are highly relevant from a clinical standpoint. PMID:18524821

  3. Nucleobase-mediated, photocatalytic production of amphiphiles to promote the self-assembly of a simple self-replicating protocell.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Maurer, Sarah, E.; Albertsen, Anders, N.; Boncella, James, M.; Cape, Jonathan, L.

    Living cells are in many respects the ultimate nanoscale chemical system. Within a very small volume they can produce highly specific useful products by extracting resources and free energy from the environment. They are also self-organized, self-controlled, and capable of self-repair and self-replication. Designing artificial chemical systems (artificial cells or protocells) that would be endowed with these powerful capabilities has been investigated extensively in the recent years. Chemical systems usually studied were based on the encapsulation of a set of genes along with catalytic protein machinery within the self-assembled boundaries of liposome/vesicles. The generated systems have many of the characteristics of a living system, but lack the regulation by genetic information of all protocell functions. Departing from these encapsulated models, we have been attempting to implement a simple, chemical system in which the regulation of the metabolism is truly mediated by information molecules. Our proposed system is composed of a chemical mixture composed of fatty acids that form bilayers (compartment), amphiphilic information molecules (nucleic acids -NA), and metabolic complexes (photosensitizers). Due to the intrinsic properties of all its components, a chemical system will self-assemble into aqueous, colloid mixtures that will be conducive to the metabolic steps, the non-enzymatic polymerization of the information, and the photochemical fatty acid production from its oil-like precursor. The reaction products (e.g., the container molecules) will in turn promote system growth and replication. In this scheme, the NA acts as an information molecule mediating the metabolic catalysis (electron donor/relay system) with a ruthenium metal complex as a cofactor and sensitizer, which is used to convert the hydrophobic precursor container molecules into amphiphiles, thus directly linking protocell metabolism with information. In a first experimental design, NA has been

  4. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura T; Sutera, Vincent A; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T

    2015-11-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3' azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5' to 3' helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3' exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication.

  5. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  6. Recruitment of Arabidopsis RNA Helicase AtRH9 to the Viral Replication Complex by Viral Replicase to Promote Turnip Mosaic Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinzi; Xiong, Ruyi; Bernards, Mark; Wang, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Positive-sense RNA viruses have a small genome with very limited coding capacity and are highly dependent on host components to fulfill their life cycle. Recent studies have suggested that DEAD-box RNA helicases play vital roles in many aspects of RNA metabolism. To explore the possible role of the RNA helicases in viral infection, we used the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-Arabidopsis pathosystem. The Arabidopsis genome encodes more than 100 putative RNA helicases (AtRH). Over 41 Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants carrying genetic lesions in the corresponding 26 AtRH genes were screened for their requirement in TuMV infection. TuMV infection assays revealed that virus accumulation significantly decreased in the Arabidopsis mutants of three genes, AtRH9, AtRH26, and PRH75. In the present work, AtRH9 was further characterized. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that AtRH9 interacted with the TuMV NIb protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of AtRH9 was altered in the virus-infected cells, and AtRH9 was recruited to the viral replication complex. These results suggest that Arabidopsis AtRH9 is an important component of the TuMV replication complex, possibly recruited via its interaction with NIb. PMID:27456972

  7. The first two nucleotides of the respiratory syncytial virus antigenome RNA replication product can be selected independently of the promoter terminus.

    PubMed

    Noton, Sarah L; Fearns, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding how the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses initiate genome replication. In a previous study of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA replication, we found evidence that the polymerase could select the 5'-ATP residue of the genome RNA independently of the 3' nucleotide of the template. To investigate if a similar mechanism is used during antigenome synthesis, a study of initiation from the RSV leader (Le) promoter was performed using an intracellular minigenome assay in which RNA replication was restricted to a single step, so that the products examined were derived only from input mutant templates. Templates in which Le nucleotides 1U, or 1U and 2G, were deleted directed efficient replication, and in both cases, the replication products were initiated at the wild-type position, at position -1 or -2 relative to the template, respectively. Sequence analysis of the RNA products showed that they contained ATP and CTP at the -1 and -2 positions, respectively, thus restoring the mini-antigenome RNA to wild-type sequence. These data indicate that the RSV polymerase is able to select the first two nucleotides of the antigenome and initiate at the correct position, even if the 3'-terminal two nucleotides of the template are missing. Substitution of positions +1 and +2 of the template reduced RNA replication and resulted in increased initiation at positions +3 and +5. Together these data suggest a model for how the RSV polymerase initiates antigenome synthesis.

  8. Influence of the basal core promoter and precore mutation on replication of hepatitis B virus and antiviral susceptibility of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiu-Ji; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (PC) regions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) are more common in genotypes B and C than in genotype A, suggesting that these mutations might affect replication competency depending on genotype. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of these mutations on the capacity of HBV for replication and antiviral drug susceptibility according to genotype. Genotypes A, B, and C of HBV strains with a BCP mutation, PC mutation, or BCP + PC mutation were made by site-directed mutagenesis. Replication competency of each construct and susceptibility to nucleos(t) ide analogues were tested in an Huh7 cell line. In genotype A, the BCP and BCP + PC mutations increased the viral replication around 6.5 times compared with the wild type, and the PC mutation alone similarly increased the viral replication around three times. In genotypes B and C, all three mutant types increased viral replication to a similar extent, regardless of mutation pattern. Interestingly, the BCP mutation appeared to have a greater effect on viral replication in genotype A than in genotypes B and C. This finding was unexpected because the BCP mutation is more common in HBV genotypes B and C. Moreover, the BCP, PC, and BCP + PC mutations decreased the sensitivity of HBV to antiviral agents to various degrees (2- to 10-fold) regardless of genotype. In conclusion, BCP and PC mutations increased viral replication regardless of HBV genotype and decreased in vitro antiviral susceptibility to the nucleos(t) ide analogues.

  9. p53 is preferentially recruited to the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 during replicative senescence of normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James G; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M

    2006-09-01

    Replicative senescence is the terminal growth arrest that most normal human cells enter into after a fixed number of divisions in vitro, limiting the proliferative potential of a cell and preventing genomic instability caused by critically short telomeres. Thus, senescence presents a tumor-suppressive mechanism and a barrier to tumor formation. However, senescent cells are inherently resistant to apoptosis and, as they accumulate in aging tissues, may contribute to organ dysfunction and promote tumor progression as part of the stromal environment. Replicative life span in normal human cells can be extended by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 or its direct target, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, suggesting a direct role for this pathway in senescence. However, p53 recruitment to promoters of target genes during replicative senescence has not been shown in live cells. In this study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine that p53 preferentially occupied the promoters of growth arrest genes p21 and GADD45 in senescent normal human diploid fibroblasts but not the promoters of other target genes that recruited p53 following doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, such as apoptosis regulators TNFRSF10b, TNFRSF6, and PUMA. This differential recruitment of p53 in senescent versus doxorubicin-treated fibroblasts was accompanied by differences in post-translational modification of p53. These data provide mechanisms for both the growth arrest mediated by p53 and the resistant nature of senescent cells to apoptosis despite p53 activity.

  10. Episomal-based generation of an iPS cell line from human fetal foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Matz, Peggy; Adjaye, James

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFF1) were used to generate the iPSC line epiHFF1-B1 employing a combination of three episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC, and KLF4. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptome profile of epiHFF1-B1 and the human embryonic stem cell line-H1 have a pearson correlation of 0.936.

  11. Examining a DNA Replication Requirement for Bacteriophage λ Red- and Rac Prophage RecET-Promoted Recombination in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Lynn C.; Costantino, Nina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombineering, in vivo genetic engineering with bacteriophage homologous recombination systems, is a powerful technique for making genetic modifications in bacteria. Two systems widely used in Escherichia coli are the Red system from phage λ and RecET from the defective Rac prophage. We investigated the in vivo dependence of recombineering on DNA replication of the recombining substrate using plasmid targets. For λ Red recombination, when DNA replication of a circular target plasmid is prevented, recombination with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides is greatly reduced compared to that under replicating conditions. For RecET recombination, when DNA replication of the targeted plasmid is prevented, the recombination frequency is also reduced, to a level identical to that seen for the Red system in the absence of replication. The very low level of oligonucleotide recombination observed in the absence of any phage recombination functions is the same in the presence or absence of DNA replication. In contrast, both the Red and RecET systems recombine a nonreplicating linear dimer plasmid with high efficiency to yield a circular monomer. Therefore, the DNA replication requirement is substrate dependent. Our data are consistent with recombination by both the Red and RecET systems occurring predominately by single-strand annealing rather than by strand invasion. PMID:27624131

  12. The Barley stripe mosaic virus γb protein promotes chloroplast-targeted replication by enhancing unwinding of RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yongliang; Yang, Meng; Liu, Songyu; Li, Zhenggang; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2017-04-07

    RNA viruses encode various RNA binding proteins that function in many steps of viral infection cycles. These proteins function as RNA helicases, methyltransferases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, RNA silencing suppressors, RNA chaperones, movement proteins, and so on. Although many of the proteins bind the viral RNA genome during different stages of infection, our knowledge about the coordination of their functions is limited. In this study, we describe a novel role for the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb as an enhancer of αa RNA helicase activity, and we show that the γb protein is recruited by the αa viral replication protein to chloroplast membrane sites of BSMV replication. Mutagenesis or deletion of γb from BSMV resulted in reduced positive strand (+) RNAα accumulation, but γb mutations abolishing viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity did not completely eliminate genomic RNA replication. In addition, cis- or trans-expression of the Tomato bushy stunt virus p19 VSR protein failed to complement the γb replication functions, indicating that the direct involvement of γb in BSMV RNA replication is independent of VSR functions. These data support a model whereby two BSMV-encoded RNA-binding proteins act coordinately to regulate viral genome replication and provide new insights into strategies whereby double-stranded viral RNA unwinding is regulated, as well as formation of viral replication complexes.

  13. Improved detection of episomal Banana streak viruses by multiplex immunocapture PCR.

    PubMed

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Acina, Isabelle; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2006-10-01

    Banana streak viruses (BSV) are currently the main viral constraint to Musa germplasm movement, genetic improvement and mass propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement BSV detection strategies that are both reliable and sensitive, such as PCR-based techniques. Unfortunately, BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs) are present in the genome of Musa balbisiana. They interfere with PCR-based detection of episomal BSV in infected banana and plantain, such as immunocapture PCR. Therefore, a multiplex, immunocapture PCR (M-IC-PCR) was developed for the detection of BSV. Musa sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) primers were selected and used in combination with BSV species-specific primers in order to monitor possible contamination by Musa genomic DNA, using multiplex PCR. Furthermore, immunocapture conditions were optimized in order to prevent Musa DNA from interfering with episomal BSV DNA during the PCR step. This improved detection method successfully allowed the accurate, specific and sensitive detection of episomal DNA only from distinct BSV species. Its implementation should benefit PCR-based detection of viruses for which homologous sequences are present in the genome of their hosts, including transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  14. Cis-acting DNA sequence at a replication origin promotes repeat expansion to fragile X full mutation

    PubMed Central

    Zaninovic, Nikica; Zhan, Qiansheng; Madireddy, Advaitha; Nolin, Sarah L.; Ersalesi, Nicole; Yan, Zi; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by CGG repeat expansion that leads to FMR1 silencing. Women with a premutation allele are at risk of having a full mutation child with FXS. To investigate the mechanism of repeat expansion, we examined the relationship between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant that is linked to repeat expansion in haplogroup D and a replication origin located ∼53 kb upstream of the repeats. This origin is absent in FXS human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have the SNP variant C, but present in the nonaffected hESCs, which have a T variant. The SNP maps directly within the replication origin. Interestingly, premutation hESCs have a replication origin and the T variant similar to nonaffected hESCs. These results suggest that a T/C SNP located at a replication origin could contribute to the inactivation of this replication origin in FXS hESCs, leading to altered replication fork progression through the repeats, which could result in repeat expansion to the FXS full mutation. PMID:25179629

  15. The Cellular TAR RNA Binding Protein, TRBP, Promotes HIV-1 Replication Primarily by Inhibiting the Activation of Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Kinase PKR▿

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Steel, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    The TAR RNA binding protein, TRBP, is a cellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that can promote the replication of HIV-1 through interactions with the viral TAR element as well as with cellular proteins that affect the efficiency of translation of viral transcripts. The structured TAR element, present on all viral transcripts, can impede efficient translation either by sterically blocking access of translation initiation factors to the 5′-cap or by activating the dsRNA-dependent kinase, PKR. Several mechanisms by which TRBP can facilitate translation of viral transcripts have been proposed, including the binding and unwinding of TAR and the suppression of PKR activation. Further, TRBP has been identified as a cofactor of Dicer in the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), and sequestration of TRBP by TAR in infected cells has been proposed as a viral countermeasure to potential host cell RNA interference-based antiviral activities. Here, we have addressed the relative importance of these various roles for TRBP in HIV-1 replication. Using Jurkat T cells, primary human CD4+ T cells, and additional cultured cell lines, we show that depletion of TRBP has no effect on viral replication when PKR activation is otherwise blocked. Moreover, the presence of TAR-containing mRNAs does not affect the efficacy of cellular miRNA silencing pathways. These results establish that TRBP, when expressed at physiological levels, promotes HIV-1 replication mainly by suppressing the PKR-mediated antiviral response, while its contribution to HIV-1 replication through PKR-independent pathways is minimal. PMID:21937648

  16. Gastric cancer associated variant of DNA polymerase beta (Leu22Pro) promotes DNA replication associated double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Rozacky, Jenna; Nemec, Antoni A.; Sweasy, Joann B.; Kidane, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is a key enzymefor the protection against oxidative DNA lesions via itsrole in base excision repair (BER). Approximately 1/3 of tumors studied to date express Pol β variant proteins, and several tumors overexpress Pol β. Pol β possesses DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities, both of which are known to be important for efficient BER. The dRP lyase activity resides within the 8kDa amino terminal domain of Pol β, is responsible for removal of the 5′ phosphate group (5′-dRP). The DNA polymerase subsequently fills the gaps. Previously, we demonstrated that the human gastric cancer-associated variant of Pol β (Leu22Pro (L22P)) lacks dRP lyase function in vitro. Here, we report that L22P-expressing cells harbor significantly increased replication associated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and defective maintenance of the nascent DNA strand (NDS) during replication stress. Moreover, L22P-expressing cells are sensitive to PARP1 inhibitors, which suggests trapped PARP1 binds to the 5′-dRP group and blocks replications forks, resulting in fork collapse and DSBs. Our data suggest that the normal function of the dRP lyase is critical to maintain replication fork integrity and prevent replication fork collapse to DSBs and cellular transformation. PMID:26090616

  17. Enterovirus 71 induces dsRNA/PKR-dependent cytoplasmic redistribution of GRP78/BiP to promote viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Wang, Shin-Chyang; Jheng, Chao-Rih; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    GRP78/BiP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein with the important function of maintaining ER homeostasis, and the overexpression of GRP78/BiP alleviates ER stress. Our previous studies showed that infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71), a (+)RNA picornavirus, induced GRP78/BiP upregulation; however, ectopic GRP78/BiP overexpression in ER downregulates virus replication and viral particle formation. The fact that a virus infection increases GRP78/BiP expression, which is unfavorable for virus replication, is counterintuitive. In this study, we found that the GRP78/BiP protein level was elevated in the cytoplasm instead of in the ER in EV71-infected cells. Cells transfected with polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but not with viral proteins, also exhibited upregulation and elevation of GRP78/BiP in the cytosol. Our results further demonstrate that EV71 infections induce the dsRNA/protein kinase R-dependent cytosolic accumulation of GRP78/BiP. The overexpression of a GRP78/BiP mutant lacking a KDEL retention signal failed to inhibit both dithiothreitol-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication in the context of viral protein synthesis and viral titers. These data revealed that EV71 infection might cause upregulation and aberrant redistribution of GRP78/BiP to the cytosol, thereby facilitating virus replication. PMID:27004760

  18. The Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Is Superior to Tocopherol in Promoting Myogenic Differentiation in the Prevention of Replicative Senescence of Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Shy Cian; Razak, Azraul Mumtazah; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Makpol, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts. PMID:26885980

  19. E1-Mediated Recruitment of a UAF1-USP Deubiquitinase Complex Facilitates Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, Michaël; Gagnon, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase promotes viral DNA replication through its DNA unwinding activity and association with host factors. The E1 proteins from anogenital HPV types interact with the cellular WD repeat-containing factor UAF1 (formerly known as p80). Specific amino acid substitutions in E1 that impair this interaction inhibit maintenance of the viral episome in immortalized keratinocytes and reduce viral DNA replication by up to 70% in transient assays. In this study, we determined by affinity purification of UAF1 that it interacts with three deubiquitinating enzymes in C33A cervical carcinoma cells: USP1, a nuclear protein, and the two cytoplasmic enzymes USP12 and USP46. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that E1 assembles into a ternary complex with UAF1 and any one of these three USPs. Moreover, expression of E1 leads to a redistribution of USP12 and USP46 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies further revealed that E1 recruits these threes USPs to the viral origin in association with UAF1. The function of USP1, USP12, and USP46 in viral DNA replication was investigated by overproduction of catalytically inactive versions of these enzymes in transient assays. All three dominant negative USPs reduced HPV31 DNA replication by up to 60%, an effect that was specific, as it was not observed in assays performed with a truncated E1 lacking the UAF1-binding domain or with bovine papillomavirus 1 E1, which does not bind UAF1. These results highlight the importance of the USP1, USP12, and USP46 deubiquitinating enzymes in anogenital HPV DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human papillomaviruses are small DNA tumor viruses that induce benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa. HPV types that infect the anogenital tract are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, the majority of anal cancers, and a growing proportion of head-and-neck cancers. Replication of the HPV genome requires the viral

  20. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4 Promotes Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Suppressing Autophagy in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqiang; Zhu, Naiwei; Chen, Shenglin; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Hao; Zhu, Shiying; Tang, Hailin; Zhu, Yongzhe; Qi, Zhongtian

    2017-03-28

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes the most prevalent viral encephalitis in Asia. Since JEV is a neurotropic virus, it is important to identify key molecules that mediate JEV infection in neuronal cells and to investigate their underlying mechanisms. In this study, the critical role of Nedd4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system, was examined in JEV propagation. In SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells, Nedd4 was up-regulated in response to JEV infection. Moreover, down-regulation of Nedd4 resulted in a significant decrease in JEV replication without alterations in virus attachment and internalization or in JEV pseudotyped virus infection, suggesting that Nedd4 participates in the replication but not in the entry stage of JEV infection. Further functional analysis showed that Nedd4 attenuated JEV-induced autophagy, which negatively regulates virus replication during infection. These results suggest that Nedd4 facilitates the replication of JEV by suppressing virus-induced autophagy. Taken together, our results indicate that Nedd4 plays a crucial role in JEV infection of neuronal cells, which provides a potential target for the development of novel treatment to combat JEV infection.

  1. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4 Promotes Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication by Suppressing Autophagy in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqiang; Zhu, Naiwei; Chen, Shenglin; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Hao; Zhu, Shiying; Tang, Hailin; Zhu, Yongzhe; Qi, Zhongtian

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes the most prevalent viral encephalitis in Asia. Since JEV is a neurotropic virus, it is important to identify key molecules that mediate JEV infection in neuronal cells and to investigate their underlying mechanisms. In this study, the critical role of Nedd4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system, was examined in JEV propagation. In SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells, Nedd4 was up-regulated in response to JEV infection. Moreover, down-regulation of Nedd4 resulted in a significant decrease in JEV replication without alterations in virus attachment and internalization or in JEV pseudotyped virus infection, suggesting that Nedd4 participates in the replication but not in the entry stage of JEV infection. Further functional analysis showed that Nedd4 attenuated JEV-induced autophagy, which negatively regulates virus replication during infection. These results suggest that Nedd4 facilitates the replication of JEV by suppressing virus-induced autophagy. Taken together, our results indicate that Nedd4 plays a crucial role in JEV infection of neuronal cells, which provides a potential target for the development of novel treatment to combat JEV infection. PMID:28349961

  2. DNA replication through G-quadruplex motifs is promoted by the S. cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase

    PubMed Central

    Paeschke, Katrin; Capra, John A.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures are extremely stable four-stranded secondary structures held together by non-canonical G-G base pairs. Genome-wide chromatin immuno-precipitation was used to determine the in vivo binding sites of the multi-functional S. cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase, a potent unwinder of G4 structures in vitro. G4 motifs were a significant subset of the high confidence Pif1 binding sites. Replication slowed in the vicinity of these motifs, and they were prone to breakage in Pif1-deficient cells, while non G4 Pif1 binding sites did not show this behavior. Introducing many copies of G4 motifs caused slow growth in replication stressed Pif1 deficient cells that was relieved by spontaneous mutations that eliminated their ability to form G4 structures, bind Pif1, slow DNA replication and stimulate DNA breakage. These data suggest that G4 structures form in vivo and that they are resolved by Pif1 to prevent replication fork stalling and DNA breakage. PMID:21620135

  3. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  4. A modified hTERT Promoter-directed Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication with Concurrent Inhibition of TGFβ Signaling for Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zebin; Robbins, John S.; Pister, Amanda; Zafar, M. Behzad; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Gupta, Janhavi; Lee, K. Jessica; Neuman, Kam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Guise, Theresa; Seth, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Our laboratory is interested to develop oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we have constructed mhTERTAd.sTβRFc, a 01/07 based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of TGFβ receptor II fused with human Fc IgG1 (sTGFβRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc-mediated sTGFβRIIFc production would target growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20-times) in breast cancer cells compared to normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 hrs with mhTERTAd.sTβRFc produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc (greater than 1 μg/ml) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly 6,000-fold increase in the viral titers during 48 hrs infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication deficient virus Ad(E1-).sTβRFc also produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc, but under these conditions no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFβRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFβ-1, and abolished the effects of TGFβ-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTβRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft bearing mice resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth, and production of sTGFβRIIFc in the blood. On the other hand, intravenous injection of Ad(E1-).sTβRFc did not exhibit significant inhibition of the tumor growth, but resulted in the sTGFβRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with sTGFβRIIFc protein production play a critical role in inducing

  5. A modified hTERT promoter-directed oncolytic adenovirus replication with concurrent inhibition of TGFbeta signaling for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Robbins, J S; Pister, A; Zafar, M B; Zhang, Z-W; Gupta, J; Lee, K J; Newman, K; Neuman, K; Yun, C-O; Guise, T; Seth, P

    2010-04-01

    We were interested in developing oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we constructed mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc, a 01/07-based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) receptor II fused with the human Fc IgG1 (sTGFbetaRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of a modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc-mediated sTGFbetaRIIFc production targets the TGFbeta pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression of breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use the mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20 times) in breast cancer cells compared with normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 h with mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc (greater than 1 microg ml(-1)) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly a 6000-fold increase in viral titers during the 48 h infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication-deficient virus Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc also produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc, but under these conditions, no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFbetaRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFbeta-1, and to abolish the effects of TGFbeta-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and production of sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood. Conversely, intravenous injection of Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc did not show a significant inhibition of tumor growth, but resulted in sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with s

  6. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  7. Myxoma Virus Protein M029 Is a Dual Function Immunomodulator that Inhibits PKR and Also Conscripts RHA/DHX9 to Promote Expanded Host Tropism and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Masmudur M.; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M.; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Free Fatty Acids Absorption and Promotes its Replication Via Down-Regulating GADD45α Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, An-ling; Yang, Gui; Hu, Han-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as a major cause of chronic hepatic diseases, is always accompanied with an abnormality of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of free fatty acids (FFA) in human HCV infection. Material/Methods Peripheral blood lipid indexes among HCV patients with different viral loads (199 samples) and healthy donors (80 samples) were detected by clinical biochemistry tests. HCV replication and the expression of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) in Huh7 cells and clinical samples were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lipid accumulation in Huh7 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results In this study, we found that FFA showed a significant positive correlation with viral load in peripheral blood of HCV patients, but not total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). GADD45α expression in HCV patients dramatically decreased with the increase of viral load. In Huh7 cells, FFA treatment significantly enhanced HCV replication. HCV infection inhibited GADD45α expression, and this effect was further enhanced with the presence of FFA treatment. Ectopic expression of GADD45α in HCV-infected Huh7 cells markedly inhibited the absorption of FFA and HCV replication. However, FFA significantly elevated GADD45α expression without HCV infection. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HCV down-regulates GADD45α expression to enhance FFA absorption and thus facilitate its replication. GADD45α is an essential mediator for the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Thus, our study provides potential clues in the search for novel therapeutics and fatty lipid control options for HCV patients. PMID:27381636

  9. Mck2-dependent infection of alveolar macrophages promotes replication of MCMV in nodular inflammatory foci of the neonatal lung.

    PubMed

    Stahl, F R; Keyser, K A; Heller, K; Bischoff, Y; Halle, S; Wagner, K; Messerle, M; Förster, R

    2015-01-01

    Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) shows a worldwide high prevalence with only immunocompromised individuals or newborns to become symptomatic. The host's constitution and the pathogen's virulence determine whether disease occurs after infection. Mouse CMV (MCMV) is an appreciated pathogen for in vivo investigation of host-pathogen interactions. It has recently been reported that a single base pair deletion can spontaneously occur in the open reading frame of MCMV-encoded chemokine 2 (MCK2), preventing the expression of the full-length gene product. To study the consequences of this mutation, we compared the Mck2-defective reporter virus MCMV-3D with the newly generated repaired Mck2(+) mutant MCMV-3DR. Compared with MCMV-3D, neonatal mice infected with MCMV-3DR showed severe viral disease after lung infection. Viral disease coincided with high viral activity in multiple organs and increased virus replication in previously described nodular inflammatory foci (NIF) in the lung. Notably, MCMV-3DR showed tropism for alveolar macrophages in vitro and in vivo, whereas MCMV-3D did not infect this cell type. Moreover, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced MCMV-3DR replication in the lung. We proposed an Mck2-mediated mechanism by which MCMV exploits alveolar macrophages to increase replication upon first encounter with the host's lung mucosa.

  10. Episome-carried Surface Antigen K88 of Escherichia coli II. Isolation and Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stirm, Stephan; Ørskov, Frits; Ørskov, Ida; Mansa, Bendt

    1967-01-01

    The K88 antigen was carried by episomal transfer to D282, a nonmotile Escherichia coli strain without K antigen. D520, obtained by this episomal transfer, was used for the extraction of K88 antigen. It was shown by the agar gel precipitation technique that some K88 antigen was released from D520 into suspending aqueous medium. The amount of liberated material was increased by gentle heating (60 C) or treatment in a Waring Blendor. The antigen was obtained from the extracts in a purified form by making use of its insolubility between pH 3.5 and 5.5 and of its high sedimentation rate (S020,w = 36.7S). The homogeneity of the material was demonstrated by agar gel precipitation with D520 antiserum, by analytical ultracentrifugation, and by moving-boundary electrophoresis. Chemical analysis revealed that K88 is a pure protein containing all the common amino acids with the exception of cysteine-cystine. Purified K88 selectively precipitated the K88 antibodies from D520 antiserum and was shown to be immunogenic in rabbits. Images PMID:4960185

  11. Identification of the transcriptional regulatory sequences of human calponin promoter and their use in targeting a conditionally replicating herpes vector to malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, H; Hashio, M; Noguchi, M; Sugenoya, Y; Osakada, M; Hirano, N; Sasaki, Y; Yoden, T; Awata, N; Araki, N; Tatsuta, M; Miyatake, S I; Takahashi, K

    2001-05-15

    The calponin (basic or h1) gene, normally expressed in maturated smooth muscle cells, is aberrantly expressed in a variety of human soft tissue and bone tumors. In this study, we show that expression of the calponin gene in human soft tissue and bone tumor cells is regulated at the transcriptional level by the sequence between positions -260 and -219 upstream of the translation initiation site. A novel conditionally replicating herpes simplex virus-1 vector (d12.CALP) in which the calponin promoter drives expression of ICP4, a major trans-activating factor for viral genes was constructed and tested as an experimental treatment for malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors. In cell culture, d12.CALP at low multiplicity of infection (0.001 plaque-forming unit/cell) selectively killed calponin-positive human synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma cells. For in vivo studies, 10 animals harboring SK-LMS-1 human leiomyosarcoma cells were randomly divided and treated twice on days 0 and 9 intraneoplastically with either 1 x 10(7) plaque-forming units of d12.CALP/100 mm(3) of tumor volume or with medium alone. The viral treatment group showed stable and significant inhibition of tumorigenicity with apparent cure in four of five mice by day 35. Replication of viral DNA demonstrated by PCR amplification and expression of the inserted LacZ gene visualized by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside histochemistry was associated with oncolysis of d12.CALP-treated tumors, while sparing normal vascular smooth muscle cells. In mice harboring two SK-LMS-1 tumors, replication of d12.CALP was detected in a nontreated tumor distant from the site of virus inoculation. These results indicate that replication-competent virus vectors controlled by the calponin transcriptional regulatory sequence may be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors.

  12. Derivation, Expansion, and Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Non-Integrating Episomal Vectors and a Defined Xenogeneic-free Culture System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wentao; He, Yongpei; Xiong, Yongjie; Lu, Hong; Chen, Hong; Hou, Limin; Qiu, Zhandong; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Suming

    2016-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patient-derived somatic cells provides the opportunity for model development in order to study patient-specific disease states with the potential for drug discovery. However, use of lentivirus and exposure of iPSCs to animal-derived products limit their therapeutic utility and affect lineage differentiation and subsequent downstream functionality of iPSC derivatives. Within the context of this study, we describe a simple and practical protocol enabling the efficient reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult fibroblasts into integration-free human iPSCs (hiPSCs) using a combination of episomal plasmids with small molecules (SMs). Using this approach, there was a 10-fold increase in reprogramming efficiency over single plasmid vector-based methods. We obtained approximately 100 iPSCs colonies from 1 × 10(5) human adult dermal fibroblasts (HADFs) and achieved approximately 0.1% reprogramming efficiencies. Concurrently, we developed a highly conducive culture system using xeno-free media and human vitronectin. The resulting hiPSCs were free of DNA integration and had completely lost episomal vectors, maintained long-term self-renewal, featured a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent stem cell markers, and possessed the capability of differentiating into components of all three germ layers in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the integration-free hiPSCs could be differentiated into motor neurons under xeno-free culture conditions. This induction method will promote the derivation of patient-specific integration-free and xeno-free iPSCs and improve the strategy for motor neuron derivation. Our approach provides a useful tool for human disease models, drug screen, and clinical applications.

  13. Development and Validation of Non-Integrative, Self-Limited, and Replicating Minicircles for Safe Reporter Gene Imaging of Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, John A.; Cusso, Lorena; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Yan, Xinrui; Dragulescu-Andrasi, Anca; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2013-01-01

    Reporter gene (RG) imaging of cell-based therapies provides a direct readout of therapeutic efficacy by assessing the fate of implanted cells. To permit long-term cellular imaging, RGs are traditionally required to be integrated into the cellular genome. This poses a potential safety risk and regulatory bottleneck for clinical translation as integration can lead to cellular transformation. To address this issue, we have developed non-integrative, replicating minicircles (MCs) as an alternative platform for safer monitoring of cells in living subjects. We developed both plasmids and minicircles containing the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) of the human interferon-beta gene, driven by the CMV promoter, and expressing the bioluminescence RG firefly luciferase. Constructs were transfected into breast cancer cells, and expanded S/MAR minicircle clones showed luciferase signal for greater than 3 months in culture and minicircles remained as episomes. Importantly, luciferase activity in clonal populations was slowly lost over time and this corresponded to a loss of episome, providing a way to reversibly label cells. To monitor cell proliferation in vivo, 1.5×106 cells carrying the S/MAR minicircle were implanted subcutaneously into mice (n = 5) and as tumors developed significantly more bioluminescence signal was noted at day 35 and 43 compared to day 7 post-implant (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first work examining the use of episomal, self-limited, replicating minicircles to track the proliferation of cells using non-invasive imaging in living subjects. Continued development of S/MAR minicircles will provide a broadly applicable vector platform amenable with any of the numerous RG technologies available to allow therapeutic cell fate to be assessed in individual patients, and to achieve this without the need to manipulate the cell's genome so that safety concerns are minimized. This will lead to safe tools to assess treatment response at

  14. Autonomous replication of plasmids bearing monkey DNA origin-enriched sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Frappier, L.; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M.

    1987-10-01

    Twelve clones of origin-enriched sequences (ORS) isolated from early replicating monkey (CV-1) DNA were examined for transient episomal replication in transfected CV-1, COS-7, and HeLa cells. Plasmid DNA was isolated at time intervals after transfection and screened by the Dpn I resistance assay or by the bromodeoxyuridine substitution assay to differentiate between input and replicated DNA. The authors have identified four monkey ORS (ORS3, -8, -9, and -12) that can support plasmid replication in mammalian cells. This replication is carried out in a controlled and semiconservative manner characteristic of mammalian replicons. ORS replication was most efficient in HeLa cells. Electron microscopy showed ORS8 and ORS12 plasmids of the correct size with replication bubbles. Using a unique restriction site in ORS12, we have mapped the replication bubble within the monkey DNA sequence.

  15. The Tanapoxvirus 15L Protein Is a Virus-Encoded Neuregulin That Promotes Viral Replication in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, David; Ma, Zhenzhong; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant; Loeb, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses such as poxviruses have been helpful in identifying a number of viral and cellular growth factors that contribute to our broad understanding of virus-host interaction. Orthopoxviruses and leporipoxviruses are among the most studied viruses in this aspect. However, tanapoxvirus (TPV), a member of the genus Yatapoxvirus, still remains largely unexplored, as the only known hosts for this virus are humans and monkeys. Here, we describe the initial characterization of an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor mimicking human neuregulin from TPV, expressed by the TPV-15L gene. Assays using a baculovirus-expressed and tagged TPV-15L protein demonstrated the ability to phosphorylate neuregulin receptors. Neuregulins represent a large family of EGF-like growth factors that play important roles in embryonic endocardium development, Schwann and oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation, localized acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction, and epithelial morphogenesis. Interestingly, certain neuregulin molecules are able to target specific tissues through interactions with heparin sulfate proteoglycans via an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Analyses of TPV-15L revealed no Ig-like domain, but it retains the ability to bind heparin and phosphorylate neuregulin receptors, providing compelling evidence that TPV-15L is a functional mimetic of neuregulin. TPV-15L knockout virus experiments demonstrate that the virus replicates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells less efficiently than wild-type TPV-Kenya, indicating that this is a nonessential protein for virus viability but can serve a stimulatory role for replication in some cultured cells. However, the precise role of this protein in host-virus interaction still remains to be deduced. PMID:23269801

  16. Persistent HIV-1 replication during antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Deeks, Steven G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the capacity of HIV-1 to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings Although ART is highly effective at inhibiting HIV replication, it is not curative. Several mechanisms contribute to HIV persistence during ART, including HIV latency, immune dysfunction, and perhaps persistent low-level spread of the virus to uninfected cells (replication). The success in curing HIV will depend on efficiently targeting these three aspects. The degree to which HIV replicates during ART remains controversial. Most studies have failed to find any evidence of HIV evolution in blood, even with samples collected over many years, although a recent very intensive study of three individuals suggested that the virus population does shift, at least during the first few months of therapy. Stronger but still not definitive evidence for replication comes from a series of studies in which standard regimens were intensified with an integration inhibitor, resulting in changes in episomal DNA (blood) and cell-associated RNA (tissue). Limited drug penetration within tissues and the presence of immune sanctuaries have been argued as potential mechanisms allowing HIV to spread during ART. Mathematical models suggest that HIV replication and evolution is possible even without the selection of fully drug-resistant variants. As persistent HIV replication could have clinical consequences and might limit the efficacy of curative interventions, determining if HIV replicates during ART and why, should remain a key focus of the HIV research community. Summary Residual viral replication likely persists in lymphoid tissues, at least in a subset of individuals. Abnormal levels of immune activation might contribute to sustain virus replication. PMID:27078619

  17. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress—A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders—namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression—are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  18. Rev1 promotes replication through UV lesions in conjunction with DNA polymerases η, ι, and κ but not DNA polymerase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jeseong; Conde, Juan; Wakamiya, Maki; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) promote replication through DNA lesions; however, little is known about the protein factors that affect their function in human cells. In yeast, Rev1 plays a noncatalytic role as an indispensable component of Polζ, and Polζ together with Rev1 mediates a highly mutagenic mode of TLS. However, how Rev1 functions in TLS and mutagenesis in human cells has remained unclear. Here we determined the role of Rev1 in TLS opposite UV lesions in human and mouse fibroblasts and showed that Rev1 is indispensable for TLS mediated by Polη, Polι, and Polκ but is not required for TLS by Polζ. In contrast to its role in mutagenic TLS in yeast, Rev1 promotes predominantly error-free TLS opposite UV lesions in humans. The identification of Rev1 as an indispensable scaffolding component for Polη, Polι, and Polκ, which function in TLS in highly specialized ways opposite a diverse array of DNA lesions and act in a predominantly error-free manner, implicates a crucial role for Rev1 in the maintenance of genome stability in humans. PMID:26680302

  19. A sequence in the Drosophila H3-H4 promoter triggers 1 Histone Locus Body assembly and biosynthesis of replication-coupled histone mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Salzler, Harmony R.; Tatomer, Deirdre C.; Malek, Pamela Y.; McDaniel, Stephen L.; Orlando, Anna N.; Marzluff, William F.; Duronio, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Compartmentalization of RNA biosynthetic factors into nuclear bodies (NBs) is a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic cells. How NBs initially assemble and ultimately affect gene expression remains unresolved. The histone locus body (HLB) contains factors necessary for replication-coupled histone mRNA transcription and processing and associates with histone gene clusters. Using a transgenic assay for ectopic Drosophila HLB assembly, we show that a sequence located between, and transcription from, the divergently transcribed H3-H4 genes nucleates HLB formation and activates other histone genes in the histone gene cluster. In the absence of transcription from the H3-H4 promoter, “proto-HLBs”, containing only a subset of HLB components, form and the adjacent histone H2a-H2b genes are not expressed. Proto-HLBs also transiently form in mutant embryos with the histone locus deleted. We conclude that HLB assembly occurs through a stepwise process involving stochastic interactions of individual components that localize to a specific sequence in the H3-H4 promoter. PMID:23537633

  20. AcMNPV-mediated expression of BmK IT promotes the apoptosis of Sf9 cells and replication of AcMNPV.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yue-Jun; Zhao, Jie; Liang, Ai-Hua; Hu, Feng-Yun

    2015-06-25

    Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) venom is a rich source of neurotoxins which bind to various ion channels with high affinity and specificity and thus widely used as compounds to modulate channel gating or channel currents. To promote the insecticidal effects of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the gene encoding an excitatory insect toxin, BmK IT, was inserted into the genome of AcMNPV to construct a recombinant baculovirus, AcMNPV-BmK IT. Spodopter frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells were infected with AcMNPV and AcMNPV-BmK IT respectively for 24 h. Results from the MTT assay, TUNEL assay, analysis of the expression level of apoptosis-related proteins (c-Myc, cleaved-Caspase3, Bcl-2 and Bax) of Sf9 cells, the transcription level of key genes (38K, C42, P78, F) of AcMNPV, and viral propagation assay demonstrated that AcMNPV-mediated expression of BmK IT promoted the apoptosis of Sf9 cells and replication of AcMNPV. The results laid a foundation for further structural and functional analysis of BmK IT.

  1. Pathways of mammalian replication fork restart.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Eva; Helleday, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Single-molecule analyses of DNA replication have greatly advanced our understanding of mammalian replication restart. Several proteins that are not part of the core replication machinery promote the efficient restart of replication forks that have been stalled by replication inhibitors, suggesting that bona fide fork restart pathways exist in mammalian cells. Different models of replication fork restart can be envisaged, based on the involvement of DNA helicases, nucleases, homologous recombination factors and the importance of DNA double-strand break formation.

  2. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  3. Enhanced Viral Replication by Cellular Replicative Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Ae; Seong, Rak-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Cellular replicative senescence is a major contributing factor to aging and to the development and progression of aging-associated diseases. In this study, we sought to determine viral replication efficiency of influenza virus (IFV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection in senescent cells. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) or human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were allowed to undergo numbers of passages to induce replicative senescence. Induction of replicative senescence in cells was validated by positive senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Increased susceptibility to both IFV and VZV infection was observed in senescent HBE and HDF cells, respectively, resulting in higher numbers of plaque formation, along with the upregulation of major viral antigen expression than that in the non-senescent cells. Interestingly, mRNA fold induction level of virus-induced type I interferon (IFN) was attenuated by senescence, whereas IFN-mediated antiviral effect remained robust and potent in virus-infected senescent cells. Additionally, we show that a longevity-promoting gene, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), has antiviral role against influenza virus infection. In conclusion, our data indicate that enhanced viral replication by cellular senescence could be due to senescence-mediated reduction of virus-induced type I IFN expression. PMID:27799874

  4. A Regulatory Element Near the 3′ End of the Adeno-Associated Virus rep Gene Inhibits Adenovirus Replication in cis by Means of p40 Promoter-Associated Short Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Eva; Gonsior, Melanie; Stutika, Catrin; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has long been known to inhibit helper adenovirus (Ad) replication independently of AAV Rep protein expression. More recently, replication of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5)/AAV serotype 2 (AAV-2) hybrid vectors was shown to be inhibited in cis by a sequence near the 3′ end of AAV rep, termed the Rep inhibition sequence for adenoviral replication (RIS-Ad). RIS-Ad functions independently of Rep protein expression. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of adenoviral replication by RIS-Ad requires an active AAV p40 promoter and the 5′ half of the intron. In addition, Ad inhibition is critically dependent on the integrity of the p40 transcription start site (TSS) leading to short p40-associated transcripts. These do not give rise to effector molecules capable of inhibiting adenoviral replication in trans, like small polypeptides or microRNAs. Our data point to an inhibitory mechanism in which RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pauses directly downstream of the p40 promoter, leading to interference of the stalled Pol II transcription complex with the adenoviral replication machinery. Whereas inhibition by RIS-Ad is mediated exclusively in cis, it can be overcome by providing a replication-competent adenoviral genome in trans. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RIS-Ad is not limited to AAV-2 but could also be shown for the corresponding regions of other AAV serotypes, including AAV-5. These findings have important implications for the future generation of Ad5/AAV hybrid vectors. IMPORTANCE Insertion of sequences from the 3′ part of the rep gene of adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the genome of its helper adenovirus strongly reduces adenoviral genome replication. We could show that this inhibition is mediated exclusively in cis without the involvement of trans-acting regulatory RNAs or polypeptides but nevertheless requires an active AAV-2 p40 promoter and p40-associated short transcripts. Our results suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism that has so

  5. Genetic modification of dividing cells using episomally maintained S/MAR DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suet-Ping; Harbottle, Richard Paul

    2013-08-13

    The development of episomally maintained DNA vectors to genetically modify dividing cells efficiently and stably, without the risk of integration-mediated genotoxicity, should prove to be a valuable tool in genetic research. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region (S/MAR) DNA vectors to model the restoration of a functional wild-type copy of the gene folliculin (FLCN) implicated in the renal cancer Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD). Inactivation of FLCN has been shown to be involved in the development of sporadic renal neoplasia in BHD. S/MAR-modified BHD tumor cells (named UOK257-FS) show restored stable FLCN expression and have normalized downstream TGFβ signals. We demonstrate that UOK257-FS cells show a reduced growth rate in vitro and suppression of xenograft tumor development in vivo, compared with the original FLCN-null UOK257 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that mTOR signaling in serum-starved FLCN-restored cells is differentially regulated compared with the FLCN-deficient cell. The novel UOK257-FS cell line will be useful for studying the signaling pathways affected in BHD pathogenesis. Significantly, this study demonstrates the suitability of S/MAR vectors to successfully model the functional expression of a therapeutic gene in a cancer cell line and will aid the identification of novel cancer markers for diagnosis and therapy.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e115; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.40; published online 13 August 2013.

  6. Differential regulation of the overlapping Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vGCR (orf74) and LANA (orf73) promoters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J; Papin, J; Dittmer, D

    2001-02-01

    Similar to that of other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) lytic replication destroys the host cell, while the virus can persist in a latent state in synchrony with the host. During latency only a few genes are transcribed, and the question becomes one of what determines latent versus lytic gene expression. Here we undertake a detailed analysis of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA [orf73]) promoter (LANAp). We characterized a minimal region that is necessary and sufficient to maintain high-level transcription in all tissues tested, including primary endothelial cells and B cells, which are the suspected natural host for KSHV. We show that in transient-transfection assays LANAp mimics the expression pattern observed for the authentic promoter in the context of the KSHV episome. Unlike other KSHV promoters tested thus far, LANAp is not affected by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate or viral lytic cycle functions. It is, however, subject to control by LANA itself and cellular regulatory factors, such as p53. This is in contrast to the K14/vGCR (orf74) promoter, which overlaps LANAp and directs transcription on the opposite strand. We isolated a minimal cis-regulatory region sufficient for K14/vGCR promoter activity and show that it, too, mimics the regulation observed for the authentic viral promoter. In particular, we demonstrate that its activity is absolutely dependent on the immediate-early transactivator orf50, the KSHV homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus Rta transactivator.

  7. Cytotoxic effect of a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector with cytosine deaminase gene driven by L-plastin promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kihwa; Kim, Sunja; Lee, Kyumhyang; Kim, Changmin; Chung, Injae

    2007-06-01

    Great expectations are set on gene therapy for the treatment of malignant hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in East Asia. Recombinant adenoviral vectors (AV) have been developed in which the L-plastin promoter (LP) regulates the expression of transgenes, in a tumor cell specific manner, resulting in an increase in the therapeutic index. The development of the AdLPCD vector, a replication-incompetent AV, containing a transcription unit of LP and E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD), was reported in our previous work. In the present study, the AdLPCD vector combined with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) administration was tested to see if it might have significant utility in the chemosensitization of L-plastin positive HCC. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Chang Liver, Huh-7 and SK-Hep-1 cells) were investigated for the expression of LacZ after infecting the cells with the AdLPLacZ vector containing a 2.4 kb fragment of LP and the LacZ gene. Relatively high levels of LP activity were detected in HepG2, followed by Chang Liver cells; whereas, no promoter activity was found in Huh-7 and SK-Hep-1 cells, as determined by AdLPLacZ infection followed by the beta-galactosidase assay. In addition, the results of RT-PCR assays for the detection of endogenous L-plastin mRNA in these cells lines correlated well with those of the beta-galactosidase activity after infection with AdLPLacZ. Based on these data, the cytotoxic effect of AdLPCD/5-FC was evaluated in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the CD gene delivered by AV could sensitize HepG2 cells to the prodrug, 5-FC. However, the observed effects were insufficient to cause the death of most of cells. This suggests that the screening of patients for an AdLP/5-FC strategy based on AdLPLacZ data might not always guarantee a good therapeutic outcome.

  8. Autonomous replicating sequences from mouse cells which can replicate in mouse cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, H; Itani, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M

    1987-01-01

    We have already reported that the cloned mouse DNA fragment (pMU65) could replicate in a simian virus 40 T antigen-dependent system in vivo and in vitro (H. Ariga, Z. Tsuchihashi, M. Naruto, and M. Yamada, Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:563-568, 1985). The plasmid p65-tk, containing the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of herpes simplex virus and the BglII-EcoRI region of pMU65 homologous to the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication, was constructed. The p65-tk persisted episomally in tk+ transformants after the transfection of p65-tk into mouse FM3Atk- cells. The copy numbers of p65-tk in FM3Atk+ cells were 100 to 200 copies per cell. Furthermore, the p65-tk replicated semiconservatively, and the initiation of DNA replication started from the mouse DNA sequences when the replicating activity of p65-tk was tested in the in vitro DNA replication system developed from the FM3A cells. These results show that a 2.5-kilobase fragment of mouse DNA contains the autonomously replicating sequences. Images PMID:3031448

  9. H3K4me3 demethylation by the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C promotes DNA replication origin firing.

    PubMed

    Rondinelli, Beatrice; Schwerer, Hélène; Antonini, Elena; Gaviraghi, Marco; Lupi, Alessio; Frenquelli, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Segalla, Simona; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-03-11

    DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genetic material. For proper DNA replication, the chromatin surrounding origins needs to be remodeled. However, remarkably little is known on which epigenetic changes are required to allow the firing of replication origins. Here, we show that the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C is required for proper DNA replication at early origins. JARID1C dictates the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, driving the binding to chromatin of the pre-initiation proteins CDC45 and PCNA, through the demethylation of the histone mark H3K4me3. Fork activation and histone H4 acetylation, additional early events involved in DNA replication, are not affected by JARID1C downregulation. All together, these data point to a prominent role for JARID1C in a specific phase of DNA replication in mammalian cells, through its demethylase activity on H3K4me3.

  10. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  11. Episomal plasmid-based generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from fetal femur-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Megges, Matthias; Oreffo, Richard O C; Adjaye, James

    2016-01-01

    Human bone mesenchymal stromal cells derived from fetal femur 55 days post-conception were reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells using episomal plasmid-based expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, SV40LT, KLF4 and c-MYC and supplemented with the following pathway inhibitors - TGFβ receptor inhibitor (A-83-01), MEK inhibitor (PD325901), GSK3β inhibitor (CHIR99021) and ROCK inhibitor (HA-100). Successful induction of pluripotency in two iPS-cell lines was demonstrated in vitro and by the Pluritest.

  12. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  13. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  14. A Sequence-Independent Strategy for Amplification and Characterisation of Episomal Badnavirus Sequences Reveals Three Previously Uncharacterised Yam Badnaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bömer, Moritz; Turaki, Aliyu A.; Silva, Gonçalo; Kumar, P. Lava; Seal, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are potentially hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species (genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae), but their detection is complicated by the existence of integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. To date, only two badnavirus genomes have been characterised, namely, Dioscorea bacilliform AL virus (DBALV) and Dioscorea bacilliform SN virus (DBSNV). A further 10 tentative species in yam have been described based on their partial reverse transcriptase (RT)-ribonuclease H (RNaseH) sequences, generically referred to here as Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs). Further characterisation of DBV species is necessary to determine which represent episomal viruses and which are only present as integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. In this study, a sequence-independent multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) method was evaluated for selective amplification of episomal DBV genomes. This resulted in the identification and characterisation of nine complete genomic sequences (7.4–7.7 kbp) of existing and previously undescribed DBV phylogenetic groups from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata accessions. These new yam badnavirus genomes expand our understanding of the diversity and genomic organisation of DBVs, and assist the development of improved diagnostic tools. Our findings also suggest that mixed badnavirus infections occur relatively often in West African yam germplasm. PMID:27399761

  15. The chromatin assembly factor 1 promotes Rad51-dependent template switches at replication forks by counteracting D-loop disassembly by the RecQ-type helicase Rqh1.

    PubMed

    Pietrobon, Violena; Fréon, Karine; Hardy, Julien; Costes, Audrey; Iraqui, Ismail; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2014-10-01

    At blocked replication forks, homologous recombination mediates the nascent strands to switch template in order to ensure replication restart, but faulty template switches underlie genome rearrangements in cancer cells and genomic disorders. Recombination occurs within DNA packaged into chromatin that must first be relaxed and then restored when recombination is completed. The chromatin assembly factor 1, CAF-1, is a histone H3-H4 chaperone involved in DNA synthesis-coupled chromatin assembly during DNA replication and DNA repair. We reveal a novel chromatin factor-dependent step during replication-coupled DNA repair: Fission yeast CAF-1 promotes Rad51-dependent template switches at replication forks, independently of the postreplication repair pathway. We used a physical assay that allows the analysis of the individual steps of template switch, from the recruitment of recombination factors to the formation of joint molecules, combined with a quantitative measure of the resulting rearrangements. We reveal functional and physical interplays between CAF-1 and the RecQ-helicase Rqh1, the BLM homologue, mutations in which cause Bloom's syndrome, a human disease associating genome instability with cancer predisposition. We establish that CAF-1 promotes template switch by counteracting D-loop disassembly by Rqh1. Consequently, the likelihood of faulty template switches is controlled by antagonistic activities of CAF-1 and Rqh1 in the stability of the D-loop. D-loop stabilization requires the ability of CAF-1 to interact with PCNA and is thus linked to the DNA synthesis step. We propose that CAF-1 plays a regulatory role during template switch by assembling chromatin on the D-loop and thereby impacting the resolution of the D-loop.

  16. Plasmid RSF1010 DNA replication in vitro promoted by purified RSF1010 RepA, RepB and RepC proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Scherzinger, E; Haring, V; Lurz, R; Otto, S

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed and analyzed an in vitro system that will efficiently replicate plasmid RSF1010 and its derivatives. The system contains a partially purified extract from E.coli cells and three purified RSF1010-encoded proteins, the products of genes repA, repB (or mobA/repB), and repC. Replication in this system mimics the in vivo mechanism in that it (i) is initiated at oriV, the origin of vegetative DNA replication, (ii) proceeds in a population of plasmid molecules in both directions from this 396-base-pair origin region, and (iii) is absolutely dependent on the presence of each of the three rep gene products. In addition, we find that E.coli DNA gyrase, DnaZ protein (gamma subunit of poIIII holoenzyme) and SSB are required for in vitro plasmid synthesis. The bacterial RNA polymerase, the initiation protein DnaA, and the primosomal proteins DnaB, DnaC, DnaG and DnaT are not required. Furthermore, the replicative intermediates seen in the electron microscope suggest that replication in vitro begins with the simultaneous or non-simultaneous formation of two displacement loops that expand for a short stretch of DNA toward each other, and form a theta-type structure when the two displacing strands pass each other. Images PMID:1851552

  17. ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1 promote sister chromatid separation by processing late replication intermediates at common fragile sites during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Naim, Valeria; Wilhelm, Therese; Debatisse, Michelle; Rosselli, Filippo

    2013-08-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of tumour initiation and progression. Some genomic regions are particularly unstable under replication stress, notably common fragile sites (CFSs) whose rearrangements in tumour cells contribute to cancer development. Recent work has shown that the Fanconi anaemia (FANC) pathway plays a role in preventing defective chromosome segregation and CIN under conditions of replication stress. Strikingly, FANCD2 is recruited to regions hosting CFSs on metaphase chromosomes. To decipher the mechanisms protecting CFSs in G2/M, we searched for proteins that co-localize with FANCD2 on mitotic chromosomes, and identified XPF-ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1, two structure-specific endonucleases. We show that depletion of either ERCC1 or MUS81-EME1 affects accurate processing of replication intermediates or under-replicated DNA that persist at CFSs until mitosis. Depletion of these endonucleases also leads to an increase in the frequency of chromosome bridges during anaphase that, in turn, favours accumulation of DNA damage in the following G1 phase.

  18. Mutation of the f-protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus type 7 results in furin cleavage, fusion promotion, and increased replication in vitro but not increased replication, tissue tropism, or virulence in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sa; Khattar, Sunil K; Subbiah, Madhuri; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2012-04-01

    We constructed a reverse genetics system for avian paramyxovirus serotype 7 (APMV-7) to investigate the role of the fusion F glycoprotein in tissue tropism and virulence. The AMPV-7 F protein has a single basic residue arginine (R) at position -1 in the F cleavage site sequence and also is unusual in having alanine at position +2 (LPSSR↓FA) (underlining indicates the basic amino acids at the F protein cleavage site, and the arrow indicates the site of cleavage.). APMV-7 does not form syncytia or plaques in cell culture, but its replication in vitro does not depend on, and is not increased by, added protease. Two mutants were successfully recovered in which the cleavage site was modified to mimic sites that are found in virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates and to contain 4 or 5 basic residues as well as isoleucine in the +2 position: (RRQKR↓FI) or (RRKKR↓FI), named Fcs-4B or Fcs-5B, respectively. In cell culture, one of the mutants, Fcs-5B, formed protease-independent syncytia and grew to 10-fold-higher titers compared to the parent and Fcs-4B viruses. This indicated the importance of the single additional basic residue (K) at position -3. Syncytium formation and virus yield of the Fcs-5B virus was impaired by the furin inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-CMK, whereas parental APMV-7 was not affected. APMV-7 is avirulent in chickens and is limited in tropism to the upper respiratory tract of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and these characteristics were unchanged for the two mutant viruses. Thus, the acquisition of furin cleavability by APMV-7 resulted in syncytium formation and increased virus yield in vitro but did not alter virus yield, tropism, or virulence in chickens.

  19. Cdk5 promotes DNA replication stress checkpoint activation through RPA-32 phosphorylation, and impacts on metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiker, Sara; Pennaneach, Vincent; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Biard, Denis; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Gemble, Simon; Vacher, Sophie; Bieche, Ivan; Hall, Janet; Fernet, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a determinant of PARP inhibitor and ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity. Here we show that Cdk5-depleted (Cdk5-shRNA) HeLa cells show higher sensitivity to S-phase irradiation, chronic hydroxyurea exposure, and 5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine treatment, with hydroxyurea and IR sensitivity also seen in Cdk5-depleted U2OS cells. As Cdk5 is not directly implicated in DNA strand break repair we investigated in detail its proposed role in the intra-S checkpoint activation. While Cdk5-shRNA HeLa cells showed altered basal S-phase dynamics with slower replication velocity and fewer active origins per DNA megabase, checkpoint activation was impaired after a hydroxyurea block. Cdk5 depletion was associated with reduced priming phosphorylations of RPA32 serines 29 and 33 and SMC1-Serine 966 phosphorylation, lower levels of RPA serine 4 and 8 phosphorylation and DNA damage measured using the alkaline Comet assay, gamma-H2AX signal intensity, RPA and Rad51 foci, and sister chromatid exchanges resulting in impaired intra-S checkpoint activation and subsequently higher numbers of chromatin bridges. In vitro kinase assays coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that Cdk5 can carry out the RPA32 priming phosphorylations on serines 23, 29, and 33 necessary for this checkpoint activation. In addition we found an association between lower Cdk5 levels and longer metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients and survival in Cdk5-depleted breast tumor cells after treatment with IR and a PARP inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that Cdk5 is necessary for basal replication and replication stress checkpoint activation and highlight clinical opportunities to enhance tumor cell killing. PMID:26237679

  20. MMS Exposure Promotes Increased MtDNA Mutagenesis in the Presence of Replication-Defective Disease-Associated DNA Polymerase γ Variants

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Jeffrey D.; Copeland, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins essential for ATP production. Mutant variants of the mtDNA polymerase cause mutagenesis that contributes to aging, genetic diseases, and sensitivity to environmental agents. We interrogated mtDNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with disease-associated mutations affecting conserved regions of the mtDNA polymerase, Mip1, in the presence of the wild type Mip1. Mutant frequency arising from mtDNA base substitutions that confer erythromycin resistance and deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats was determined. Previously, increased mutagenesis was observed in strains encoding mutant variants that were insufficient to maintain mtDNA and that were not expected to reduce polymerase fidelity or exonuclease proofreading. Increased mutagenesis could be explained by mutant variants stalling the replication fork, thereby predisposing the template DNA to irreparable damage that is bypassed with poor fidelity. This hypothesis suggests that the exogenous base-alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), would further increase mtDNA mutagenesis. Mitochondrial mutagenesis associated with MMS exposure was increased up to 30-fold in mip1 mutants containing disease-associated alterations that affect polymerase activity. Disrupting exonuclease activity of mutant variants was not associated with increased spontaneous mutagenesis compared with exonuclease-proficient alleles, suggesting that most or all of the mtDNA was replicated by wild type Mip1. A novel subset of C to G transversions was responsible for about half of the mutants arising after MMS exposure implicating error-prone bypass of methylated cytosines as the predominant mutational mechanism. Exposure to MMS does not disrupt exonuclease activity that suppresses deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats, suggesting the MMS-induce mutagenesis is not explained by inactivated exonuclease activity. Further, trace amounts of CdCl2 inhibit mtDNA replication but

  1. MMS exposure promotes increased MtDNA mutagenesis in the presence of replication-defective disease-associated DNA polymerase γ variants.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Jeffrey D; Copeland, William C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins essential for ATP production. Mutant variants of the mtDNA polymerase cause mutagenesis that contributes to aging, genetic diseases, and sensitivity to environmental agents. We interrogated mtDNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with disease-associated mutations affecting conserved regions of the mtDNA polymerase, Mip1, in the presence of the wild type Mip1. Mutant frequency arising from mtDNA base substitutions that confer erythromycin resistance and deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats was determined. Previously, increased mutagenesis was observed in strains encoding mutant variants that were insufficient to maintain mtDNA and that were not expected to reduce polymerase fidelity or exonuclease proofreading. Increased mutagenesis could be explained by mutant variants stalling the replication fork, thereby predisposing the template DNA to irreparable damage that is bypassed with poor fidelity. This hypothesis suggests that the exogenous base-alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), would further increase mtDNA mutagenesis. Mitochondrial mutagenesis associated with MMS exposure was increased up to 30-fold in mip1 mutants containing disease-associated alterations that affect polymerase activity. Disrupting exonuclease activity of mutant variants was not associated with increased spontaneous mutagenesis compared with exonuclease-proficient alleles, suggesting that most or all of the mtDNA was replicated by wild type Mip1. A novel subset of C to G transversions was responsible for about half of the mutants arising after MMS exposure implicating error-prone bypass of methylated cytosines as the predominant mutational mechanism. Exposure to MMS does not disrupt exonuclease activity that suppresses deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats, suggesting the MMS-induce mutagenesis is not explained by inactivated exonuclease activity. Further, trace amounts of CdCl2 inhibit mtDNA replication but

  2. A promoter of Epstein-Barr virus that can function during latent infection can be transactivated by EBNA-1, a viral protein required for viral DNA replication during latent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, B; Warren, N

    1989-01-01

    A viral promoter that functions on recombinant plasmids in cells immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus was identified and characterized. It is identical to that mapped on the viral genome by Bodescot et al. (M. Bodescot, M. Perricaudet, and P.J. Farrell, J. Virol. 61:3424-3430, 1987) which functions during the latent phase of the viral life cycle in some but not all cells to encode several latent viral gene products. Experiments with these plasmids indicated that this promoter requires the enhancer within oriP of Epstein-Barr virus in cis to function efficiently. They also indicated that it requires the EBNA-1 gene in trans to function efficiently. The EBNA-1 gene therefore positively affects both viral DNA replication (J.L. Yates, N. Warren, and B. Sugden, Nature [London] 313:812-815, 1985) and viral transcription. Images PMID:2542577

  3. Molecular replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The object of our research program is to understand how polynucleotide replication originated on the primitive Earth. This is a central issue in studies of the origins of life, since a process similar to modern DNA and RNA synthesis is likely to have formed the basis for the most primitive system of genetic information transfer. The major conclusion of studies so far is that a preformed polynucleotide template under many different experimental conditions will facilitate the synthesis of a new oligonucleotide with a sequence complementary to that of the template. It has been shown, for example, that poly(C) facilitates the synthesis of long oligo(G)s and that the short template CCGCC facilities the synthesis of its complement GGCGG. Very recently we have shown that template-directed synthesis is not limited to the standard oligonucleotide substrates. Nucleic acid-like molecules with a pyrophosphate group replacing the phosphate of the standard nucleic acid backbone are readily synthesized from deoxynucleotide 3'-5'-diphosphates on appropriate templates.

  4. Virus Hunting: Discovery of New Episomal Circular Viruses by Rolling Circle Techniques.

    PubMed

    Vanmechelen, Bert; Rector, Annabel; Maes, Piet

    2017-02-06

    Many methods for the discovery of novel viruses are based on amplification of the virus using consensus or degenerate PCR primers. A downside of this approach is that it requires prior knowledge of the viral nucleotide sequence to be applicable. Presented in this unit is a method for the sequence-independent amplification of circular viral genomes that is based on the rolling-circle mechanism used by certain viruses in their natural replication cycle. The amplification of the virus of interest is coupled to the isolation of the viral genome by gel extraction following a restriction digestion. Once isolated, the sequence of the viral genome can be determined by nanopore sequencing, a rapid and inexpensive next-generation sequencing technology that generates long reads in real time. The method described in this unit was originally developed for the discovery of papillomaviruses, but can be used for the identification of all types of circular DNA viruses. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. MiR-34b-5p Suppresses Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (MDA5) Signaling Pathway to Promote Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)-Infected Cells Proliferaction and ALV-J Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Luo, Qingbin; Xu, Haiping; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Feng, Min; Cai, Bolin; Zhang, Xiaocui; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway. PMID:28194372

  6. MiR-34b-5p Suppresses Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (MDA5) Signaling Pathway to Promote Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)-Infected Cells Proliferaction and ALV-J Replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Luo, Qingbin; Xu, Haiping; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Feng, Min; Cai, Bolin; Zhang, Xiaocui; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway.

  7. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Seho; Lim, Chunghun; Lee, Jae Young; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Junsoo; Choe, Joonho; Seo, Taegun

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  8. The proteins secreted by Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal epithelial cell response to secreted and episomally expressed AP65

    PubMed Central

    Kucknoor, Ashwini S.; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary We showed recently that contact of human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by Trichomonas vaginalis and incubation with trichomonad proteins in conditioned medium induced expression of VEC genes. We performed 2-D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF to identify the major secreted proteins. Based on protein abundance and separation of spots in 2-D gels, 32 major secreted proteins were examined, which gave 19 proteins with accession numbers. These proteins included known secreted cysteine proteinases. In addition, other secreted proteins were enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, adhesin protein AP65, heat shock proteins, thioredoxin reductase and coronins. We confirmed that the secreted trichomonad proteins induced expression of VEC genes, including interleukin 8 (IL-8), COX-2 and fibronectin. Purified AP65 added to VECs had a pronounced effect only on IL-8 gene expression, which was inhibited in the presence of 12G4 monoclonal antibody to AP65. Moreover, AP65 expressed episomally within epithelial cells was found to enhance the expression of IL-8 and COX-2. This may be the first report of analysis of the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis and of the host epithelial cell response to these proteins and to the prominent adhesin AP65. PMID:17590165

  9. A New Episomic Element Controlling Fermentative Metabolism and Excretion of Amino Acids by Citrobacter intermedium C3

    PubMed Central

    Pares, R.; Guinea, J.; Hernandez, S.; Valoix, Josefina; Jofre, J.

    1974-01-01

    Glutamate excretion by colonies of Citrobacter intermedium C3 was detected by using the auxotrophic strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides P-60. A constant ratio of strain C3 colonies did not excrete glutamate. These colonies were subcultured, and colonial analysis of their descendants established that the change from non-excretor to excretor (Sg− → Sg+) is a spontaneous and random process with occurs at a high rate, and that an equilibrium state results from the back-transition Sg+ → Sg− in large populations. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, and shaking have a strong influence on Sg+-to-Sg− interconversion, which suggests that a genetic element like an episome is implicated (S factor). Various auxotrophic mutants of bacterial strain C3 have been cured of the S factor. Strains lacking the S factor (S− strains) do not excrete glutamate and lose their fermentative metabolism completely. Consequently, the S factor is different from other extrachromosomal genetic factors whose elimination does not modify central metabolism. The gain of the S factor by infectious transfer has been shown with different C3 auxotrophic mutant strains. Also, the S factor has been transferred to Paracolobactrum intermedium ATCC 11606. These findings suggest that phenotypic changes observed are a consequence of elimination or infectious gain of the S factor, with its autonomous or integrated multiplication. PMID:4600693

  10. Diversification of DnaA dependency for DNA replication in cyanobacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Watanabe, Satoru; Ehira, Shigeki; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Regulating DNA replication is essential for all living cells. The DNA replication initiation factor DnaA is highly conserved in prokaryotes and is required for accurate initiation of chromosomal replication at oriC. DnaA-independent free-living bacteria have not been identified. The dnaA gene is absent in plastids and some symbiotic bacteria, although it is not known when or how DnaA-independent mechanisms were acquired. Here, we show that the degree of dependency of DNA replication on DnaA varies among cyanobacterial species. Deletion of the dnaA gene in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 shifted DNA replication from oriC to a different site as a result of the integration of an episomal plasmid. Moreover, viability during the stationary phase was higher in dnaA disruptants than in wild-type cells. Deletion of dnaA did not affect DNA replication or cell growth in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, indicating that functional dependency on DnaA was already lost in some nonsymbiotic cyanobacterial lineages during diversification. Therefore, we proposed that cyanobacteria acquired DnaA-independent replication mechanisms before symbiosis and such an ancestral cyanobacterium was the sole primary endosymbiont to form a plastid precursor.

  11. Differentially active origins of DNA replication in tumor versus normal cells.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Domenic; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2006-05-15

    Previously, a degenerate 36 bp human consensus sequence was identified as a determinant of autonomous replication in eukaryotic cells. Random mutagenesis analyses further identified an internal 20 bp of the 36 bp consensus sequence as sufficient for acting as a core origin element. Here, we have located six versions of the 20 bp consensus sequence (20mer) on human chromosome 19q13 over a region spanning approximately 211 kb and tested them for ectopic and in situ replication activity by transient episomal replication assays and nascent DNA strand abundance analyses, respectively. The six versions of the 20mer alone were capable of supporting autonomous replication of their respective plasmids, unlike random genomic sequence of the same length. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the endogenous replication activity of these 20mers at their respective chromosomal sites, in five tumor/transformed and two normal cell lines, done by in situ chromosomal DNA replication assays, involving preparation of nascent DNA by the lambda exonuclease method and quantification by real-time PCR, showed that these sites coincided with chromosomal origins of DNA replication in all cell lines. Moreover, a 2- to 3-fold higher origin activity in the tumor/transformed cells by comparison to the normal cells was observed, suggesting a higher activation of these origins in tumor/transformed cell lines.

  12. Rapid and quantitative assessment of KSHV LANA-mediated DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De León Vázquez, Erika; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2011-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates DNA replication of terminal repeat (TR) DNA to enable viral episome persistence in latently infected cells. Southern blotting is routinely used to detect LANA-replicated DNA. We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay for TR-associated DNA and compared it with Southern blot analysis. Both PCR and Southern blot detected LANA-replicated DNA, but the PCR assay was more rapid and did not require radioisotope. PCR detection at 24 and 72 hours post-transfection demonstrated rapid loss of transfected TR DNA. LANA, and to a lesser extent a moderately deficient LANA mutant, reduced the rate of DNA loss through addition of replicated TR DNA and reduction in the loss of non-replicated DNA, the latter of which is consistent with LANA's nuclear segregation function. Therefore, this work develops a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect KSHV LANA-replicated DNA and demonstrates that LANA reduces TR DNA loss after transfection through replication and nuclear partitioning of TR DNA.

  13. FANCD2 Binds Human Papillomavirus Genomes and Associates with a Distinct Set of DNA Repair Proteins to Regulate Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Chelsey C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of human papillomavirus (HPV) is dependent on the differentiation state of its host cell. HPV genomes are maintained as low-copy episomes in basal epithelial cells and amplified to thousands of copies per cell in differentiated layers. Replication of high-risk HPVs requires the activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA repair pathways. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is a part of the DNA damage response and mediates cross talk between the ATM and ATR pathways. Our studies show that HPV activates the FA pathway, leading to the accumulation of a key regulatory protein, FANCD2, in large nuclear foci. These HPV-dependent foci colocalize with a distinct population of DNA repair proteins, including ATM components γH2AX and BRCA1, but infrequently with p-SMC1, which is required for viral genome amplification in differentiated cells. Furthermore, FANCD2 is found at viral replication foci, where it is preferentially recruited to viral genomes compared to cellular chromosomes and is required for maintenance of HPV episomes in undifferentiated cells. These findings identify FANCD2 as an important regulator of HPV replication and provide insight into the role of the DNA damage response in the differentiation-dependent life cycle of HPV. PMID:28196964

  14. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  15. Differential Regulation of the Overlapping Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus vGCR (orf74) and LANA (orf73) Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Joseph; Papin, James; Dittmer, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    Similar to that of other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) lytic replication destroys the host cell, while the virus can persist in a latent state in synchrony with the host. During latency only a few genes are transcribed, and the question becomes one of what determines latent versus lytic gene expression. Here we undertake a detailed analysis of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA [orf73]) promoter (LANAp). We characterized a minimal region that is necessary and sufficient to maintain high-level transcription in all tissues tested, including primary endothelial cells and B cells, which are the suspected natural host for KSHV. We show that in transient-transfection assays LANAp mimics the expression pattern observed for the authentic promoter in the context of the KSHV episome. Unlike other KSHV promoters tested thus far, LANAp is not affected by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate or viral lytic cycle functions. It is, however, subject to control by LANA itself and cellular regulatory factors, such as p53. This is in contrast to the K14/vGCR (orf74) promoter, which overlaps LANAp and directs transcription on the opposite strand. We isolated a minimal cis-regulatory region sufficient for K14/vGCR promoter activity and show that it, too, mimics the regulation observed for the authentic viral promoter. In particular, we demonstrate that its activity is absolutely dependent on the immediate-early transactivator orf50, the KSHV homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus Rta transactivator. PMID:11160678

  16. TORC1 kinase and the S-phase cyclin Clb5 collaborate to promote mitotic spindle assembly and DNA replication in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lieu T.; Wang’ondu, Ruth W.; Weng, Jessica B.; Wanjiku, Grace W.; Fong, Chi M.; Kile, Andrew C.; Koepp, Deanna M.; Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a central regulator of eukaryotic cell growth that is inhibited by the drug rapamycin. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, translational defects associated with TORC1 inactivation inhibit cell cycle progression at an early stage in G1, but little is known about the possible roles for TORC1 later in the cell cycle. We investigated the rapamycin-hypersensitivity phenotype of cells lacking the S phase cyclin Clb5 (clb5Δ) as a basis for uncovering novel connections between TORC1 and the cell cycle regulatory machinery. Dosage suppression experiments suggested that the clb5Δ rapamycin hypersensitivity reflects a unique Clb5-associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) function that cannot be performed by mitotic cyclins and that also involves motor proteins, particularly the kinesin-like protein Kip3. Synchronized cell experiments revealed rapamycin-induced defects in pre-anaphase spindle assembly and S phase progression that were more severe in clb5Δ than in wild type cells but no apparent activation of Rad53-dependent checkpoint pathways. Some rapamycin-treated cells had aberrant spindle morphologies, but rapamycin did not cause gross defects in the microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which TORC1 and Clb5/CDK act coordinately to promote both spindle assembly via a pathway involving Kip3 and S phase progression. PMID:20697716

  17. Replication of Tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-08-04

    Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA. This article reviews current knowledge on tobamovirus RNA replication, particularly regarding how the genomic RNA is specifically selected as a replication template and how the replication proteins are activated. We also focus on the roles of the replication proteins in evading or suppressing host defense systems.

  18. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  19. Amino Acids in the Basic Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus ZEBRA Protein Play Distinct Roles in DNA Binding, Activation of Early Lytic Gene Expression, and Promotion of Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Heston, Lee; El-Guindy, Ayman; Countryman, Jill; Dela Cruz, Charles; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2006-01-01

    to DNA, in activating Rta, in stimulating early lytic gene expression, and in promoting viral DNA replication and viral late gene expression. These results are discussed in relationship to the recently solved crystal structure of ZEBRA bound to an AP-1 site. PMID:16940523

  20. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria

    2017-02-06

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  1. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  2. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  3. The evolution of replicators.

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, E

    2000-11-29

    Replicators of interest in chemistry, biology and culture are briefly surveyed from a conceptual point of view. Systems with limited heredity have only a limited evolutionary potential because the number of available types is too low. Chemical cycles, such as the formose reaction, are holistic replicators since replication is not based on the successive addition of modules. Replicator networks consisting of catalytic molecules (such as reflexively autocatalytic sets of proteins, or reproducing lipid vesicles) are hypothetical ensemble replicators, and their functioning rests on attractors of their dynamics. Ensemble replicators suffer from the paradox of specificity: while their abstract feasibility seems to require a high number of molecular types, the harmful effect of side reactions calls for a small system size. No satisfactory solution to this problem is known. Phenotypic replicators do not pass on their genotypes, only some aspects of the phenotype are transmitted. Phenotypic replicators with limited heredity include genetic membranes, prions and simple memetic systems. Memes in human culture are unlimited hereditary, phenotypic replicators, based on language. The typical path of evolution goes from limited to unlimited heredity, and from attractor-based to modular (digital) replicators.

  4. Alimentary fibropapilloma in cattle: a spontaneous tumor, nonpermissive for papillomavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, W F; Campo, M S; Blaxter, M L; O'Neil, B W; Laird, H M; Moar, M H; Sartirana, M L

    1984-08-01

    Fibropapillomatosis of the upper alimentary canal of cattle is described. The tumors, found in the esophagus, esophageal groove, and rumen, showed involvement of the subepithelial fibroblasts as well as of the squamous epithelial layer. Although the fibropapilloma cells harbored multiple episomal copies of the genome of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) easily detected by hybridization techniques, no mature virus could be isolated from these lesions or seen by electron microscopy, and no viral antigen could be detected by immunohistochemical methods. It would appear, therefore, that within the limitations of the techniques employed the alimentary canal epithelium and the underlying fibroblasts, while allowing BPV-2 DNA replication, are nonpermissive for the expression of the viral vegetative functions and that transformation of the epithelial cells, like transformation of fibroblasts, can take place in the absence of infectious viral progeny.

  5. Prelife catalysts and replicators

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Life is based on replication and evolution. But replication cannot be taken for granted. We must ask what there was prior to replication and evolution. How does evolution begin? We have proposed prelife as a generative system that produces information and diversity in the absence of replication. We model prelife as a binary soup of active monomers that form random polymers. ‘Prevolutionary’ dynamics can have mutation and selection prior to replication. Some sequences might have catalytic activity, thereby enhancing the rates of certain prelife reactions. We study the selection criteria for these prelife catalysts. Their catalytic efficiency must be above certain critical values. We find a maintenance threshold and an initiation threshold. The former is a linear function of sequence length, and the latter is an exponential function of sequence length. Therefore, it is extremely hard to select for prelife catalysts that have long sequences. We compare prelife catalysis with a simple model for replication. Assuming fast template-based elongation reactions, we can show that replicators have selection thresholds that are independent of their sequence length. Our calculation demonstrates the efficiency of replication and provides an explanation of why replication was selected over other forms of prelife catalysis. PMID:19692408

  6. Project New Pride: Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, is establishing a new discretionary grant program entitled Replication of Project New Pride: A Serious Offender Youth Treatment Program. Project New Pride was chosen for replication because of its demonstrated effectiveness in Denver, Colorado,…

  7. Thermal Replication Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The hallmark of living matter is the replication of genetic molecules and their active storage against diffusion. We have argued in the past that thermal convection can host the million-fold accumulation even of single nucleotides and at the same time trigger exponential replication. Accumulation is driven by thermophoresis and convection in elongated chambers, replication by the inherent temperature cycling in convection. Optothermal pumping [2,3] allows to implement the thermal trap efficiently in a toroidal or linear geometry. Based on this method, we were in a position to combine accumulation and replication of DNA in the same chamber. As we are missing a solid chemistry of prebiotic replication, we used as a proxy reaction for to replication the polymerase chain reaction. Convective flow both drives the DNA replicating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while concurrent thermophoresis accumulates the replicated 143 base pair DNA in bulk solution. The time constant for accumulation is 92 s while DNA is doubled every 50 s. The length of the amplified DNA is checked with thermophoresis. Finite element simulations confirm the findings. The experiments explore conditions in pores of hydrothermal rock which can serve as a model environment for the origin of life and has prospects towards the first autonomous evolution, hosting the Darwin process by molecular selection using the thermophoretic trap. On the other side, the implemented continuous evolution will be able to breed well specified DNA or RNA molecules in the future.

  8. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  9. Replication of porcine circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Faurez, Florence; Dory, Daniel; Grasland, Béatrice; Jestin, André

    2009-05-18

    Porcine circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that infect swine and wild boars. Two species of porcine circoviruses exist. Porcine circovirus type 1 is non pathogenic contrary to porcine circovirus type 2 which is associated with the disease known as Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome. Porcine circovirus DNA has been shown to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. Other studies have revealed similar mechanisms of rolling-circle replication in plasmids and single-stranded viruses such as Geminivirus. Three elements are important in rolling-circle replication: i) a gene encoding initiator protein, ii) a double strand origin, and iii) a single strand origin. However, differences exist between viruses and plasmids and between viruses. Porcine circovirus replication probably involves a "melting pot" rather than "cruciform" rolling-circle mechanism.This review provides a summary of current knowledge of replication in porcine circoviruses as models of the Circovirus genus. Based on various studies, the factors affecting replication are defined and the mechanisms involved in the different phases of replication are described or proposed.

  10. Alphavirus polymerase and RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Maija K; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero

    2017-01-16

    Alphaviruses are typically arthropod-borne, and many are important pathogens such as chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses encode four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4), initially produced as a polyprotein P1234. nsP4 is the core RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but all four nsPs are required for RNA synthesis. The early replication complex (RC) formed by the polyprotein P123 and nsP4 synthesizes minus RNA strands, and the late RC composed of fully processed nsP1-nsP4 is responsible for the production of genomic and subgenomic plus strands. Different parts of nsP4 recognize the promoters for minus and plus strands but the binding also requires the other nsPs. The alphavirus polymerase has been purified and is capable of de novo RNA synthesis only in the presence of the other nsPs. The purified nsP4 also has terminal adenylyltransferase activity, which may generate the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the genome. Membrane association of the nsPs is vital for replication, and alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations called spherules, which form a microenvironment for RNA synthesis by concentrating replication components and protecting double-stranded RNA intermediates. The RCs isolated as crude membrane preparations are active in RNA synthesis in vitro, but high-resolution structure of the RC has not been achieved, and thus the arrangement of viral and possible host components remains unknown. For some alphaviruses, Ras-GTPase-activating protein (Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain)-binding proteins (G3BPs) and amphiphysins have been shown to be essential for RNA replication and are present in the RCs. Host factors offer an additional target for antivirals, as only few alphavirus polymerase inhibitors have been described.

  11. Poxvirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses are large, enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA replication and gene expression. Hairpin ends link the two strands of the linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral proteins involved in DNA synthesis include a 117-kDa polymerase, a helicase–primase, a uracil DNA glycosylase, a processivity factor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a protein kinase, and a DNA ligase. A viral FEN1 family protein participates in double-strand break repair. The DNA is replicated as long concatemers that are resolved by a viral Holliday junction endonuclease. PMID:23838441

  12. Host DNA Damage Response Factors Localize to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication Sites To Support Efficient Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sabrina H.; Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence indicates a role for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), making MCPyV the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. With the high prevalence of MCPyV infection and the increasing amount of MCC diagnosis, there is a need to better understand the virus and its oncogenic potential. In this study, we examined the relationship between the host DNA damage response (DDR) and MCPyV replication. We found that components of the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways accumulate in MCPyV large T antigen (LT)-positive nuclear foci in cells infected with native MCPyV virions. To further study MCPyV replication, we employed our previously established system, in which recombinant MCPyV episomal DNA is autonomously replicated in cultured cells. Similar to native MCPyV infection, where both MCPyV origin and LT are present, the host DDR machinery colocalized with LT in distinct nuclear foci. Immunofluorescence in situ hybridization and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analysis showed that these DDR proteins and MCPyV LT in fact colocalized at the actively replicating MCPyV replication complexes, which were absent when a replication-defective LT mutant or an MCPyV-origin mutant was introduced in place of wild-type LT or wild-type viral origin. Inhibition of DDR kinases using chemical inhibitors and ATR/ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown reduced MCPyV DNA replication without significantly affecting LT expression or the host cell cycle. This study demonstrates that these host DDR factors are important for MCPyV DNA replication, providing new insight into the host machinery involved in the MCPyV life cycle. IMPORTANCE MCPyV is the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. However, the MCPyV life cycle and its oncogenic mechanism remain poorly understood. In this report, we show that, in cells infected with native MCPyV virions, components of the ATM- and ATR

  13. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  14. Impact of the MRN Complex on Adeno-Associated Virus Integration and Replication during Coinfection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Rachel; Jolinon, Nelly; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Berger, Gregory; Cimarelli, Andrea; Greco, Anna; Bertrand, Pascale; Odenthal, Margarete; Büning, Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a helper-dependent parvovirus that requires coinfection with adenovirus (AdV) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to replicate. In the absence of the helper virus, AAV can persist in an episomal or integrated form. Previous studies have analyzed the DNA damage response (DDR) induced upon AAV replication to understand how it controls AAV replication. In particular, it was shown that the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a major player of the DDR induced by double-stranded DNA breaks and stalled replication forks, could negatively regulate AdV and AAV replication during coinfection. In contrast, MRN favors HSV-1 replication and is recruited to AAV replication compartments that are induced in the presence of HSV-1. In this study, we examined the role of MRN during AAV replication induced by HSV-1. Our results indicated that knockdown of MRN significantly reduced AAV DNA replication after coinfection with wild-type (wt) HSV-1 or HSV-1 with the polymerase deleted. This effect was specific to wt AAV, since it did not occur with recombinant AAV vectors. Positive regulation of AAV replication by MRN was dependent on its DNA tethering activity but did not require its nuclease activities. Importantly, knockdown of MRN also negatively regulated AAV integration within the human AAVS1 site, both in the presence and in the absence of HSV-1. Altogether, this work identifies a new function of MRN during integration of the AAV genome and demonstrates that this DNA repair complex positively regulates AAV replication in the presence of HSV-1. IMPORTANCE Viral DNA genomes trigger a DNA damage response (DDR), which can be either detrimental or beneficial for virus replication. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a defective parvovirus that requires the help of an unrelated virus such as adenovirus (AdV) or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for productive replication. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a

  15. Replication of lightweight mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming Y.; Matson, Lawrence E.; Lee, Heedong; Chen, Chenggang

    2009-08-01

    The fabrication of lightweight mirror assemblages via a replication technique offers great potential for eliminating the high cost and schedule associated with the grinding and polishing steps needed for conventional glass or SiC mirrors. A replication mandrel is polished to an inverse figure shape and to the desired finish quality. It is then, coated with a release layer, the appropriate reflective layer, and followed by a laminate for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) tailorability and strength. This optical membrane is adhered to a mirror structural substrate with a low shrinkage, CTE tailored adhesive. Afterwards, the whole assembly is separated from the mandrel. The mandrel is then cleaned and reused for the next replication run. The ultimate goal of replication is to preserve the surface finish and figure of the optical membrane upon its release from the mandrel. Successful replication requires a minimization of the residual stresses within the optical coating stack, the curing stresses from the adhesive and the thermal stress resulting from CTE mismatch between the structural substrate, the adhesive, and the optical membrane. In this paper, the results on replicated trials using both metal/metal and ceramic/ceramic laminates adhered to light weighted structural substrates made from syntactic foams (both inorganic and organic) will be discussed.

  16. Success of the PCR-based replication assay depends on the number of methylation sensitive restriction sites in the PCR amplifying region.

    PubMed

    Metta, M K; Tantravahi, S; Kunaparaju, R

    2015-06-02

    The PCR—based replication assay is one of the most simple, quick and economical methods for the analysis of episomal replication. However, in spite of its advantages the method has not been able to replace the southern—based replication assay, the latter of which is a tedious and time—consuming process. This is due to the generation of spurious amplification products in the PCR—based replication assay. The replication assay is based on the use of methylation—sensitive restriction endonucleases (eg. DpnI, MboI) to distinguish bacterial replicated (adenosine methylated) and mammalian replicated plasmids (adenosine non—methylated). In this work we addressed the problem by evaluating (a) restriction enzyme digestion and (b) the minimum number of restriction sites that are required in the amplifying region. The efficiency of restriction digestion was tested by subjecting the plasmid to one and two rounds of digestion. Multiple rounds of digestions were found to be inefficient in preventing false positives when the number of DpnI sites in the amplifying region is less than 8. However, use of a minimum of 15 DpnI sites in the amplifying region was found to overcome the false positives.

  17. The Nature of Mutations Induced by Replication-Transcription Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, T. Sabari; Wastuwidyaningtyas, Brigitta D.; Dong, Yuexin; Lewis, Sarah A.; Wang, Jue D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The DNA replication and transcription machineries share a common DNA template and thus can collide with each other co-directionally or head-on1,2. Replication-transcription collisions can cause replication fork arrest, premature transcription termination, DNA breaks, and recombination intermediates threatening genome integrity1–10. Collisions may also trigger mutations, which are major contributors of genetic disease and evolution5,7,11. However, the nature and mechanisms of collision-induced mutagenesis remain poorly understood. Here we reveal the genetic consequence of replication-transcription collisions in actively dividing bacteria to be two classes of mutations: duplications/deletions and base substitutions in promoters. Both signatures are highly deleterious but are distinct from the well-characterized base substitutions in coding sequence. Duplications/deletions are likely caused by replication stalling events that are triggered by collisions; their distribution patterns are consistent with where the fork first encounters a transcription complex upon entering a transcription unit. Promoter substitutions result mostly from head-on collisions and frequently occur at a nucleotide conserved in promoters recognized by the major sigma factor in bacteria. This substitution is generated via adenine deamination on the template strand in the promoter open complex, as a consequence of head-on replication perturbing transcription initiation. We conclude that replication-transcription collisions induce distinct mutation signatures by antagonizing replication and transcription, not only in coding sequences but also in gene regulatory elements. PMID:27362223

  18. Minichromosome replication in vitro: inhibition of re-replication by replicatively assembled nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Krude, T; Knippers, R

    1994-08-19

    Single-stranded circular DNA, containing the SV40 origin sequence, was used as a template for complementary DNA strand synthesis in cytosolic extracts from HeLa cells. In the presence of the replication-dependent chromatin assembly factor CAF-1, defined numbers of nucleosomes were assembled during complementary DNA strand synthesis. These minichromosomes were then induced to semiconservatively replicate by the addition of the SV40 initiator protein T antigen (re-replication). The results indicate that re-replication of minichromosomes appears to be inhibited by two independent mechanisms. One acts at the initiation of minichromosome re-replication, and the other affects replicative chain elongation. To directly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of replicatively assembled nucleosomes, two types of minichromosomes were prepared: (i) post-replicative minichromosomes were assembled in a reaction coupled to replication as above; (ii) pre-replicative minichromosomes were assembled independently of replication on double-stranded DNA. Both types of minichromosomes were used as templates for DNA replication under identical conditions. Replicative fork movement was found to be impeded only on post-replicative minichromosome templates. In contrast, pre-replicative minichromosomes allowed one unconstrained replication cycle, but re-replication was inhibited due to a block in fork movement. Thus, replicatively assembled chromatin may have a profound influence on the re-replication of DNA.

  19. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  1. DNA Replication Timing

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Gilbert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of replication within eukaryotic genomes correlate with gene expression, chromatin structure, and genome evolution. Recent advances in genome-scale mapping of replication kinetics have allowed these correlations to be explored in many species, cell types, and growth conditions, and these large data sets have allowed quantitative and computational analyses. One striking new correlation to emerge from these analyses is between replication timing and the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes. This correlation, which is significantly stronger than with any single histone modification or chromosome-binding protein, suggests that replication timing is controlled at the level of chromosomal domains. This conclusion dovetails with parallel work on the heterogeneity of origin firing and the competition between origins for limiting activators to suggest a model in which the stochastic probability of individual origin firing is modulated by chromosomal domain structure to produce patterns of replication. Whether these patterns have inherent biological functions or simply reflect higher-order genome structure is an open question. PMID:23838440

  2. Activation of new replication foci under conditions of replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, P; Waligórska, A; Bujnowicz, Ł; Hoang, A; Dobrucki, JW

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage, binding of drugs to DNA or a shortage of nucleotides can decrease the rate or completely halt the progress of replication forks. Although the global rate of replication decreases, mammalian cells can respond to replication stress by activating new replication origins. We demonstrate that a moderate level of stress induced by inhibitors of topoisomerase I, commencing in early, mid or late S-phase, induces activation of new sites of replication located within or in the immediate vicinity of the original replication factories; only in early S some of these new sites are also activated at a distance greater than 300 nm. Under high stress levels very few new replication sites are activated; such sites are located within the original replication regions. There is a large variation in cellular response to stress – while in some cells the number of replication sites increases even threefold, it decreases almost twofold in other cells. Replication stress results in a loss of PCNA from replication factories and a twofold increase in nuclear volume. These observations suggest that activation of new replication origins from the pool of dormant origins within replication cluster under conditions of mild stress is generally restricted to the original replication clusters (factories) active at a time of stress initiation, while activation of distant origins and new replication factories is suppressed. PMID:26212617

  3. Replicated Composite Optics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell

    1997-01-01

    Advanced optical systems for applications such as grazing incidence Wolter I x-ray mirror assemblies require extraordinary mirror surfaces in ten-ns of fine surface finish and figure. The impeccable mirror surface is on the inside of the rotational mirror form. One practical method of producing devices with these requirements is to first fabricate an exterior surface for the optical device then replicate that surface to have the inverse component with lightweight characteristics. The replicate optic is not better than the master or mandrel from which it is made. This task is a continuance of previous studies to identify methods and materials for forming these extremely low roughness optical components.

  4. Replication inhibition by nucleoside analogues of a recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus harboring the herpes thymidine kinase gene driven by the IE-1(0) promoter: a new way to select recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, F; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the thymidine-thymidylate kinase (HSV1-TK), (ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.21) of herpes simplex virus type 1 endows the host cell with a conditional lethal phenotype which depends on the presence of nucleoside analogues metabolized by this enzyme into toxic inhibitors of DNA replication. To generate a recombinant baculovirus that could be selected against by nucleoside analogs, the HSV1-tk coding sequence was placed under the control of the Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) immediate early promoterm IE-1(0), and this construction was introduced via homologous recombination into the polyhedrin locus of AcMNPV. Two recombinant baculoviruses harboring this gene construct at the polyhedrin locus were isolated and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of various concentrations of the nucleoside analog 9-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ganciclovir). Neither Sf9 lepidopteran cell viability nor replication of wild type or beta-Galactosidase-expressing recombinant AcMNPVs were affected by concentrations of Ganciclovir up to 100 microM. In contrast, replication of the recombinant AcMNPV virus harboring the HSV1-tk gene was inhibited by Ganciclovir in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was detectable at 2 microM and complete at 100 microM. This property was exploited in model isolations aimed at purifying new recombinant viruses having lost this counter-selectable gene marker as a result of homologous recombination at the polyhedrin locus after cotransfection of the viral DNA with a replacement vector. After being propagated in the presence of Ganciclovir, the progeny of such co-transfections contained over 85% recombinant viruses, demonstrating that counter-selection of parental HSV1-tk-containing viruses by Ganciclovir constitutes a novel approach for recombinant baculovirus isolation. Images PMID:1335569

  5. Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Mattia, Elio; Sadownik, Jan W.; Otto, Sijbren

    2015-06-01

    Self-replicating molecules are likely to have played a central role in the origin of life. Most scenarios of Darwinian evolution at the molecular level require self-replicators capable of exponential growth, yet only very few exponential replicators have been reported to date and general design criteria for exponential replication are lacking. Here we show that a peptide-functionalized macrocyclic self-replicator exhibits exponential growth when subjected to mild agitation. The replicator self-assembles into elongated fibres of which the ends promote replication and fibre growth. Agitation results in breakage of the growing fibres, generating more fibre ends. Our data suggest a mechanism in which mechanical energy promotes the liberation of the replicator from the inactive self-assembled state, thereby overcoming self-inhibition that prevents the majority of self-replicating molecules developed to date from attaining exponential growth.

  6. Exponential self-replication enabled through a fibre elongation/breakage mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Mattia, Elio; Sadownik, Jan W.; Otto, Sijbren

    2015-01-01

    Self-replicating molecules are likely to have played a central role in the origin of life. Most scenarios of Darwinian evolution at the molecular level require self-replicators capable of exponential growth, yet only very few exponential replicators have been reported to date and general design criteria for exponential replication are lacking. Here we show that a peptide-functionalized macrocyclic self-replicator exhibits exponential growth when subjected to mild agitation. The replicator self-assembles into elongated fibres of which the ends promote replication and fibre growth. Agitation results in breakage of the growing fibres, generating more fibre ends. Our data suggest a mechanism in which mechanical energy promotes the liberation of the replicator from the inactive self-assembled state, thereby overcoming self-inhibition that prevents the majority of self-replicating molecules developed to date from attaining exponential growth. PMID:26081104

  7. Safe engineering of CAR T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer using long-term episomal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chuan; Fotaki, Grammatiki; Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Nilsson, Berith; Essand, Magnus; Yu, Di

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a new successful treatment for refractory B-cell leukemia. Successful therapeutic outcome depends on long-term expression of CAR transgene in T cells, which is achieved by delivering transgene using integrating gamma retrovirus (RV) or lentivirus (LV). However, uncontrolled RV/LV integration in host cell genomes has the potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. Herein, we describe a novel episomal long-term cell engineering method using non-integrating lentiviral (NILV) vector containing a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) element, for either expression of transgenes or silencing of target genes. The insertional events of this vector into the genome of host cells are below detection level. CD19 CAR T cells engineered with a NILV-S/MAR vector have similar levels of CAR expression as T cells engineered with an integrating LV vector, even after numerous rounds of cell division. NILV-S/MAR-engineered CD19 CAR T cells exhibited similar cytotoxic capacity upon CD19(+) target cell recognition as LV-engineered T cells and are as effective in controlling tumor growth in vivo We propose that NILV-S/MAR vectors are superior to current options as they enable long-term transgene expression without the risk of insertional mutagenesis and genotoxicity.

  8. Constitutive episomal expression of polypeptide IX (pIX) in a 293-based cell line complements the deficiency of pIX mutant adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Caravokyri, C; Leppard, K N

    1995-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 5 capsid is composed of a number of distinct polypeptides. It has been shown previously that one of these, polypeptide IX (pIX), is not absolutely required for the production of viable virus. However, viruses lacking this polypeptide have a significantly reduced packaging limit and, in the one case studied, also show a thermolabile virion phenotype. This report describes the use of eukaryotic episomal vectors based on the Epstein-Barr virus replicon to generate cells which stably express pIX. These cells provide pIX that is efficiently incorporated into virions that are genetically pIX-; such enhanced thermostability. These cells have also been used to isolate a genetically pIX- virus having a genome of length some 2.3 kbp in excess of the previously defined packaging limit for pIX- virus; the resulting virions have wild-type thermostability. These cells expand the theoretical capacity of adenovirus vectors for foreign DNA to around 9.2 kbp and may therefore be useful in gene therapy applications in which vector capacity is limiting. PMID:7474071

  9. INITIATION AND REGULATION OF PARAMYXOVIRUS TRANSCRIPTION AND REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Noton, Sarah L.; Fearns, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family has a genome consisting of a single strand of negative sense RNA. This genome acts as a template for two distinct processes: transcription to generate subgenomic, capped and polyadenylated mRNAs, and genome replication. These viruses only encode one polymerase. Thus, an intriguing question is, how does the viral polymerase initiate and become committed to either transcription or replication? By answering this we can begin to understand how these two processes are regulated. In this review article, we present recent findings from studies on the paramyxovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, which show how its polymerase is able to initiate transcription and replication from a single promoter. We discuss how these findings apply to other paramyxoviruses. Then, we examine how trans-acting proteins and promoter secondary structure might serve to regulate transcription and replication during different phases of the paramyxovirus replication cycle. PMID:25683441

  10. Replication fork dynamics and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Petermann, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Prevention and repair of DNA damage is essential for maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival. DNA replication during S-phase can be a source of DNA damage if endogenous or exogenous stresses impair the progression of replication forks. It has become increasingly clear that DNA-damage-response pathways do not only respond to the presence of damaged DNA, but also modulate DNA replication dynamics to prevent DNA damage formation during S-phase. Such observations may help explain the developmental defects or cancer predisposition caused by mutations in DNA-damage-response genes. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms by which DNA-damage-response pathways control and promote replication dynamics in vertebrate cells. In particular, DNA damage pathways contribute to proper replication by regulating replication initiation, stabilizing transiently stalled forks, promoting replication restart and facilitating fork movement on difficult-to-replicate templates. If replication fork progression fails to be rescued, this may lead to DNA damage and genomic instability via nuclease processing of aberrant fork structures or incomplete sister chromatid separation during mitosis.

  11. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  12. Coronavirus Attachment and Replication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-28

    synthesis during RNA replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 49:303-309. Pedersen, N.C. 1976a. Feline infectious peritonitis: Something old...receptors on intestinal brush border membranes from normal host species were developed for canine (CCV), feline (FIPV), porcine (TGEV), human (HCV...gastroenteritis receptor on pig BBMs ...... ................. ... 114 Feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor on cat BBMs ... .............. 117 Human

  13. Replicated spectrographs in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.

    2014-06-01

    As telescope apertures increase, the challenge of scaling spectrographic astronomical instruments becomes acute. The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) strain the availability of glass blanks for optics and engineering to provide sufficient mechanical stability. While breaking the relationship between telescope diameter and instrument pupil size by adaptive optics is a clear path for small fields of view, survey instruments exploiting multiplex advantages will be pressed to find cost-effective solutions. In this review we argue that exploiting the full potential of ELTs will require the barrier of the cost and engineering difficulty of monolithic instruments to be broken by the use of large-scale replication of spectrographs. The first steps in this direction have already been taken with the soon to be commissioned MUSE and VIRUS instruments for the Very Large Telescope and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, respectively. MUSE employs 24 spectrograph channels, while VIRUS has 150 channels. We compare the information gathering power of these replicated instruments with the present state of the art in more traditional spectrographs, and with instruments under development for ELTs. Design principles for replication are explored along with lessons learned, and we look forward to future technologies that could make massively-replicated instruments even more compelling.

  14. The replication timing program in the hands of two HDACs

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazumasa; Lengronne, Armelle; Pasero, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, duplication of genomic information depends on the sequential activation of multiple replication origins distributed along the chromosomes. Replication origins differ in initiation time, chromatin structure and three-dimensional position in the nucleus. Recently, we have performed a systematic analysis of the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of origin activity in budding yeast. We have found that the epigenetic regulation of repetitive sequences is a key determinant of the DNA replication program. Indeed, our study revealed that two histone deacetylases, Rpd3 and Sir2, have opposite effects on the replication timing program. Rpd3 delays initiation at late origins, whereas Sir2 promotes efficient activation of early origins. Remarkably, we also found that Rpd3 and Sir2 regulate initiation at ~200 replication origins located within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array. We propose that this epigenetic regulation of repetitive origins controls the replication timing program by modulating the availability of limiting initiation factors. PMID:28357253

  15. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  16. Replication forks, chromatin loops and dormant replication origins.

    PubMed

    Blow, J Julian; Ge, Xin Quan

    2008-01-01

    When DNA replication is slowed down, normally dormant replication origins are activated. Recent work demonstrates that cells adapt by changing the organization of chromatin loops and maintaining the new pattern of origin use in subsequent cell cycles.

  17. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    In general terms, the replication cycle of lentiviruses, including HIV-1, closely resembles that of other retroviruses. There are, however, a number of unique aspects of HIV replication; for example, the HIVs and SIVs target receptors and coreceptors distinct from those used by other retroviruses. Lentiviruses encode a number of regulatory and accessory proteins not encoded by the genomes of the prototypical "simple" retroviruses. Of particular interest from the gene therapy perspective, lentiviruses possess the ability to productively infect some types of non-dividing cells. This chapter, while reiterating certain points discussed in Chapter 1, will attempt to focus on issues unique to HIV-1 replication. The HIV-1 genome encodes the major structural and non-structural proteins common to all replication-competent retroviruses (Fig. 1, and Chapter 1). From the 5'- to 3'-ends of the genome are found the gag (for group-specific antigen), pol (for polymerase), and env (for envelope glycoprotein) genes. The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor whose name, Pr55Gag, is based on its molecular weight. Pr55Gag is cleaved by the viral protease (PR) to the mature Gag proteins matrix (also known as MA or p17), capsid (CA or p24), nucleocapsid (NC or p7), and p6. Two spacer peptides, p2 and p1, are also generated upon Pr55Gag processing. The pol-encoded enzymes are initially synthesized as part of a large polyprotein precursor, Pr160GagPol, whose synthesis results from a rare frameshifting event during Pr55Gag translation. The individual pol-encoded enzymes, PR, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), are cleaved from Pr160GagPol by the viral PR. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins are also synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (Fig. 1). Unlike the Gag and Pol precursors, which are cleaved by the viral PR, the Env precursor, known as gp160, is processed by a cellular protease during Env trafficking to the cell surface, gp160 processing results in the generation of the

  18. DNA replication in thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Majerník, A I; Jenkinson, E R; Chong, J P J

    2004-04-01

    DNA replication enzymes in the thermophilic Archaea have previously attracted attention due to their obvious use in methods such as PCR. The proofreading ability of the Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase has resulted in a commercially successful product (Pfu polymerase). One of the many notable features of the Archaea is the fact that their DNA processing enzymes appear on the whole to be more like those found in eukaryotes than bacteria. These proteins also appear to be simpler versions of those found in eukaryotes. For these reasons, archaeal organisms make potentially interesting model systems to explore the molecular mechanisms of processes such as DNA replication, repair and recombination. Why archaeal DNA-manipulation systems were adopted over bacterial systems by eukaryotic cells remains a most interesting question that we suggest may be linked to thermophily.

  19. Analysis of Pupil Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaan, F. H. P.; Greenaway, A. H.

    2007-04-01

    Pupil replication and hypertelescope systems for imaging telluric exoplanets in scattered light are treated. Analytic expressions for the spread functions in one and two dimensions and in the presence of various forms of error are given. Error effects considered include aperture misalignment, tilts, piston, pointing errors, and unequal beam amplitude. The performance of the two approaches is contrasted, and the analytic results are compared with simulation results.

  20. Replication of grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    1986-01-01

    The replication of grazing incidence optics is reviewed. Electroform and epoxy replication are described and compared. It is concluded that for light weight and deep nesting, replication has a distinct advantage over direct production. The resolution of optics produced in this manner is however, limited to about 10 arc seconds; a typical value is 40 arc seconds. Epoxy replicated pieces tend to have better optical figures than electroformed optics, but the latter can be made thinner to make more deeply nested systems.

  1. Replication Research and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  2. Replication data collection highlights value in diversity of replication attempts

    PubMed Central

    DeSoto, K. Andrew; Schweinsberg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Researchers agree that replicability and reproducibility are key aspects of science. A collection of Data Descriptors published in Scientific Data presents data obtained in the process of attempting to replicate previously published research. These new replication data describe published and unpublished projects. The different papers in this collection highlight the many ways that scientific replications can be conducted, and they reveal the benefits and challenges of crucial replication research. The organizers of this collection encourage scientists to reuse the data contained in the collection for their own work, and also believe that these replication examples can serve as educational resources for students, early-career researchers, and experienced scientists alike who are interested in learning more about the process of replication. PMID:28291224

  3. Inactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured cells and in vivo with engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Kristie; Ely, Abdullah; Mussolino, Claudio; Cathomen, Toni; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important global health problem. Stability of the episomal covalently closed circular HBV DNA (cccDNA) is largely responsible for the modest curative efficacy of available therapy. Since licensed anti-HBV drugs have a post-transcriptional mechanism of action, disabling cccDNA is potentially of therapeutic benefit. To develop this approach, we engineered mutagenic transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that target four HBV-specific sites within the viral genome. TALENs with cognate sequences in the S or C open-reading frames (ORFs) efficiently disrupted sequences at the intended sites and suppressed markers of viral replication. Following triple transfection of cultured HepG2.2.15 cells under mildly hypothermic conditions, the S TALEN caused targeted mutation in ~35% of cccDNA molecules. Markers of viral replication were also inhibited in vivo in a murine hydrodynamic injection model of HBV replication. HBV target sites within S and C ORFs of the injected HBV DNA were mutated without evidence of toxicity. These findings are the first to demonstrate a targeted nuclease-mediated disruption of HBV cccDNA. Efficacy in vivo also indicates that these engineered nucleases have potential for use in treatment of chronic HBV infection.

  4. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Goldar, Arach; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Hyrien, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Although replication proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, the sequence requirements for replication initiation differ between species. In all species, however, replication origins fire asynchronously throughout S phase. The temporal program of origin firing is reproducible in cell populations but largely probabilistic at the single-cell level. The mechanisms and the significance of this program are unclear. Replication timing has been correlated with gene activity in metazoans but not in yeast. One potential role for a temporal regulation of origin firing is to minimize fluctuations in replication end time and avoid persistence of unreplicated DNA in mitosis. Here, we have extracted the population-averaged temporal profiles of replication initiation rates for S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, D. melanogaster, X. laevis and H. sapiens from genome-wide replication timing and DNA combing data. All the profiles have a strikingly similar shape, increasing during the first half of S phase then decreasing before its end. A previously proposed minimal model of stochastic initiation modulated by accumulation of a recyclable, limiting replication-fork factor and fork-promoted initiation of new origins, quantitatively described the observed profiles without requiring new implementations. The selective pressure for timely completion of genome replication and optimal usage of replication proteins that must be imported into the cell nucleus can explain the generic shape of the profiles. We have identified a universal behavior of eukaryotic replication initiation that transcends the mechanisms of origin specification. The population-averaged efficiency of replication origin usage changes during S phase in a strikingly similar manner in a highly diverse set of eukaryotes. The quantitative model previously proposed for origin activation in X. laevis can be generalized to explain this evolutionary conservation. PMID:19521533

  5. Regulatory parameters of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M; Price, G B

    1998-01-01

    One of the fundamental characteristics that help define life is the ability to propagate. At the basest level in the act of propagation is replication of the genetic information as the databank and architectural plans for each particular life form. Thus propagation of life requires the replication of the genome--for the purposes of our review, eukaryotic DNA replication. In this critical review, we have chosen to present the issues and supporting experimental evidence in question-and-answer format. Over the past 3 to 4 years, the research domain of eukaryotic DNA replication has developed a new dynamism. This new force in discovery of the fundamental elements and mechanisms for DNA replication in higher eukaryotes has been propelled by accepted methodologies for mapping (identification) of origins of DNA replication, applicable to mammalian DNA replication, and by the discovery of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in yeast, which has served as a model in the search for the mammalian equivalent.

  6. Chromatin and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    MacAlpine, David M; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-08-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program.

  7. Break-induced replication: functions and molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Malkova, Anna; Ira, Grzegorz

    2013-06-01

    Break-induced replication (BIR) is the pathway of homologous recombination (HR) conserved from phages to eukaryotes that serves to repair DNA breaks that have only one end. BIR contributes to the repair of broken replication forks and allows telomere lengthening in the absence of telomerase. Nonallelic BIR may lead to translocations and other chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, BIR initiated at sites of microhomology can generate copy number variations (CNVs) and complex chromosomal changes. The level of mutagenesis associated with DNA synthesis in BIR is significantly higher than during normal replication. These features make BIR a likely pathway to promote bursts of genetic changes that fuel cancer progression and evolution.

  8. Gene organization inside replication domains in mammalian genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Lamia; Baker, Antoine; Audit, Benjamin; Arneodo, Alain

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the large-scale organization of human genes with respect to "master" replication origins that were previously identified as bordering nucleotide compositional skew domains. We separate genes in two categories depending on their CpG enrichment at the promoter which can be considered as a marker of germline DNA methylation. Using expression data in mouse, we confirm that CpG-rich genes are highly expressed in germline whereas CpG-poor genes are in a silent state. We further show that, whether tissue-specific or broadly expressed (housekeeping genes), the CpG-rich genes are over-represented close to the replication skew domain borders suggesting some coordination of replication and transcription. We also reveal that the transcription of the longest CpG-rich genes is co-oriented with replication fork progression so that the promoter of these transcriptionally active genes be located into the accessible open chromatin environment surrounding the master replication origins that border the replication skew domains. The observation of a similar gene organization in the mouse genome confirms the interplay of replication, transcription and chromatin structure as the cornerstone of mammalian genome architecture.

  9. Replicative Aging in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steinkraus, K.A.; Kaeberlein, M.; Kennedy, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Progress in aging research is now rapid, and surprisingly, studies in a single-celled eukaryote are a driving force. The genetic modulators of replicative life span in yeast are being identified, the molecular events that accompany aging are being discovered, and the extent to which longevity pathways are conserved between yeast and multicellular eukaryotes is being tested. In this review, we provide a brief retrospective view on the development of yeast as a model for aging and then turn to recent discoveries that have pushed aging research into novel directions and also linked aging in yeast to well-developed hypotheses in mammals. Although the question of what causes aging still cannot be answered definitively, that day may be rapidly approaching. PMID:18616424

  10. Latent infection of human bocavirus accompanied by flare of chronic cough, fatigue and episodes of viral replication in an immunocompetent adult patient, Cologne, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Wolfram; Pieper, Monika; Ziemele, Inga; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Brockmann, Michael; Schildgen, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and is associated with mild to life-threatening acute or persisting respiratory infections, frequently accompanied by further pathogens. So far, there is limited knowledge on the mechanisms of persistence, and no reports on chronic infections or latency have been published so far. Case presentation: An immunocompetent male patient suffers from a chronic HBoV1 infection, i.e. viral DNA was detected in both serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for >5 months without co-infections and with respiratory symptoms resolved spontaneously while receiving symptomatic treatment with montelukast and corticosteroids. Following the symptomatic medication of a chronic infection with HBoV1 viraemia indicating active viral replication lasting over 5 months, the patient cleared the viraemia and no further viral DNA was detectable in the BAL. However, by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of mucosal biopsies, it was shown that the virus genome still persisted in the absence of viral shedding but in a more compact manner possibly representing a supercoiled episomal form of this otherwise linear single-stranded DNA genome. This indicated the entry into a latency phase. Moreover, the cytokine profile and the IP-10/TARC ratio, a marker for fibrotization, seem to have been altered by HBoV1 replication. Although specific IgG antibodies were detectable during the whole observation period, they showed an apparently insufficient neutralising activity. Conclusion: On the one hand, these findings suggest that the symptomatic medication may have led to clearance of the virus from blood and airways and, moreover, that the viral DNA persists in the tissue as an altered episomal form favoured by lacking neutralising antibodies. This appears to be important in order to reduce possible long-term effects such as lung fibrosis. PMID:28348774

  11. Chromatin dynamics during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, Raz; Voichek, Yoav; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin is composed of DNA and histones, which provide a unified platform for regulating DNA-related processes, mostly through their post-translational modification. During DNA replication, histone arrangement is perturbed, first to allow progression of DNA polymerase and then during repackaging of the replicated DNA. To study how DNA replication influences the pattern of histone modification, we followed the cell-cycle dynamics of 10 histone marks in budding yeast. We find that histones deposited on newly replicated DNA are modified at different rates: While some marks appear immediately upon replication (e.g., H4K16ac, H3K4me1), others increase with transcription-dependent delays (e.g., H3K4me3, H3K36me3). Notably, H3K9ac was deposited as a wave preceding the replication fork by ∼5–6 kb. This replication-guided H3K9ac was fully dependent on the acetyltransferase Rtt109, while expression-guided H3K9ac was deposited by Gcn5. Further, topoisomerase depletion intensified H3K9ac in front of the replication fork and in sites where RNA polymerase II was trapped, suggesting supercoiling stresses trigger H3K9 acetylation. Our results assign complementary roles for DNA replication and gene expression in defining the pattern of histone modification. PMID:27225843

  12. Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating pieces of DNA. This article discusses theta plasmid replication, which is a class of circular plasmid replication that includes ColE1-like origins of replication popular with expression vectors. All modalities of theta plasmid replication initiate synthesis with the leading strand at a predetermined site and complete replication through recruitment of the host's replisome, which extends the leading strand continuously while synthesizing the lagging strand discontinuously. There are clear differences between different modalities of theta plasmid replication in mechanisms of DNA duplex melting and in priming of leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. In some replicons duplex melting depends on transcription, while other replicons rely on plasmid-encoded trans-acting proteins (Reps); primers for leading-strand synthesis can be generated through processing of a transcript or in other replicons by the action of host- or plasmid-encoded primases. None of these processes require DNA breaks. The frequency of replication initiation is tightly regulated to facilitate establishment in permissive hosts and to achieve a steady state. The last section of the article reviews how plasmid copy number is sensed and how this feedback modulates the frequency of replication.

  13. Solving the Telomere Replication Problem

    PubMed Central

    Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113

  14. Replication patterns and organization of replication forks in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Caroline; Waldminghaus, Torsten; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the replication patterns of the two chromosomes of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae grown in four different media. By combining flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR with computer simulations, we show that in rich media, V. cholerae cells grow with overlapping replication cycles of both the large chromosome (ChrI) and the small chromosome (ChrII). In Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, initiation occurs at four copies of the ChrI origin and two copies of the ChrII origin. Replication of ChrII was found to occur at the end of the ChrI replication period in all four growth conditions. Novel cell-sorting experiments with marker frequency analysis support these conclusions. Incubation with protein synthesis inhibitors indicated that the potential for initiation of replication of ChrII was present at the same time as that of ChrI, but was actively delayed until much of ChrI was replicated. Investigations of the localization of SeqA bound to new DNA at replication forks indicated that the forks were co-localized in pairs when cells grew without overlapping replication cycles and in higher-order structures during more rapid growth. The increased degree of fork organization during rapid growth may be a means by which correct segregation of daughter molecules is facilitated.

  15. The asymmetry of telomere replication contributes to replicative senescence heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeron, Thibault; Xu, Zhou; Doumic, Marie; Teresa Teixeira, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the absence of telomerase results in telomere shortening, eventually leading to replicative senescence, an arrested state that prevents further cell divisions. While replicative senescence is mainly controlled by telomere length, the heterogeneity of its onset is not well understood. This study proposes a mathematical model based on the molecular mechanisms of telomere replication and shortening to decipher the causes of this heterogeneity. Using simulations fitted on experimental data obtained from individual lineages of senescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we decompose the sources of senescence heterogeneity into interclonal and intraclonal components, and show that the latter is based on the asymmetry of the telomere replication mechanism. We also evidence telomere rank-switching events with distinct frequencies in short-lived versus long-lived lineages, revealing that telomere shortening dynamics display important variations. Thus, the intrinsic heterogeneity of replicative senescence and its consequences find their roots in the asymmetric structure of telomeres. PMID:26468778

  16. Replication initiation and genome instability: a crossroads for DNA and RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Nussenzweig, André

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear DNA replication requires the concerted action of hundreds of proteins to efficiently unwind and duplicate the entire genome while also retaining epigenetic regulatory information. Initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated, rapidly firing thousands of origins once the conditions to promote rapid and faithful replication are in place, and defects in replication initiation lead to proliferation defects, genome instability, and a range of developmental abnormalities. Interestingly, DNA replication in metazoans initiates in actively transcribed DNA, meaning that replication initiation occurs in DNA that is co-occupied with tens of thousands of poised and active RNA polymerase complexes. Active transcription can induce genome instability, particularly during DNA replication, as RNA polymerases can induce torsional stress, formation of secondary structures, and act as a physical barrier to other enzymes involved in DNA metabolism. Here we discuss the challenges facing mammalian DNA replication, their impact on genome instability, and the development of cancer.

  17. Distinct functions of human RecQ helicases during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Urban, Vaclav; Dobrovolna, Jana; Janscak, Pavel

    2016-11-15

    DNA replication is the most vulnerable process of DNA metabolism in proliferating cells and therefore it is tightly controlled and coordinated with processes that maintain genomic stability. Human RecQ helicases are among the most important factors involved in the maintenance of replication fork integrity, especially under conditions of replication stress. RecQ helicases promote recovery of replication forks being stalled due to different replication roadblocks of either exogenous or endogenous source. They prevent generation of aberrant replication fork structures and replication fork collapse, and are involved in proper checkpoint signaling. The essential role of human RecQ helicases in the genome maintenance during DNA replication is underlined by association of defects in their function with cancer predisposition.

  18. Rapid mold replication

    SciTech Connect

    Heestand, G.M.; Beeler, R.G. Jr.; Brown, D.L.

    1995-06-01

    The desire to reduce tooling costs have driven manufacturers to investigate new manufacturing methods and materials. In the plastics injection molding industry replicating molds to meet production needs is time consuming (up to 6 months) and costly in terms of lost business. We have recently completed a feasibility study demonstrating the capability of high rate Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) in producing mold inserts in days, not months. In the current practice a graphite mandrel, in the shape of the insert`s negative image, was exposed to a jet of metal vapor atoms emanating from an electron beam heated source of an aluminum-bronze alloy. The condensation rate of the metal atoms on the mandrel was sufficient to allow the deposit to grow at over 30 {mu}m/min or 1.2 mils per minute. The vaporization process continued for approximately 14 hours after which the mandrel and deposit were removed from the EBPVD vacuum chamber. The mandrel and condensate were easily separated resulting in a fully dense aluminum-bronze mold insert about 2.5 cm or one inch thick. This mold was subsequently cleaned and drilled for water cooling passages and mounted on a fixture for operation in an actual injection molding machine. Results of the mold`s operation were extremely successful showing great promise for this technique. This paper describes the EBPVD feasibility demonstration in more detail and discusses future development work needed to bring this technique into practice.

  19. Ultima Replicated Optics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James; Engelhaupt, Darell

    1997-01-01

    Designs are reviewed incorporating processes suitable for replication of precision spherical segments of very large (greater than 20 meter diameter) telescopes combining ultra-lightweight and high precision. These designs must be amenable to assembly and alignment after deployment . The methods considered lie outside the present scope of fabrication, deployment and alignment considered to date. Design guidelines for reducing the weight and low frequency resonance in low G environment were given by The Serius Group, Dr. Glenn Zeiders, and are considered baseline for this activity. The goal of a rigid design of 10 Kg/sq M is being persued for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and is not likely adequate for advanced efforts. Flexures have been considered for maintaining the figure of many lightweight structures by control loop processes. This adds to the complexity and weight to the extent that it becomes difficult to recover the benefits. Two fabrication guidelines lead to a stiffer and concurrently lighter structure. First the use of thin vertical wall triangular structural reinforcements to increase the resistance to bending is preferred over hexagonal or square similar sections. Secondly, the incorporation of a similar back sheet on a cellular structure markedly improves the geometric stiffness. Neither improves the short range stiffness. Also often overlooked is that selected material properties must include high microyield and low hysteresis in addition to high elastic modulus to weight (stiffness). The fabrication steps can easily exceed the strain requirement.

  20. Combinatorial mutagenesis and selection to understand and improve yeast promoters.

    PubMed

    Berg, Laila; Strand, Trine Aakvik; Valla, Svein; Brautaset, Trygve

    2013-01-01

    Microbial promoters are important targets both for understanding the global gene expression and developing genetic tools for heterologous expression of proteins and complex biosynthetic pathways. Previously, we have developed and used combinatorial mutagenesis methods to analyse and improve bacterial expression systems. Here, we present for the first time an analogous strategy for yeast. Our model promoter is the strong and inducible P AOX1 promoter in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris. The Zeocin resistance gene was applied as a valuable reporter for mutant P AOX1 promoter activity, and we used an episomal plasmid vector to ensure a constant reporter gene dosage in the yeast host cells. This novel design enabled direct selection for colonies of recombinant cells with altered Zeocin tolerance levels originating solely from randomly introduced point mutations in the P AOX1 promoter DNA sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to select for P AOX1 promoter variants with abolished glucose repression in large mutant libraries. We also selected P AOX1 promoter variants with elevated expression level under induced conditions. The properties of the selected P AOX1 promoter variants were confirmed by expressing luciferase as an alternative reporter gene. The tools developed here should be useful for effective screening, characterization, and improvement of any yeast promoters.

  1. Construction of Expression Shuttle Vectors for the Haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7 Based on Its Chromosomal Origins of Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuchen; Chen, Beibei; Sima, Linshan; Cao, Mengzhuo

    2017-01-01

    Haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7, the first reported archaeon harboring both plasmid and chromosome-based temperate viruses, is a useful model for investigating archaeal virus-host and virus-virus interactions. However, the lack of genetic tools has limited such studies. On the basis of the automatically replicating sequences of the J7 chromosome and the pyrF marker, we constructed seven vectors, six of which were confirmed to possess replication ability in a pyrF-deletion derivative of J7 (J7-F). Among these vectors, pFJ1, pFJ4, and pFJ6 could be transformed into the host strain with relatively high efficiency (approximately 103 colony-forming units/μg DNA) and were present at about one copy per chromosome. These three vectors could be stably maintained in J7-F without selection and were used for heterologous protein expression. Only pFJ6 was found to be present in the transformed cells in an exclusively episomal, nonintegrated state (one copy per chromosome). In contrast, some pFJ1 and pFJ4 DNA was probably integrated into the J7-F chromosome. In addition, pFJ6 was found to be compatible with pYCJ in J7 cells, suggesting that these two vectors could be used for further studies of virus-virus and virus-host interactions. PMID:28348508

  2. Mcm10: A Dynamic Scaffold at Eukaryotic Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Baxley, Ryan M.; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    To complete the duplication of large genomes efficiently, mechanisms have evolved that coordinate DNA unwinding with DNA synthesis and provide quality control measures prior to cell division. Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is a conserved component of the eukaryotic replisome that contributes to this process in multiple ways. Mcm10 promotes the initiation of DNA replication through direct interactions with the cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45)-minichromosome maintenance complex proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7)-go-ichi-ni-san GINS complex proteins, as well as single- and double-stranded DNA. After origin firing, Mcm10 controls replication fork stability to support elongation, primarily facilitating Okazaki fragment synthesis through recruitment of DNA polymerase-α and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Based on its multivalent properties, Mcm10 serves as an essential scaffold to promote DNA replication and guard against replication stress. Under pathological conditions, Mcm10 is often dysregulated. Genetic amplification and/or overexpression of MCM10 are common in cancer, and can serve as a strong prognostic marker of poor survival. These findings are compatible with a heightened requirement for Mcm10 in transformed cells to overcome limitations for DNA replication dictated by altered cell cycle control. In this review, we highlight advances in our understanding of when, where and how Mcm10 functions within the replisome to protect against barriers that cause incomplete replication. PMID:28218679

  3. SMARCAL1 maintains telomere integrity during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lisa A; Zhao, Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G; Lovejoy, Courtney A; Eischen, Christine M; Cortez, David

    2015-12-01

    The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique cellular activities. Here, we present data showing that SMARCAL1 has an important function at telomeres, which present an endogenous source of replication stress. SMARCAL1-deficient cells accumulate telomere-associated DNA damage and have greatly elevated levels of extrachromosomal telomere DNA (C-circles). Although these telomere phenotypes are often found in tumor cells using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere elongation, SMARCAL1 deficiency does not yield other ALT phenotypes such as elevated telomere recombination. The activity of SMARCAL1 at telomeres can be separated from its genome-maintenance activity in bulk chromosomal replication because it does not require interaction with replication protein A. Finally, this telomere-maintenance function is not shared by ZRANB3 or HLTF. Our results provide the first identification, to our knowledge, of an endogenous source of replication stress that requires SMARCAL1 for resolution and define differences between members of this class of replication fork-repair enzymes.

  4. Vaccinia-like cytoplasmic replication of the giant Mimivirus.

    PubMed

    Mutsafi, Yael; Zauberman, Nathan; Sabanay, Ilana; Minsky, Abraham

    2010-03-30

    Poxviruses are considered to be unique among all DNA viruses, because their infection cycle is carried out exclusively in the host cytoplasm. Such an infection strategy is of interest, because it necessitates generation of elaborate factories in which viral replication and assembly are promoted. By using diverse imaging techniques, we show that the infection cycle of the largest virus currently identified, the Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus, similarly occurs exclusively in the host cytoplasm. We further show that newly synthesized mRNAs accumulate at discrete cytoplasmic sites that are distinct from the sites where viral replication occurs, and this is observed in vaccinia infection. By revealing substantial physiologic similarity between poxviruses and Mimivirus and thus, implying that an entirely cytoplasmic viral replication might be more common than generally considered, these findings underscore the ability of DNA viruses to generate large and elaborate replication factories.

  5. Noninvasive visualization of adenovirus replication with a fluorescent reporter in the E3 region.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hidetaka A; Le, Long P; Davydova, Julia G; Gavrikova, Tatyana; Yamamoto, Masato

    2005-11-15

    To overcome the inefficacy and undesirable side effects of current cancer treatment strategies, conditionally replicative adenoviruses have been developed to exploit the unique mechanism of oncolysis afforded by tumor-specific viral replication. Despite rapid translation into clinical trials and the established safety of oncolytic adenoviruses, the in vivo function of these agents is not well understood due to lack of a noninvasive detection system for adenovirus replication. To address this issue, we propose the expression of a reporter from the adenovirus E3 region as a means to monitor replication. Adenovirus replication reporter vectors were constructed with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene placed in the deleted E3 region under the control of the adenoviral major late promoter while retaining expression of the adenovirus death protein to conserve the native oncolytic capability of the virus. Strong EGFP fluorescence was detected from these vectors in a replication-dependent manner, which correlated with viral DNA replication. Fluorescence imaging in vivo confirmed the ability to noninvasively detect fluorescent signal during replication, which generally corresponded with the underlying level of viral DNA replication. EGFP representation of viral replication was further confirmed by Western blot comparison with the viral DNA content in the tumors. Imaging reporter expression controlled by the adenoviral major late promoter provides a viable approach to noninvasively monitor adenovirus replication in preclinical studies and has the potential for human application with clinically relevant imaging reporters.

  6. A CI-Independent Form of Replicative Inhibition: Turn Off of Early Replication of Bacteriophage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sidney; Horbay, Monique A.; Hayes, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Several earlier studies have described an unusual exclusion phenotype exhibited by cells with plasmids carrying a portion of the replication region of phage lambda. Cells exhibiting this inhibition phenotype (IP) prevent the plating of homo-immune and hybrid hetero-immune lambdoid phages. We have attempted to define aspects of IP, and show that it is directed to repλ phages. IP was observed in cells with plasmids containing a λ DNA fragment including oop, encoding a short OOP micro RNA, and part of the lambda origin of replication, oriλ, defined by iteron sequences ITN1-4 and an adjacent high AT-rich sequence. Transcription of the intact oop sequence from its promoter, pO is required for IP, as are iterons ITN3–4, but not the high AT-rich portion of oriλ. The results suggest that IP silencing is directed to theta mode replication initiation from an infecting repλ genome, or an induced repλ prophage. Phage mutations suppressing IP, i.e., Sip, map within, or adjacent to cro or in O, or both. Our results for plasmid based IP suggest the hypothesis that there is a natural mechanism for silencing early theta-mode replication initiation, i.e. the buildup of λ genomes with oop+ oriλ+ sequence. PMID:22590552

  7. Centromere Stability: The Replication Connection

    PubMed Central

    Forsburg, Susan L.; Shen, Kuo-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast centromere, which is similar to metazoan centromeres, contains highly repetitive pericentromere sequences that are assembled into heterochromatin. This is required for the recruitment of cohesin and proper chromosome segregation. Surprisingly, the pericentromere replicates early in the S phase. Loss of heterochromatin causes this domain to become very sensitive to replication fork defects, leading to gross chromosome rearrangements. This review examines the interplay between components of DNA replication, heterochromatin assembly, and cohesin dynamics that ensures maintenance of genome stability and proper chromosome segregation. PMID:28106789

  8. The Psychology of Replication and Replication in Psychology.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Like other scientists, psychologists believe experimental replication to be the final arbiter for determining the validity of an empirical finding. Reports in psychology journals often attempt to prove the validity of a hypothesis or theory with multiple experiments that replicate a finding. Unfortunately, these efforts are sometimes misguided because in a field like experimental psychology, ever more successful replication does not necessarily ensure the validity of an empirical finding. When psychological experiments are analyzed with statistics, the rules of probability dictate that random samples should sometimes be selected that do not reject the null hypothesis, even if an effect is real. As a result, it is possible for a set of experiments to have too many successful replications. When there are too many successful replications for a given set of experiments, a skeptical scientist should be suspicious that null or negative findings have been suppressed, the experiments were run improperly, or the experiments were analyzed improperly. This article describes the implications of this observation and demonstrates how to test for too much successful replication by using a set of experiments from a recent research paper.

  9. DNA recombination: the replication connection.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1999-07-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise after exposure to ionizing radiation or enzymatic cleavage, but especially during the process of DNA replication itself. Homologous recombination plays a critical role in repair of such DSBs. There has been significant progress in our understanding of two processes that occur in DSB repair: gene conversion and recombination-dependent DNA replication. Recent evidence suggests that gene conversion and break-induced replication are related processes that both begin with the establishment of a replication fork in which both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis occur. There has also been much progress in characterization of the biochemical roles of recombination proteins that are highly conserved from yeast to humans.

  10. Plasmid Rolling-Circle Replication.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Masó, J A; MachóN, C; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, L; Espinosa, M; Coll, M; Del Solar, G

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are DNA entities that undergo controlled replication independent of the chromosomal DNA, a crucial step that guarantees the prevalence of the plasmid in its host. DNA replication has to cope with the incapacity of the DNA polymerases to start de novo DNA synthesis, and different replication mechanisms offer diverse solutions to this problem. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is a mechanism adopted by certain plasmids, among other genetic elements, that represents one of the simplest initiation strategies, that is, the nicking by a replication initiator protein on one parental strand to generate the primer for leading-strand initiation and a single priming site for lagging-strand synthesis. All RCR plasmid genomes consist of a number of basic elements: leading strand initiation and control, lagging strand origin, phenotypic determinants, and mobilization, generally in that order of frequency. RCR has been mainly characterized in Gram-positive bacterial plasmids, although it has also been described in Gram-negative bacterial or archaeal plasmids. Here we aim to provide an overview of the RCR plasmids' lifestyle, with emphasis on their characteristic traits, promiscuity, stability, utility as vectors, etc. While RCR is one of the best-characterized plasmid replication mechanisms, there are still many questions left unanswered, which will be pointed out along the way in this review.

  11. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  12. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase regulates hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Gwon-Soo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Jang, Se Young; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Sung-Woo; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Sungwoo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, In-Kyu; Kang, Yu Na; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    During replication, hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes macromolecules produced by its host cell. This process requires host cellular metabolic reprogramming to favor elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we evaluated whether pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), a mitochondrial enzyme that promotes aerobic glycolysis, can regulate HCV replication. Levels of c-Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), PDK1, PDK3, glucokinase, and serine biosynthetic enzymes were compared between HCV-infected and uninfected human liver and Huh-7.5 cells infected with or without HCV. Protein and mRNA expression of c-Myc, HIF-1α, and glycolytic enzymes were significantly higher in HCV-infected human liver and hepatocytes than in uninfected controls. This increase was accompanied by upregulation of serine biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting cellular metabolism was altered toward facilitated nucleotide synthesis essential for HCV replication. JQ1, a c-Myc inhibitor, and dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK inhibitor, decreased the expression of glycolytic and serine synthetic enzymes in HCV-infected hepatocytes, resulting in suppressed viral replication. Furthermore, when co-administered with IFN-α or ribavirin, DCA further inhibited viral replication. In summary, HCV reprograms host cell metabolism to favor glycolysis and serine biosynthesis; this is mediated, at least in part, by increased PDK activity, which provides a surplus of nucleotide precursors. Therefore, blocking PDK activity might have therapeutic benefits against HCV replication. PMID:27471054

  13. Transcription Interference and ORF Nature Strongly Affect Promoter Strength in a Reconstituted Metabolic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Carquet, Marie; Pompon, Denis; Truan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Fine tuning of individual enzyme expression level is necessary to alleviate metabolic imbalances in synthetic heterologous pathways. A known approach consists of choosing a suitable combination of promoters, based on their characterized strengths in model conditions. We questioned whether each step of a multiple-gene synthetic pathway could be independently tunable at the transcription level. Three open reading frames, coding for enzymes involved in a synthetic pathway, were combinatorially associated to different promoters on an episomal plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We quantified the mRNA levels of the three genes in each strain of our generated combinatorial metabolic library. Our results evidenced that the ORF nature, position, and orientation induce strong discrepancies between the previously reported promoters’ strengths and the observed ones. We conclude that, in the context of metabolic reconstruction, the strength of usual promoters can be dramatically affected by many factors. Among them, transcriptional interference and ORF nature seem to be predominant. PMID:25767795

  14. Norovirus gene expression and replication.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lucy G; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-02-01

    Noroviruses are small, positive-sense RNA viruses within the family Caliciviridae, and are now accepted widely as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Despite their impact, our understanding of the life cycle of noroviruses has lagged behind that of other RNA viruses due to the inability to culture human noroviruses (HuNVs). Our knowledge of norovirus biology has improved significantly over the past decade as a result of numerous technological advances. The use of a HuNV replicon, improved biochemical and cell-based assays, combined with the discovery of a murine norovirus capable of replication in cell culture, has improved greatly our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of norovirus genome translation and replication, as well as the interaction with host cell processes. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the intracellular life of noroviruses is discussed with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of viral gene expression and viral genome replication.

  15. Shell Separation for Mirror Replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. Optics replication uses reusable forms, called mandrels, to make telescope mirrors ready for final finishing. MSFC optical physicist Bill Jones monitors a device used to chill a mandrel, causing it to shrink and separate from the telescope mirror without deforming the mirror's precisely curved surface.

  16. Replicating systems concepts: Self-replicating lunar factory and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Automation of lunar mining and manufacturing facility maintenance and repair is addressed. Designing the factory as an automated, multiproduct, remotely controlled, reprogrammable Lunar Manufacturing Facility capable of constructing duplicates of itself which would themselves be capable of further replication is proposed.

  17. Personality and Academic Motivation: Replication, Extension, and Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; McMichael, Stephanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work examines the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. We replicate and extend previous work to examine how personality may relate to achievement goals, efficacious beliefs, and mindset about intelligence. Approximately 200 undergraduates responded to the survey with a 150 participants replicating…

  18. A Replication of Failure, Not a Failure to Replicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Kuppens, Sofie; Rosenberg, Gary; LeBreton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing role of systematic reviews in knowledge production demands greater rigor in the literature search process. The performance of the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database has been examined multiple times over the past three decades. The current study is a replication within this line of research. Method: Issue-level coverage…

  19. Exploiting replication in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Joseph, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques are examined for replicating data and execution in directly distributed systems: systems in which multiple processes interact directly with one another while continuously respecting constraints on their joint behavior. Directly distributed systems are often required to solve difficult problems, ranging from management of replicated data to dynamic reconfiguration in response to failures. It is shown that these problems reduce to more primitive, order-based consistency problems, which can be solved using primitives such as the reliable broadcast protocols. Moreover, given a system that implements reliable broadcast primitives, a flexible set of high-level tools can be provided for building a wide variety of directly distributed application programs.

  20. Replication and Reporting: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polio, Charlene; Gass, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the need for replication studies in the field of second-language acquisition and discusses the problems surrounding standards of reporting research. Notes a lack of uniform standards in reporting second-language learners' proficiency levels and proposes ways to achieve more thorough reporting of research that will allow others to engage…

  1. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  2. Chameleon Chasing II: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Doug A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Replicates a 1972 survey of students, educators, and Public Relations Society of America members regarding who the public relations counselor really serves. Finds that, in 1992, most respondents thought primary responsibility was to the client, then to the client's relevant publics, then to self, then to society, and finally to media. Compares…

  3. DNA replication through hard-to-replicate sites, including both highly transcribed RNA Pol II and Pol III genes, requires the S. pombe Pfh1 helicase.

    PubMed

    Sabouri, Nasim; McDonald, Karin R; Webb, Christopher J; Cristea, Ileana M; Zakian, Virginia A

    2012-03-15

    Replication forks encounter impediments as they move through the genome, including natural barriers due to stable protein complexes and highly transcribed genes. Unlike lesions generated by exogenous damage, natural barriers are encountered in every S phase. Like humans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a single Pif1 family DNA helicase, Pfh1. Here, we show that Pfh1 is required for efficient fork movement in the ribosomal DNA, the mating type locus, tRNA, 5S ribosomal RNA genes, and genes that are highly transcribed by RNA polymerase II. In addition, converged replication forks accumulated at all of these sites in the absence of Pfh1. The effects of Pfh1 on DNA replication are likely direct, as it had high binding to sites whose replication was impaired in its absence. Replication in the absence of Pfh1 resulted in DNA damage specifically at those sites that bound high levels of Pfh1 in wild-type cells and whose replication was slowed in its absence. Cells depleted of Pfh1 were inviable if they also lacked the human TIMELESS homolog Swi1, a replisome component that stabilizes stalled forks. Thus, Pfh1 promotes DNA replication and separation of converged replication forks and suppresses DNA damage at hard-to-replicate sites.

  4. Combination therapy with conditionally replicating adenovirus and replication defective adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Kyung-Ho; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Ohm, Joyce E; Nadaf, Sorena; Dikov, Mikhail M; Curiel, David T; Carbone, David P

    2004-09-15

    Low gene transfer rate is the most substantial hurdle in the practical application of gene therapy. One strategy to improve transfer efficiency is the use of a conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD) that can selectively replicate in tumor cells. We hypothesized that conventional E1-deleted adenoviruses (ad) can become replication-competent when cotransduced with a CRAD to selectively supply E1 in trans in tumors. The resulting selective production of large numbers of the E1-deleted ad within the tumor mass will increase the transduction efficiency. We used a CRAD (Delta24RGD) that produces a mutant E1 without the ability to bind retinoblastoma but retaining viral replication competence in cancer cells with a defective pRb/p16. Ad-lacZ, adenovirus-luciferase (ad-luc), and adenovirus insulin-like growth factor-1R/dominant-negative (ad-IGF-1R/dn; 482, 950) are E1-deleted replication-defective adenoviruses. The combination of CRAD and ad-lacZ increased the transduction efficiency of lacZ to 100% from 15% observed with ad-lacZ alone. Transfer of media of CRAD and ad-lacZ cotransduced cells induced the transfer of lacZ (media transferable bystander effect). Combination of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/dn increased the production of truncated IGF-1R or soluble IGF-1R > 10 times compared with transduction with ad-IGF-1R/dn alone. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-luc increased the luciferase expression about 70 times compared with ad-luc alone without substantial systemic spread. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/482 induced stronger growth suppression of established lung cancer xenografts than single injections. The combination of CRAD and E1-deleted ad induced tumor-specific replication of CRAD and E1-deleted ad and increased the transduction rate and therapeutic efficacy of these viruses in model tumors.

  5. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA replication arrest caused by codirectional collisions with the transcription machinery.

    PubMed Central

    Elías-Arnanz, M; Salas, M

    1997-01-01

    The consequences on replication of collisions between phi29 DNA polymerase, a monomeric replicase endowed with strand displacement capacity, and the transcription machinery have been studied in vitro. Codirectional collisions with stalled transcription ternary complexes at four different promoters in the phi29 genome were found to block replication fork progression. Upon collision, the DNA polymerase remained on the template and was able to resume elongation once the RNA polymerase was allowed to move. Collisions with RNA polymerase molecules moving in the same direction also interfered with replication, causing a decrease in the replication rate. These results lead to the proposal that in bacteriophage phi29 a transcription complex physically blocks the progression of a replication fork. We suggest that temporal regulation of transcription and the low probability that the replication and transcription processes colocalize in vivo contribute to achieving minimal interference between the two events. PMID:9312035

  6. Brca2, Rad51 and Mre11: performing balancing acts on replication forks.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2011-10-10

    Homologous recombination (HR) is required for faithful repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) and is believed to be important for DNA replication under stressful conditions in unicellular organisms. However, its role during DNA replication in high eukaryotes has always been elusive. In particular, due to the essential nature of its main players it has been difficult to dissect the direct role of HR in DNA replication. Recent studies revealed that some key HR factors such as Rad51 and BRCA2 play unexpected functions during DNA replication by protecting nascent DNA from Mre11 mediated degradation, which takes place at stalled replication forks. These novel functions appear to be essential to ensure smooth progression of DNA replication and to promote maintenance of genome stability.

  7. Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Alan M.; Thurston, Teresa L. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As key components of innate immune defense, macrophages are essential in controlling bacterial pathogens, including group A Streptococcus (GAS). Despite this, only a limited number of studies have analyzed the recovery of GAS from within human neutrophils and macrophages. Here, we determined the intracellular fate of GAS in human macrophages by using several quantitative approaches. In both U937 and primary human macrophages, the appearance over time of long GAS chains revealed that despite GAS-mediated cytotoxicity, replication occurred in viable, propidium iodide-negative macrophages. Whereas the major virulence factor M1 did not contribute to bacterial growth, a GAS mutant strain deficient in streptolysin O (SLO) was impaired for intracellular replication. SLO promoted bacterial escape from the GAS-containing vacuole (GCV) into the macrophage cytosol. Up to half of the cytosolic GAS colocalized with ubiquitin and p62, suggesting that the bacteria were targeted by the autophagy machinery. Despite this, live imaging of U937 macrophages revealed proficient replication of GAS after GCV rupture, indicating that escape from the GCV is important for growth of GAS in macrophages. Our results reveal that GAS can replicate within viable human macrophages, with SLO promoting GCV escape and cytosolic growth, despite the recruitment of autophagy receptors to bacteria. PMID:27073088

  8. Arenavirus Infection Induces Discrete Cytosolic Structures for RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Nicholas L.; York, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses are responsible for acute hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality and pose significant threats to public health and biodefense. These enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses replicate in the cell cytoplasm and express four proteins. To better understand how these proteins insinuate themselves into cellular processes to orchestrate productive viral replication, we have identified and characterized novel cytosolic structures involved in arenavirus replication and transcription. In cells infected with the nonpathogenic Tacaribe virus or the attenuated Candid#1 strain of Junín virus, we find that newly synthesized viral RNAs localize to cytosolic puncta containing the nucleoprotein (N) of the virus. Density gradient centrifugation studies reveal that these replication-transcription complexes (RTCs) are associated with cellular membranes and contain full-length genomic- and antigenomic-sense RNAs. Viral mRNAs segregate at a higher buoyant density and are likewise scant in immunopurified RTCs, consistent with their translation on bulk cellular ribosomes. In addition, confocal microscopy analysis reveals that RTCs contain the lipid phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate and proteins involved in cellular mRNA metabolism, including the large and small ribosomal subunit proteins L10a and S6, the stress granule protein G3BP1, and a subset of translation initiation factors. Elucidating the structure and function of RTCs will enhance our understanding of virus-cell interactions that promote arenavirus replication and mitigate against host cell immunity. This knowledge may lead to novel intervention strategies to limit viral virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:22875974

  9. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Bii, Victor M; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-10-25

    Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  10. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bii, Victor M.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types. PMID:27792127

  11. Dynamics of plant DNA replication based on PCNA visualization.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Hirakawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seri; Sakamoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-07-15

    DNA replication is an essential process for the copying of genomic information in living organisms. Imaging of DNA replication in tissues and organs is mainly performed using fixed cells after incorporation of thymidine analogs. To establish a useful marker line to measure the duration of DNA replication and analyze the dynamics of DNA replication, we focused on the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which functions as a DNA sliding clamp for replicative DNA polymerases and is an essential component of replisomes. In this study we produced an Arabidopsis thaliana line expressing PCNA1 fused with the green fluorescent protein under the control of its own promoter (pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP). The duration of the S phase measured using the expression line was consistent with that measured after incorporation of a thymidine analog. Live cell imaging revealed that three distinct nuclear localization patterns (whole, dotted, and speckled) were sequentially observable. These whole, dotted, and speckled patterns of subnuclear AtPCNA1 signals were indicative of the G1 or G2 phase, early S phase and late S phase, respectively. The results indicate that the pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP line is a useful marker line for visualization of S-phase progression in live plant organs.

  12. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  13. Therapy of Breast Cancers Using Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    virotherapy on breast cancer cells in vitro. We have developed a CRAd using the fit-I promoter element for specific EIA gene expression (CRAdflt), RGD...replicating adenoviruses (CRAd) and investigate effects of CRAd virotherapy on endothelial cells and breast cancer cells in vitro. Vascular targeting...determined the capacity of CRAdRGDflt-mda-7 virotherapy to induce breast cancer cell death. To verify the levels of MDA-7/IL-24 protein expression in vitro

  14. Nuclear gadgets in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Clayton, D A

    1991-03-01

    In mammalian mitochondrial DNA, activation of the light-strand promoter mediates both priming of leading-strand replication and initiation of light-strand transcription. Accurate and efficient transcription requires at least two proteins: mitochondrial RNA polymerase and a separable transcription factor that can function across species boundaries. Subsequently, primer RNAs are cleaved by a site-specific ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease that recognizes short, highly conserved sequence elements in the RNA substrate.

  15. Replication of nanoscale DNA patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Corinna; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Leunissen, Mirjam; Dreyfus, Remi; Seeman, Nadrian; Chaikin, Paul

    2011-03-01

    We present an artificial supramolecular system mimicking self- replication and information transmission strategies in nature, but without the aid of enzymes or equivalent biological mechanisms. Using DNA nanotechnology techniques, we can make DNA tiles with selective interactions based on complementary single-strand connections. A linear tile pattern distinguished by their connector sequences is transmitted to a subsequent generation of copies by connector hybridisation. Longitudinal pattern formation and transverse copy attachment are well separated by different melting temperatures. We have achieved a faithful transmission of the pattern information to the second replication generation. We use AFM imaging to test for pattern fidelity and gel electrophoresis for quantitative yield analysis. supported by a DAAD postdoc grant.

  16. The Minichromosome Maintenance Replicative Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephen D.; Botchan, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic replicative helicase, the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, is composed of six distinct, but related, subunits MCM(2–7). The relationship between the sequences of the subunits indicates that they are derived from a common ancestor and indeed, present-day archaea possess a homohexameric MCM. Recent progress in the biochemical and structural studies of both eukaryal and archaeal MCM complexes are beginning to shed light on the mechanisms of action of this key component of the replisome. PMID:23881943

  17. In vitro replication of poliovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinski, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae whose genome is a single stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity surrounded by a proteinaceous capsid. Replication of poliovirus occurs via negative strand intermediates in infected cells using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and host cell proteins. The authors have exploited the fact that complete cDNA copies of the viral genome when transfected onto susceptible cells generate virus. Utilizing the bacteriophage SP6 DNA dependent RNA polymerase system to synthesize negative strands in vitro and using these in an in vitro reaction the authors have generated full length infectious plus strands. Mutagenesis of the 5' and 3' ends of the negative and positive strands demonstrated that replication could occur either de novo or be extensions of the templates from their 3' ends or from nicks occurring during replication. The appearance of dimeric RNA molecules generated in these reactions was not dependent upon the same protein required for de novo initiation. Full length dimeric RNA molecules using a 5' /sup 32/P end-labelled oligo uridylic acid primer and positive strand template were demonstrated in vitro containing only the 35,000 Mr host protein and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A model for generating positive strands without protein priming by cleavage of dimeric RNA molecules was proposed.

  18. A novel replicating circular DNAzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Ruijian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yanhong; Hao, Dongyun; Zhang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    10–23 DNAzyme has the potential to suppress gene expressions through sequence-specific mRNA cleavage. However, the dependence on exogenous delivery limits its applications. The objective of this work is to establish a replicating DNAzyme in bacteria using a single-stranded DNA vector. By cloning the 10–23 DNAzyme into the M13mp18 vector, we constructed two circular DNAzymes, C-Dz7 and C-Dz482, targeting the β-lactamase mRNA. These circular DNAzymes showed in vitro catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of 7.82 × 106 and 1.36 × 107 M–1·min–1, respectively. Their dependence on divalent metal ions is similar to that found with linear 10–23 DNAzyme. Importantly, the circular DNAzymes were not only capable of replicating in bacteria but also exhibited high activities in inhibiting β-lactamase and bacterial growth. This study thus provides a novel strategy to produce replicating DNAzymes which may find widespread applications. PMID:15115797

  19. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed.

  20. Links between genome replication and chromatin landscapes.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2015-07-01

    Post-embryonic organogenesis in plants requires the continuous production of cells in the organ primordia, their expansion and a coordinated exit to differentiation. Genome replication is one of the most important processes that occur during the cell cycle, as the maintenance of genomic integrity is of primary relevance for development. As it is chromatin that must be duplicated, a strict coordination occurs between DNA replication, the deposition of new histones, and the introduction of histone modifications and variants. In turn, the chromatin landscape affects several stages during genome replication. Thus, chromatin accessibility is crucial for the initial stages and to specify the location of DNA replication origins with different chromatin signatures. The chromatin landscape also determines the timing of activation during the S phase. Genome replication must occur fully, but only once during each cell cycle. The re-replication avoidance mechanisms rely primarily on restricting the availability of certain replication factors; however, the presence of specific histone modifications are also revealed as contributing to the mechanisms that avoid re-replication, in particular for heterochromatin replication. We provide here an update of genome replication mostly focused on data from Arabidopsis, and the advances that genomic approaches are likely to provide in the coming years. The data available, both in plants and animals, point to the relevance of the chromatin landscape in genome replication, and require a critical evaluation of the existing views about the nature of replication origins, the mechanisms of origin specification and the relevance of epigenetic modifications for genome replication.

  1. 36 CFR 910.64 - Replication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.64 Replication. Replication means the process of using modern...

  2. 36 CFR 910.64 - Replication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.64 Replication. Replication means the process of using modern methods and materials to reproduce the exact form and details of a vanished building, structure, object,...

  3. A new role for Holliday junction resolvase Yen1 in processing DNA replication intermediates exposes Dna2 as an accessory replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Falquet, Benoît; Rass, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication is mediated by a multi-protein complex known as the replisome. With the hexameric MCM (minichromosome maintenance) replicative helicase at its core, the replisome splits the parental DNA strands, forming replication forks (RFs), where it catalyses coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. While replication is a highly effective process, intrinsic and oncogene-induced replication stress impedes the progression of replisomes along chromosomes. As a consequence, RFs stall, arrest, and collapse, jeopardizing genome stability. In these instances, accessory fork progression and repair factors, orchestrated by the replication checkpoint, promote RF recovery, ensuring the chromosomes are fully replicated and can be safely segregated at cell division. Homologous recombination (HR) proteins play key roles in negotiating replication stress, binding at stalled RFs and shielding them from inappropriate processing. In addition, HR-mediated strand exchange reactions restart stalled or collapsed RFs and mediate error-free post-replicative repair. DNA transactions at stalled RFs further involve various DNA editing factors, notably helicases and nucleases. A study by Ölmezer et al. (2016) has recently identified a role for the structure-specific nuclease Yen1 (GEN1 in human) in the resolution of dead-end DNA replication intermediates after RF arrest. This new function of Yen1 is distinct from its previously known role as a Holliday junction resolvase, mediating the removal of branched HR intermediates, and it becomes essential for viable chromosome segregation in cells with a defective Dna2 helicase. These findings have revealed greater complexity in the tasks mediated by Yen1 and expose a replicative role for the elusive helicase activity of the conserved Dna2 nuclease-helicase. PMID:28357386

  4. Tombusviruses upregulate phospholipid biosynthesis via interaction between p33 replication protein and yeast lipid sensor proteins during virus replication in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; Sharma, Monika; Wu, Cheng-Yu; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-12-15

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses induce new membranous structures and promote membrane proliferation in infected cells to facilitate viral replication. In this paper, the authors show that a plant-infecting tombusvirus upregulates transcription of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, such as INO1, OPI3 and CHO1, and increases phospholipid levels in yeast model host. This is accomplished by the viral p33 replication protein, which interacts with Opi1p FFAT domain protein and Scs2p VAP protein. Opi1p and Scs2p are phospholipid sensor proteins and they repress the expression of phospholipid genes. Accordingly, deletion of OPI1 transcription repressor in yeast has a stimulatory effect on TBSV RNA accumulation and enhanced tombusvirus replicase activity in an in vitro assay. Altogether, the presented data convincingly demonstrate that de novo lipid biosynthesis is required for optimal TBSV replication. Overall, this work reveals that a (+)RNA virus reprograms the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway in a unique way to facilitate its replication in yeast cells. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with FFAT-domain host protein. • Tombusvirus replication leads to upregulation of phospholipids. • Tombusvirus replication depends on de novo lipid synthesis. • Deletion of FFAT-domain host protein enhances TBSV replication. • TBSV rewires host phospholipid synthesis.

  5. Regulation of the switch from early to late bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Baranska, S; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, A; Konopa, G; Herman-Antosiewicz, A; Hernandez, P; Schvartzman, J B; Helinski, D R; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-03-01

    There are two modes of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication following infection of its host, Escherichia coli. Early after infection, replication occurs according to the theta (theta or circle-to-circle) mode, and is later switched to the sigma (sigma or rolling-circle) mode. It is not known how this switch, occurring at a specific time in the infection cycle, is regulated. Here it is demonstrated that in wild-type cells the replication starting from orilambda proceeds both bidirectionally and unidirectionally, whereas in bacteria devoid of a functional DnaA protein, replication from orilambda is predominantly unidirectional. The regulation of directionality of replication from orilambda is mediated by positive control of lambda p(R) promoter activity by DnaA, since the mode of replication of an artificial lambda replicon bearing the p(tet) promoter instead of p(R) was found to be independent of DnaA function. These findings and results of density-shift experiments suggest that in dnaA mutants infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds predominantly according to the unidirectional theta mechanism and is switched early after infection to the sigma mode. It is proposed that in wild-type E. coli cells infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds according to a bidirectional theta mechanism early after infection due to efficient transcriptional activation of orilambda, stimulated by the host DnaA protein. After a few rounds of this type of replication, the resulting increased copy number of lambda genomic DNA may cause a depletion of free DnaA protein because of its interaction with the multiple DnaA-binding sites in lambda DNA. It is proposed that this may lead to inefficient transcriptional activation of orilambda resulting in unidirectional theta replication followed by sigma type replication.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Maintains Mitochondrial DNA Replication via Demethylation of TFAM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a wide range of actions in the body, especially in the modulation of mitochondrial functions. The normal replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is critical for cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H2S affects mtDNA replication and the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that H2S maintains mtDNA copy number via inhibition of Dnmt3a transcription and TFAM promoter methylation. Results: Here, we demonstrated that deficiency of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), a major H2S-producing enzyme, reduces mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial contents, and it inhibits the expressions of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial marker genes in both smooth muscle cells and aorta tissues from mice. Supply of exogenous H2S stimulated mtDNA copy number and strengthened the expressions of TFAM and mitochondrial marker genes. TFAM knockdown diminished H2S-enhanced mtDNA copy number. In addition, CSE deficiency induced the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) and TFAM promoter DNA methylation, and H2S repressed Dnmt3a expression, resulting in TFAM promoter demethylation. We further found that H2S S-sulfhydrates transcription repressor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and enhances the binding of IRF-1 with Dnmt3a promoter after reduced Dnmt3a transcription. H2S had little effects on the expression of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b as well as on ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1, 2, and 3. Innovation: A sufficient level of H2S is able to inhibit TFAM promoter methylation and maintain mtDNA copy number. Conclusion: CSE/H2S system contributes to mtDNA replication and cellular bioenergetics and provides a novel therapeutic avenue for cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 630–642. PMID:25758951

  7. Replication of Oral BK Virus in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Madden, Victoria; Hallett, Ryan A.; Gingerich, Aaron D.; Nickeleit, Volker

    2014-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is the most common viral pathogen among allograft patients. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to the human oral compartment and to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD). To date, few studies have analyzed orally derived BKPyV. This study aimed to characterize BKPyV isolated from throat wash (TW) samples from HIVSGD patients. The replication potential of HIVSGD-derived clinical isolates HIVSGD-1 and HIVSGD-2, both containing the noncoding control region (NCCR) architecture OPQPQQS, were assessed and compared to urine-derived virus. The BKPyV isolates displayed significant variation in replication potential. Whole-genome alignment of the two isolates revealed three nucleotide differences that were analyzed for a potential effect on the viral life cycle. Analysis revealed a negligible difference in NCCR promoter activity despite sequence variation and emphasized the importance of functional T antigen (Tag) for efficient replication. HIVSGD-1 encoded full-length Tag, underwent productive infection in both human salivary gland cells and kidney cells, and expressed viral DNA and Tag protein. Additionally, HIVSGD-1 generated DNase-resistant particles and by far surpassed the replication potential of the kidney-derived isolate in HSG cells. HIVSGD-2 encoded a truncated form of Tag and replicated much less efficiently. Quantitation of infectious virus, via the fluorescent forming unit assay, suggested that HIVSGD BKPyV had preferential tropism for salivary gland cells over kidney cells. Similarly, the results suggested that kidney-derived virus had preferential tropism for kidney cells over salivary gland cells. Evidence of HIVSGD-derived BKPyV oral tropism and adept viral replication in human salivary gland cells corroborated the potential link between HIVSGD pathogenesis and BKPyV. PMID:24173219

  8. Replication intermediates that escape Dna2 activity are processed by Holliday junction resolvase Yen1

    PubMed Central

    Ölmezer, Gizem; Levikova, Maryna; Klein, Dominique; Falquet, Benoît; Fontana, Gabriele Alessandro; Cejka, Petr; Rass, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells have evolved mechanisms to protect, restart and repair perturbed replication forks, allowing full genome duplication, even under replication stress. Interrogating the interplay between nuclease-helicase Dna2 and Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase Yen1, we find the Dna2 helicase activity acts parallel to homologous recombination (HR) in promoting DNA replication and chromosome detachment at mitosis after replication fork stalling. Yen1, but not the HJ resolvases Slx1-Slx4 and Mus81-Mms4, safeguards chromosome segregation by removing replication intermediates that escape Dna2. Post-replicative DNA damage checkpoint activation in Dna2 helicase-defective cells causes terminal G2/M arrest by precluding Yen1-dependent repair, whose activation requires progression into anaphase. These findings explain the exquisite replication stress sensitivity of Dna2 helicase-defective cells, and identify a non-canonical role for Yen1 in the processing of replication intermediates that is distinct from HJ resolution. The involvement of Dna2 helicase activity in completing replication may have implications for DNA2-associated pathologies, including cancer and Seckel syndrome. PMID:27779184

  9. A Drosophila Toolkit for the Visualization and Quantification of Viral Replication Launched from Transgenic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wernet, Mathias F.; Klovstad, Martha; Clandinin, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod RNA viruses pose a serious threat to human health, yet many aspects of their replication cycle remain incompletely understood. Here we describe a versatile Drosophila toolkit of transgenic, self-replicating genomes (‘replicons’) from Sindbis virus that allow rapid visualization and quantification of viral replication in vivo. We generated replicons expressing Luciferase for the quantification of viral replication, serving as useful new tools for large-scale genetic screens for identifying cellular pathways that influence viral replication. We also present a new binary system in which replication-deficient viral genomes can be activated ‘in trans’, through co-expression of an intact replicon contributing an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The utility of this toolkit for studying virus biology is demonstrated by the observation of stochastic exclusion between replicons expressing different fluorescent proteins, when co-expressed under control of the same cellular promoter. This process is analogous to ‘superinfection exclusion’ between virus particles in cell culture, a process that is incompletely understood. We show that viral polymerases strongly prefer to replicate the genome that encoded them, and that almost invariably only a single virus genome is stochastically chosen for replication in each cell. Our in vivo system now makes this process amenable to detailed genetic dissection. Thus, this toolkit allows the cell-type specific, quantitative study of viral replication in a genetic model organism, opening new avenues for molecular, genetic and pharmacological dissection of virus biology and tool development. PMID:25386852

  10. Risks at the DNA Replication Fork: Effects upon Carcinogenesis and Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Tony M.; Harcy, Victoria; Roberts, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of all organisms to copy their genetic information via DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell division and a biological imperative of life. In multicellular organisms, however, mutations arising from DNA replication errors in the germline and somatic cells are the basis of genetic diseases and cancer, respectively. Within human tumors, replication errors additionally contribute to mutator phenotypes and tumor heterogeneity, which are major confounding factors for cancer therapeutics. Successful DNA replication involves the coordination of many large-scale, complex cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the roles that defects in enzymes that normally act at the replication fork and dysregulation of enzymes that inappropriately damage single-stranded DNA at the fork play in causing mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. We focus on tumor data and experimental evidence that error-prone variants of replicative polymerases promote carcinogenesis and on research indicating that the primary target mutated by APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like) cytidine deaminases is ssDNA present at the replication fork. Furthermore, we discuss evidence from model systems that indicate replication stress and other cancer-associated metabolic changes may modulate mutagenic enzymatic activities at the replication fork. PMID:28117753

  11. Causes and Consequences of Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zeman, Michelle K.; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Replication stress is a complex phenomenon which has serious implications for genome stability, cell survival, and human disease. Generation of aberrant replication fork structures containing single-stranded DNA activates the replication stress response, primarily mediated by the kinase ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR). ATR and its downstream effectors stabilize and help to restart stalled replication forks, avoiding the generation of DNA damage and genome instability. Understanding these pathways may be key to diagnosis and treatment of human diseases caused by defective responses to replication stress. PMID:24366029

  12. Replication of prions in differentiated muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Allen; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that prions accumulate to high levels in non-proliferative C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells replicate as myoblasts but can be differentiated into myotubes. Earlier studies indicated that C2C12 myoblasts are not competent for prion replication. (1) We confirmed that observation and demonstrated, for the first time, that while replicative myoblasts do not accumulate PrP(Sc), differentiated post-mitotic myotube cultures replicate prions robustly. Here we extend our observations and describe the implication and utility of this system for replicating prions.

  13. Optimal Placement of Origins for DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karschau, Jens; Blow, J. Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.

    2012-02-01

    DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions of origins corresponding to the minimum replication time. We show that under some conditions the minimization of replication time leads to the grouping of origins, and relate this to experimental data in a number of species showing origin grouping.

  14. DNA replication and transcription programs respond to the same chromatin cues

    PubMed Central

    Lubelsky, Yoav; Prinz, Joseph A.; DeNapoli, Leyna; Li, Yulong; Belsky, Jason A.; MacAlpine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is a dynamic process that occurs in a temporal order along each of the chromosomes. A consequence of the temporally coordinated activation of replication origins is the establishment of broad domains (>100 kb) that replicate either early or late in S phase. This partitioning of the genome into early and late replication domains is important for maintaining genome stability, gene dosage, and epigenetic inheritance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define and establish these domains are poorly understood. The modENCODE Project provided an opportunity to investigate the chromatin features that define the Drosophila replication timing program in multiple cell lines. The majority of early and late replicating domains in the Drosophila genome were static across all cell lines; however, a small subset of domains was dynamic and exhibited differences in replication timing between the cell lines. Both origin selection and activation contribute to defining the DNA replication program. Our results suggest that static early and late replicating domains were defined at the level of origin selection (ORC binding) and likely mediated by chromatin accessibility. In contrast, dynamic domains exhibited low ORC densities in both cell types, suggesting that origin activation and not origin selection governs the plasticity of the DNA replication program. Finally, we show that the male-specific early replication of the X chromosome is dependent on the dosage compensation complex (DCC), suggesting that the transcription and replication programs respond to the same chromatin cues. Specifically, MOF-mediated hyperacetylation of H4K16 on the X chromosome promotes both the up-regulation of male-specific transcription and origin activation. PMID:24985913

  15. DNA replication and transcription programs respond to the same chromatin cues.

    PubMed

    Lubelsky, Yoav; Prinz, Joseph A; DeNapoli, Leyna; Li, Yulong; Belsky, Jason A; MacAlpine, David M

    2014-07-01

    DNA replication is a dynamic process that occurs in a temporal order along each of the chromosomes. A consequence of the temporally coordinated activation of replication origins is the establishment of broad domains (>100 kb) that replicate either early or late in S phase. This partitioning of the genome into early and late replication domains is important for maintaining genome stability, gene dosage, and epigenetic inheritance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define and establish these domains are poorly understood. The modENCODE Project provided an opportunity to investigate the chromatin features that define the Drosophila replication timing program in multiple cell lines. The majority of early and late replicating domains in the Drosophila genome were static across all cell lines; however, a small subset of domains was dynamic and exhibited differences in replication timing between the cell lines. Both origin selection and activation contribute to defining the DNA replication program. Our results suggest that static early and late replicating domains were defined at the level of origin selection (ORC binding) and likely mediated by chromatin accessibility. In contrast, dynamic domains exhibited low ORC densities in both cell types, suggesting that origin activation and not origin selection governs the plasticity of the DNA replication program. Finally, we show that the male-specific early replication of the X chromosome is dependent on the dosage compensation complex (DCC), suggesting that the transcription and replication programs respond to the same chromatin cues. Specifically, MOF-mediated hyperacetylation of H4K16 on the X chromosome promotes both the up-regulation of male-specific transcription and origin activation.

  16. Regulation of mouse satellite DNA replication time.

    PubMed

    Selig, S; Ariel, M; Goitein, R; Marcus, M; Cedar, H

    1988-02-01

    The satellite DNA sequences located near the centromeric regions of mouse chromosomes replicate very late in S in both fibroblast and lymphocyte cells and are heavily methylated at CpG residues. F9 teratocarcinoma cells, on the other hand, contain satellite sequences which are undermethylated and replicate much earlier in S. DNA methylation probably plays some role in the control of satellite replication time since 5-azacytidine treatment of RAG fibroblasts causes a dramatic temporal shift of replication to mid S. In contrast to similar changes accompanying the inactivation of the X-chromosome, early replication of satellite DNA is not associated with an increase in local chromosomal DNase I sensitivity. Fusion of F9 with mouse lymphocytes caused a dramatic early shift in the timing of the normally late replicating lymphocyte satellite heterochromatin, suggesting that trans-activating factors may be responsible for the regulation of replication timing.

  17. DNA replication stress: causes, resolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Velimezi, Georgia; Loizou, Joanna I

    2014-11-15

    DNA replication is a fundamental process of the cell that ensures accurate duplication of the genetic information and subsequent transfer to daughter cells. Various pertubations, originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, can interfere with proper progression and completion of the replication process, thus threatening genome integrity. Coordinated regulation of replication and the DNA damage response is therefore fundamental to counteract these challenges and ensure accurate synthesis of the genetic material under conditions of replication stress. In this review, we summarize the main sources of replication stress and the DNA damage signaling pathways that are activated in order to preserve genome integrity during DNA replication. We also discuss the association of replication stress and DNA damage in human disease and future perspectives in the field.

  18. How to securely replicate services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, Michael; Birman, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for constructing replicated services that retain their availability and integrity despite several servers and clients corrupted by an intruder, in addition to others failing benignly. More precisely, a service is replicated by n servers in such a way that a correct client will accept a correct server's response if, for some prespecified parameter k, at least k servers are correct and fewer than k servers are corrupt. The issue of maintaining causality among client requests is also addressed. A security breach resulting from an intruder's ability to effect a violation of causality in the sequence of requests processed by the service is illustrated. An approach to counter this problem is proposed that requires fewer than k servers to be corrupt and that is live if at least k+b servers are correct, where b is the assumed maximum total number of corrupt servers in any system run. An important and novel feature of these schemes is that the client need not be able to identify or authenticate even a single server. Instead, the client is required only to possess at most two public keys for the service. The practicality of these schemes is illustrated through a discussion of several issues pertinent to their implementation and use, and their intended role in a secure version of the Isis system is also described.

  19. Initiation of DNA replication at CpG islands in mammalian chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, S; Gómez, M; Bird, A; Antequera, F

    1998-01-01

    CpG islands are G+C-rich regions approximately 1 kb long that are free of methylation and contain the promoters of many mammalian genes. Analysis of in vivo replication intermediates at three hamster genes and one human gene showed that the CpG island regions, but not their flanks, were present in very short nascent strands, suggesting that they are replication origins (ORIs). CpG island-like fragments were enriched in a population of short nascent strands from human erythroleukaemic cells, suggesting that islands constitute a significant fraction of endogenous ORIs. Correspondingly, bulk CpG islands were found to replicate coordinately early in S phase. Our results imply that CpG islands are initiation sites for both transcription and DNA replication, and may represent genomic footprints of replication initiation. PMID:9545253

  20. Replication Fork Protection Factors Controlling R-Loop Bypass and Suppression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Stirling, Peter C

    2017-01-14

    Replication-transcription conflicts have been a well-studied source of genome instability for many years and have frequently been linked to defects in RNA processing. However, recent characterization of replication fork-associated proteins has revealed that defects in fork protection can directly or indirectly stabilize R-loop structures in the genome and promote transcription-replication conflicts that lead to genome instability. Defects in essential DNA replication-associated activities like topoisomerase, or the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complex, as well as fork-associated protection factors like the Fanconi anemia pathway, both appear to mitigate transcription-replication conflicts. Here, we will highlight recent advances that support the concept that normal and robust replisome function itself is a key component of mitigating R-loop coupled genome instability.

  1. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells. PMID:28125050

  2. BRCA1 haploinsufficiency for replication stress suppression in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Shailja; Bade, Sangeeta; Le Guillou, Morwenna; Burke, Karly; Reed, Rachel; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Su, Ying; Ting, David T; Polyak, Kornelia; Richardson, Andrea L; Feunteun, Jean; Garber, Judy E; Livingston, David M

    2014-11-17

    BRCA1-a breast and ovarian cancer suppressor gene-promotes genome integrity. To study the functionality of BRCA1 in the heterozygous state, we established a collection of primary human BRCA1(+/+) and BRCA1(mut/+) mammary epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Here we report that all BRCA1(mut/+) cells exhibited multiple normal BRCA1 functions, including the support of homologous recombination- type double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR), checkpoint functions, centrosome number control, spindle pole formation, Slug expression and satellite RNA suppression. In contrast, the same cells were defective in stalled replication fork repair and/or suppression of fork collapse, that is, replication stress. These defects were rescued by reconstituting BRCA1(mut/+) cells with wt BRCA1. In addition, we observed 'conditional' haploinsufficiency for HR-DSBR in BRCA1(mut/+) cells in the face of replication stress. Given the importance of replication stress in epithelial cancer development and of an HR defect in breast cancer pathogenesis, both defects are candidate contributors to tumorigenesis in BRCA1-deficient mammary tissue.

  3. Regulation of DNA Replication Initiation by Chromosome Structure.

    PubMed

    Magnan, David; Bates, David

    2015-11-01

    Recent advancements in fluorescence imaging have shown that the bacterial nucleoid is surprisingly dynamic in terms of both behavior (movement and organization) and structure (density and supercoiling). Links between chromosome structure and replication initiation have been made in a number of species, and it is universally accepted that favorable chromosome structure is required for initiation in all cells. However, almost nothing is known about whether cells use changes in chromosome structure as a regulatory mechanism for initiation. Such changes could occur during natural cell cycle or growth phase transitions, or they could be manufactured through genetic switches of topoisomerase and nucleoid structure genes. In this review, we explore the relationship between chromosome structure and replication initiation and highlight recent work implicating structure as a regulatory mechanism. A three-component origin activation model is proposed in which thermal and topological structural elements are balanced with trans-acting control elements (DnaA) to allow efficient initiation control under a variety of nutritional and environmental conditions. Selective imbalances in these components allow cells to block replication in response to cell cycle impasse, override once-per-cell-cycle programming during growth phase transitions, and promote reinitiation when replication forks fail to complete.

  4. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L

    2017-01-25

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells.

  5. Minimal region necessary for autonomous replication of pTAR.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

    1988-07-01

    The native 44-kilobase-pair plasmid pTAR, discovered in a grapevine strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, contains a single origin of DNA replication confined to a 1.0-kilobase-pair region of the macromolecule. This region (ori) confers functions sufficient for replication in Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species but not in Pseudomonas solanacearum, Pseudomonas glumae, Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and Escherichia coli. ori contains a repA gene that encodes a 28,000-dalton protein required for replication. Nucleotide sequencing of repA and its promoter region revealed four 8-base-pair palindromic repeats upstream of the repA coding region. Deletion of these repeats alters repA expression and plasmid copy number. Downstream of repA are three additional repeats in a region essential for replication. A locus responsible for plasmid partitioning (parA) and a putative second locus regulating plasmid copy number are part of the origin region and are required for stable plasmid maintenance.

  6. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, EL Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression. PMID:26764384

  7. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  8. Social learning and the replication process: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel

    2015-06-07

    Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative.

  9. Social learning and the replication process: an experimental investigation

    PubMed Central

    Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative. PMID:25994679

  10. Vaccinia virus as a subhelper for AAV replication and packaging.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrea R; Dong, Biao; Chen, Lingxia; Xiao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been widely used as a gene therapy vector to treat a variety of disorders. While these vectors are increasingly popular and successful in the clinic, there is still much to learn about the viruses. Understanding the biology of these viruses is essential in engineering better vectors and generating vectors more efficiently for large-scale use. AAV requires a helper for production and replication making this aspect of the viral life cycle crucial. Vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely cited as a helper virus for AAV. However, to date, there are no detailed analyses of its helper function. Here, the helper role of VV was studied in detail. In contrast to common belief, we demonstrated that VV was not a sufficient helper virus for AAV replication. Vaccinia failed to produce rAAV and activate AAV promoters. While this virus could not support rAAV production, Vaccinia could initiate AAV replication and packaging when AAV promoter activation is not necessary. This activity is due to the ability of Vaccinia-driven Rep78 to transcribe in the cytoplasm and subsequently translate in the nucleus and undergo typical functions in the AAV life cycle. As such, VV is subhelper for AAV compared to complete helper functions of adenovirus.

  11. Same origins of DNA replication function on the active and inactive human X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie M; Brylawski, Bruna P; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufman, David G

    2003-04-01

    We previously characterized a functional origin of DNA replication at the transcriptional promoter of the human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene (Cohen et al. [2002] J. Cell. Biochem. 85:346-356). This origin was mapped using a quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the relative abundance of HPRT markers in short nascent DNA strands isolated from asynchronous cultures of male fibroblasts. The HPRT gene on the X chromosome is transcriptionally active in male human fibroblasts. It is known that on the heterochromatic X chromosome in female cells the HPRT gene is transcriptionally silenced and its replication timing changes from early to late in S phase. This change in replication timing could indicate that replication of the HPRT gene is under the control of different origins of DNA replication in the active (euchromatic, early replicating) and the inactive (heterochromatic, late replicating) X chromosomes. In the present study, we identified the location of the origin of replication of a second X chromosome gene, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which we mapped to its transcriptional promoter, in normal male human fibroblasts. Then, we determined the activity of the previously identified HPRT and the G6PD human origins in hybrid hamster cells carrying either the active or the inactive human X chromosome. The results of these studies clearly demonstrated that the human HPRT and G6PD origins of replication were utilized to the same extent in the active and the inactive X chromosomes. Therefore, transcription activity at the HPRT and G6PD genes is not necessary for initiation of DNA replication at the origins mapped to these chromosomal loci.

  12. Recombination-dependent concatemeric plasmid replication.

    PubMed Central

    Viret, J F; Bravo, A; Alonso, J C

    1991-01-01

    The replication of covalently closed circular supercoiled (form I) DNA in prokaryotes is generally controlled at the initiation level by a rate-limiting effector. Once initiated, replication proceeds via one of two possible modes (theta or sigma replication) which do not rely on functions involved in DNA repair and general recombination. Recently, a novel plasmid replication mode, leading to the accumulation of linear multigenome-length plasmid concatemers in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, has been described. Unlike form I DNA replication, an intermediate recombination step is most probably involved in the initiation of concatemeric plasmid DNA replication. On the basis of structural and functional studies, we infer that recombination-dependent plasmid replication shares important features with phage late replication modes and, in several aspects, parallels the synthesis of plasmid concatemers in phage-infected cells. The characterization of the concatemeric plasmid replication mode has allowed new insights into the mechanisms of DNA replication and recombination in prokaryotes. PMID:1779931

  13. Rolling-circle replication of bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S A

    1997-01-01

    Many bacterial plasmids replicate by a rolling-circle (RC) mechanism. Their replication properties have many similarities to as well as significant differences from those of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coliphages, which also replicate by an RC mechanism. Studies on a large number of RC plasmids have revealed that they fall into several families based on homology in their initiator proteins and leading-strand origins. The leading-strand origins contain distinct sequences that are required for binding and nicking by the Rep proteins. Leading-strand origins also contain domains that are required for the initiation and termination of replication. RC plasmids generate ssDNA intermediates during replication, since their lagging-strand synthesis does not usually initiate until the leading strand has been almost fully synthesized. The leading- and lagging-strand origins are distinct, and the displaced leading-strand DNA is converted to the double-stranded form by using solely the host proteins. The Rep proteins encoded by RC plasmids contain specific domains that are involved in their origin binding and nicking activities. The replication and copy number of RC plasmids, in general, are regulated at the level of synthesis of their Rep proteins, which are usually rate limiting for replication. Some RC Rep proteins are known to be inactivated after supporting one round of replication. A number of in vitro replication systems have been developed for RC plasmids and have provided insight into the mechanism of plasmid RC replication. PMID:9409148

  14. Self-replication of DNA rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Junwye; Hamada, Shogo; Murata, Satoshi; Ha Park, Sung

    2015-06-01

    Biology provides numerous examples of self-replicating machines, but artificially engineering such complex systems remains a formidable challenge. In particular, although simple artificial self-replicating systems including wooden blocks, magnetic systems, modular robots and synthetic molecular systems have been devised, such kinematic self-replicators are rare compared with examples of theoretical cellular self-replication. One of the principal reasons for this is the amount of complexity that arises when you try to incorporate self-replication into a physical medium. In this regard, DNA is a prime candidate material for constructing self-replicating systems due to its ability to self-assemble through molecular recognition. Here, we show that DNA T-motifs, which self-assemble into ring structures, can be designed to self-replicate through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. The inherent design of these rings allows the population dynamics of the systems to be controlled. We also analyse the replication scheme within a universal framework of self-replication and derive a quantitative metric of the self-replicability of the rings.

  15. Tumor viruses and replicative immortality--avoiding the telomere hurdle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinsong; Kamranvar, Siamak Akbari; Masucci, Maria G

    2014-06-01

    Tumor viruses promote cell proliferation in order to gain access to an environment suitable for persistence and replication. The expression of viral products that promote growth transformation is often accompanied by the induction of multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including telomere shortening, damage of telomeric DNA and chromosome instability. Long-term survival and progression to full malignancy require the bypassing of senescence programs that are triggered by the damaged telomeres. Here we review different strategies by which tumor viruses interfere with telomere homeostasis during cell transformation. This frequently involves the activation of telomerase, which assures both the integrity and functionality of telomeres. In addition, recent evidence suggests that oncogenic viruses may activate a recombination-based mechanism for telomere elongation known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). This error-prone strategy promotes genomic instability and could play an important role in viral oncogenesis.

  16. Retrovirus-like vectors for Saccharomyces cerevisiae: integration of foreign genes controlled by efficient promoters into yeast chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E; Dewerchin, M; Boeke, J D

    1988-07-30

    Using modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 elements located on a 2 mu plasmid, reverse-transcriptase-mediated transposition into yeast chromosomes of expression cassettes containing a foreign gene can be induced. These expression cassettes consist of the yeast ARG3 and CUP1 promoter sequences fused to the Escherichia coli galK structural gene. Expression cassettes as large as 2 kb can be inserted into Ty elements and transposed efficiently to various sites in the yeast genome. A third yeast promoter (from the yeast CAR1 gene) seems to be unsuitable for use in the expression cassette. This may be because it does not allow the transcription run-through necessary for Ty1 transposition. Ways of improving this vector system are discussed, as are its advantages over episomal vector systems.

  17. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    PubMed

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy.

  18. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality

    PubMed Central

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L.; Keith, W. Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L.; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S. Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed “senescence,” can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells’ heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:25869441

  19. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  20. pBR322 vectors having tetracycline-dependent replication.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2016-01-01

    Few Escherichia coli cloning vectors are available that can both be stably maintained and efficiently cured. One such vector is pAM34, a pBR332 derivative constructed by Gil and Bouché (1991). Replication of this plasmid is driven by the lacZYA promoter under control of a gratuitous inducer. However, lac operator-repressor interactions are also used to regulate many expression systems which limit the utility of pAM34. In this report pAM34 has been modified by replacement of the lac regulatory elements with those of the transposon Tn10 tetracycline resistance module. This resulted in medium copy number plasmids that are dependent on the presence of tetracycline (or less satisfactorily, anhydrotetracycline) for replication. The tetracycline-dependent plasmids are rapidly lost in the absence of tetracycline and plasmid loss is markedly accelerated when the host strain expresses a tetracycline efflux pump.

  1. Replication intermediates of the linear mitochondrial DNA of Candida parapsilosis suggest a common recombination based mechanism for yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Joachim M; Sedman, Tiina; Visacka, Katarina; Slezakova, Judita; Tomaska, Lubomir; Nosek, Jozef; Sedman, Juhan

    2014-08-15

    Variation in the topology of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in eukaryotes evokes the question if differently structured DNAs are replicated by a common mechanism. RNA-primed DNA synthesis has been established as a mechanism for replicating the circular animal/mammalian mtDNA. In yeasts, circular mtDNA molecules were assumed to be templates for rolling circle DNA-replication. We recently showed that in Candida albicans, which has circular mapping mtDNA, recombination driven replication is a major mechanism for replicating a complex branched mtDNA network. Careful analyses of C. albicans-mtDNA did not reveal detectable amounts of circular DNA molecules. In the present study we addressed the question of how the unit sized linear mtDNA of Candida parapsilosis terminating at both ends with arrays of tandem repeats (mitochondrial telomeres) is replicated. Originally, we expected to find replication intermediates diagnostic of canonical bi-directional replication initiation at the centrally located bi-directional promoter region. However, we found that the linear mtDNA of Candida parapsilosis also employs recombination for replication initiation. The most striking findings were that the mitochondrial telomeres appear to be hot spots for recombination driven replication, and that stable RNA:DNA hybrids, with a potential role in mtDNA replication, are also present in the mtDNA preparations.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum CRK4 directs continuous rounds of DNA replication during schizogony.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Markus; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Dvorin, Jeffrey D; Paulo, Joao A; King, Jonas G; Tripathi, Abhai K; Paul, Aditya S; Yang, Jing; Coppens, Isabelle; Jiang, Rays H Y; Elsworth, Brendan; Baker, David A; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Gygi, Steven P; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2017-02-17

    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3). However, the control mechanisms for this divergent mode of replication are unknown. Here, we show that the Plasmodium-specific kinase PfCRK4 is a key cell-cycle regulator that orchestrates multiple rounds of DNA replication throughout schizogony in Plasmodium falciparum. PfCRK4 depletion led to a complete block in nuclear division and profoundly inhibited DNA replication. Quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling identified a set of PfCRK4-regulated phosphoproteins with greatest functional similarity to CDK2 substrates, particularly proteins involved in the origin of replication firing. PfCRK4 was required for initial and subsequent rounds of DNA replication during schizogony and, in addition, was essential for development in the mosquito vector. Our results identified an essential S-phase promoting factor of the unconventional P. falciparum cell cycle. PfCRK4 is required for both a prolonged period of the intraerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection, as well as for transmission, revealing a broad window for PfCRK4-targeted chemotherapeutics.

  3. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Räschle, Markus; Ibañez de Opakua, Alain; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Feng, Yunpeng; Blanco, Francisco J.; Mann, Matthias; Montoya, Guillermo; Groth, Anja; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cellular genomes are highly vulnerable to perturbations to chromosomal DNA replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor for DNA replication, plays a central role as a platform for recruitment of genome surveillance and DNA repair factors to replication forks, allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced chromosomal instability and decreased cell survival after replication stress. These findings establish TRAIP as a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase with an important role in protecting genome integrity after obstacles to DNA replication. PMID:26711499

  4. ATR-mediated phosphorylation of FANCI regulates dormant origin firing in response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Jones, Mathew J K; Yin, Yandong; Crist, Sarah B; Colnaghi, Luca; Sims, Robert J; Rothenberg, Eli; Jallepalli, Prasad V; Huang, Tony T

    2015-04-16

    Excess dormant origins bound by the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase complex play a critical role in preventing replication stress, chromosome instability, and tumorigenesis. In response to DNA damage, replicating cells must coordinate DNA repair and dormant origin firing to ensure complete and timely replication of the genome; how cells regulate this process remains elusive. Herein, we identify a member of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, FANCI, as a key effector of dormant origin firing in response to replication stress. Cells lacking FANCI have reduced number of origins, increased inter-origin distances, and slowed proliferation rates. Intriguingly, ATR-mediated FANCI phosphorylation inhibits dormant origin firing while promoting replication fork restart/DNA repair. Using super-resolution microscopy, we show that FANCI co-localizes with MCM-bound chromatin in response to replication stress. These data reveal a unique role for FANCI as a modulator of dormant origin firing and link timely genome replication to DNA repair.

  5. Self-replicating devices with dipolar colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, Joshua; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Ubiquitous in nature, self-replication on the nano-scale has been challenging to produce in the laboratory. Recent efforts with DNA tiles have shown great success in correctly replicating tile-sequence templates but require frequent manipulation by the experimenter. We propose a scheme for achieving self-replication with dipolar colloids. Dimers in these systems replicate exponentially over millisecond time scales with no intervention other than periodic energy pulses supplied by external fields. We develop a general formalism governing the rate of self-replication as a function of the interval between pulses. Results from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show good agreement with the growth rates predicted by simple models of the replication process. We thank the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) and Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for their support under Award FA9550-10-1-0167.

  6. The ABCs of plasmid replication and segregation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Uelinton M; Pappas, Katherine M; Winans, Stephen C

    2012-11-01

    To ensure faithful transmission of low-copy plasmids to daughter cells, these plasmids must replicate once per cell cycle and distribute the replicated DNA to the nascent daughter cells. RepABC family plasmids are found exclusively in alphaproteobacteria and carry a combined replication and partitioning locus, the repABC cassette, which is also found on secondary chromosomes in this group. RepC and a replication origin are essential for plasmid replication, and RepA, RepB and the partitioning sites distribute the replicons to predivisional cells. Here, we review our current understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Rep proteins and of their functions in plasmid replication and partitioning.

  7. Mapping origins of DNA replication in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Methods are described here to map an origin of replication in eukaryotes. Replicating DNA is enriched by BND cellulose column chromatography and by lambda-exonuclease digestion; this approach has largely superceded enrichment by BrdU incorporation. The general area in which replication begins can be deciphered by neutral/neutral 2D gel electrophoresis: a restriction fragment containing the replication bubble will form a bubble arc on these gels. A more sensitive method employs PCR analysis of nascent strands that are size-fractionated. Once the general area containing the origin of bidirectional replication has been mapped, a finer level of resolution can be obtained by replication initiation point (RIP) mapping, in which start sites of DNA synthesis are identified at the nucleotide level.

  8. Four-Dimensional Visualization of the Simultaneous Activity of Alternative Adeno-Associated Virus Replication Origins†

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Daniel L.; Saydam, Okay; Balsiger, N. Alexander; Heid, Irma; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2005-01-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) contain the AAV Rep protein-binding site (RBS) and the terminal resolution site (TRS), which together act as a minimal origin of DNA replication. The AAV p5 promoter also contains an RBS, which is involved in Rep-mediated regulation of promoter activity, as well as a functional TRS, and origin activity of these signals has in fact been demonstrated previously in the presence of adenovirus helper functions. Here, we show that in the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and AAV Rep protein, p5 promoter-bearing plasmids are efficiently amplified to form large head-to-tail concatemers, which are readily packaged in HSV-1 virions if an HSV-1 DNA-packaging/cleavage signal is provided in cis. We also demonstrate simultaneous and independent replication from the two alternative AAV replication origins, p5 and ITR, on the single-cell level using multicolor-fluorescence live imaging, a finding which raises the possibility that both origins may contribute to the AAV life cycle. Furthermore, we assess the differential affinities of Rep for the two different replication origins, p5 and ITR, both in vitro and in live cells and identify this as a potential mechanism to control the replicative and promoter activities of p5. PMID:16160148

  9. Four-dimensional visualization of the simultaneous activity of alternative adeno-associated virus replication origins.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Daniel L; Saydam, Okay; Balsiger, N Alexander; Heid, Irma; Linden, R Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2005-10-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) contain the AAV Rep protein-binding site (RBS) and the terminal resolution site (TRS), which together act as a minimal origin of DNA replication. The AAV p5 promoter also contains an RBS, which is involved in Rep-mediated regulation of promoter activity, as well as a functional TRS, and origin activity of these signals has in fact been demonstrated previously in the presence of adenovirus helper functions. Here, we show that in the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and AAV Rep protein, p5 promoter-bearing plasmids are efficiently amplified to form large head-to-tail concatemers, which are readily packaged in HSV-1 virions if an HSV-1 DNA-packaging/cleavage signal is provided in cis. We also demonstrate simultaneous and independent replication from the two alternative AAV replication origins, p5 and ITR, on the single-cell level using multicolor-fluorescence live imaging, a finding which raises the possibility that both origins may contribute to the AAV life cycle. Furthermore, we assess the differential affinities of Rep for the two different replication origins, p5 and ITR, both in vitro and in live cells and identify this as a potential mechanism to control the replicative and promoter activities of p5.

  10. The Dual Nature of Nek9 in Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Richard; Radko, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To successfully replicate in an infected host cell, a virus must overcome sophisticated host defense mechanisms. Viruses, therefore, have evolved a multitude of devices designed to circumvent cellular defenses that would lead to abortive infection. Previous studies have identified Nek9, a cellular kinase, as a binding partner of adenovirus E1A, but the biology behind this association remains a mystery. Here we show that Nek9 is a transcriptional repressor that functions together with E1A to silence the expression of p53-inducible GADD45A gene in the infected cell. Depletion of Nek9 in infected cells reduces virus growth but unexpectedly enhances viral gene expression from the E2 transcription unit, whereas the opposite occurs when Nek9 is overexpressed. Nek9 localizes with viral replication centers, and its depletion reduces viral genome replication, while overexpression enhances viral genome numbers in infected cells. Additionally, Nek9 was found to colocalize with the viral E4 orf3 protein, a repressor of cellular stress response. Significantly, Nek9 was also shown to associate with viral and cellular promoters and appears to function as a transcriptional repressor, representing the first instance of Nek9 playing a role in gene regulation. Overall, these results highlight the complexity of virus-host interactions and identify a new role for the cellular protein Nek9 during infection, suggesting a role for Nek9 in regulating p53 target gene expression. IMPORTANCE In the arms race that exists between a pathogen and its host, each has continually evolved mechanisms to either promote or prevent infection. In order to successfully replicate and spread, a virus must overcome every mechanism that a cell can assemble to block infection. On the other hand, to counter viral spread, cells must have multiple mechanisms to stifle viral replication. In the present study, we add to our understanding of how the human adenovirus is able to circumvent cellular roadblocks

  11. Semiconservative replication in the quasispecies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Deeds, Eric J.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2004-06-01

    This paper extends Eigen’s quasispecies equations to account for the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. We solve the equations in the limit of infinite sequence length for the simplest case of a static, sharply peaked fitness landscape. We show that the error catastrophe occurs when μ , the product of sequence length and per base pair mismatch probability, exceeds 2 ln [2/ ( 1+1/k ) ] , where k>1 is the first-order growth rate constant of the viable “master” sequence (with all other sequences having a first-order growth rate constant of 1 ). This is in contrast to the result of ln k for conservative replication. In particular, as k→∞ , the error catastrophe is never reached for conservative replication, while for semiconservative replication the critical μ approaches 2 ln 2 . Semiconservative replication is therefore considerably less robust than conservative replication to the effect of replication errors. We also show that the mean equilibrium fitness of a semiconservatively replicating system is given by k ( 2 e-μ/2 -1 ) below the error catastrophe, in contrast to the standard result of k e-μ for conservative replication (derived by Kimura and Maruyama in 1966). From this result it is readily shown that semiconservative replication is necessary to account for the observation that, at sufficiently high mutagen concentrations, faster replicating cells will die more quickly than more slowly replicating cells. Thus, in contrast to Eigen’s original model, the semiconservative quasispecies equations are able to provide a mathematical basis for explaining the efficacy of mutagens as chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Precise replication of antireflective nanostructures from biotemplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongjun; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Guoming; Xie, Guoyong

    2007-03-01

    The authors report herein a new type of nanonipple structures on the cicada's eye and the direct structural replication of the complex micro- and nanostructures for potential functional emulation. A two-step direct molding process is developed to replicate these natural micro- and nanostructures using epoxy resin with high fidelity, which demonstrates a general way of fabricating functional nanostructures by direct replication of natural biotemplates via a suitable physicochemical process. Measurements of spectral reflectance showed that this kind of replicated nanostructure has remarkable antireflective property, suggestive of its potential applications to optical devices.

  13. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  14. APOBEC4 Enhances the Replication of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Henning; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Mühlebach, Michael D.; Schumann, Gerald G.; König, Renate; Cichutek, Klaus; Häussinger, Dieter; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC4 (A4) is a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases. In this study we found a high mRNA expression of A4 in human testis. In contrast, there were only low levels of A4 mRNA detectable in 293T, HeLa, Jurkat or A3.01 cells. Ectopic expression of A4 in HeLa cells resulted in mostly cytoplasmic localization of the protein. To test whether A4 has antiviral activity similar to that of proteins of the APOBEC3 (A3) subfamily, A4 was co-expressed in 293T cells with wild type HIV-1 and HIV-1 luciferase reporter viruses. We found that A4 did not inhibit the replication of HIV-1 but instead enhanced the production of HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner and seemed to act on the viral LTR. A4 did not show detectable cytidine deamination activity in vitro and weakly interacted with single-stranded DNA. The presence of A4 in virus producer cells enhanced HIV-1 replication by transiently transfected A4 or stably expressed A4 in HIV-susceptible cells. APOBEC4 was capable of similarly enhancing transcription from a broad spectrum of promoters, regardless of whether they were viral or mammalian. We hypothesize that A4 may have a natural role in modulating host promoters or endogenous LTR promoters. PMID:27249646

  15. CtIP mediates replication fork recovery in a FANCD2-regulated manner.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jung Eun; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2014-07-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer predisposition. Within the FA pathway, an upstream FA core complex mediates monoubiquitination and recruitment of the central FANCD2 protein to sites of stalled replication forks. Once recruited, FANCD2 fulfills a dual role towards replication fork recovery: (i) it cooperates with BRCA2 and RAD51 to protect forks from nucleolytic degradation and (ii) it recruits the BLM helicase to promote replication fork restart while suppressing new origin firing. Intriguingly, FANCD2 and its interaction partners are also involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks, hinting that FANCD2 utilizes HR proteins to mediate replication fork recovery. One such candidate is CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein), a key HR repair factor that functions in complex with BRCA1 and MRE11, but has not been investigated as putative player in the replication stress response. Here, we identify CtIP as a novel interaction partner of FANCD2. CtIP binds and stabilizes FANCD2 in a DNA damage- and FA core complex-independent manner, suggesting that FANCD2 monoubiquitination is dispensable for its interaction with CtIP. Following cellular treatment with a replication inhibitor, aphidicolin, FANCD2 recruits CtIP to transiently stalled, as well as collapsed, replication forks on chromatin. At stalled forks, CtIP cooperates with FANCD2 to promote fork restart and the suppression of new origin firing. Both functions are dependent on BRCA1 that controls the step-wise recruitment of MRE11, FANCD2 and finally CtIP to stalled replication forks, followed by their concerted actions to promote fork recovery.

  16. Characterization of pra, a gene for replication control in pSAM2, the integrating element of Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Sezonov, G; Hagège, J; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1995-08-01

    pSAM2 is a genetic element found integrated in Streptomyces ambofaciens (B2) and additionally in a replicating form in two mutants B3 and B4. The presence of the pSAM2 replicating form in these mutants was the result of mutations located on pSAM2 in the pra locus, named pra3 and pra4, respectively. The pra gene is not directly involved in replication, but its inactivation led to the disappearance of the pSAM2 free form; therefore, it was considered as a replication regulator. The pra3 and pra4 mutations were located in the pra promoter and were shown to be point substitutions that increase the promoter strength. The replication regulator role of pra was demonstrated by the fact that its constitutive expression in cells harbouring pSAM2B2, which is normally only integrated, led to the appearance of the pSAM2 replicating form. Northern analysis showed that the pra gene transcript can be detected only for the replicating mutants B3 and B4 and that the three adjacent genes korSA, pra and traSA were transcribed separately. As replication of pSAM2 is not needed for its maintenance but is an indispensable stage of its transfer, the pra gene, described formally as an activator of pSAM2 replication, is patently involved in pSAM2 transfer.

  17. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  18. Chromosome replication in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, D R; Krotoski, D M; Cumsky, M

    1978-01-01

    The rates of DNA synthesis during the cell-division cycle were measured in Myxococcus xanthus growing in three different media permitting a twofold variation in doubling time. In all three media, simple DNA cycles were observed. Synthesis of DNA occurred during 85% of the cell-division cycle, independent of generation time, from 5 to 11 h. Cells were observed to contain one bacterial nucleoid at birth that later divided synchronously midway through the cell cycle. Nucleoid segregation appeared to begin before chromosome replication was completed. The DNA content of exponential-phase bacteria was determined to be about 20 +/- 3 X 10(-9) microgram per cell; newborn bacteria contained about 14 +/- 2 X 10(-9) microgram of DNA per cell. Exponential-phase bacteria showed about a 50% increase in DNA in the presence of chloramphenicol (50 microgram/ml). The number of randomly segregating chromosomes present in exponential-phase bacteria was determined by following the fate of prelabeled DNA during outgrowth in nonradioactive media. The results are consistent with a model in which cells are born with exactly one complete unreplicated chromosome. The molecular weight of such a chromosome is about 8.4 +/- 1.2 X 10(9). PMID:412830

  19. Replicating Milgram Would People Still Obey Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Jerry M.

    2009-01-01

    The author conducted a partial replication of Stanley Milgram's (1963, 1965, 1974) obedience studies that allowed for useful comparisons with the original investigations while protecting the well-being of participants. Seventy adults participated in a replication of Milgram's Experiment 5 up to the point at which they first heard the learner's…

  20. DNA replication: failures and inverted fusions.

    PubMed

    Carr, Antony M; Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2011-10-01

    DNA replication normally follows the rules passed down from Watson and Crick: the chromosome duplicates as dictated by its antiparallel strands, base-pairing and leading and lagging strand differences. Real-life replication is more complicated, fraught with perils posed by chromosome damage for one, and by transcription of genes and by other perils that disrupt progress of the DNA replication machinery. Understanding the replication fork, including DNA structures, associated replisome and its regulators, is key to understanding how cells overcome perils and minimize error. Replication fork error leads to genome rearrangements and, potentially, cell death. Interest in the replication fork and its errors has recently gained added interest by the results of deep sequencing studies of human genomes. Several pathologies are associated with sometimes-bizarre genome rearrangements suggestive of elaborate replication fork failures. To try and understand the links between the replication fork, its failure and genome rearrangements, we discuss here phases of fork behavior (stall, collapse, restart and fork failures leading to rearrangements) and analyze two examples of instability from our own studies; one in fission yeast and the other in budding yeast.

  1. Replication and Robustness in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key…

  2. Chromatin signatures of the Drosophila replication program.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Matthew L; Prinz, Joseph A; MacAlpine, Heather K; Tretyakov, George; Kharchenko, Peter V; MacAlpine, David M

    2011-02-01

    DNA replication initiates from thousands of start sites throughout the Drosophila genome and must be coordinated with other ongoing nuclear processes such as transcription to ensure genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding how chromatin modifications regulate the transcription program; in contrast, we know relatively little about the role of the chromatin landscape in defining how start sites of DNA replication are selected and regulated. Here, we describe the Drosophila replication program in the context of the chromatin and transcription landscape for multiple cell lines using data generated by the modENCODE consortium. We find that while the cell lines exhibit similar replication programs, there are numerous cell line-specific differences that correlate with changes in the chromatin architecture. We identify chromatin features that are associated with replication timing, early origin usage, and ORC binding. Primary sequence, activating chromatin marks, and DNA-binding proteins (including chromatin remodelers) contribute in an additive manner to specify ORC-binding sites. We also generate accurate and predictive models from the chromatin data to describe origin usage and strength between cell lines. Multiple activating chromatin modifications contribute to the function and relative strength of replication origins, suggesting that the chromatin environment does not regulate origins of replication as a simple binary switch, but rather acts as a tunable rheostat to regulate replication initiation events.

  3. Microarray analysis of DNA replication timing.

    PubMed

    Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-01-01

    Although all of the DNA in an eukaryotic cell replicates during the S-phase of cell cycle, there is a significant difference in the actual time in S-phase when a given chromosomal segment replicates. Methods are described here for generation of high-resolution temporal maps of DNA replication in synchronized human cells. This method does not require amplification of DNA before microarray hybridization and so avoids errors introduced during PCR. A major advantage of using this procedure is that it facilitates finer dissection of replication time in S-phase. Also, it helps delineate chromosomal regions that undergo biallelic or asynchronous replication, which otherwise are difficult to detect at a genome-wide scale by existing methods. The continuous TR50 (time of completion of 50% replication) maps of replication across chromosomal segments identify regions that undergo acute transitions in replication timing. These transition zones can play a significant role in identifying insulators that separate chromosomal domains with different chromatin modifications.

  4. A Replication by Any Other Name: A Systematic Review of Replicative Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Collins, Lauren W.; Cook, Sara C.; Cook, Lysandra

    2016-01-01

    Replication research is essential to scientific knowledge. Reviews of replication studies often electronically search for "replicat*" as a textword, which does not identify studies that replicate previous research but do not self-identify as such. We examined whether the 83 intervention studies published in six non-categorical research…

  5. Recommendations for Replication Research in Special Education: A Framework of Systematic, Conceptual Replications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Michael D.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Special education researchers conduct studies that can be considered replications. However, they do not often refer to them as replication studies. The purpose of this article is to consider the potential benefits of conceptualizing special education intervention research within a framework of systematic, conceptual replication. Specifically, we…

  6. Multiple pathways process stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Michel, Bénédicte; Grompone, Gianfranco; Florès, Maria-Jose; Bidnenko, Vladimir

    2004-08-31

    Impairment of replication fork progression is a serious threat to living organisms and a potential source of genome instability. Studies in prokaryotes have provided evidence that inactivated replication forks can restart by the reassembly of the replication machinery. Several strategies for the processing of inactivated replication forks before replisome reassembly have been described. Most of these require the action of recombination proteins, with different proteins being implicated, depending on the cause of fork arrest. The action of recombination proteins at blocked forks is not necessarily accompanied by a strand-exchange reaction and may prevent rather than repair fork breakage. These various restart pathways may reflect different structures at stalled forks. We review here the different strategies of fork processing elicited by different kinds of replication impairments in prokaryotes and the variety of roles played by recombination proteins in these processes.

  7. Histone lysine methylation and chromatin replication.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carlos; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Almouzni, Geneviève; Loyola, Alejandra

    2014-12-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, the replication of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are critical to maintain genome integrity. Chromatin components, such as histone variants and histone post-translational modifications, along with the higher-order chromatin structure, impact several DNA metabolic processes, including replication, transcription, and repair. In this review we focus on lysine methylation and the relationships between this histone mark and chromatin replication. We first describe studies implicating lysine methylation in regulating early steps in the replication process. We then discuss chromatin reassembly following replication fork passage, where the incorporation of a combination of newly synthesized histones and parental histones can impact the inheritance of lysine methylation marks on the daughter strands. Finally, we elaborate on how the inheritance of lysine methylation can impact maintenance of the chromatin landscape, using heterochromatin as a model chromatin domain, and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved in this process.

  8. Recovery of DNA Replication in UV-Irradiated Escherichia coli Requires both Excision Repair and RecF Protein Function†

    PubMed Central

    Courcelle, Justin; Crowley, David J.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    1999-01-01

    After UV doses that disrupt DNA replication, the recovery of replication at replication forks in Escherichia coli requires a functional copy of the recF gene. In recF mutants, replication fails to recover and extensive degradation of the nascent DNA occurs, suggesting that recF function is needed to stabilize the disrupted replication forks and facilitate the process of recovery. We show here that the ability of recF to promote the recovery of replication requires that the disrupting lesions be removed. In the absence of excision repair, recF+ cells protect the nascent DNA at replication forks, but replication does not resume. The classical view is that recombination proteins operate in pathways that are independent from DNA repair, and therefore the functions of Rec proteins have been studied in repair-deficient cells. However, mutations in either uvr or recF result in failure to recover replication at UV doses from which wild-type cells recover efficiently, suggesting that recF and excision repair contribute to a common pathway in the recovery of replication. PMID:9922256

  9. A novel tetracycline-controlled transactivator-transrepressor system enables external control of oncolytic adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Fechner, H; Wang, X; Srour, M; Siemetzki, U; Seltmann, H; Sutter, A P; Scherübl, H; Zouboulis, C C; Schwaab, R; Hillen, W; Schultheiss, H-P; Poller, W

    2003-09-01

    The use of restricted replication-competent adenoviruses (RRCAs) inducing tumor cell-specific lysis is a promising approach in cancer gene therapy. However, the use of RRCAs in humans carries considerable risk, since after injection into the patient, further regulation or inhibition of virus replication from the outside is impossible. Therefore, we have developed a novel system allowing external pharmacological control of RRCA replication. We show here that a tumor-selective E1B-deleted RRCA can be tightly regulated by use of doxycycline (dox)-controlled adenoviral E1A gene expression, which in turn determines vector replication. RRCA replication is switched on by addition and switched off by withdrawal of dox. The system results in efficient tumor cell killing after induction by dox, whereas cells are unaffected by the uninduced system. It was also employed for efficient external control of transgene expression from cotransfected replication-deficient adenovectors. Furthermore, the use of a liver cell-specific human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT)-promoter driving a tetracycline-controlled transcriptional silencer allowed specific protection of cells with hAAT-promoter activity in the absence of dox in vitro and in vivo, delineating a new principle of 'tissue protective' gene therapy. The concept of external control of RRCAs may help to improve the safety of cancer gene therapy.

  10. HIV-1 Vpr increases HCV replication through VprBP in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yanling; Huang, Fang; Yuan, Ting; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-09-02

    Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study. We found that the Vpr mutant Q65R, which is deficient in VprBP binding, could not enhance HCV replication. Furthermore, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was severely diminished in VprBP knockdown cells. In addition, an inhibitor of Cullin RING E3 ligases, MLN4924, impaired the function of Vpr during HCV replication. Together, these results suggest that Vpr promotes HCV replication in a VprBP-dependent manner, and that the activity of Cullin RING E3 ligases is essential to this process. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr makes the cellular environment more suitable for HCV replication, which might relate with the host ubiquitination system.

  11. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  12. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  13. Transcriptional control of DNA replication licensing by Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovka, Taras; Schönfeld, Manuela; Raffeiner, Philipp; Breuker, Kathrin; Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Hartl, Markus; Bister, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    The c-myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor, a global regulator of fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis, and c-myc is an important driver in human cancer. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Non-transcriptional functions have also been attributed to the Myc protein, notably direct interaction with the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) controlling the initiation of DNA replication. A key component of the pre-RC is the Cdt1 protein, an essential factor in origin licensing. Here we present data suggesting that the CDT1 gene is a transcriptional target of the Myc-Max complex. Expression of the CDT1 gene in v-myc-transformed cells directly correlates with myc expression. Also, human tumor cells with elevated c-myc expression display increased CDT1 expression. Occupation of the CDT1 promoter by Myc-Max is demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transactivation by Myc-Max is shown in reporter assays. Ectopic expression of CDT1 leads to cell transformation. Our results provide a possible direct mechanistic link of Myc's canonical function as a transcription factor to DNA replication. Furthermore, we suggest that aberrant transcriptional activation of CDT1 by deregulated myc alleles contributes to the genomic instabilities observed in tumor cells.

  14. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-08

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA.

  15. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Thomas R; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R G; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M; Wilkinson, Robert J; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G

    2016-03-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes.

  16. LANA Binds to Multiple Active Viral and Cellular Promoters and Associates with the H3K4Methyltransferase hSET1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianhong; Yang, Yajie; Turner, Peter C.; Jain, Vaibhav; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Renne, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a γ-herpesvirus associated with KS and two lymphoproliferative diseases. Recent studies characterized epigenetic modification of KSHV episomes during latency and determined that latency-associated genes are associated with H3K4me3 while most lytic genes are associated with the silencing mark H3K27me3. Since the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) (i) is expressed very early after de novo infection, (ii) interacts with transcriptional regulators and chromatin remodelers, and (iii) regulates the LANA and RTA promoters, we hypothesized that LANA may contribute to the establishment of latency through epigenetic control. We performed a detailed ChIP-seq analysis in cells of lymphoid and endothelial origin and compared H3K4me3, H3K27me3, polII, and LANA occupancy. On viral episomes LANA binding was detected at numerous lytic and latent promoters, which were transactivated by LANA using reporter assays. LANA binding was highly enriched at H3K4me3 peaks and this co-occupancy was also detected on many host gene promoters. Bioinformatic analysis of enriched LANA binding sites in combination with biochemical binding studies revealed three distinct binding patterns. A small subset of LANA binding sites showed sequence homology to the characterized LBS1/2 sequence in the viral terminal repeat. A large number of sites contained a novel LANA binding motif (TCCAT)3 which was confirmed by gel shift analysis. Third, some viral and cellular promoters did not contain LANA binding sites and are likely enriched through protein/protein interaction. LANA was associated with H3K4me3 marks and in PEL cells 86% of all LANA bound promoters were transcriptionally active, leading to the hypothesis that LANA interacts with the machinery that methylates H3K4. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated LANA association with endogenous hSET1 complexes in both lymphoid and endothelial cells suggesting that LANA may contribute to the epigenetic

  17. Mechanism of DNA Replication in Drosophila Chromosomes: Structure of Replication Forks and Evidence for Bidirectionality

    PubMed Central

    Kriegstein, Henry J.; Hogness, David S.

    1974-01-01

    The replicating chromosomal DNA in Drosophila melanogaster cleavage nuclei has been visualized in the electron microscope as a serial array of closely spaced replicated regions created by pairs of diverging replication forks. The fine structure of the forks is very similar to that observed for the replication forks of bidirectionally replicating bacteriophage DNAs. However, the mean length of the single-stranded gaps in Drosophila forks is less than 200 nucleotide residues, much shorter than the gaps in phage forks. This difference in gap length corresponds to the observed difference in the size of Okazaki fragments from Drosophila and phage. Images PMID:4204203

  18. Inferring Where and When Replication Initiates from Genome-Wide Replication Timing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Audit, B.; Yang, S. C.-H.; Bechhoefer, J.; Arneodo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Based on an analogy between DNA replication and one dimensional nucleation-and-growth processes, various attempts to infer the local initiation rate I(x,t) of DNA replication origins from replication timing data have been developed in the framework of phase transition kinetics theories. These works have all used curve-fit strategies to estimate I(x,t) from genome-wide replication timing data. Here, we show how to invert analytically the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model and extract I(x,t) directly. Tests on both simulated and experimental budding-yeast data confirm the location and firing-time distribution of replication origins.

  19. Cyclooxygenase‐2 facilitates dengue virus replication and serves as a potential target for developing antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Kuang; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the important mediators of inflammation in response to viral infection, and it contributes to viral replication, for example, cytomegalovirus or hepatitis C virus replication. The role of COX-2 in dengue virus (DENV) replication remains unclear. In the present study, we observed an increased level of COX-2 in patients with dengue fever compared with healthy donors. Consistent with the clinical data, an elevated level of COX-2 expression was also observed in DENV-infected ICR suckling mice. Using cell-based experiments, we revealed that DENV-2 infection significantly induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells. The exogenous expression of COX-2 or PGE2 treatment dose-dependently enhanced DENV-2 replication. In contrast, COX-2 gene silencing and catalytic inhibition sufficiently suppressed DENV-2 replication. In an ICR suckling mouse model, we identified that the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 protected mice from succumbing to life-threatening DENV-2 infection. By using COX-2 promoter-based analysis and specific inhibitors against signaling molecules, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK/JNK are critical factors for DENV-2-induced COX-2 expression and viral replication. Altogether, our results reveal that COX-2 is an important factor for DENV replication and can serve as a potential target for developing therapeutic agents against DENV infection. PMID:28317866

  20. Xenopus Mcm10 is a CDK-substrate required for replication fork stability

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Gambus, Agnieszka; Gillespie, Peter J.; Blow, J. Julian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During S phase, following activation of the S phase CDKs and the DBF4-dependent kinases (DDK), double hexamers of Mcm2-7 at licensed replication origins are activated to form the core replicative helicase. Mcm10 is one of several proteins that have been implicated from work in yeasts to play a role in forming a mature replisome during the initiation process. Mcm10 has also been proposed to play a role in promoting replisome stability after initiation has taken place. The role of Mcm10 is particularly unclear in metazoans, where conflicting data has been presented. Here, we investigate the role and regulation of Mcm10 in Xenopus egg extracts. We show that Xenopus Mcm10 is recruited to chromatin late in the process of replication initiation and this requires prior action of DDKs and CDKs. We also provide evidence that Mcm10 is a CDK substrate but does not need to be phosphorylated in order to associate with chromatin. We show that in extracts depleted of more than 99% of Mcm10, the bulk of DNA replication still occurs, suggesting that Mcm10 is not required for the process of replication initiation. However, in extracts depleted of Mcm10, the replication fork elongation rate is reduced. Furthermore, the absence of Mcm10 or its phosphorylation by CDK results in instability of replisome proteins on DNA, which is particularly important under conditions of replication stress. PMID:27327991

  1. DNA2 drives processing and restart of reversed replication forks in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Berti, Matteo; Levikova, Maryna; Pinto, Cosimo; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Vujanovic, Marko; Zellweger, Ralph; Moore, Hayley; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Cejka, Petr; Stewart, Sheila; Lopes, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate processing of stalled or damaged DNA replication forks is paramount to genomic integrity and recent work points to replication fork reversal and restart as a central mechanism to ensuring high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, we identify a novel DNA2- and WRN-dependent mechanism of reversed replication fork processing and restart after prolonged genotoxic stress. The human DNA2 nuclease and WRN ATPase activities functionally interact to degrade reversed replication forks with a 5′-to-3′ polarity and promote replication restart, thus preventing aberrant processing of unresolved replication intermediates. Unexpectedly, EXO1, MRE11, and CtIP are not involved in the same mechanism of reversed fork processing, whereas human RECQ1 limits DNA2 activity by preventing extensive nascent strand degradation. RAD51 depletion antagonizes this mechanism, presumably by preventing reversed fork formation. These studies define a new mechanism for maintaining genome integrity tightly controlled by specific nucleolytic activities and central homologous recombination factors. PMID:25733713

  2. Replication Fork Protection Factors Controlling R-Loop Bypass and Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Stirling, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Replication–transcription conflicts have been a well-studied source of genome instability for many years and have frequently been linked to defects in RNA processing. However, recent characterization of replication fork-associated proteins has revealed that defects in fork protection can directly or indirectly stabilize R-loop structures in the genome and promote transcription–replication conflicts that lead to genome instability. Defects in essential DNA replication-associated activities like topoisomerase, or the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complex, as well as fork-associated protection factors like the Fanconi anemia pathway, both appear to mitigate transcription–replication conflicts. Here, we will highlight recent advances that support the concept that normal and robust replisome function itself is a key component of mitigating R-loop coupled genome instability. PMID:28098815

  3. And-1 coordinates with Claspin for efficient Chk1 activation in response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing; de Renty, Christelle; Li, Yongming; Xiao, Haijie; Kemp, Michael G; Han, Zhiyong; DePamphilis, Melvin L; Zhu, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    The replisome is important for DNA replication checkpoint activation, but how specific components of the replisome coordinate with ATR to activate Chk1 in human cells remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that And-1, a replisome component, acts together with ATR to activate Chk1. And-1 is phosphorylated at T826 by ATR following replication stress, and this phosphorylation is required for And-1 to accumulate at the damage sites, where And-1 promotes the interaction between Claspin and Chk1, thereby stimulating efficient Chk1 activation by ATR. Significantly, And-1 binds directly to ssDNA and facilitates the association of Claspin with ssDNA. Furthermore, And-1 associates with replication forks and is required for the recovery of stalled forks. These studies establish a novel ATR–And-1 axis as an important regulator for efficient Chk1 activation and reveal a novel mechanism of how the replisome regulates the replication checkpoint and genomic stability. PMID:26082189

  4. Fowlpox virus host range restriction: gene expression, DNA replication, and morphogenesis in nonpermissive mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, P; Frazier, J; Skinner, M A

    1993-11-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV), type species of the Avipoxvirus genus, causes a slow-spreading pox disease of chickens. Following infection of mammalian cells there is no evidence of productive replication of FPV although cytopathic effects are induced and FPV recombinants have been shown to express foreign genes from vaccinia virus early/late promoters. Here we report results of a study to investigate the expression of FPV genes, the replication of FPV genomic DNA, and any ultrastructural changes in mammalian cells infected by wild-type virus, undertaken as a first step in elucidating the nature of the block (or blocks) to productive replication of FPV in mammalian cells. Early and late gene expression as well as genomic DNA replication was observed in fibroblast-like cell lines of monkey and human origin. Furthermore, viral morphogenesis was observed in monkey cells, with the production mainly of immature particles though smaller numbers of apparently mature virus particles were observed.

  5. Artificial Recruitment of UAF1-USP Complexes by a PHLPP1-E1 Chimeric Helicase Enhances Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, David; Lehoux, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E1 helicase from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types interacts with the cellular WD repeat-containing protein UAF1 in complex with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1, USP12, or USP46. This interaction stimulates viral DNA replication and is required for maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. E1 associates with UAF1 through a short UAF1-binding site (UBS) located within the N-terminal 40 residues of the protein. Here, we investigated if the E1 UBS could be replaced by the analogous domain from an unrelated protein, the pleckstrin homology domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1). We found that PHLPP1 and E1 interact with UAF1 in a mutually exclusive manner and mapped the minimal PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) to a 100-amino-acid region sufficient for assembly into UAF1-USP complexes. Similarly to the E1 UBS, overexpression of PUBS in trans inhibited HPV DNA replication, albeit less efficiently. Characterization of a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase revealed that PUBS could partially substitute for the E1 UBS in enhancing viral DNA replication and that the stimulatory effect of PUBS likely involves recruitment of UAF1-USP complexes, as it was abolished by mutations that weaken UAF1-binding and by overexpression of catalytically inactive USPs. Although functionally similar to the E1 UBS, PUBS is larger in size and requires both the WD repeat region and C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of UAF1 for interaction, in contrast to E1, which does not contact the latter. Overall, this comparison of two heterologous UBSs indicates that these domains function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that the association of E1 with UAF1-containing deubiquitinating complexes stimulates HPV DNA replication. IMPORTANCE The E1 protein from anogenital HPV types interacts with the UAF1-associated deubiquitinating enzymes USP1, USP12, and USP46 to stimulate replication of the viral genome. Little is known about the

  6. Choosing and using Schizosaccharomyces pombe plasmids.

    PubMed

    Siam, Rania; Dolan, William P; Forsburg, Susan L

    2004-07-01

    A wide range of plasmids has been developed for molecular studies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This includes general purpose episomes, expression vectors, epitope tagging plasmids, and integration vectors. This review describes the typical features of S. pombe vectors, including replication origins, positive and negative selection markers, and constitutive and inducible promoter systems. We will also discuss vectors with epitope tags and how these can be used to modify episomal or endogenous gene sequences. Considerations for choosing and using a plasmid are presented and specialized methods are described.

  7. Influence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E2 polymorphism on quantification of HPV-16 episomal and integrated DNA in cervicovaginal lavages from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Naoufel; Brazete, Jessica; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Fontaine, Julie; Koushik, Anita; Rachlis, Anita; Pourreaux, Karina; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo; Coutlée, François

    2008-07-01

    Integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) viral loads are currently estimated by quantification with real-time PCR of HPV-16 E6 (RT-E6 and HPV-16 PG) and E2 (RT-E2-1) DNA. We assessed the influence of HPV-16 E2 polymorphism on quantification of integrated HPV-16 DNA in anogenital specimens. HPV-16 E2 was sequenced from 135 isolates (123 from European and 12 from non-European lineages). An assay targeting conserved HPV-16 E2 sequences (RT-E2-2) was optimized and applied with RT-E6 and RT-E2-1 on 139 HPV-16-positive cervicovaginal lavages collected from 74 women [58 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and 16 HIV-seronegative]. Ratios of HPV-16 copies measured with RT-E2-2 and RT-E2-1 obtained with African 2 (median=3.23, range=1.92-3.49) or Asian-American (median=3.78, range=1.47-37) isolates were greater than those obtained with European isolates (median=1.02, range=0.64-1.80; P<0.02 for each comparison). The distribution of HPV-16 E2 copies measured in 139 samples with RT-E2-2 (median=6150) and RT-E2-1 (median=8960) were different (P<0.0001). The risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-2,3) compared with women without CIN was increased with higher HPV-16 total [odds ratio (OR)=2.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.11-4.23], episomal (OR=2.14, 95 % CI=1.09-4.19), but not for HPV-16 integrated viral load (OR=1.71, 95 % CI=0.90-3.26), after controlling for age, race, CD4 count, HIV and HPV-16 polymorphism. The proportion of samples with an E6/E2 ratio >2 in women without squamous intraepithelial lesion (7 of 35) was similar to that of women with CIN-2,3 (5 of 11, P=0.24) or CIN-1 (5 of 14, P=0.50). HPV-16 E2 polymorphism was a significant factor that influenced measures of HPV-16 integrated viral load.

  8. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term “checkpoint recovery” to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress. PMID:27801838

  9. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Dai, Qun; Park, Dongkyoo; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. PMID:27548226

  10. Plasmid R6K replication control.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, Sheryl A; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2013-05-01

    The focus of this minireview is the replication control of the 39.9-kb plasmid R6K and its derivatives. Historically, this plasmid was thought to have a narrow host range but more recent findings indicate that its derivatives can replicate in a variety of enteric and non-enteric bacterial species (Wild et al., 2004). In the four-plus decades since it was first described, R6K has proven to be an excellent model for studies of plasmid DNA replication. In part this is because of its similarities to other systems in which replication is activated and regulated by Rep protein and iteron-containing DNA. However its apparent idiosynchracies have also added to its significance (e.g., independent and co-dependent replication origins, and Rep dimers that stably bind iterons). Here, we survey the current state of knowledge regarding R6K replication and place individual regulatory elements into a proposed homeostatic model with implications for the biological significance of R6K and its multiple origins of replication.

  11. Mechanisms of Post-Replication DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Vaziri, Cyrus; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS). TLS is a DNA damage-tolerant and low-fidelity mode of DNA synthesis that utilizes specialized ‘Y-family’ DNA polymerases to replicate damaged templates. TS, however, is an error-free ‘DNA damage avoidance’ mode of DNA synthesis that uses a newly synthesized sister chromatid as a template in lieu of the damaged parent strand. Both TLS and TS pathways are tightly controlled signaling cascades that integrate DNA synthesis with the overall DNA damage response and are thus crucial for genome stability. This review will cover the current knowledge of the primary mediators of post-replication repair and how they are regulated in the cell. PMID:28208741

  12. Phage P4 DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Orejas, R; Ziegelin, G; Lurz, R; Lanka, E

    1994-01-01

    Phage P4 DNA is replicated in cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli in the presence of partially purified P4 alpha protein [Krevolin and Calendar (1985), J. Mol. Biol. 182, 507-517]. Using a modified in vitro replication assay, we have further characterized this process. Analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of in vitro replicated molecules demonstrates that the system yields supercoiled monomeric DNA as the main product. Electron microscopic analysis of in vitro generated intermediates indicates that DNA synthesis initiates in vitro mainly at ori, the origin of replication used in vivo. Replication proceeds from this origin bidirectionally, resulting in theta-type molecules. In contrast to the in vivo situation, no extensive single-stranded regions were found in these intermediates. The initiation proteins of the host, DnaB and DnaG, and the chaperones DnaJ and DnaK are not required for P4 replication, because polyclonal antibodies against those polypeptides do not inhibit the process. The reaction is inhibited by antibodies against the SSB protein, and by ara-CTP, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. Consistent with previous reports, P4 in vitro replication is independent of transcription by host RNA polymerase. Novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, strongly inhibits P4 DNA synthesis, indicating that form I DNA is the required substrate. Images PMID:8029013

  13. Diversity of DNA Replication in the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ausiannikava, Darya; Allers, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental biological process. On account of their shared evolutionary ancestry, the replication machinery found in archaea is similar to that found in eukaryotes. DNA replication is initiated at origins and is highly conserved in eukaryotes, but our limited understanding of archaea has uncovered a wide diversity of replication initiation mechanisms. Archaeal origins are sequence-based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised—some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi- Orc1/Cdc6 complex. Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts—the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids—and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. This poses a challenge to the regulation of DNA replication. However, one archaeal species (Haloferax volcanii) can survive without replication origins; instead, it uses homologous recombination as an alternative mechanism of initiation. This diversity in DNA replication initiation is all the more remarkable for having been discovered in only three groups of archaea where in vivo studies are possible. PMID:28146124

  14. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  15. Enhancement of protein expression by alphavirus replicons by designing self-replicating subgenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal Young; Atasheva, Svetlana; McAuley, Alexander J; Plante, Jessica A; Frolova, Elena I; Beasley, David W C; Frolov, Ilya

    2014-07-22

    Since the development of infectious cDNA clones of viral RNA genomes and the means of delivery of the in vitro-synthesized RNA into cells, alphaviruses have become an attractive system for expression of heterologous genetic information. Alphaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm, and their genetic material cannot recombine with cellular DNA. Alphavirus genome-based, self-replicating RNAs (replicons) are widely used vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. Their current design relies on replacement of structural genes, encoded by subgenomic RNAs (SG RNA), with heterologous sequences of interest. The SG RNA is transcribed from a promoter located in the alphavirus-specific RNA replication intermediate and is not further amplified. In this study, we have applied the accumulated knowledge of the mechanism of alphavirus replication and promoter structures, in particular, to increase the expression level of heterologous proteins from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-based replicons. During VEEV infection, replication enzymes are produced in excess to RNA replication intermediates, and a large fraction of them are not involved in RNA synthesis. The newly designed constructs encode SG RNAs, which are not only transcribed from the SG promoter, but are additionally amplified by the previously underused VEEV replication enzymes. These replicons produce SG RNAs and encoded proteins of interest 10- to 50-fold more efficiently than those using a traditional design. A modified replicon encoding West Nile virus (WNV) premembrane and envelope proteins efficiently produced subviral particles and, after a single immunization, elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies, which protected mice from lethal challenge with WNV.

  16. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for rapid generation of HBV-replicating stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Tian-Ying; Fang, Lin-Lin; Chen, Zi-Xuan; Song, Liu-Wei; Cao, Jia-Li; Yang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-08-01

    The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype. This vector contains a Sleeping Beauty transposon containing HBV 1.3-copy genome with an expression cassette of the SV40 promoter driving red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and self-cleaving P2A peptide linked puromycin resistance gene (PuroR). In addition, a PGK promoter-driven SB100X hyperactive transposase cassette is placed in the outside of the transposon in the same plasmid.The HBV-replicating stable cells could be obtained from pTSMP-HBV transfected HepG2 cells by red fluorescence-activated cell sorting and puromycin resistant cell selection within 4-week. Using this system, we successfully constructed four cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of genotypes A-D. The replication and viral protein expression profiles of these cells were systematically characterized. In conclusion, our study provides a high-efficiency strategy to generate HBV-replicating stable cell lines, which may facilitate HBV-related virological study.

  17. Detection of a Gene Cluster That Is Dispensable for Human Herpesvirus 6 Replication and Latency

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Kazuhiro; Nozaki, Hideo; Shimada, Kazuya; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The U3-U7 gene cluster of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was replaced with an enhanced green fluorescent protein-puromycin gene cassette containing the cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter. Neither viral replication in T cells nor latency and reactivation in macrophages was impaired. During HHV-6 latency, the cytomegalovirus promoter used the transcription start sites employed in cytomegalovirus latency. PMID:12970461

  18. Rad18-dependent SUMOylation of human specialized DNA polymerase eta is required to prevent under-replicated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Despras, Emmanuelle; Sittewelle, Méghane; Pouvelle, Caroline; Delrieu, Noémie; Cordonnier, Agnès M; Kannouche, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Translesion polymerase eta (polη) was characterized for its ability to replicate ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions that stall replicative polymerases, a process promoted by Rad18-dependent PCNA mono-ubiquitination. Recent findings have shown that polη also acts at intrinsically difficult to replicate sequences. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate its access to these loci remain elusive. Here, we uncover that polη travels with replication forks during unchallenged S phase and this requires its SUMOylation on K163. Abrogation of polη SUMOylation results in replication defects in response to mild replication stress, leading to chromosome fragments in mitosis and damage transmission to daughter cells. Rad18 plays a pivotal role, independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity, acting as a molecular bridge between polη and the PIAS1 SUMO ligase to promote polη SUMOylation. Our results provide the first evidence that SUMOylation represents a new way to target polη to replication forks, independent of the Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitination, thereby preventing under-replicated DNA. PMID:27811911

  19. Dynamic molecular networks: from synthetic receptors to self-replicators.

    PubMed

    Otto, Sijbren

    2012-12-18

    this possibility in silico through a simple dynamic molecular network that can perform AND logic with input and output in the form of molecules. Not only are dynamic molecular networks responsive to externally added templates, but they also adjust to internal template effects, giving rise to self-replication. Recently we have started to explore scenarios where library members recognize copies of themselves, resulting in a self-assembly process that drives the synthesis of the very molecules that self-assemble. We have developed a system that shows unprecedented mechanosensitive self-replication behavior: depending on whether the solution is shaken, stirred or not agitated, we have obtained a hexameric replicator, a heptameric replicator or no replication, respectively. We rationalize this behavior through a mechanism in which replication is promoted by mechanically-induced fragmentation of self-assembled replicator fibers. These results represent a new mode of self-replication in which mechanical energy liberates replicators from a self-inhibited state. These systems may also be viewed as self-synthesizing, self-assembling materials. These materials can be captured photochemically, converting a free-flowing fiber solution into a hydrogel through photo-induced homolytic disulfide exchange.

  20. Prebiotic chemistry and nucleic acid replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.; Lohrmann, R.

    1974-01-01

    Recent work is reviewed on some reactions that could have occurred on the primitive earth and that could have played a part in the evolution of a self-replicating system. The transition from the primitive atmosphere to the simplest replicating molecules is considered in four stages: (1) the formation of a 'prebiotic soup' of organic precursors, including the purine and pyrimidine bases and the pentose sugars; (2) the condensation of these precursors and inorganic phosphate to form monomeric nucleotides and activated nucleotide derivatives; (3) the polymerization of nucleotide derivatives to oligonucleotides; and (4) the complementary replication of oligonucleotides in a template-directed process that depends on Watson-Crick base pairing.

  1. Mapping Replication Origin Sequences in Eukaryotic Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Besnard, Emilie; Desprat, Romain; Ryan, Michael; Kahli, Malik; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led towards the complete mapping of DNA replication initiation sites in the human genome. This thorough origin mapping facilitates the understanding of the relationship between replication initiation events, transcription and chromatin modifications and allows the characterization of consensus sequences of potential replication origins. This unit provides a detailed protocol for isolation and sequence analyses of nascent DNA strands. Two variations of the protocol based on non-overlapping assumptions are described below, addressing potential bias issues for whole genome analyses. PMID:25447077

  2. DNA replication in yeast is stochastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Rhind, Nicholas; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-03-01

    Largely on the basis of a simple --- perhaps too simple --- analysis of microarray-chip experiments, people have concluded that DNA replication in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) is a nearly deterministic process, in which the position and activation time of each origin of replication is pre-determined. In this talk, we introduce a more quantitative approach to the analysis of microarray data. Applying our new methods to budding yeast, we show that the microarray data imply a picture of replication where the timing of origin activation is highly stochastic. We then propose a physical model (the ``multiple-initiator model") to account for the observed probability distributions of origin- activation timing.

  3. Top 10 Replicated Findings from Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of current concerns about replication in psychological science, we describe 10 findings from behavioral genetic research that have robustly replicated. These are ‘big’ findings, both in terms of effect size and potential impact on psychological science, such as linearly increasing heritability of intelligence from infancy (20%) through adulthood (60%). Four of our top-10 findings involve the environment, discoveries that could only have been found using genetically sensitive research designs. We also consider reasons specific to behavioral genetics that might explain why these findings replicate. PMID:26817721

  4. [Analysis of the mechanisms of tobamovirus RNA replication].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2006-06-01

    The replication of eukaryotic positive-strand RNA virus genomes occurs in membrane-bound replication complexes. Currently, little is known about the process of replication complex formation and the molecular structure of the replication complexes. We are trying to understand how eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses replicate using tobamoviruses as models. Here, I describe our approaches to this end.

  5. An embryonic demethylation mechanism involving binding of transcription factors to replicating DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, K; Silke, J; Georgiev, O; Marti, P; Giovannini, N; Rungger, D

    1998-01-01

    In vertebrates, transcriptionally active promoters are undermethylated. Since the transcription factor Sp1, and more recently NF-kappaB, have been implicated in the demethylation process, we examined the effect of transcription factors on demethylation by injecting in vitro methylated plasmid DNA into Xenopus fertilized eggs. We found that various transactivation domains, including a strong acidic activation domain from the viral protein VP16, can enhance demethylation of a promoter region when fused to a DNA binding domain which recognizes the promoter. Furthermore, demethylation occurs only after the midblastula transition, when the general transcription machinery of the host embryo becomes available. Nevertheless, transcription factor binding need not be followed by actual transcription, since demethylation is not blocked by alpha-amanitin treatment. Finally, replication of the target DNA is a prerequisite for efficient demethylation since only plasmids that carry the bovine papilloma virus sequences which support plasmid replication after the midblastula transition are demethylated. No demethylation is detectable in the oocyte system where DNA is not replicated. These results suggest that, in the Xenopus embryo, promoters for which transcription factors are available are demethylated by a replication-dependent, possibly passive mechanism. PMID:9482741

  6. Is psychology suffering from a replication crisis? What does "failure to replicate" really mean?

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Scott E; Lau, Michael Y; Howard, George S

    2015-09-01

    Psychology has recently been viewed as facing a replication crisis because efforts to replicate past study findings frequently do not show the same result. Often, the first study showed a statistically significant result but the replication does not. Questions then arise about whether the first study results were false positives, and whether the replication study correctly indicates that there is truly no effect after all. This article suggests these so-called failures to replicate may not be failures at all, but rather are the result of low statistical power in single replication studies, and the result of failure to appreciate the need for multiple replications in order to have enough power to identify true effects. We provide examples of these power problems and suggest some solutions using Bayesian statistics and meta-analysis. Although the need for multiple replication studies may frustrate those who would prefer quick answers to psychology's alleged crisis, the large sample sizes typically needed to provide firm evidence will almost always require concerted efforts from multiple investigators. As a result, it remains to be seen how many of the recently claimed failures to replicate will be supported or instead may turn out to be artifacts of inadequate sample sizes and single study replications.

  7. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  8. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  9. Using autonomous replication to physically and genetically define human origins of replication

    SciTech Connect

    Krysan, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The author previously developed a system for studying autonomous replication in human cells involving the use of sequences from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome to provide extrachromosomal plasmids with a nuclear retention function. Using this system, it was demonstrated that large fragments of human genomic DNA could be isolated which replicate autonomously in human cells. In this study the DNA sequences which function as origins of replication in human cells are defined physically and genetically. These experiments demonstrated that replication initiates at multiple locations distributed throughout the plasmid. Another line of experiments addressed the DNA sequence requirements for autonomous replication in human cells. These experiments demonstrated that human DNA fragments have a higher replication activity than bacterial fragments do. It was also found, however, that the bacterial DNA sequence could support efficient replication if enough copies of it were present on the plasmid. These findings suggested that autonomous replication in human cells does not depend on extensive, specific DNA sequences. The autonomous replication system which the author has employed for these experiments utilizes a cis-acting sequence from the EBV origin and the trans-acting EBNA-1 protein to provide plasmids with a nuclear retention function. It was therefore relevant to verify that the autonomous replication of human DNA fragments did not depend on the replication activity associated with the EBV sequences utilized for nuclear retention. To accomplish this goal, the author demonstrated that plasmids carrying the EBV sequences and large fragments of human DNA could support long-term autonomous replication in hamster cells, which are not permissive for EBV replication.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Recolin, Bénédicte; van der Laan, Siem; Tsanov, Nikolay; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress) results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:24705291

  11. Statistical physics of self-replication.

    PubMed

    England, Jeremy L

    2013-09-28

    Self-replication is a capacity common to every species of living thing, and simple physical intuition dictates that such a process must invariably be fueled by the production of entropy. Here, we undertake to make this intuition rigorous and quantitative by deriving a lower bound for the amount of heat that is produced during a process of self-replication in a system coupled to a thermal bath. We find that the minimum value for the physically allowed rate of heat production is determined by the growth rate, internal entropy, and durability of the replicator, and we discuss the implications of this finding for bacterial cell division, as well as for the pre-biotic emergence of self-replicating nucleic acids.

  12. Replicated Electro-Formed Nickel Alloy Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. Dr. Joe Ritter examines a replicated electro-formed nickel-alloy mirror which exemplifies the improvements in mirror fabrication techniques, with benefits such as dramtic weight reduction that have been achieved at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC).

  13. Statistical physics of self-replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Jeremy L.

    2013-09-01

    Self-replication is a capacity common to every species of living thing, and simple physical intuition dictates that such a process must invariably be fueled by the production of entropy. Here, we undertake to make this intuition rigorous and quantitative by deriving a lower bound for the amount of heat that is produced during a process of self-replication in a system coupled to a thermal bath. We find that the minimum value for the physically allowed rate of heat production is determined by the growth rate, internal entropy, and durability of the replicator, and we discuss the implications of this finding for bacterial cell division, as well as for the pre-biotic emergence of self-replicating nucleic acids.

  14. Cdc14p resets the competency of replication licensing by dephosphorylating multiple initiation proteins during mitotic exit in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanliang; Yung, Philip Y K; Huo, Lin; Liang, Chun

    2010-11-15

    In eukaryotes, replication licensing is achieved through sequential loading of several replication-initiation proteins onto replication origins to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), and unscheduled replication licensing is prevented by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) through inhibitory phosphorylations of multiple initiation proteins. It is known that CDK inactivation during mitotic exit promotes pre-RC formation for the next cell cycle. However, whether the removal of the inhibitory phosphorylations on the initiation proteins is essential and the identity of the acting phosphatase(s) remain unknown. Here, we show that cell division cycle protein 14 (Cdc14p) dephosphorylates replication-initiation proteins Orc2p, Orc6p, Cdc6p and Mcm3p to restore their competence for pre-RC assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells without functional Cdc14p fail to dephosphorylate initiation proteins and to form pre-RCs - even when CDK activities are suppressed - and cannot replicate DNA in mitotic rereplication systems, whereas pulsed ectopic expression of Cdc14p in mitotic cells results in efficient pre-RC assembly and DNA rereplication. Furthermore, Cdc14p becomes dispensable for DNA rereplication in mitotic cells with combined non-phosphorylatable and/or phosphorylation-insensitive alleles of the initiation proteins. These data unravel the essential role of Cdc14p in replication licensing, beyond its established functions in mitotic exit, providing new insight into the intricate regulation of DNA replication through the interplay of CDKs and the Cdc14p phosphatase.

  15. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  16. Structural organization of human replication timing domains.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Rasha E; Drillon, Guénola; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain; Audit, Benjamin

    2015-10-07

    Recent analysis of genome-wide epigenetic modification data, mean replication timing (MRT) profiles and chromosome conformation data in mammals have provided increasing evidence that flexibility in replication origin usage is regulated locally by the epigenetic landscape and over larger genomic distances by the 3D chromatin architecture. Here, we review the recent results establishing some link between replication domains and chromatin structural domains in pluripotent and various differentiated cell types in human. We reconcile the originally proposed dichotomic picture of early and late constant timing regions that replicate by multiple rather synchronous origins in separated nuclear compartments of open and closed chromatins, with the U-shaped MRT domains bordered by "master" replication origins specified by a localized (∼200-300 kb) zone of open and transcriptionally active chromatin from which a replication wave likely initiates and propagates toward the domain center via a cascade of origin firing. We discuss the relationships between these MRT domains, topologically associated domains and lamina-associated domains. This review sheds a new light on the epigenetically regulated global chromatin reorganization that underlies the loss of pluripotency and the determination of differentiation properties.

  17. Design and Implementation of Replicated Object Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koka, Sudhir

    1996-01-01

    One of the widely used techniques for construction of fault tolerant applications is the replication of resources so that if one copy fails sufficient copies may still remain operational to allow the application to continue to function. This thesis involves the design and implementation of an object oriented framework for replicating data on multiple sites and across different platforms. Our approach, called the Replicated Object Layer (ROL) provides a mechanism for consistent replication of data over dynamic networks. ROL uses the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) as a communication protocol that provides for reliable delivery, serialization and fault tolerance. Besides providing type registration, this layer facilitates distributed atomic transactions on replicated data. A novel algorithm called the RMP Commit Protocol, which commits transactions efficiently in reliable multicast environment is presented. ROL provides recovery procedures to ensure that site and communication failures do not corrupt persistent data, and male the system fault tolerant to network partitions. ROL will facilitate building distributed fault tolerant applications by performing the burdensome details of replica consistency operations, and making it completely transparent to the application.Replicated databases are a major class of applications which could be built on top of ROL.

  18. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models. PMID:20582153

  19. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Das, Atze T; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV based vector systems, and we will review our activities in this particular field. This includes the generation of a conditionally replicating HIV 1 variant as a safe live attenuated virus vaccine, the construction of mini HIV variants as cancer selective viruses for virotherapy against leukemia, and the use of a conditionally live anti HIV gene therapy vector. Although safety concerns will undoubtedly remain for the use of replication competent HIV based vector systems, some of the results in cell culture systems are very promising and warrant further testing in appropriate animal models.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Repnik, Urska; Herbst, Susanne; Collinson, Lucy M.; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulation of macrophage cell death is a well-documented phenomenon, but its role during bacterial replication is less characterized. In this study, we investigate the impact of plasma membrane (PM) integrity on bacterial replication in different functional populations of human primary macrophages. We discovered that IFN-γ enhanced bacterial replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages more than in granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages. We show that permissiveness in the different populations of macrophages to bacterial growth is the result of a differential ability to preserve PM integrity. By combining live-cell imaging, correlative light electron microscopy, and single-cell analysis, we found that after infection, a population of macrophages became necrotic, providing a niche for M. tuberculosis replication before escaping into the extracellular milieu. Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. PMID:28242744

  1. Overcoming a nucleosomal barrier to replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Han-Wen; Pandey, Manjula; Kulaeva, Olga I.; Patel, Smita S.; Studitsky, Vasily M.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient overcoming and accurate maintenance of chromatin structure and associated histone marks during DNA replication are essential for normal functioning of the daughter cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of replication through chromatin are unknown. We have studied traversal of uniquely positioned mononucleosomes by T7 replisome in vitro. Nucleosomes present a strong, sequence-dependent barrier for replication, with particularly strong pausing of DNA polymerase at the +(31–40) and +(41–65) regions of the nucleosomal DNA. The exonuclease activity of T7 DNA polymerase increases the overall rate of progression of the replisome through a nucleosome, likely by resolving nonproductive complexes. The presence of nucleosome-free DNA upstream of the replication fork facilitates the progression of DNA polymerase through the nucleosome. After replication, at least 50% of the nucleosomes assume an alternative conformation, maintaining their original positions on the DNA. Our data suggest a previously unpublished mechanism for nucleosome maintenance during replication, likely involving transient formation of an intranucleosomal DNA loop. PMID:27847876

  2. Health Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    Department of Defense DIRECTIVEAD-A269 638 , , AD-A29 638March 11, 1986 IIIIii!IN 111111111,11 Ii1111,111111[NUMBER 1010.10 SUBJECT: Health Promotion ...34 March 13, 1985 INC A. URPOSE SThis Directive establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military...civilian employees. C. DEFINITIONS 1. Health Promotion . Any combination of health education and related organizational, social, economic or health care

  3. Human HLTF mediates postreplication repair by its HIRAN domain-dependent replication fork remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Neculai, Dante; Juhasz, Szilvia; Morocz, Monika; Gali, Himabindu; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Venclovas, Česlovas; Haracska, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteins retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. In more general terms, we suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal. PMID:26350214

  4. Homologous recombination as a replication fork escort: fork-protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Costes, Audrey; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2012-12-27

    Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  5. Human HLTF mediates postreplication repair by its HIRAN domain-dependent replication fork remodelling

    DOE PAGES

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Neculai, Dante; ...

    2015-09-08

    Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteinsmore » retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. We suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal.« less

  6. Regulation of replication of lambda phage and lambda plasmid DNAs at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Gabig, M; Obuchowski, M; Srutkowska, S; Wegrzyn, G

    1998-06-01

    It was previously demonstrated that while lysogenic development of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli proceeds normally at low temperature (20-25 degrees C), lytic development is blocked under these conditions owing to the increased stability of the phage CII protein. This effect was proposed to be responsible for the increased stimulation of the pE promoter, which interferes with expression of the replication genes, leading to inhibition of phage DNA synthesis. Here we demonstrate that the burst size of phage lambda cIb2, which is incapable of lysogenic development, increases gradually over the temperature range from 20 to 37 degrees C, while no phage progeny are observed at 20 degrees C. Contrary to previous reports, it is possible to demonstrate that pE promoter activation by CII may be more efficient at lower temperature. Using density-shift experiments, we found that phage DNA replication is completely blocked at 20 degrees C. Phage growth was also inhibited in cells overexpressing cII, which confirms that CII is responsible for inhibition of phage DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that replication of plasmids derived from bacteriophage lambda is neither inhibited at 20 degrees C nor in cells overexpressing cII. We propose a model to explanation the differences in replication observed between lambda phage and lambda plasmid DNA at low temperature.

  7. The fork and the kinase: a DNA replication tale from a CHK1 perspective.

    PubMed

    González Besteiro, Marina A; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Replication fork progression is being continuously hampered by exogenously introduced and naturally occurring DNA lesions and other physical obstacles. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is activated at replication forks that encounter damaged DNA. Subsequently, Chk1 inhibits the initiation of new replication factories and stimulates the firing of dormant origins (those in the vicinity of stalled forks). Chk1 also avoids fork collapse into DSBs (double strand breaks) and promotes fork elongation. At the molecular level, the current model considers stalled forks as the site of Chk1 activation and the nucleoplasm as the location where Chk1 phosphorylates target proteins. This model certainly serves to explain how Chk1 modulates origin firing, but how Chk1 controls the fate of stalled forks is less clear. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrating that Chk1 phosphorylates chromatin-bound proteins and even holds kinase-independent functions might shed light on how Chk1 contributes to the elongation of damaged DNA. Indeed, such findings have unveiled a puzzling connection between Chk1 and DNA lesion bypass, which might be central to promoting fork elongation and checkpoint attenuation. In summary, Chk1 is a multifaceted and versatile signaling factor that acts at ongoing forks and replication origins to determine the extent and quality of the cellular response to replication stress.

  8. Human HLTF mediates postreplication repair by its HIRAN domain-dependent replication fork remodelling

    SciTech Connect

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Neculai, Dante; Juhasz, Szilvia; Morocz, Monika; Gali, Himabindu; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Venclovas, Česlovas; Haracska, Lajos

    2015-09-08

    Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteins retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. We suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal.

  9. Bridging from Replication to Translation with a Thermal, Autonomous Replicator Made from Transfer RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Möller, Friederike M.; Krammer, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    Central to the understanding of living systems is the interplay between DNA/RNA and proteins. Known as Eigen paradox, proteins require genetic information while proteins are needed for the replication of genes. RNA world scenarios focus on a base by base replication disconnected from translation. Here we used strategies from DNA machines to demonstrate a tight connection between a basic replication mechanism and translation. A pool of hairpin molecules replicate a two-letter code. The replication is thermally driven: the energy and negative entropy to drive replication is initially stored in metastable hairpins by kinetic cooling. Both are released by a highly specific and exponential replication reaction that is solely implemented by base hybridization. The duplication time is 30s. The reaction is monitored by fluorescence and described by a detailed kinetic model. The RNA hairpins usetransfer RNA sequences and the replication is driven by the simple disequilibrium setting of a thermal gradient The experiments propose a physical rather than a chemical scenario for the autonomous replication of protein encoding information. Supported by the NanoSystems Initiative Munich and ERC.

  10. LINEs of evidence: noncanonical DNA replication as an epigenetic determinant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are repetitive elements in mammalian genomes. They are capable of synthesizing DNA on their own RNA templates by harnessing reverse transcriptase (RT) that they encode. Abundantly expressed full-length L1s and their RT are found to globally influence gene expression profiles, differentiation state, and proliferation capacity of early embryos and many types of cancer, albeit by yet unknown mechanisms. They are essential for the progression of early development and the establishment of a cancer-related undifferentiated state. This raises important questions regarding the functional significance of L1 RT in these cell systems. Massive nuclear L1-linked reverse transcription has been shown to occur in mouse zygotes and two-cell embryos, and this phenomenon is purported to be DNA replication independent. This review argues against this claim with the goal of understanding the nature of this phenomenon and the role of L1 RT in early embryos and cancers. Available L1 data are revisited and integrated with relevant findings accumulated in the fields of replication timing, chromatin organization, and epigenetics, bringing together evidence that strongly supports two new concepts. First, noncanonical replication of a portion of genomic full-length L1s by means of L1 RNP-driven reverse transcription is proposed to co-exist with DNA polymerase-dependent replication of the rest of the genome during the same round of DNA replication in embryonic and cancer cell systems. Second, the role of this mechanism is thought to be epigenetic; it might promote transcriptional competence of neighboring genes linked to undifferentiated states through the prevention of tethering of involved L1s to the nuclear periphery. From the standpoint of these concepts, several hitherto inexplicable phenomena can be explained. Testing methods for the model are proposed. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Philip Zegerman (nominated by Dr. Orly Alter), Dr. I. King

  11. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran-Yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Huang, Bi-Jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-Min; Li, Li-Xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-Xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  12. Control of helicase loading in the coupled DNA replication and recombination systems of bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Branagan, Amy M; Klein, Jenny A; Jordan, Christian S; Morrical, Scott W

    2014-01-31

    The Gp59 protein of bacteriophage T4 promotes DNA replication by loading the replicative helicase, Gp41, onto replication forks and recombination intermediates. Gp59 also blocks DNA synthesis by Gp43 polymerase until Gp41 is loaded, ensuring that synthesis is tightly coupled to unwinding. The distinct polymerase blocking and helicase loading activities of Gp59 likely involve different binding interactions with DNA and protein partners. Here, we investigate how interactions of Gp59 with DNA and Gp32, the T4 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, are related to these activities. A previously characterized mutant, Gp59-I87A, exhibits markedly reduced affinity for ssDNA and pseudo-fork DNA substrates. We demonstrate that on Gp32-covered ssDNA, the DNA binding defect of Gp59-I87A is not detrimental to helicase loading and translocation. In contrast, on pseudo-fork DNA the I87A mutation is detrimental to helicase loading and unwinding in the presence or absence of Gp32. Other results indicate that Gp32 binding to lagging strand ssDNA relieves the blockage of Gp43 polymerase activity by Gp59, whereas the inhibition of Gp43 exonuclease activity is maintained. Our findings suggest that Gp59-Gp32 and Gp59-DNA interactions perform separate but complementary roles in T4 DNA metabolism; Gp59-Gp32 interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto D-loops, and other nucleoprotein structures containing clusters of Gp32. Gp59-DNA interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto nascent or collapsed replication forks lacking clusters of Gp32 and to coordinate bidirectional replication from T4 origins. The dual functionalities of Gp59 allow it to promote the initiation or re-start of DNA replication from a wide variety of recombination and replication intermediates.

  13. Cdt1 downregulation by proteolysis and geminin inhibition prevents DNA re-replication in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Li, Anatoliy; Blow, J Julian

    2005-01-26

    In late mitosis and G1, Mcm2-7 are assembled onto replication origins to 'license' them for initiation. At other cell cycle stages, licensing is inhibited, thus ensuring that origins fire only once per cell cycle. Three additional factors--the origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and Cdt1--are required for origin licensing. We examine here how licensing is regulated in Xenopus egg extracts. We show that Cdt1 is downregulated late in the cell cycle by two different mechanisms: proteolysis, which occurs in part due to the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), and inhibition by a protein called geminin. If both these regulatory mechanisms are abrogated, extracts undergo uncontrolled re-licensing and re-replication. The extent of re-replication is limited by checkpoint kinases that are activated as a consequence of re-replication itself. These results allow us to build a comprehensive model of how re-replication of DNA is prevented in Xenopus, with Cdt1 regulation being the key feature. The results also explain the original experiments that led to the proposal of a replication licensing factor.

  14. Inhibition of DNA replication and repair by anthralin or danthron in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-07-01

    The comparative effects of the tumor promoter anthralin and its analog, danthron, on semiconservative DNA replication and DNA repair synthesis were studied in cultured human cells. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as density label together with /sup 3/H-thymidine to distinguish replication from repair synthesis in isopycnic CsCl gradients. Anthralin at 1.1 microgram inhibited replication in T98G cells by 50%. In cells treated with 0.4 or 1.3 microM anthralin and additive effect was observed on the inhibition of replication by ultraviolet light (254 nm). In cells irradiated with 20 J/m2, 2.3 microM anthralin was required to inhibit repair synthesis by 50%. Thus there was no selective inhibitory effect of anthralin on repair synthesis. Danthron exhibited no detectable effect on either semiconservative replication or repair synthesis at concentrations below about 5.0 microM. Neither compound stimulated repair synthesis in the absence of ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, anthralin and danthron do not appear to react with DNA to form adducts that are subject to excision repair. Although both compounds appear to intercalate into supercoiled DNA in vitro to a limited extent, the degree of unwinding introduced by the respective drugs does not correlate with their relative effects on DNA synthesis in vivo. Therefore the inhibitory effect of anthralin on DNA replication and repair synthesis in T98G cells does not appear to result from the direct interaction of the drug with DNA.

  15. Increased global transcription activity as a mechanism of replication stress in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotsantis, Panagiotis; Silva, Lara Marques; Irmscher, Sarah; Jones, Rebecca M.; Folkes, Lisa; Gromak, Natalia; Petermann, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease associated with genomic instability that often results from oncogene activation. This in turn leads to hyperproliferation and replication stress. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie oncogene-induced replication stress are still poorly understood. Oncogenes such as HRASV12 promote proliferation by upregulating general transcription factors to stimulate RNA synthesis. Here we investigate whether this increase in transcription underlies oncogene-induced replication stress. We show that in cells overexpressing HRASV12, elevated expression of the general transcription factor TATA-box binding protein (TBP) leads to increased RNA synthesis, which together with R-loop accumulation results in replication fork slowing and DNA damage. Furthermore, overexpression of TBP alone causes the hallmarks of oncogene-induced replication stress, including replication fork slowing, DNA damage and senescence. Consequently, we reveal that increased transcription can be a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA damage, providing a molecular link between upregulation of the transcription machinery and genomic instability in cancer. PMID:27725641

  16. Increased global transcription activity as a mechanism of replication stress in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotsantis, Panagiotis; Silva, Lara Marques; Irmscher, Sarah; Jones, Rebecca M; Folkes, Lisa; Gromak, Natalia; Petermann, Eva

    2016-10-11

    Cancer is a disease associated with genomic instability that often results from oncogene activation. This in turn leads to hyperproliferation and replication stress. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie oncogene-induced replication stress are still poorly understood. Oncogenes such as HRAS(V12) promote proliferation by upregulating general transcription factors to stimulate RNA synthesis. Here we investigate whether this increase in transcription underlies oncogene-induced replication stress. We show that in cells overexpressing HRAS(V12), elevated expression of the general transcription factor TATA-box binding protein (TBP) leads to increased RNA synthesis, which together with R-loop accumulation results in replication fork slowing and DNA damage. Furthermore, overexpression of TBP alone causes the hallmarks of oncogene-induced replication stress, including replication fork slowing, DNA damage and senescence. Consequently, we reveal that increased transcription can be a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA damage, providing a molecular link between upregulation of the transcription machinery and genomic instability in cancer.

  17. Replication of a chronic hepatitis B virus genotype F1b construct.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sergio; Jiménez, Gustavo; Alarcón, Valentina; Prieto, Cristian; Muñoz, Francisca; Riquelme, Constanza; Venegas, Mauricio; Brahm, Javier; Loyola, Alejandra; Villanueva, Rodrigo A

    2016-03-01

    Genotype F is one of the less-studied genotypes of human hepatitis B virus, although it is widely distributed in regions of Central and South American. Our previous studies have shown that HBV genotype F is prevalent in Chile, and phylogenetic analysis of its full-length sequence amplified from the sera of chronically infected patients identified it as HBV subgenotype F1b. We have previously reported the full-length sequence of a HBV molecular clone obtained from a patient chronically infected with genotype F1b. In this report, we established a system to study HBV replication based on hepatoma cell lines transfected with full-length monomers of the HBV genome. Culture supernatants were analyzed after transfection and found to contain both HBsAg and HBeAg viral antigens. Consistently, fractionated cell extracts revealed the presence of viral replication, with both cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA intermediates. Analysis of HBV-transfected cells by indirect immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy revealed the expression of viral antigens and cytoplasmic viral particles, respectively. To test the functionality of the ongoing viral replication further at the level of chromatinized cccDNA, transfected cells were treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and this resulted in increased viral replication. This correlated with changes posttranslational modifications of histones at viral promoters. Thus, the development of this viral replication system for HBV genotype F will facilitate studies on the regulation of viral replication and the identification of new antiviral drugs.

  18. NEDDylation of PB2 Reduces Its Stability and Blocks the Replication of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tinghong; Ye, Zhen; Yang, Xiaohai; Qin, Yujie; Hu, Yi; Tong, Xiaomei; Lai, Wenbin; Ye, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of viral proteins play important roles in regulating viral replication. Here we demonstrated that the PB2 of influenza A virus (IAV) can be modified by NEDD8. We revealed that E3 ligase HDM2 can promote PB2 NEDDylation. Overexpression of either NEDD8 or HDM2 can inhibit IAV replication, while knockdown of HDM2 has the opposite effect. Then we identified residue K699 in PB2 as the major NEDDylation site. We found that NEDDylation deficient PB2 mutant (PB2 K699R) has a longer half-life than wild-type PB2, indicating that NEDDylation of PB2 reduces its stability. We generated an IAV mutant in which PB2 was mutated to PB2 K699R (WSN-PB2 K699R) and examined the replication of WSN and WSN-PB2 K699R viruses in both MDCK and A549 cells and found that the replication of WSN-PB2 K699R was more efficient than wild-type WSN. In addition, we observed that overexpression of NEDD8 significantly inhibited the replication of WSN, but not WSN-PB2 K699R. The infection assay in mice showed that WSN-PB2 K699R exhibited enhanced virulence in mice compared to WSN, suggesting that NEDDylation of PB2 reduced IAV replication in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NEDDylation of PB2 by HDM2 negatively regulates IAV infection. PMID:28252002

  19. A leucine zipper motif determines different functions in a DNA replication protein.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de Viedma, D; Giraldo, R; Rivas, G; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Diaz-Orejas, R

    1996-01-01

    RepA is the replication initiator protein of the Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10 and is also able to autoregulate its own synthesis. Here we report a genetic and functional analysis of a leucine zipper-like (LZ) motif located at the N-terminus of RepA. It is shown that the LZ motif modulates the equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms of the protein and that monomers of RepA interact with sequences at the origin of replication, oriV, while dimers are required for interactions of RepA at the repA promoter. Further, different residues of the LZ motif are seen to have different functional roles. Leucines at the d positions of the putative alpha-helix are relevant in the formation of RepA dimers required for transcriptional autoregulation. They also modulate other RepA-RepA interactions that result in cooperative binding of protein monomers to the origin of replication. The residues at the b/f positions of the putative helix play no relevant role in RepA-RepA interactions. These residues do not affect RepA autoregulation but do influence replication, as demonstrated by mutants that, without affecting binding to oriV, either increase the host range of the plasmid or are inactive in replication. It is proposed that residues in b/f positions play a relevant role in interactions between RepA and host replication factors. Images PMID:8631313

  20. Opposing Regulation of the EGF Receptor: A Molecular Switch Controlling Cytomegalovirus Latency and Replication.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Jason; Zeltzer, Sebastian; Reitsma, Justin; Petrucelli, Alex; Umashankar, Mahadevaiah; Rak, Mike; Zagallo, Patricia; Schroeder, Joyce; Terhune, Scott; Goodrum, Felicia

    2016-05-01

    Herpesviruses persist indefinitely in their host through complex and poorly defined interactions that mediate latent, chronic or productive states of infection. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV or HCMV), a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus, coordinates the expression of two viral genes, UL135 and UL138, which have opposing roles in regulating viral replication. UL135 promotes reactivation from latency and virus replication, in part, by overcoming replication-suppressive effects of UL138. The mechanism by which UL135 and UL138 oppose one another is not known. We identified viral and host proteins interacting with UL138 protein (pUL138) to begin to define the mechanisms by which pUL135 and pUL138 function. We show that pUL135 and pUL138 regulate the viral cycle by targeting that same receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is a major homeostatic regulator involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival, making it an ideal target for viral manipulation during infection. pUL135 promotes internalization and turnover of EGFR from the cell surface, whereas pUL138 preserves surface expression and activation of EGFR. We show that activated EGFR is sequestered within the infection-induced, juxtanuclear viral assembly compartment and is unresponsive to stress. Intriguingly, these findings suggest that CMV insulates active EGFR in the cell and that pUL135 and pUL138 function to fine-tune EGFR levels at the cell surface to allow the infected cell to respond to extracellular cues. Consistent with the role of pUL135 in promoting replication, inhibition of EGFR or the downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) favors reactivation from latency and replication. We propose a model whereby pUL135 and pUL138 together with EGFR comprise a molecular switch that regulates states of latency and replication in HCMV infection by regulating EGFR trafficking to fine tune EGFR signaling.

  1. Regulation and autoregulation of the promoter for the latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joseph H; Orvis, Joshua; Kim, Jong Wook; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Renne, Rolf; Dittmer, Dirk P

    2004-04-16

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 has been established as the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and certain AIDS-associated lymphomas. KSHV establishes latent infection in these tumors, invariably expressing high levels of the viral latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein. LANA is necessary and sufficient to maintain the KSHV episome. It also modulates viral and cellular transcription and has been implicated directly in oncogenesis because of its ability to bind to the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previously, we identified the LANA promoter (LANAp) and showed that it was positively regulated by LANA itself. Here, we present a detailed mutational analysis and define cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors for the core LANAp. We found that a downstream promoter element, TATA box, and GC box/Sp1 site at -29 are all individually required for activity. This architecture places LANAp into the small and unusual group of eukaryotic promoters that contain both the downstream promoter element and TATA element but lack a defined initiation site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that LANA regulates its own promoter via its C-terminal domain and does bind to a defined site within the core promoter.

  2. DNA Copy Number Control Through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jared T.; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; Verrijzer, C. Peter; Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.; Shloma, Victor V.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and to prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass-spec identification of SUUR associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through inhibition of replication fork progression. PMID:25437540

  3. Stable DNA replication: interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Kogoma, T

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at oriC, the origin of chromosome replication. E. coli cells possess at least three additional initiation systems for chromosome replication that are normally repressed but can be activated under certain specific conditions. These are termed the stable DNA replication systems. Inducible stable DNA replication (iSDR), which is activated by SOS induction, is proposed to be initiated from a D-loop, an early intermediate in homologous recombination. Thus, iSDR is a form of recombination-dependent DNA replication (RDR). Analysis of iSDR and RDR has led to the proposal that homologous recombination and double-strand break repair involve extensive semiconservative DNA replication. RDR is proposed to play crucial roles in homologous recombination, double-strand break repair, restoration of collapsed replication forks, and adaptive mutation. Constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR) is activated in mhA mutants deficient in RNase HI or in recG mutants deficient in RecG helicase. cSDR is proposed to be initiated from an R-loop that can be formed by the invasion of duplex DNA by an RNA transcript, which most probably is catalyzed by RecA protein. The third form of SDR is nSDR, which can be transiently activated in wild-type cells when rapidly growing cells enter the stationary phase. This article describes the characteristics of these alternative DNA replication forms and reviews evidence that has led to the formulation of the proposed models for SDR initiation mechanisms. The possible interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, DNA repair, and transcription is explored. PMID:9184011

  4. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  5. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  6. A Self-Replicating Ligase Ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Natasha; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    A self-replicating molecule directs the covalent assembly of component molecules to form a product that is of identical composition to the parent. When the newly formed product also is able to direct the assembly of product molecules, the self-replicating system can be termed autocatalytic. A self-replicating system was developed based on a ribozyme that catalyzes the assembly of additional copies of Itself through an RNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reaction. The R3C ligase ribozyme was redesigned so that it would ligate two substrates to generate an exact copy of itself, which then would behave in a similar manner. This self-replicating system depends on the catalytic nature of the RNA for the generation of copies. A linear dependence was observed between the initial rate of formation of new copies and the starting concentration of ribozyme, consistent with exponential growth. The autocatalytic rate constant was 0.011 per min, whereas the initial rate of reaction in the absence of pre-existing ribozyme was only 3.3 x 10(exp -11) M per min. Exponential growth was limited, however, because newly formed ribozyme molecules had greater difficulty forming a productive complex with the two substrates. Further optimization of the system may lead to the sustained exponential growth of ribozymes that undergo self-replication.

  7. COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:22662263

  8. The evolutionary ecology of molecular replicators.

    PubMed

    Nee, Sean

    2016-08-01

    By reasonable criteria, life on the Earth consists mainly of molecular replicators. These include viruses, transposons, transpovirons, coviruses and many more, with continuous new discoveries like Sputnik Virophage. Their study is inherently multidisciplinary, spanning microbiology, genetics, immunology and evolutionary theory, and the current view is that taking a unified approach has great power and promise. We support this with a new, unified, model of their evolutionary ecology, using contemporary evolutionary theory coupling the Price equation with game theory, studying the consequences of the molecular replicators' promiscuous use of each others' gene products for their natural history and evolutionary ecology. Even at this simple expository level, we can make a firm prediction of a new class of replicators exploiting viruses such as lentiviruses like SIVs, a family which includes HIV: these have been explicitly stated in the primary literature to be non-existent. Closely connected to this departure is the view that multicellular organism immunology is more about the management of chronic infections rather than the elimination of acute ones and new understandings emerging are changing our view of the kind of theatre we ourselves provide for the evolutionary play of molecular replicators. This study adds molecular replicators to bacteria in the emerging field of sociomicrobiology.

  9. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics.

  10. Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.

  11. Calsyntenin-1 mediates hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Tay, Enoch S E; Eyre, Nicholas S; Wu, Lindsay E; Beard, Michael R; Boo, Irene; Drummer, Heidi E; George, Jacob; Douglas, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome of 9.6 kb encodes only 10 proteins, and so is highly dependent on host hepatocyte factors to facilitate replication. We aimed to identify host factors involved in the egress of viral particles. By screening the supernatant of HCV-infected Huh7 cells using SILAC-based proteomics, we identified the transmembrane protein calsyntenin-1 as a factor specifically secreted by infected cells. Calsyntenin-1 has previously been shown to mediate transport of endosomes along microtubules in neurons, through interactions with kinesin light chain-1. Here we demonstrate for the first time, we believe, a similar role for calsyntenin-1 in Huh7 cells, mediating intracellular transport of endosomes. In HCV-infected cells we show that calsyntenin-1 contributes to the early stages of the viral replication cycle and the formation of the replication complex. Importantly, we demonstrate in our model that silencing calsyntenin-1 disrupts the viral replication cycle, confirming the reliance of HCV on this protein as a host factor. Characterizing the function of calsyntenin-1 will increase our understanding of the HCV replication cycle and pathogenesis, with potential application to other viruses sharing common pathways.

  12. Autophagy Negatively Regulates Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longjun; Yu, Haidong; Gu, Weihong; Luo, Xiaolei; Li, Ren; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Yunfei; Yang, Lijun; Shen, Nan; Feng, Li; Wang, Yue

    2016-03-31

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that has been shown to be important in the innate immune defense against several viruses. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replication. In this study, we found that TGEV infection increased the number of autophagosome-like double- and single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells, a phenomenon that is known to be related to autophagy. In addition, virus replication was required for the increased amount of the autophagosome marker protein LC3-II. Autophagic flux occurred in TGEV-infected cells, suggesting that TGEV infection triggered a complete autophagic response. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by wortmannin or LY294002, TGEV replication increased. The increase in virus yield via autophagy inhibition was further confirmed by the use of siRNA duplexes, through which three proteins required for autophagy were depleted. Furthermore, TGEV replication was inhibited when autophagy was activated by rapamycin. The antiviral response of autophagy was confirmed by using siRNA to reduce the expression of gene p300, which otherwise inhibits autophagy. Together, the results indicate that TGEV infection activates autophagy and that autophagy then inhibits further TGEV replication.

  13. Wolbachia modulates Chikungunya replication in Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Mousson, L; Martin, E; Zouache, K; Madec, Y; Mavingui, P; Failloux, A B

    2010-05-01

    The Aedes albopictus mosquito has been involved as the principal vector of recent major outbreaks due to the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The species is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia (wAlbA and wAlbB). Wolbachia infections are thought to have spread by manipulating the reproduction of their hosts; cytoplasmic incompatibility is the mechanism used by Wolbachia to invade natural populations of many insects including Ae. albopictus. Here, we report a study on the effects of removing Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus on CHIKV replication and examine the consequences of CHIKV infection on some life-history traits (survival and reproduction) of Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus. We found that Wolbachia-free mosquitoes maintained a highly heterogeneous CHIKV replication compared to Wolbachia-infected individuals. In Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus, the regular increase of CHIKV followed by a steady viral load from day 4 post-infection onwards was concomitant with a decline in Wolbachia density. This profile was also detected when examining the two key organs for viral transmission, the midgut and the salivary glands. Moreover, Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus was not altered in life-history traits such as survival, oviposition and hatching characteristics whether infected or not with CHIKV. We found that Wolbachia is not essential for viral replication, its presence could lead to optimize replication from day 4 post-infection onwards, coinciding with a decrease in Wolbachia density. Wolbachia may regulate viral replication in Ae. albopictus, with consequences on survival and reproduction.

  14. The evolutionary ecology of molecular replicators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    By reasonable criteria, life on the Earth consists mainly of molecular replicators. These include viruses, transposons, transpovirons, coviruses and many more, with continuous new discoveries like Sputnik Virophage. Their study is inherently multidisciplinary, spanning microbiology, genetics, immunology and evolutionary theory, and the current view is that taking a unified approach has great power and promise. We support this with a new, unified, model of their evolutionary ecology, using contemporary evolutionary theory coupling the Price equation with game theory, studying the consequences of the molecular replicators' promiscuous use of each others' gene products for their natural history and evolutionary ecology. Even at this simple expository level, we can make a firm prediction of a new class of replicators exploiting viruses such as lentiviruses like SIVs, a family which includes HIV: these have been explicitly stated in the primary literature to be non-existent. Closely connected to this departure is the view that multicellular organism immunology is more about the management of chronic infections rather than the elimination of acute ones and new understandings emerging are changing our view of the kind of theatre we ourselves provide for the evolutionary play of molecular replicators. This study adds molecular replicators to bacteria in the emerging field of sociomicrobiology. PMID:27853598

  15. [The effects of TorR protein on initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao; Jiaxin, Qiao; Jing, Li; Hui, Li; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-03-01

    The two-component systems, which could sense and respond to environmental changes, widely exist in bacteria as a signal transduction pathway. The bacterial CckA/CtrA, ArcA/ArcB and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems are associated with initiation of DNA replication and cell division, however, the effects of the TorS/TorR system on cell cycle and DNA replication remains unknown. The TorS/TorR system in Escherichia coli can sense changes in trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) concentration around the cells. However, it is unknown if it also affects initiation of DNA replication. We detected DNA replication patterns in ΔtorS and ΔtorR mutant strains by flow cytometry. We found that the average number of replication origins (oriCs) per cell and doubling time in ΔtorS mutants were the same while the average number of oriCs in ΔtorR mutants was increased compared with that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that absence of TorR led to an earlier initiation of DNA replication than that in wild-type cells. Strangely, neither overexpression of TorR nor co-expression of TorR and TorS could restore ΔtorR mutant phenotype to the wild type. However, overexpression of SufD in both wild type and ΔtorR mutants promoted initiation of DNA replication, while mutation of SufD delayed it in ΔtorR mutants. Thus, TorR may affect initiation of DNA replication indirectly through regulating gene expression of sufD.

  16. The Temporal Program of Chromosome Replication: Genomewide Replication in clb5Δ Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Heather J.; Danielson, Laura S.; Alvino, Gina M.; Collingwood, David; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal regulation of origin activation is widely thought to explain the pattern of early- and late-replicating domains in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Recently, single-molecule analysis of replication suggested that stochastic processes acting on origins with different probabilities of activation could generate the observed kinetics of replication without requiring an underlying temporal order. To distinguish between these possibilities, we examined a clb5Δ strain, where origin firing is largely limited to the first half of S phase, to ask whether all origins nonspecifically show decreased firing (as expected for disordered firing) or if only some origins (“late” origins) are affected. Approximately half the origins in the mutant genome show delayed replication while the remainder replicate largely on time. The delayed regions can encompass hundreds of kilobases and generally correspond to regions that replicate late in wild-type cells. Kinetic analysis of replication in wild-type cells reveals broad windows of origin firing for both early and late origins. Our results are consistent with a temporal model in which origins can show some heterogeneity in both time and probability of origin firing, but clustering of temporally like origins nevertheless yields a genome that is organized into blocks showing different replication times. PMID:18832352

  17. Replication factory activation can be decoupled from the replication timing program by modulating Cdk levels

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alexander M.; Gillespie, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In the metazoan replication timing program, clusters of replication origins located in different subchromosomal domains fire at different times during S phase. We have used Xenopus laevis egg extracts to drive an accelerated replication timing program in mammalian nuclei. Although replicative stress caused checkpoint-induced slowing of the timing program, inhibition of checkpoint kinases in an unperturbed S phase did not accelerate it. Lowering cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity slowed both replication rate and progression through the timing program, whereas raising Cdk activity increased them. Surprisingly, modest alteration of Cdk activity changed the amount of DNA synthesized during different stages of the timing program. This was associated with a change in the number of active replication factories, whereas the distribution of origins within active factories remained relatively normal. The ability of Cdks to differentially effect replication initiation, factory activation, and progression through the timing program provides new insights into the way that chromosomal DNA replication is organized during S phase. PMID:20083602

  18. Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication Compartments in a Transient DNA Replication System

    PubMed Central

    Swindle, C. Scott; Zou, Nianxiang; Van Tine, Brian A.; Shaw, George M.; Engler, Jeffrey A.; Chow, Louise T.

    1999-01-01

    Many DNA viruses replicate their genomes at nuclear foci in infected cells. Using indirect immunofluorescence in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we colocalized the human papillomavirus (HPV) replicating proteins E1 and E2 and the replicating origin-containing plasmid to nuclear foci in transiently transfected cells. The host replication protein A (RP-A) was also colocalized to these foci. These nuclear structures were identified as active sites of viral DNA synthesis by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-labeling. Unexpectedly, the great majority of RP-A and BrdU incorporation was found in these HPV replication domains. Furthermore, E1, E2, and RP-A were also colocalized to nuclear foci in the absence of an origin-containing plasmid. These observations suggest a spatial reorganization of the host DNA replication machinery upon HPV DNA replication or E1 and E2 expression. Alternatively, viral DNA replication might be targeted to host nuclear domains that are active during the late S phase, when such domains are limited in number. In a fraction of cells expressing E1 and E2, the promyelocytic leukemia protein, a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), was either partially or completely colocalized with E1 and E2. Since ND10 structures were recently hypothesized to be sites of bovine papillomavirus virion assembly, our observation suggests that HPV DNA amplification might be partially coupled to virion assembly. PMID:9882301

  19. Evolution of Database Replication Technologies for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena; Blaszczyk, Marcin; Dimitrov, Gancho; Canali, Luca

    2015-12-01

    In this article we summarize several years of experience on database replication technologies used at WLCG and we provide a short review of the available Oracle technologies and their key characteristics. One of the notable changes and improvement in this area in recent past has been the introduction of Oracle GoldenGate as a replacement of Oracle Streams. We report in this article on the preparation and later upgrades for remote replication done in collaboration with ATLAS and Tier 1 database administrators, including the experience from running Oracle GoldenGate in production. Moreover, we report on another key technology in this area: Oracle Active Data Guard which has been adopted in several of the mission critical use cases for database replication between online and offline databases for the LHC experiments.

  20. Transitions: The Evolution of Linguistic Replicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Simon

    Maynard Smith and Szathmáry (1995) propose a series of major transitions in the evolutionary history of life. Their work provides a rich framework for thinking about replication. They identified the importance of language in this light, but language is a new system of replication in more than one sense: it is both an enabler of cultural replicators with unlimited heredity, and also a new kind of evolutionary system itself. Iterated learning is the process of linguistic transmission, and it drives both language change and the transitions to qualitatively new kinds of linguistic system. By seeing language as an evolutionary system, the biggest payoff we get may be the ability to take biologists' insights into the evolution of life and apply them to the evolution of language.

  1. Portrait of replication stress viewed from telomeres.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Genetic instability is the driving force of the malignant progression of cancer cells. Recently, replication stress has attracted much attention as a source of genetic instability that gives rise to an accumulation of mutations during the lifespan of individuals. However, the molecular details of the process are not fully understood. Here, recent progress in understanding how genetic alterations accumulate at telomeres will be reviewed. In particular, two aspects of telomere replication will be discussed in this context, covering conventional semi-conservative replication, and DNA synthesis by telomerase plus the C-strand fill-in reactions. Although these processes are seemingly telomere-specific, I will emphasize the possibility that the molecular understanding of the telomere events may shed light on genetic instability at other genetic loci in general.

  2. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  3. DciA is an ancestral replicative helicase operator essential for bacterial replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Brézellec, Pierre; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Possoz, Christophe; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Ferat, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of the replicative helicase onto DNA is an essential step in the initiation of replication. In bacteria, DnaC (in Escherichia coli) and DnaI (in Bacillus subtilis) are representative of the two known mechanisms that assist the replicative helicase at this stage. Here, we establish that these two strategies cannot be regarded as prototypical of the bacterial domain since dnaC and dnaI (dna[CI]) are present in only a few bacterial phyla. We show that dna[CI] was domesticated at least seven times through evolution in bacteria and at the expense of one gene, which we rename dciA (dna[CI] antecedent), suggesting that DciA and Dna[CI] share a common function. We validate this hypothesis by establishing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that DciA possesses the attributes of the replicative helicase-operating proteins associated with replication initiation. PMID:27830752

  4. The Replication Fork: Understanding the Eukaryotic Replication Machinery and the Challenges to Genome Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must accurately and efficiently duplicate their genomes during each round of the cell cycle. Multiple linear chromosomes, an abundance of regulatory elements, and chromosome packaging are all challenges that the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery must successfully overcome. The replication machinery, the “replisome” complex, is composed of many specialized proteins with functions in supporting replication by DNA polymerases. Efficient replisome progression relies on tight coordination between the various factors of the replisome. Further, replisome progression must occur on less than ideal templates at various genomic loci. Here, we describe the functions of the major replisome components, as well as some of the obstacles to efficient DNA replication that the replisome confronts. Together, this review summarizes current understanding of the vastly complicated task of replicating eukaryotic DNA. PMID:23599899

  5. Plasmid Replication Control by Antisense RNAs.

    PubMed

    Brantl, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    Plasmids are selfish genetic elements that normally constitute a burden for the bacterial host cell. This burden is expected to favor plasmid loss. Therefore, plasmids have evolved mechanisms to control their replication and ensure their stable maintenance. Replication control can be either mediated by iterons or by antisense RNAs. Antisense RNAs work through a negative control circuit. They are constitutively synthesized and metabolically unstable. They act both as a measuring device and a regulator, and regulation occurs by inhibition. Increased plasmid copy numbers lead to increasing antisense-RNA concentrations, which, in turn, result in the inhibition of a function essential for replication. On the other hand, decreased plasmid copy numbers entail decreasing concentrations of the inhibiting antisense RNA, thereby increasing the replication frequency. Inhibition is achieved by a variety of mechanisms, which are discussed in detail. The most trivial case is the inhibition of translation of an essential replication initiator protein (Rep) by blockage of the rep-ribosome binding site. Alternatively, ribosome binding to a leader peptide mRNA whose translation is required for efficient Rep translation can be prevented by antisense-RNA binding. In 2004, translational attenuation was discovered. Antisense-RNA-mediated transcriptional attenuation is another mechanism that has, so far, only been detected in plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria. ColE1, a plasmid that does not need a plasmid-encoded replication initiator protein, uses the inhibition of primer formation. In other cases, antisense RNAs inhibit the formation of an activator pseudoknot that is required for efficient Rep translation.

  6. Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Filomena; Stoilov, Peter; Lingwood, Clifford; Brown, Martha; Cochrane, Alan

    2017-02-01

    The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yields of four human adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, -B35, and -C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2 to 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein hexon is compromised. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favoring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on the continued presence of the drug and was rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin and digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.

  7. Entropy Involved in Fidelity of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the framework of the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. Here, we introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorporation of the nucleotides. The copied strand is, to first order of approximation, a state of independent and non-indentically distributed random variables for which the nucleotide that is incorporated by the polymerase at each step is dictated by the template strand, and to second order of approximation, a state of non-uniformly distributed random variables with nearest-neighbor interactions for which the recognition of secondary structure by the polymerase in the resultant double-stranded polymer determines the entropy of the replicated strand. Two incorporation mechanisms arise naturally and their biological meanings are explained. It is known that replication occurs far from equilibrium and therefore the Shannon entropy here derived represents an upper bound for replication to take place. Likewise, this entropy sets a universal lower bound for the copying fidelity in replication. PMID:22912695

  8. Selectivity of ORC binding sites and the relation to replication timing, fragile sites, and deletions in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Benoit; Ji, Zhe; Struhl, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) binds sites from which DNA replication is initiated. We address ORC binding selectivity in vivo by mapping ∼52,000 ORC2 binding sites throughout the human genome. The ORC binding profile is broader than those of sequence-specific transcription factors, suggesting that ORC is not bound or recruited to specific DNA sequences. Instead, ORC binds nonspecifically to open (DNase I-hypersensitive) regions containing active chromatin marks such as H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation. ORC sites in early and late replicating regions have similar properties, but there are far more ORC sites in early replicating regions. This suggests that replication timing is due primarily to ORC density and stochastic firing of origins. Computational simulation of stochastic firing from identified ORC sites is in accord with replication timing data. Large genomic regions with a paucity of ORC sites are strongly associated with common fragile sites and recurrent deletions in cancers. We suggest that replication origins, replication timing, and replication-dependent chromosome breaks are determined primarily by the genomic distribution of activator proteins at enhancers and promoters. These activators recruit nucleosome-modifying complexes to create the appropriate chromatin structure that allows ORC binding and subsequent origin firing. PMID:27436900

  9. BPIFB3 Regulates Autophagy and Coxsackievirus B Replication through a Noncanonical Pathway Independent of the Core Initiation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Morosky, Stefanie; Bomberger, Jennifer; Stolz, Donna B.; Jackson, William T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteroviruses require autophagy to facilitate the formation of autophagosome (AP)-like double-membrane vesicles that provide the scaffolding for RNA replication. Here, we identify bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) fold-containing family B, member 3 (BPIFB3) as a gene whose silencing greatly enhances coxsackievirus B (CVB) replication and induces dramatic alterations in the morphology of CVB-induced replication organelles. We show that BPIFB3 is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and its silencing by RNA interference enhances basal levels of autophagy and promotes increased autophagy during CVB replication. Conversely, overexpression of BPIFB3 inhibits CVB replication, dramatically alters the morphology of LC3B-positive vesicles, and suppresses autophagy in response to rapamaycin. In addition, we found that, whereas silencing of core autophagy components associated with the initiation of APs in control cells suppressed CVB replication, silencing of these same components had no effect on CVB-induced autophagy or viral replication in cells transfected with BPIFB3 small interfering RNA. Based on these results, taken together, this study reports on a previously uncharacterized regulator of enterovirus infection that controls replication through a noncanonical pathway independent from the core autophagy initiation machinery. PMID:25491355

  10. Direct visualization of replication dynamics in early zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Okochi, Nanami; Hattori, Kaede; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Tamaru, Yutaka; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed DNA replication in early zebrafish embryos. The replicating DNA of whole embryos was labeled with the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and spatial regulation of replication sites was visualized in single embryo-derived cells. The results unveiled uncharacterized replication dynamics during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

  11. Overexpression of multisubunit replication factors in yeast.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M

    1999-07-01

    Facile genetic and biochemical manipulation coupled with rapid cell growth and low cost of growth media has established the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a versatile workhorse. This article describes the use of yeast expression systems for the overproduction of complex multipolypeptide replication factors. The regulated overexpression of these factors in yeast provides for a readily accessible and inexpensive source of these factors in large quantities. The methodology is illustrated with the five-subunit replication factor C. Whole-cell extracts are prepared by blending yeast cells with glass beads or frozen yeast with dry ice. Procedures are described that maximize the yield of these factors while minimizing proteolytic degradation.

  12. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Larasati; Duncker, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7) kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4)—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7). DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53) checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1) domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3) roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7) to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1. PMID:28025497

  13. Transient fibril structures facilitating nonenzymatic self-replication.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Boris; Wagner, Nathaniel; Matmor, Maayan; Regev, Oren; Ashkenasy, Nurit; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2012-09-25

    An emerging new direction of research focuses on developing "self-synthesizing materials", those supramolecular structures that can promote their own formation by accelerating the synthesis of building blocks and/or an entire assembly. It was postulated recently that practical design of such systems can benefit from the ability to control the assembly of amphiphilic molecules into nanostructures. We describe here the self-assembly pathway of short amphiphilic peptides into various forms of soluble β-sheet structures--β-plates, fibrils, and hollow nanotubes--and their consequent activity as autocatalysts for the synthesis of monomeric peptides from simpler building blocks. A detailed kinetic analysis of both the self-assembly and self-replication processes allows us to suggest a full model and simulate the replication process, revealing that only specific structures, primarily fibrils that are stable within the solution for a time shorter than a few hours, can be active as catalysts. Interestingly, we have found that such a process also induces fibril reproduction, in a mechanism very similar to the propagation of prion proteins by transmission of misfolded states.

  14. CDK1 phosphorylates WRN at collapsed replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Valentina; Rinalducci, Sara; Sanchez, Massimo; Grillini, Francesca; Sommers, Joshua A.; Brosh, Robert M.; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of end-processing is critical for accurate repair and to switch between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). End resection is a two-stage process but very little is known about regulation of the long-range resection, especially in humans. WRN participates in one of the two alternative long-range resection pathways mediated by DNA2 or EXO1. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of WRN by CDK1 is essential to perform DNA2-dependent end resection at replication-related DSBs, promoting HR, replication recovery and chromosome stability. Mechanistically, S1133 phosphorylation of WRN is dispensable for relocalization in foci but is involved in the interaction with the MRE11 complex. Loss of WRN phosphorylation negatively affects MRE11 foci formation and acts in a dominant negative manner to prevent long-range resection altogether, thereby licensing NHEJ at collapsed forks. Collectively, we unveil a CDK1-dependent regulation of the WRN-DNA2-mediated resection and identify an undescribed function of WRN as a DSB repair pathway switch. PMID:27634057

  15. Host membrane proteins involved in the replication of tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Shuhei; Katoh, Etsuko; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-12-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication complexes composed of viral replication proteins and negative-strand RNA templates. These replication proteins are programmed to exhibit RNA polymerase and other replication-related activities only in replication complexes to avoid inducing double-stranded RNA-mediated host defenses. Host membrane components (e.g. proteins and lipids) should play important roles in the activation of replication proteins. Two host membrane proteins are components of the replication complex and activate the replication proteins of tobamoviruses. Interaction analyses using deletion mutants constructed based on structural information suggest a conformational change in replication proteins during the formation of a protein complex with RNA 5'-capping activity.

  16. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  18. Bovine Papillomavirus Replicative Helicase E1 Is a Target of the Ubiquitin Ligase APC

    PubMed Central

    Mechali, Francisca; Hsu, Chiung-Yueh; Castro, Anna; Lorca, Thierry; Bonne-Andrea, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The papillomavirus E1 replicative helicase is essential for replication and maintenance of extrachromosomal viral genomes in infected cells. We previously found that the bovine papillomavirus E1 protein is a substrate of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Here we show that E1 is targeted for degradation by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Inhibition of APC activity by the specific inhibitor Emi1 or point mutations in the D-box and KEN-box motifs of E1 stabilize the protein and increase viral DNA replication in both a cell-free system and in living cells. These findings involve APC as the ubiquitin ligase that controls E1 levels to maintain a constant low copy number of the viral genome during latent infection. PMID:14963168

  19. Homologous recombination restarts blocked replication forks at the expense of genome rearrangements by template exchange.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sarah; Mizuno, Ken'ichi; Blaisonneau, Joël; Martineau, Sylvain; Chanet, Roland; Fréon, Karine; Murray, Johanne M; Carr, Antony M; Baldacci, Giuseppe

    2010-08-13

    Template switching induced by stalled replication forks has recently been proposed to underlie complex genomic rearrangements. However, the resulting models are not supported by robust physical evidence. Here, we analyzed replication and recombination intermediates in a well-defined fission yeast system that blocks replication forks. We show that, in response to fork arrest, chromosomal rearrangements result from Rad52-dependent nascent strand template exchange occurring during fork restart. This template exchange occurs by both Rad51-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We demonstrate that Rqh1, the BLM homolog, limits Rad51-dependent template exchange without affecting fork restart. In contrast, we report that the Srs2 helicase promotes both fork restart and template exchange. Our data demonstrate that template exchange occurs during recombination-dependent fork restart at the expense of genome rearrangements.

  20. Eukaryotic Replicative Helicase Subunit Interaction with DNA and Its Role in DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Matthew P; Wacker, Amanda L; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2017-04-06

    The replicative helicase unwinds parental double-stranded DNA at a replication fork to provide single-stranded DNA templates for the replicative polymerases. In eukaryotes, the replicative helicase is composed of the Cdc45 protein, the heterohexameric ring-shaped Mcm2-7 complex, and the tetrameric GINS complex (CMG). The CMG proteins bind directly to DNA, as demonstrated by experiments with purified proteins. The mechanism and function of these DNA-protein interactions are presently being investigated, and a number of important discoveries relating to how the helicase proteins interact with DNA have been reported recently. While some of the protein-DNA interactions directly relate to the unwinding function of the enzyme complex, other protein-DNA interactions may be important for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) loading, origin melting or replication stress. This review describes our current understanding of how the eukaryotic replicative helicase subunits interact with DNA structures in vitro, and proposed models for the in vivo functions of replicative helicase-DNA interactions are also described.

  1. Projector Center: Replication, Transcription, and Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Edward B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the use of a chart that systematically summarizes three basic steps that involve DNA and its decoding in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: replication; transcription, and translation. Indicates that the chart (mounted on a tranparency) does an adequate job of conveying basic information about nucleic acids to students. (DH)

  2. Replication of biotinylated human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Belshan, Michael; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated recently the adaptation of the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA - biotin acceptor sequence (BAS) labeling system to produce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viruses with biotinylated integrase (NLXIN(B)) and matrix (NLXMA(B)) proteins (Belshan et al., 2009). This report describes the construction of an HIV permissive cell line stably expressing BirA (SupT1.BirA). Consistent with the results in the previous report, NLXMA(B) replicated similar to wild-type levels and expressed biotinylated Gag and MA proteins in the SupT1.BirA cells, whereas the replication of NLXIN(B) was reduced severely. Three additional HIV type 2 (HIV-2) viruses were constructed with the BAS inserted into the vpx and vpr accessory genes. Two BAS insertions were made into the C-terminal half of the Vpx, including one internal insertion, and one at the N-terminus of Vpr. All three viruses were replication competent in the SupT1.BirA cells and their target proteins biotinylated efficiently and incorporated into virions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the biotinylation system to label and capture HIV protein complexes in the context of replicating virus.

  3. Conformational Dynamics in DNA Replication Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieba, Luis G.

    2007-11-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases are remarkable molecular machines that carry out DNA synthesis accordingly to the Watson and Crick rules (Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine with Thymidine) with high specificity or fidelity. The biochemical mechanism that dictates polymerase fidelity has its fundaments in the tight active site of replicative polymerases and the shape and size of the Watson-Crick base pairs. Pre-steady state kinetic analysis have shown that during polymerase nucleotide addition, the chemical reaction is not the rate limiting step and it was postulated that DNA polymerases suffer a conformational change from an "open" to a "closed" conformation before chemistry which is also the step responsible for their high fidelity. Crystal structures of replicative DNA polymerases demonstrated that the fingers subdomain suffers a large conformational change during catalysis and that this conformational transition aligns the polymerase active site in a proper conformation for catalysis. Recent studies using single molecule techniques and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis also shown that at least in the case of T7 DNA polymerase, the closure of the fingers subdomain is in part the rate limiting step associated with the high fidelity of DNA polymerases, although the overall fidelity of the reaction maybe involves an assemble of chemical steps and several conformational changes. Our current knowledge indicates that the mechanisms of enzyme specificity in DNA replication involve several energy landscapes that maybe correlated with conformational changes and active site assemblies.

  4. The Intergenerational Caregiving Program: A Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marlene Cresci; And Others

    The Intergenerational Caregiving Program (ICP), a year long educational experience in human development and child care for older adults, is described in this replication manual. In its first year of operation, the ICP recruited older, usually retired adults from agencies and organizations in San Francisco that serve older people. The 22 older…

  5. The Replication Stress Response in Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    replication and/or DNA damage responses, including FANCI , BRCA2, PKP2, and CTBP2, demonstrating that our screen can yield genes involved in the RSR. We...pii] 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.06.021 (2009). 5. Smogorzewska, A. et al. Identification of the FANCI protein, a monoubiquitinated FANCD2 paralog

  6. Replicating Direction Service: A Hand Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA. Midwest Regional Resource Center.

    The handbook details planning and development of a direction service center (DSC), an agency which matches the needs of handicapped persons with appropriate services. A replication sequence, based upon practices of the Jackson County, Missouri, Direction Service Center, is discussed for the following six areas: development of a resource…