Science.gov

Sample records for promoting safe seafood

  1. 78 FR 21911 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Seafood Promotion; Correction AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... 20092) on the proposed information collection, Fish and Seafood Promotion. The information under...

  2. 78 FR 20092 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Seafood Promotion AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... collection. Under the authority of the Fish and Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, information collected under... organization applying for consideration to form a seafood promotion council, and (2) the information...

  3. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  5. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  6. [Seafood transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Feldhusen, F

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews seafood related bacterial, viral and parasitological hazards for consumers worldwide. Seafood from Europe is generally regarded as safe. Food safety risks associated with aquaculture products results from contamination with biological agents, which are greater in freshwater and coastal ecosystems than in open seas. Due to the consumption conditions and the intensive investigations of imported products with contamination of pathogenic bacteria there are little seafood risks in Europe. Viral infections are associated with consumption of raw or recontaminated shellfish. There has been speculation that more than 50% of the outbreaks of unknown aethiology are due to viruses. Foodborne parasitic hazards are associated with the consumption of raw (sushi) or insufficiently heated, marinated and salted seafood.

  7. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  8. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  9. [Community health building: the safe community promotion experience].

    PubMed

    Pai, Lu

    2011-02-01

    Safety and health promotion at the community level involves special concerns and approaches. A community may develop into a safe community or healthy city depending on the focus of relevant promotion efforts. Neither area nor population size should be factors affecting an initial decision to start safe community or healthy city programs. However, one should consider the diversity of issues that may have the potential impact on people with different gender and age or on different environments and situations, and whether a planned program is sustainable. While safe communities and healthy cities may be linked to international networks, the qualifications for joining such networks differ. The Healthy City Alliance emphasizes outcome measures and the International Safe Community Network emphasizes the appropriateness of sustainability mechanisms. While Taiwan communities are eligible for designation as international safe communities, they may are eligible for associate membership only in the Healthy City Alliance. The author has the following recommendations with regard to sustainability in community health building in Taiwan: 1) The relevant infrastructure must involve both public and private sectors; 2) The community should try to receive financial support from diverse sources; 3) involve significant numbers of active volunteers; and 4) charge local health centers with data collection and analysis responsibilities.

  10. Effectiveness of Interventions to Promote Safe Firearm Storage.

    PubMed

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Simonetti, Joseph A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2016-01-01

    Despite supportive evidence for an association between safe firearm storage and lower risk of firearm injury, the effectiveness of interventions that promote such practices remains unclear. Guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist, we conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-experimental controlled studies of safe firearm storage interventions using a prespecified search of 9 electronic databases with no restrictions on language, year, or location from inception through May 27, 2015. Study selection and data extraction were independently performed by 2 investigators. The Cochrane Collaboration's domain-specific tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. Seven clinic- and community-based studies published in 2000-2012 using counseling with or without safety device provision met the inclusion criteria. All 3 studies that provided a safety device significantly improved firearm storage practices, while 3 of 4 studies that provided no safety device failed to show an effect. Heterogeneity of studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis. We discuss methodological considerations, gaps in the literature, and recommendations for conducting future studies. Although additional studies are needed, the totality of evidence suggests that counseling augmented by device provision can effectively encourage individuals to store their firearms safely. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Metal(loid) contamination in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Chiocchetti, Gabriela; Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2017-11-22

    Seafood products are important sources of proteins, polyunsaturated lipids and phospholipids, and also of numerous micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). However, they may also present chemical contaminants that can constitute a health risk and that must be considered when evaluating the risk/benefit associated with consumption of this group of foods. Toxic metals and metalloids in seafood, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb), are subjected to legislative control in order to provide the consumer with safe seafood. This review provides an exhaustive survey of the occurrence of these toxic metal(loid)s in seafood products, and of the risk resulting from their consumption. Consideration is given to aspects related to speciation, food processing, and bioavailability, which are key factors in evaluating the risk associated with the presence of these toxic trace elements in seafood products.

  12. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  13. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  14. Developing a state-wide infrastructure for safe sleep promotion.

    PubMed

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Schunn, Christy; Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Kuhlmann, Zachary; Engel, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Sleep-related deaths are the third leading cause of infant death in Kansas. This manuscript describes implementation of an infrastructure of regional trainers to educate on the American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep recommendations. Prospective evaluation of training program on knowledge transfer. Instructors were recruited from throughout the state of Kansas and trained to provide safe sleep education in their communities. Instructors were a mix of healthcare workers and community members. Their trainees encompassed both professionals and caregivers. Instructors attended a 2-day training, including completing 18-item pre and post-training knowledge tests, a training evaluation survey, and performing a portion of the structured safe sleep presentation and crib demonstration for feedback. Instructors were evaluated before and after training. After conducting trainings in their region, instructors submitted trainees' pre and post-test results. Scores were compared using t-test. Twenty-three instructors were trained. Scores averaged 13.5 (SD=2.4) for the pre-test and 15.3 (SD=2.4) for the post-test. Those scoring <80% post-training (n=6) received additional instruction. In the subsequent year, 13 trainers provided safe sleep education at 21 events to a total of 378 trainees. Trainee scores averaged 11.4 (SD=2.7) on the pre-test and increased to 13.9 (SD=2.5) on the post-test (P<.001). Findings were consistent when adjusting for variation between individual trainers. Safe sleep instructors can be trained to disseminate safe sleep guidelines; however, only half provided at least 1 training within 1 year. Future recommendations include over-recruiting potential instructors, incorporating trainings into existing positions or otherwise incentivizing trainers. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting Safe Schools and Healthy Students in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Janet; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen; Lang, Joann

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative currently underway in the Tyrone Area School District. The goals of the SS/HS Initiative involve reducing risk and building competencies for students and their families through integration of law enforcement and mental health into school-based prevention efforts. Program evaluation is…

  16. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  17. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  18. The need for culturally safe physical activity promotion and programs.

    PubMed

    Giles, Audrey R; Darroch, Francine E

    2014-05-30

    Cultural safety is an approach currently used in health care that is meant to address health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples and colonizing practices in health care. It has been found to empower patient decision-making and result in a relationship where patients and providers work together towards effective care. In this commentary, we argue that such an approach needs to be employed in physical activity promotion and programs as another way of addressing health disparities that continue to exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada. Further, we assert that cultural safety can address the critiques that have been made of attempts to use cultural sensitivity, cultural relevancy, and cultural competency training for physical activity providers and in implementing physical activity programs. Cultural safety in physical activity promotion and programs is not only an ethical practice, but also one that has the potential to significantly improve the health of Indigenous peoples, which could lead to related improvements in quality of life, lowering rates of morbidity and mortality, and resulting in considerable savings to the health care sector.

  19. The Safe Kindergarten: Promotion of Communication and Social Skills among Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Shlak, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The study evaluated the "safe kindergarten" program designed to promote kindergartners' communication and social skills based on principles of Imago marital and family counseling (H. Hendrix, 1990). Participants were 92 kindergartners from 4 kindergartens (intervention = 46; comparison = 46). Teachers in intervention…

  20. Seafood Safety and Quality: The Consumer’s Role

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Doris T.

    2016-01-01

    All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer to eat than, other foods. When you hear “seafood safety”, think of a safety net designed to protect you, the consumer, from food-borne illness. Every facet of the seafood industry, from harvester to consumer, plays a role in holding up the safety net. The role of state and federal agencies, fishermen, aquaculturists, retailers, processors, restaurants, and scientists is to provide, update, and carry out the necessary handling, processing, and inspection procedures to give consumers the safest seafood possible. The consumer’s responsibility is to follow through with proper handling techniques, from purchase to preparation. It doesn’t matter how many regulations and inspection procedures are set up; the final edge of the safety net is held by the consumer. This article will give you the information you need to educate yourself and be assured that the fish and shellfish you consume are safe. The most common food-borne illnesses are caused by a combination of bacteria naturally present in our environment and food handling errors made in commercial settings, food service institutions, or at home. PMID:28231165

  1. Seafood intake of US adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) for health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet guidelines, particularly population subgroups. Objectives: To describe prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers,...

  2. Promoting safe walking and biking to school: the Marin County success story.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Catherine E; Hubsmith, Deb; Kallins, Wendi

    2003-09-01

    Walking and biking to school can be an important part of a healthy lifestyle, yet most US children do not start their day with these activities. The Safe Routes to School Program in Marin County, California, is working to promote walking and biking to school. Using a multipronged approach, the program identifies and creates safe routes to schools and invites communitywide involvement. By its second year, the program was serving 4665 students in 15 schools. Participating public schools reported an increase in school trips made by walking (64%), biking (114%), and carpooling (91%) and a decrease in trips by private vehicles carrying only one student (39%).

  3. Seafood Products Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Hebard, Chieko E., Ed.

    This guide presents practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafood. The material can be used in several ways: as a seafood products program and teaching guide for home economics teachers, home demonstration club leaders, and extension agents; as a practical guide to the selection and preparation of seafood for consumers; and…

  4. Seafood Products Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Hebard, Chieko E., Ed.

    This guide presents practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafood. The material can be used in several ways: as a seafood products program and teaching guide for home economics teachers, home demonstration club leaders, and extension agents; as a practical guide to the selection and preparation of seafood for consumers; and…

  5. The Potential of Behavioral Economics to Promote Safe Infant Sleep Practices.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the potential of six Behavioral Economics (BE) concepts for promoting infant safe sleep practices. The rate of sleep-related deaths has not decreased over the last decade. It may be time to consider a novel paradigm to address this public health concern. BE has not yet been specifically considered for encouraging safe infant sleep practices. Methods This commentary features an integration of behavioral economic concepts and findings from the infant safe sleep literature. Results Six BE concepts-salience, choice overload, loss aversion, social norms, framing, and the identifiable victim effect- were identified for their potential in developing novel interventions for reducing sleep-related deaths during the first year of life. Conclusions BE strategies differ significantly from non-BE approaches for this public health concern. BE strategies appear feasible for widespread dissemination should they ultimately be efficacious.

  6. Parental perceptions and dietary adherence in children with seafood allergy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ian E; Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S; Campbell, Dianne E

    2011-11-01

    Allergy to seafood (fish, mollusc and crustacean) is increasing and is now a leading cause of food anaphylaxis, but there is only limited data on the impact of seafood allergy on affected children and their families. We assessed dietary adherence and perceptions of seafood allergy amongst the parents of 94 children presenting to a specialist allergy clinic with proven seafood allergy, by means of a postal questionnaire and cross-referencing the data obtained to clinical records. One-quarter of parents were unable to correctly recall the dietary advice provided. Nonetheless 89% of parents implemented a safe diet, but over half followed a more stringent elimination than that recommended. One-fifth of the children had subsequent allergic reactions to seafood after diagnosis, and these were generally a result of accidental rather than intentional exposure or cross-contamination. Provision of an adrenaline auto-injector device was associated with increased adherence to dietary advice. Oral food challenges had a beneficial effect on parental perceptions and were helpful to parents in managing their child's allergy. Seafood allergy has a significant adverse effect on anxiety and stress in the families of affected children. Parental recall of dietary advice is variable and many tend to impose more stringent dietary avoidance than that recommended. Despite this, subsequent accidental reactions are common. Thus, the avoidance of seafood in children may be more difficult than often presumed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  8. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector.

  9. 21 CFR 102.54 - Seafood cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seafood cocktails. 102.54 Section 102.54 Food and... § 102.54 Seafood cocktails. The common or usual name of a seafood cocktail in package form fabricated with one or more seafood ingredients shall be: (a) When the cocktail contains only one seafood...

  10. 21 CFR 102.54 - Seafood cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seafood cocktails. 102.54 Section 102.54 Food and... § 102.54 Seafood cocktails. The common or usual name of a seafood cocktail in package form fabricated with one or more seafood ingredients shall be: (a) When the cocktail contains only one seafood...

  11. 21 CFR 102.54 - Seafood cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seafood cocktails. 102.54 Section 102.54 Food and... § 102.54 Seafood cocktails. The common or usual name of a seafood cocktail in package form fabricated with one or more seafood ingredients shall be: (a) When the cocktail contains only one seafood...

  12. 21 CFR 102.54 - Seafood cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seafood cocktails. 102.54 Section 102.54 Food and... § 102.54 Seafood cocktails. The common or usual name of a seafood cocktail in package form fabricated with one or more seafood ingredients shall be: (a) When the cocktail contains only one seafood...

  13. 21 CFR 102.54 - Seafood cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seafood cocktails. 102.54 Section 102.54 Food and... § 102.54 Seafood cocktails. The common or usual name of a seafood cocktail in package form fabricated with one or more seafood ingredients shall be: (a) When the cocktail contains only one seafood...

  14. Seafood and Water Management.

    PubMed

    van Ruth, Saskia M; Brouwer, Erwin; Koot, Alex; Wijtten, Michiel

    2014-12-05

    Seafood is an important food source for many. Consumers should be entitled to an informed choice, and there is growing concern about correct composition labeling of seafood. Due to its high price, it has been shown to be vulnerable to adulteration. In the present study, we focus on moisture levels in seafood. Moisture and crude protein contents of chilled and frozen cod, pangasius, salmon, shrimp and tilapia purchased from various retail outlets in the Netherlands were examined by reference methods and the values of which were compared with the reported data from other studies in literature. Significant differences in proximate composition were determined for different species and between chilled and frozen products of the same species. Pangasius products showed the highest moisture contents in general (86.3 g/100 g), and shrimp products revealed the largest differences between chilled and frozen products. Comparison with literature values and good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards exposed that, generally, chilled pangasius, frozen pangasius and frozen shrimp products presented considerably higher moisture and lower crude protein/nitrogen contents than those found in other studies. From the GMP standards, extraneous water was estimated on average at 26 g/100 g chilled pangasius product, and 25 and 34 g/100 g product for frozen shrimp and pangasius products, respectively.

  15. Seafood and Water Management

    PubMed Central

    van Ruth, Saskia M.; Brouwer, Erwin; Koot, Alex; Wijtten, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Seafood is an important food source for many. Consumers should be entitled to an informed choice, and there is growing concern about correct composition labeling of seafood. Due to its high price, it has been shown to be vulnerable to adulteration. In the present study, we focus on moisture levels in seafood. Moisture and crude protein contents of chilled and frozen cod, pangasius, salmon, shrimp and tilapia purchased from various retail outlets in the Netherlands were examined by reference methods and the values of which were compared with the reported data from other studies in literature. Significant differences in proximate composition were determined for different species and between chilled and frozen products of the same species. Pangasius products showed the highest moisture contents in general (86.3 g/100 g), and shrimp products revealed the largest differences between chilled and frozen products. Comparison with literature values and good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards exposed that, generally, chilled pangasius, frozen pangasius and frozen shrimp products presented considerably higher moisture and lower crude protein/nitrogen contents than those found in other studies. From the GMP standards, extraneous water was estimated on average at 26 g/100 g chilled pangasius product, and 25 and 34 g/100 g product for frozen shrimp and pangasius products, respectively. PMID:28234341

  16. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  17. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  18. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2011-04-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn.

  19. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2012-03-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the social cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Māori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international nursing students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection', 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of The Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn.

  20. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  1. Promoting Safe Nursing Care by Bringing Visibility to the Disciplinary Aspects of Interdisciplinary Care

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Gail; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The provision of safe and effective interdisciplinary care requires making the unique and interdependent aspects of disciplinary care visible and understandable. Ideally, the electronic health record (EHR) should capture both disciplinary and interdisciplinary care. This paper reports on a “real time” pilot of a technology supported method of documenting, communicating, and tracking the nursing component of the patient’s plan of care for eventual integration into an EHR. An intensive care unit tested the intervention that included the adoption and use of the NANDA, NOC, and NIC terminologies. Multiple methods were used to evaluate the impact of the care planning method for a 12 month period. We found that the increased visibility of nursing care promoted greater awareness and understanding (collective mind) of care and in turn enhanced continuity. The results of the pilot were used to further refine our theoretical framework and method for the multi-site study currently underway. PMID:16779067

  2. Promoting job safety for workers with intellectual disabilities: the staying safe at work training curriculum.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Robin

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 125,000 people with disabilities are employed through Community Rehabilitation Programs in manufacturing, assembly, and service jobs. These jobs have significant hazards and, consequently, the workers are at risk of injury. Training that empowers workers to participate in prevention efforts can help reduce work-related injuries. In general this kind of health and safety training in the United States is limited. It is even more so for workers with intellectual disabilities, in part because there have not been programs for teaching individuals with cognitive challenges health and safety skills, adapted to their learning needs. This paper describes the development and promotion of the Staying Safe at Work curriculum of UC Berkeley's Labor Occupational Health Program, which is designed for use by support agencies and employers of workers with intellectual disabilities. The goal of this program is to teach these workers essential occupational safety and health skills in a manner they can understand.

  3. Arsenic speciation in manufactured seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    1998-09-01

    The literature on the speciation of arsenic (As) in seafoods was critically reviewed. Most research has been directed toward fresh seafood products with few papers dealing with As speciation in manufactured seafoods. Predictions concerning As species made on the basis of fresh seafood products cannot be extrapolated to manufactured seafoods. Therefore, due to the numerous species of As, the scarcity of data concerning their presence in foods, the transformations each species may undergo during industrial processing and cooking, and the lack of legislation on permitted As levels in seafood products, As species in manufactured seafood products need to be determined and quantified.

  4. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  5. Promoting safe and effective use of OTC medications: CHPA-GSA National Summit.

    PubMed

    Albert, Steven M; Bix, Laura; Bridgeman, Mary M; Carstensen, Laura L; Dyer-Chamberlain, Margaret; Neafsey, Patricia J; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-12-01

    Research on the ways older people use prescription medications (Rx) is a mainstay of the gerontological literature because use of Rx medications is common, and appropriate use is central to effective management of chronic disease. But older adults are also major consumers of over-the-counter (OTC) medications, which can be equally significant for self-care. Nearly half of older adults aged 75-85, for example, are regular users of an OTC product. Ensuring that consumers safely and effectively use OTC products is critical in order to minimize potential drug-drug interactions and unintentional misuse. Yet we know surprisingly little about the ways older adults select OTC medications and decide when to start or stop use, how older people actually take these medications, or how involved clinicians and family members are in older adult OTC behavior. Research in this area is critical for developing interventions to help ensure safe and appropriate OTC use. For this reason, The Gerontological Society of America (GSA), in partnership with the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA), convened a summit of experts to set an agenda for research in OTC behaviors among older adults. The panel suggested a need for research in 5 key areas: Health literacy and OTC behavior, decision making and OTC use, the role of clinicians in OTC medication behavior, older adult OTC behavior and family care, and technologies to promote optimal use of OTC medications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effectiveness of strategies to promote safe transition of elderly people across care settings.

    PubMed

    Mansah, Martha; Fernandez, Ritin; Griffiths, Rhonda; Chang, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Errors and adverse events have major impact on elderly patients due to their recurrent hospitalisation and particularly as they move between settings to receive care for comorbid chronic conditions. A range of strategies such as discharge planners, use of patients transfer sheet, medications reconciliation and patients education have been implemented to improve care transition. However, there have been no systematic reviews undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies in a concise format for the development of evidence-based guidelines. Therefore, a systematic review is urgently needed to support clinicians in implementing safe quality care transition and also use as a front line to improve patient safety. The objective of this review is to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence in promoting a safer transfer of elderly patients across care settings. Types of studies Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of strategies to promote safe transfer of elderly patients across care settings were eligible for inclusion in this review.Types of participants The review included studies undertaken in participants aged >65 years who have been transferred between care settings.The review focused on any interventions that were undertaken to reduce or minimise errors and adverse events and promote safe transition of the elderly patients from one setting to another.The primary outcome of interest was the effect of the interventions on the use of health care resources. A comprehensive search of the literature published in the English language was undertaken using all major electronic databases ranging from 1966 to 2008. Reference lists and bibliographies of all possible trials and reviews of studies were searched. Relevant conference proceedings were searched; experts in the field were also contacted to identify further trials. 12 studies were included in the review. The results indicated that comprehensive plan of care and

  7. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  8. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  9. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2016-07-12

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  10. Are informed policies in place to promote safe and usable EHRs? A cross-industry comparison.

    PubMed

    Savage, Erica L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-02-19

    Despite federal policies put in place by the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) to promote safe and usable electronic health record (EHR) products, the usability of EHRs continues to frustrate providers and have patient safety implications. This study sought to compare government policies on usability and safety, and methods of examining compliance to those policies, across 3 federal agencies: the ONC and EHRs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and avionics, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and medical devices. Our goal was to identify whether differences in policies exist and, if they do exist, how policies and enforcement mechanisms from other industries might be applied to optimize EHR usability. We performed a qualitative study using publicly available governing documents to examine similarities and differences in usability and safety policies across agencies. The policy review and analysis revealed several consistencies within each agency's usability policies. Critical differences emerged in the usability standards and policy enforcement mechanisms utilized by the 3 agencies. The FAA and FDA look at evidence of usability processes and are more prescriptive when it comes to testing final products as compared to the ONC, which relies on attestation and is less prescriptive. A comparison of usability policies across industries illustrates key differences between the ONC and other federal agencies. These differences could be contributing to the usability challenges associated with EHRs. Our analysis highlights important areas of usability and safety policy from other industries that can better inform ONC policies on EHRs.

  11. Emerging Seafood Preservation Techniques to Extend Freshness and Minimize Vibrio Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Lau, Fiona; Banerjee, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the popularity of seafood consumption is increasing exponentially. To meet the demands of a growing market, the seafood industry has increasingly been innovating ways to keep their products fresh and safe while increasing production. Marine environments harbor several species of indigenous microorganisms, some of which, including Vibrio spp., may be harmful to humans, and all of which are part of the natural microbiota of the seafood. After harvest, seafood products are often shipped over large geographic distances, sometimes for prolonged periods, during which the food must stay fresh and pathogen proliferation must be minimized. Upon arrival there is often a strong desire, arising from both culinary and nutritional considerations, to consume seafood products raw, or minimally cooked. This supply chain along with popular preferences have increased challenges for the seafood industry. This has resulted in a desire to develop methodologies that reduce pathogenic and spoilage organisms in seafood items to comply with regulations and result in minimal changes to the taste, texture, and nutritional content of the final product. This mini-review discusses and compares several emerging technologies, such as treatment with plant derived natural compounds, phage lysis, high-pressure processing, and irradiation for their ability to control pathogenic vibrios, limit the growth of spoilage organisms, and keep the desired organoleptic properties of the seafood product intact. PMID:27047466

  12. Information system needs in health promotion: a case study of the Safe Community programme using requirements engineering methods.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Olvander, Christina; Hallberg, Niklas

    2008-09-01

    The international Safe Community programme was used as the setting for a case study to explore the need for information system support in health promotion programmes. The 14 Safe Communities active in Sweden during 2002 were invited to participate and 13 accepted. A questionnaire on computer usage and a critical incident technique instrument were distributed. Sharing of management information, creating social capital for safety promotion, and injury data recording were found to be key areas that need to be further supported by computer-based information systems. Most respondents reported having access to a personal computer workstation with standard office software. Interest in using more advanced computer applications was low, and there was considerable need for technical user support. Areas where information systems can be used to make health promotion practice more efficient were identified, and patterns of computers usage were described.

  13. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change.

  14. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria W.; Graff, Ingvild E.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Seldal, Camilla F.; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne C.; Stormark, Kjell M.; Malde, Marian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seafood (fish and shellfish) is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D). Design We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54) with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women. PMID:23467715

  15. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  16. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing.

  17. Seafood Products Course Lecture Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, John Wingo, Ed.; And Others

    This consumer's guide offers practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafoods. It covers both finfish and shellfish, including crabs, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, clams, and scallops. It describes the characteristics, important species, fishing methods, market forms, and consumer inspection tips. It also gives such information as…

  18. Seafood Products Course Lecture Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, John Wingo, Ed.; And Others

    This consumer's guide offers practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafoods. It covers both finfish and shellfish, including crabs, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, clams, and scallops. It describes the characteristics, important species, fishing methods, market forms, and consumer inspection tips. It also gives such information as…

  19. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy.

  20. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals. PMID:14576894

  1. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals.

  2. Automatic feedback to promote safe walking and speech loudness control in persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.

  3. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Risks Associated with Fish and Seafood.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Sailaja; Hazard, Nicole; Edwards, Genevieve; Jadeja, Ravi; Janes, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Fresh fish and seafood are highly perishable, and microbiological spoilage is one of the important factors that limit their shelf life and safety. Fresh seafood can be contaminated at any point from rearing or harvesting to processing to transport or due to cross-contamination by consumer mishandling at home. With the increase in the demand for fish and seafood, aquaculture production is increasing, which could lead to new risks that will need to be addressed in the future to control foodborne pathogens.

  5. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    PubMed

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  6. Occupational allergies in seafood-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2012-01-01

    Global increased demand for seafood and its products has been associated with a concomitant rise in fishing, aquaculture, and processing activities. This increased harvesting of seafood is associated with more frequent reporting of allergic health problems among seafood processors. This review outlines the high-risk working populations, work processes, as well as host and environmental exposure risk factors for occupational respiratory and skin allergies. It also provides insights into the major and minor allergens as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. Diagnostic and preventive approaches are outlined in managing work-related allergy associated with seafood processing.

  7. Clinical, information and business process modeling to promote development of safe and flexible software.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Deveny, Elizabeth; Morrison, Iain; Lewis, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Using a factorial vignette survey and modeling methodology, we developed clinical and information models - incorporating evidence base, key concepts, relevant terms, decision-making and workflow needed to practice safely and effectively - to guide the development of an integrated rule-based knowledge module to support prescribing decisions in asthma. We identified workflows, decision-making factors, factor use, and clinician information requirements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) and public domain software and knowledge engineering tools (e.g. Protégé) were used, with the Australian GP Data Model as the starting point for expressing information needs. A Web Services service-oriented architecture approach was adopted within which to express functional needs, and clinical processes and workflows were expressed in the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). This formal analysis and modeling methodology to define and capture the process and logic of prescribing best practice in a reference implementation is fundamental to tackling deficiencies in prescribing decision support software.

  8. Promotion of safe sex: evaluation of a community-level intervention programme in gay bars, saunas and sex shops.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Naccache, Hermine; Cote, Francoise; Leclerc, Robert; Frechette, Mario; Alary, Michel

    2008-04-01

    This study was an evaluation of a safe sex promotion programme in gay bars, saunas and sex shops in Québec City. The impact of the intervention on safe sex was assessed by means of an interrupted sequential pre-interventions and post-interventions quasi-experimental design with independent samples. At each measurement time, approximately 320 individuals were recruited in gay bars and saunas and were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The intervention had a significant impact on safe sex mainly among the 18-29 age group (relative risk = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 0.55-0.92), even after controlling for the effect of gay venue frequentation. Thus, the effect size of the intervention corresponds to a significant reduction of 29% in risky unprotected anal sex among this age group. Implementation of a theory-based community-level intervention has a positive impact on reducing unsafe sex practices, particularly among the 18-29 age group. However, if the preventive activities are not maintained on a regular basis, there is recrudescence in unsafe sex practices.

  9. Ventilation Guidance To Promote the Safe Use of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation, Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance describes basic ventilation principles and strategies to help protect workers and building occupants and promote the safe use of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. Guia para la ventilacion sobre la application del aerosol de espuma.

  10. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  12. Seafood Manual for School Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carol S.; Webb, Anita H.

    Seafood information pertinent to the needs of school food service personnel is presented. Each of five sections contains information considered important by school food service managers and supervisors as indicated in a national survey (1977). Provided in section one are a narrative section, graph, and chart on seafood nutritive value. The next…

  13. Seafood Manual for School Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carol S.; Webb, Anita H.

    Seafood information pertinent to the needs of school food service personnel is presented. Each of five sections contains information considered important by school food service managers and supervisors as indicated in a national survey (1977). Provided in section one are a narrative section, graph, and chart on seafood nutritive value. The next…

  14. Conducting interdisciplinary research to promote healthy and safe employment in health care: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Slatin, Craig; Galizzi, Monica; Melillo, Karen Devereaux; Mawn, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Due to the complexity of human health, emphasis is increasingly being placed on the need for and conduct of multidisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary health research. Yet many academic and research organizations--and the discipline-specific associations and journals--may not yet be prepared to adopt changes necessary to optimally support interdisciplinary work. This article presents an ongoing interdisciplinary research project's efforts to investigate mechanisms and pathways that lead to occupational health disparities among healthcare workers. It describes the promises and pitfalls encountered during the research,and outlines effective strategies that emerged as a result. Lessons learned include: conflict resolution regarding theoretical and methodological differences; establishing a sense of intellectual ownership of the research, as well as guidelines for multiple authorship; and development and utilization of protocols, communication systems, and tools. This experience suggests a need for the establishment of supportive structures and processes to promote successful interdisciplinary research. PMID:15147650

  15. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives: We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Results: Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. Conclusions: We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long

  16. Fresh and Frozen Seafood: Selecting and Serving It Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... a plastic bag and immerse it in cold water or — if the food will be cooked immediately thereafter — microwave it on the “defrost” setting and stop the defrost cycle while the fish is still icy but pliable. ...

  17. Jedi Public Health: Co-creating an Identity-Safe Culture to Promote Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; James, Sherman A; Destin, Mesmin; Graham, Louis A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Murphy, Mary; Pearson, Jay A; Omari, Amel; Thompson, James Phillip

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which socially-assigned and culturally mediated social identity affects health depends on contingencies of social identity that vary across and within populations in day-to-day life. These contingencies are structurally rooted and health damaging inasmuch as they activate physiological stress responses. They also have adverse effects on cognition and emotion, undermining self-confidence and diminishing academic performance. This impact reduces opportunities for social mobility, while ensuring those who "beat the odds" pay a physical price for their positive efforts. Recent applications of social identity theory toward closing racial, ethnic, and gender academic achievement gaps through changing features of educational settings, rather than individual students, have proved fruitful. We sought to integrate this evidence with growing social epidemiological evidence that structurally-rooted biopsychosocial processes have population health effects. We explicate an emergent framework, Jedi Public Health (JPH). JPH focuses on changing features of settings in everyday life, rather than individuals, to promote population health equity, a high priority, yet, elusive national public health objective. We call for an expansion and, in some ways, a re-orienting of efforts to eliminate population health inequity. Policies and interventions to remove and replace discrediting cues in everyday settings hold promise for disrupting the repeated physiological stress process activation that fuels population health inequities with potentially wide application.

  18. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  19. School-Based Practices and Programs That Promote Safe and Drug-Free Schools. CASE/CCBD Mini-Library Series on Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Patricia M.

    This monograph focuses on school-based practices and programs that promote safe and drug-free schools. It begins with a description of the key characteristics of schools with effective programs and provides a model for school-wide support. Necessary steps for developing an effective system of universal prevention are listed and include: (1)…

  20. Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-10-15

    Dietary recommendations for seafood are confusing due to the desire to balance both benefits from nutrients and risks from contaminants. The overall health value of different fish and shellfish items depends on concentrations of multiple nutrients (e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) and contaminants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). However, few studies have examined the connections between human exposure to multiple nutrients and contaminants and the consumption of specific types of seafood. Our goals were to compare 1) Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations (Hg-nutrient signatures) among common fish and shellfish items and 2) Hg-nutrient signatures in the blood of avid seafood consumers, based on seafood consumption habits. We compiled nutrient and Hg concentration data for common fish and shellfish items from the literature. We also measured blood concentrations of Hg and seafood nutrients collected from adult, avid seafood consumers on Long Island, NY. Canonical discriminant analyses revealed distinct Hg-nutrient signatures among seafood items, and these signatures were reflected in the blood of consumers based on different consumption habits. For example, consumers with a salmon-dominated seafood diet had relatively high percentage of omega-3 fatty acids in blood, and consumers who tend to eat top predator seafood have higher Hg, but similar blood nutrient concentrations compared to consumers who tend to eat low trophic level seafood. These results provide direct evidence of links between the ecological characteristics of the type of seafood consumed and Hg-nutrient exposure. This approach helps assess the overall human health value of specific seafood types, leads to specific diet recommendations, and can be used to characterize risk:benefit status among seafood consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of selected seafood poisonings.

    PubMed

    Clark, R F; Williams, S R; Nordt, S P; Manoguerra, A S

    1999-01-01

    Seafood poisoning has been recognized as a problem in both coastal and inland populations for millennia. Many types of sea creatures from shellfish to the largest fish have been implicated. Severe cases of many different types of seafood poisonings can result in fatalities. While the pathophysiology of the toxins is well known in some cases, others, like ciguatera, remain somewhat confusing. As a result, the treatment of these conditions remains controversial, although supportive care continues to be the mainstay of therapy. In this manuscript, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of some of the most common and toxic varieties of seafood poisoning resulting from toxins.

  2. The effect of intervention based on Health Action Model to promote workers' safe behavior in Isfahan Steel Company.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Heidarnia, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern for safety has created the need for new and effective methods to improve safety in the workplace. This study was designed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on Health Action Model on the safe behavior among workers in Isfahan Steel Company. This study was designed as a quasi-experimental research with experimental and control groups with pre- and post- intervention measurements. The experimental group received intervention based on the Health Action Model. The control group did not receive any intervention except that they participated in the current safety courses of the company. The sample size was 270 workers who were randomly selected and divided into two groups: Experimental (n = 135) and control (n = 135). Data were collected using a questionnaire and a checklist after and before the intervention and were analyzed. Based on the distribution of variables, parametric (t-test, paired t-test) or nonparametric (Chi-square, Wilcoxon) tests were utilized to analyze data. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. The results indicated that before intervention, the experimental and control groups were similar in model structures. After intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors in relation to safety in the experimental group increased statistically significantly and the observed difference in the control group was not significant. The results also indicated that unsafe behaviors in the experimental group decreased following the educational intervention. This difference also was not statistically significant in the control group. The results showed that application of Health Action Model has an acceptable and positive influence on promoting safe behaviors, knowledge, normative system, and facilitating factors among workers in Isfahan Steel Company. It is, therefore, recommended that Health Action Model based intervention be used for other and similar industries.

  3. Multi-residue method for the determination of antibiotics and some of their metabolites in seafood.

    PubMed

    Serra-Compte, Albert; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2017-06-01

    The presence of antibiotics in seafood for human consumption may pose a risk for consumers. A methodology for the analysis of antibiotics in seafood based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction, followed by detection and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method was evaluated for the determination of 23 antibiotics (including parent compounds and some metabolites) in fish, mussels and clams. Recoveries ranged between 30% and 70% for most of the compounds and method detection and quantification limits (MDLs and MQLs) were between 0.01 and 0.31 ng/g dry weigh (dw) and 0.02-1.03 ng/g (dw) respectively. Real seafood samples were analysed using this method. Nine antibiotics were found at levels above MDLs; however none of them exceed the maximum residue limits (MRL) established by the authorities. Tetracycline was the most ubiquitous compound, presenting also the highest concentration: 5.63 ng/g (dw) in fish from Netherlands. In addition, an alternative technique based on microbial growth inhibition was explored as semiquantitative detection method of antibiotics in seafood. This methodology could be applied as a fast screening technique for the detection of macrolides and β-lactams in seafood but further research is needed for other antibiotics families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Algora, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R; Jalón, M; Urieta, I; Macho, M L

    2005-11-02

    The organoarsenical species arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA+), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were determined in 64 cooked seafood products (fish, bivalves, squid, crustaceans) included in a Total Diet Study carried out in the Basque Country (Spain). For cooking, various treatments were employed (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, microwaving). The results obtained show that in cooked seafood AB is the major species, followed by DMA and TMA+. AC and MMA are minor species. The results in cooked seafood were compared with the arsenic species contents obtained for the same product raw. After cooking there was an increase in DMA for sardines and bivalves and an increase or appearance of TMA+ for meagrim, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, and sardine. The data provided add to the very scant information available about organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

  5. Seafood intake and blood cadmium in a cohort of adult avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Guan, Stanford; Palermo, Tia; Meliker, Jaymie

    2015-01-01

    Although the benefits of fish consumption are widely recognized, seafood may also be a source of exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium. Many types of seafood are rich in cadmium, but bioavailability and potential for toxicity after consumption is less clear. This study investigates the relationship between seafood intake and the level of cadmium (Cd) in the blood in a 252 person cohort of avid seafood consumers in the Long Island Study of Seafood Consumption (New York). Blood cadmium is an established biomarker of cadmium exposure, reflecting both recent and decade-long exposure. Data on the amounts and frequency of eating various types of seafood were self-reported by avid seafood consumers recruited in 2011-2012. After adjusting for age, BMI, sex, current smoking status, and income in a linear regression model, we found no association between regular seafood intake (β=-0.01; p=0.11) but did identify an association between salmon intake in cups/week (ln transformed) (β=0.20; p=0.001) and blood cadmium. After accounting for salmon, no other types of seafood were meaningfully associated with blood cadmium. No association was found between rice intake, blood zinc, or dietary iron or calcium and blood cadmium. Results suggest that seafood is not a major source of cadmium exposure, but that salmon intake does marginally increase blood cadmium levels. Given that cadmium levels in salmon are not higher than those in many other seafood species, the association with salmon intake is likely attributed to higher consumption of salmon in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing an Effort to Promote Safe Parks, Streets and Schools in Washington Heights/Inwood: Assessing Urban Infrastructure Conditions as Determinants of Physical Activity. Program Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Researchers from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University prepared a case study of CODES (Community Outreach and Development Efforts Save). CODES is a coalition of 35 people and organizations in northern Manhattan committed to promoting safe streets, parks and schools. The case study analyzed the factors that prompted CODES'…

  7. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations’ Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country’s Approach

    PubMed Central

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from. PMID:28231127

  8. Periconceptional seafood intake and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, April F; Thompson, Mary Lou; Burbacher, Thomas M; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports of associations of maternal seafood intake with fetal growth were inconsistent. Further, little is known whether associations differ across seafood subtypes or fetal growth indices. Methods Among 3,141 participants of the Omega study, a pregnancy cohort study, we investigated associations of periconceptional shell-, lean-, and fatty-fish intake with fetal growth indices. We categorized food frequency questionnaire reported seafood intake into frequencies of: <0.2 servings/month, 0.2 servings/month-<0.5 servings/week, 0.5-1 servings/week, and >1 servings/week. We abstracted birthweight, birth length, and head circumference from medical records. Using generalized linear models with a log link, the Poisson family, and robust standard errors, we estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) and linear regression models to estimate mean differences for continuous fetal growth indices across seafood intake categories. Results Medians (interquartile ranges) of shell-, lean-, and fatty-fish intake were 0.3 (0-0.9), 0.5 (0-1.0), and 0.5 (0.1-1.0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (versus <0.2 servings/month) was associated with a 2.2-fold higher risk of LBW [95% CI: 1.2, 4.1]. Shellfish intake of >1 servings/week (versus <0.2 servings/month) was associated with a 0.6 kg/m3 higher mean ponderal index [95% CI: 0.0, 1.2 kg/m3]. There was no evidence for associations of total seafood or seafood subtype intake with other fetal growth indices. Conclusions Higher intakes of lean- and shell-fish were associated with a higher risk of LBW and higher mean ponderal index, respectively. Findings highlight the importance of considerations of seafood subtype in similar investigations. PMID:26147526

  9. Periconceptional Seafood Intake and Fetal Growth.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, April F; Thompson, Mary Lou; Burbacher, Thomas M; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports of associations of maternal seafood intake with fetal growth were inconsistent. Further, little is known whether associations differ across seafood subtypes or fetal growth indices. Among 3141 participants of the Omega study, a pregnancy cohort study, we investigated associations of periconceptional shell, lean, and fatty fish intake with fetal growth indices. We categorised food frequency questionnaire reported seafood intake into frequencies of: <0.2 servings/month, 0.2 servings/month -<0.5 servings/week, 0.5-1 servings/week, and >1 servings/week. We abstracted birthweight, birth length, and head circumference from medical records. Using generalised linear models with a log link, the Poisson family, and robust standard errors, we estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) and linear regression models to estimate mean differences for continuous fetal growth indices across seafood intake categories. Medians (interquartile range) of shell, lean, and fatty fish intake were 0.3 (0-0.9), 0.5 (0-1.0), and 0.5 (0.1-1.0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (vs. <0.2 servings/month) was associated with a 2.2-fold higher risk of LBW (95% CI 1.2, 4.1). Shellfish intake of >1 servings/week (vs. <0.2 servings/month) was associated with a 0.6 kg/m(3) higher mean ponderal index (95% CI 0.0, 1.2 kg/m(3) ). There was no evidence for associations of total seafood or seafood subtype intake with other fetal growth indices. Higher intakes of lean fish and shellfish were associated with a higher risk of LBW and higher mean ponderal index, respectively. Findings highlight the importance of considerations of seafood subtype in similar investigations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets.

  11. Promoting innovation and access to quality, safe, efficacious, and affordable medicines for children: A China approach on the 69(th) World Health Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Li, Bo; Liu, Zhanqiang; Li, Mengtao; Zheng, Hong; Sun, Yang

    2017-05-01

    This study is to provide reference for the proper understanding of the content of "Promoting Innovation and Access to Quality, Safe, Efficacious, and Affordable Medicines for Children" resolution of 69(th) World Health Assembly (WHA), and facilitate the policy making and implication of the Resolution. Through descriptive analysis, the author introduce the proposal background and approving process of the resolution, and interpret the resolution content. The approval of "Promoting Innovation and Access to Quality, Safe, Efficacious, and Affordable Medicines for Children" at WHA represents China's international discourse right on improving the basic medical service among children, the most vulnerable population; highlights China's responsibility and magnitude of a great nation. It is an effective promotion for China's new medical reform and the implication of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), as well as a great contribution to the global health of children from China. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; DeJoseph, Bonnie M; Ray, Liza J; Wagner, Cherie A

    2013-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, whereas cephalopods and crustaceans will remain largely unscathed. Habitat changes will reduce seafood production from coral reefs, but increase production from seagrass and seaweed. Overall effects of ocean acidification on primary productivity and, hence, on food webs will result in hard-to-predict winners and losers. Although adaptation, parental effects, and evolution can mitigate some effects of ocean acidification, future seafood platters will look rather different unless CO(2) emissions are curbed.

  13. Land treatment for seafood processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.R.; McClease, J.D.; Morgan, C.B.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to describe selected waste water parameters at two small seafood processing plants in the eastern part of North Carolina. The second is to describe the land treatment system serving these industries and to characterize the quality of the shallow ground water exiting these systems. One of the seafood processing plants is a flounder fileting operation and the other processes crabs. Both plants employ between 10 and 40 individuals, and the processing operation is done mostly by hand.

  14. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent…

  15. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  16. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  17. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one. PMID:27800447

  18. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  19. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan.

  20. Periconceptional seafood intake and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, April F; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Thompson, Mary Lou; Burbacher, Thomas M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of maternal periconceptional shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake with risk of pregnancy complications. Design In this prospective cohort study, we collected information on intake of seafood subtypes using FFQ. We categorized seafood intake into frequencies of <0·2 servings/month, 0·2 servings/month– <0·5 servings/week, 0·5–1·0 servings/week and >1 servings/week. We ascertained gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth diagnoses from medical records. Using generalized linear models with a log link, the Poisson family and robust standard errors, we estimated risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals across seafood intake categories. Setting The Omega study, a study of risk factors for pregnancy complications among women recruited from prenatal clinics in Washington State, USA, 1996–2008. Subjects The current study included 3279 participants from the Omega study. Results Median (interquartile range) shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake was 0·3 (0–0·9), 0·5 (0–1·0) and 0·5 (0·1–1·0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (v. <0·2 servings/month) was associated with a 1·55-fold higher risk of preterm birth (95 % CI 1·04, 2·30) and was not associated with the other pregnancy complications. Higher intake of seafood (total or other subtypes) was not associated with pregnancy complications (separately or combined). Conclusions Higher intake of lean fish, but not fatty fish or shellfish, was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth; these findings may have significance for preterm birth prevention. Studies of mechanisms and potential contributing factors (including seafood preparation and nutrient/contaminant content) are warranted. PMID:26626702

  1. C.A.M.P.: A Community-Based Approach to Promoting Safe Sex Behavior in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Bianca L.; Casad, Bettina J.; Schlehofer-Sutton, Michele M.; Villanueva, Christina M.; Feria, Aida

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the Community Awareness Motivation Partnership (C.A.M.P.) theater intervention based on the behavioral ecological model. C.A.M.P addresses the role of contraceptive use in safe sex behavior through an informative and entertaining culturally relevant dramatization program. Adolescents (N=1613) between…

  2. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A

    2016-01-01

    Youth and young adults (19-24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans.

  3. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A

    2016-01-01

    Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845

  4. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper.

  5. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  6. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested.

  7. [Analysis of paralytic shellfish poison of bivalves in seafood market in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Nie, Li-Hua; Jiang, Tian-Jiu; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The investigations of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) from Huangsha seafood market of Guangzhou was performed to assess the risk of PSP in bivalves. The concentration and profiles of PSP toxins in bivalves were determined by mouse bioassay of AOAC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The risk assessment of PSP in bivalves was conducted with FAO and Chinese Administration Organization of Fish Culture and Seaport. The content of PSP detected was lower than the safe standard (4 MU/g meat) in all of the 84 samples, one of which had the highest toxicity with 1.84 MU/g muscle. These results suggested that the bivalves in seafood market was safe to feed. It was 9 samples' gland in 2 species that be detected to have PSP in the bivalves being researched, the muscles had few PSP. The concentration of PSP in one sample's gland exceeded the threshold of FAO (4 MU/g) with 14.52 MU/g meat, and the profiles of PSP in the gland were B1, GTX2/3, GTX1/4 and C according to HPLC. These results suggested that both of the concentration and detection rate of PSP of bivalves in seafood market in Guangzhou were low as a whole, but the content and discovery rate of PSP were far higher in glands than in the muscles, and the PSP content in one gland exceeded the threshold of Standard. The levels of PSP contamination in shellfish was characteristic of season. The toxins level in shellfish were the maximum in spring, but the frequency of toxins detected in shellfish was higher in summer and autumn, so the detection and risk assessment of PSP in bivalves from seafood market was essential in the future.

  8. The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: promotion of children's health, development, and safety, and prevention of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect is by far the most prevalent form of child maltreatment. There is a need to try to prevent this problem, and pediatric primary care offers an excellent opportunity. This article describes one such approach, the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model. SEEK enables practitioners to identify and help address psychosocial problems facing many families. These include parental depression, substance abuse, major stress, intimate partner violence, harsh punishment, and food insecurity--problems that have been associated with neglect. Two large randomized, controlled trials yielded promising findings. Materials are now available to help practitioners implement this evidence-based practical model, thereby enhancing the primary care provided to children and their families.

  9. Promoting the safe and strategic use of technology for victims of intimate partner violence: evaluation of the technology safety project.

    PubMed

    Finn, Jerry; Atkinson, Teresa

    2009-11-01

    The Technology Safety Project of the Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence was designed to increase awareness and knowledge of technology safety issues for domestic violence victims, survivors, and advocacy staff. The project used a "train-the-trainer" model and provided computer and Internet resources to domestic violence service providers to (a) increase safe computer and Internet access for domestic violence survivors in Washington, (b) reduce the risk posed by abusers by educating survivors about technology safety and privacy, and (c) increase the ability of survivors to help themselves and their children through information technology. Evaluation of the project suggests that the program is needed, useful, and effective. Consumer satisfaction was high, and there was perceived improvement in computer confidence and knowledge of computer safety. Areas for future program development and further research are discussed.

  10. Epidemiology of Seafood-Associated Infections in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Martha; Ayers, Tracy; Mahon, Barbara E.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Seafood is part of a healthful diet, but seafood consumption is not risk-free. Seafood is responsible for an important proportion of food-borne illnesses and outbreaks in the United States. Seafood-associated infections are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites; this diverse group of pathogens results in a wide variety of clinical syndromes, each with its own epidemiology. Some seafood commodities are inherently more risky than others, owing to many factors, including the nature of the environment from which they come, their mode of feeding, the season during which they are harvested, and how they are prepared and served. Prevention of seafood-associated infections requires an understanding not only of the etiologic agents and seafood commodities associated with illness but also of the mechanisms of contamination that are amenable to control. Defining these problem areas, which relies on surveillance of seafood-associated infections through outbreak and case reporting, can lead to targeted research and help to guide control efforts. Coordinated efforts are necessary to further reduce the risk of seafood-associated illnesses. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies. PMID:20375359

  11. Microbial biofilms in seafood: a food-hygiene challenge.

    PubMed

    Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-08-01

    Seafood forms a part of a healthy diet. However, seafood can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, resulting in disease outbreaks. Because people consume large amounts of seafood, such disease outbreaks are increasing worldwide. Seafood contamination is largely due to the naturally occurring phenomenon of biofilm formation. The common seafood bacterial pathogens that form biofilms are Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. As these organisms pose a global health threat, recent research has focused on elucidating methods to eliminate these biofilm-forming bacteria from seafood, thereby improving food hygiene. Therefore, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, the factors that regulate biofilm development and the role of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in the virulence of foodborne pathogens. Currently, several novel methods have been successfully developed for controlling biofilms present in seafood. In this review, we also discuss the epidemiology of seafood-related diseases and the novel methods that could be used for future control of biofilm formation in seafood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis.

  13. Correlations of Biomarkers and Self-Reported Seafood Consumption among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Southeastern Louisiana after the Gulf Oil Spill: The GROWH Study

    PubMed Central

    Zilversmit, Leah; Wickliffe, Jeffrey; Shankar, Arti; Taylor, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Seafood contains health-promoting fatty acids, but is often contaminated with mercury (Hg), complicating recommendations and choices around fish consumption during pregnancy. Self-reported diet may be subject to inaccuracy and this inaccuracy could differ according to pregnancy status. We investigated correlations between self-reported seafood consumption and blood levels of Hg and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in women affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated comparing log blood Hg and n-3 PUFAs to seafood consumption, then stratified by pregnancy status. Crude and adjusted linear regression models were constructed using biomarkers of Hg and n-3 PUFA and seafood consumption, adjusting for age and pregnancy status. Weak but significant correlations were found between log Hg levels and intake of Hg-containing seafood (r = 0.15) and were slightly stronger among pregnant women (r = 0.22, vs. r = 0.10). Biomarkers for n-3 PUFAs were significantly correlated with seafood consumption (r = 0.12). Hg-containing seafood consumption was associated with increased blood level Hg in the highest quartile in both unadjusted (β = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15–0.53) and adjusted models (β = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–0.48). Self-reported seafood consumption was correlated with biomarkers of both n-3 PUFA and Hg, but this association was different when stratified by pregnancy status. Pregnant women may have better recall of Hg-containing seafood compared to nonpregnant women. PMID:28708119

  14. Microbiological Spoilage of Fish and Seafood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, Lone

    Fish and seafood products are some of the most important protein sources in human nutrition. At the same time, these products are perishable and, if left unpreserved, spoil rapidly. Some fish products are heavily cured (salted, dried) and shelf stable at ambient temperature. An increasing number of fish products are preserved by low levels of salt, cooling, packaging in modified atmosphere, and/or addition of low levels of preservatives. The microflora of these products is often complex; however, spoilage is mostly caused by microbial action.

  15. Association of Seafood Consumption, Brain Mercury Level, and APOE ε4 Status With Brain Neuropathology in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Martha Clare; Brockman, John; Schneider, Julie A.; Wang, Yamin; Bennett, David A.; Tangney, Christy C.; van de Rest, Ondine

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Seafood consumption is promoted for its many health benefits even though its contamination by mercury, a known neurotoxin, is a growing concern. OBJECTIVE To determine whether seafood consumption is correlated with increased brain mercury levels and also whether seafood consumption or brain mercury levels are correlated with brain neuropathologies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analyses of deceased participants in the Memory and Aging Project clinical neuropathological cohort study, 2004–2013. Participants resided in Chicago retirement communities and subsidized housing. The study included 286 autopsied brains of 554 deceased participants (51.6%). The mean (SD) age at death was 89.9 (6.1) years, 67% (193) were women, and the mean (SD) educational attainment was 14.6 (2.7) years. EXPOSURES Seafood intake was first measured by a food frequency questionnaire at a mean of 4.5 years before death. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Dementia-related pathologies assessed were Alzheimer disease, Lewy bodies, and the number of macroinfarcts and microinfarcts. Dietary consumption of seafood and n-3 fatty acids was annually assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in the years before death. Tissue concentrations of mercury and selenium were measured using instrumental neutron activation analyses. RESULTS Among the 286 autopsied brains of 544 participants, brain mercury levels were positively correlated with the number of seafood meals consumed per week (ρ = 0.16; P = .02). In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and total energy intake, seafood consumption (≥1 meal[s]/week) was significantly correlated with less Alzheimer disease pathology including lower density of neuritic plaques (β = −0.69 score units [95% CI, −1.34 to −0.04]), less severe and widespread neurofibrillary tangles (β = −0.77 score units [95% CI, −1.52 to −0.02]), and lower neuropathologically defined Alzheimer disease (β = −0.53 score units [95% CI, −0

  16. Association of Seafood Consumption, Brain Mercury Level, and APOE ε4 Status With Brain Neuropathology in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Brockman, John; Schneider, Julie A; Wang, Yamin; Bennett, David A; Tangney, Christy C; van de Rest, Ondine

    2016-02-02

    Seafood consumption is promoted for its many health benefits even though its contamination by mercury, a known neurotoxin, is a growing concern. To determine whether seafood consumption is correlated with increased brain mercury levels and also whether seafood consumption or brain mercury levels are correlated with brain neuropathologies. Cross-sectional analyses of deceased participants in the Memory and Aging Project clinical neuropathological cohort study, 2004-2013. Participants resided in Chicago retirement communities and subsidized housing. The study included 286 autopsied brains of 554 deceased participants (51.6%). The mean (SD) age at death was 89.9 (6.1) years, 67% (193) were women, and the mean (SD) educational attainment was 14.6 (2.7) years. Seafood intake was first measured by a food frequency questionnaire at a mean of 4.5 years before death. Dementia-related pathologies assessed were Alzheimer disease, Lewy bodies, and the number of macroinfarcts and microinfarcts. Dietary consumption of seafood and n-3 fatty acids was annually assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in the years before death. Tissue concentrations of mercury and selenium were measured using instrumental neutron activation analyses. Among the 286 autopsied brains of 544 participants, brain mercury levels were positively correlated with the number of seafood meals consumed per week (ρ = 0.16; P = .02). In models adjusted for age, sex, education, and total energy intake, seafood consumption (≥ 1 meal[s]/week) was significantly correlated with less Alzheimer disease pathology including lower density of neuritic plaques (β = -0.69 score units [95% CI, -1.34 to -0.04]), less severe and widespread neurofibrillary tangles (β = -0.77 score units [95% CI, -1.52 to -0.02]), and lower neuropathologically defined Alzheimer disease (β = -0.53 score units [95% CI, -0.96 to -0.10]) but only among apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) carriers. Higher intake levels of

  17. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in water and seafood, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Hill, Vincent R; Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M; Jones, Jessica L; Bopp, Cheryl A; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L; Garrett, Nancy M; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples.

  18. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AGENCY Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Protection Agency (EPA) from seafood processing facilities in Alaska and other publicly available sources... Protection Agency, Mail code: 4203M, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. Attention Docket ID No...

  19. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food-borne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) irradiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate food-...

  20. Cross-reactivity and masqueraders in seafood reactions.

    PubMed

    Banks, Taylor A; Gada, Satyen M

    2013-01-01

    Confounding variables play a significant role in many adverse seafood reactions and a clear understanding of these factors is important in properly characterizing reactions associated with potential masqueraders and mimics. Although the medical literature is replete with reviews of seafood hypersensitivity and reports of cross-reactive and newly characterized allergens, there has not been a recent effort to provide an updated overview of the several processes that may lead clinicians to draw incorrect conclusions in evaluating reported reactions to seafood. Ranging from seafood intoxications to other nonallergic or complex seafood reactions, these events can easily be misconstrued as representing a seafood IgE-mediated allergy. Among these are the more familiar topics of cross-reactivity and scombroid intoxication, and those with a still evolving understanding such as ciguatera fish poisoning and Anisakis reactions. This article seeks to provide an accessible but comprehensive summary of the relevant information surrounding these confounders in assessing adverse reactions to seafood. Such knowledge may be instrumental in unraveling complex or otherwise unclear presentations and aid clinicians in accurately evaluating and managing patients with reported seafood reactions.

  1. Enhancing a safe water intervention with student-created visual aids to promote handwashing behavior in Kenyan primary schools.

    PubMed

    Graves, Janessa M; Daniell, William E; Harris, Julie R; Obure, Alfredo F X O; Quick, Robert

    The Nyando Integrated Child Health Education (NICHE) project was a collaborative effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and local partners to assess the effectiveness of multiple interventions for improving child survival in western Kenya. To increase handwashing in schools, NICHE trained teachers and installed handwashing stations with treated water and soap in 51 primary schools. This cluster-randomized trial evaluated an additional educational strategy (a poster contest themed, "Handwashing with Soap") to improve handwashing behavior in 23 NICHE primary schools. Pupils were engaged in the poster development. Pupil handwashing behavior was observed unobtrusively at baseline and after four months. Intervention schools displayed a significant increase in the number of handwashing stations and proportion of teacher-supervised stations over the study period. No significant between-group differences of intervention in handwashing frequency, soap availability, or visibility of handwashing stations was observed. Despite finding a limited effect beyond the NICHE intervention, the trial appeared to promote sustainability across some measures.

  2. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Seafood, such as fish, crustacean and molluscan shellfish, and echinoderms, provides in the edible part (e. g., filet, abdominal muscle) many nutritional components beneficial for the human diet like n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), essential elements such as selenium and iodine, high potassium and low sodium concentrations, and the vitamins D, A, E, and B(12), as well as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) among others. Its protein is highly digestible due to low connective tissue content, and cholesterol content is also low in fish. Lean fish species are extremely low in fat content (<1 %), while fatty species are extremely rich in PUFAs. However, being subject to environmental influences from its habitat, seafood also entails water-borne health risks such as organic pollutants, toxins, parasites, and heavy metals. Nevertheless, the vast majority of experimental and epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks even for vulnerable consumer groups.

  3. Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II

    1998-07-01

    The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

  4. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Nam, D H; Basu, N

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and 35% of the sharks exceeded the 0.3 µg g(-1) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. Methylmercury comprised a majority of the total mercury in all species. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium-mercury molar ratios was red tilapia (166.8) > abura (87.9) > river prawn (82.4) > whiteleg shrimp (64.2) > butterfish (44.6) > milkfish (37.0) > tuna (15.6) > grouper (13.9) > ayu (13.4) > coral hind (13.0) > weever (11.8) > saury (9.0) > shark (7.8) > marlin (4.2).

  5. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites.

  6. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy is Safe and Promotes Amputation Free Survival in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.; Rapp, Brian M.; Dalsing, Michael C.; Klein, Janet; Wilson, Michael G.; Hutchins, Gary D.; March, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase I open label non-randomized trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (ABMNC) therapy in promoting amputation free survival (AFS) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods Between September 2005 and March 2009 twenty-nine patients (30 limbs), with a median age of 66 (range 23–84) (14 male,15 female) with CLI were enrolled . Twentyone limbs presented with rest pain (RP), six with RP and ulceration, and three with ulcer only. All patients were not candidates for surgical bypass due to absence of a patent artery below the knee and/or endovascular approaches to improving perfusion was not possible as determined by an independent vascular surgeon. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 × 109 ABMNC injected intramuscularly in the index limb distal to the anterior tibial tuberosity. The primary safety endpoint was accumulation of serious adverse events and the primary efficacy endpoint was AFS at one year. Secondary endpoints at 12 weeks post-treatment were changes in first toe pressure (FTP), toe-brachial index (TBI), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TcPO2). Perfusion of the index limb was measured with PET-CT with intra-arterial infusion of H2O15. Rest pain (RP), using a 10-cm visual analog scale, quality of life using the VascuQuol questionnaire, and ulcer healing were assessed at each follow-up interval. Subpopulations of endothelial progenitor cells were quantified prior to ABMNC administration using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent activated cell sorting. Results There were two serious adverse events however there no procedure related deaths. Amputation-free survival at one-year was 86.3%. There was a significant increase in FTP (10.2+ 6.2 mmHg, P=.02) and TBI (0.10± 0.05, P=.02) and a trend in improvement in ABI (0.08±0.04, P=.73). Perfusion Index by PET-CT H2O15 increased by 19.3 ± 3.1 and RP decreased

  7. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy is safe and promotes amputation-free survival in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Rapp, Brian M; Dalsing, Michael C; Klein, Janet; Wilson, Michael G; Hutchins, Gary D; March, Keith L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this Phase I open label nonrandomized trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (ABMNC) therapy in promoting amputation-free survival (AFS) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Between September 2005 and March 2009, 29 patients (30 limbs), with a median age of 66 years (range, 23-84 years; 14 male, 15 female) with CLI were enrolled. Twenty-one limbs presented with rest pain (RP), six with RP and ulceration, and three with ulcer only. All patients were not candidates for surgical bypass due to absence of a patent artery below the knee and/or endovascular approaches to improving perfusion was not possible as determined by an independent vascular surgeon. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 × 10(9) ABMNC injected intramuscularly in the index limb distal to the anterior tibial tuberosity. The primary safety end point was accumulation of serious adverse events, and the primary efficacy end point was AFS at 1 year. Secondary end points at 12 weeks posttreatment were changes in first toe pressure (FTP), toe-brachial index (TBI), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TcPO(2)). Perfusion of the index limb was measured with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with intra-arterial infusion of H(2)O(15). RP, using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, quality of life using the VascuQuol questionnaire, and ulcer healing were assessed at each follow-up interval. Subpopulations of endothelial progenitor cells were quantified prior to ABMNC administration using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. There were two serious adverse events; however, there were no procedure-related deaths. Amputation-free survival at 1 year was 86.3%. There was a significant increase in FTP (10.2 ± 6.2 mm Hg; P = .02) and TBI (0.10 ± 0.05;P = .02) and a trend in improvement in ABI (0.08 ± 0.04; P = .73). Perfusion index by PET-CT H(2)O(15

  8. Impact of seafood regulations for Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection and verification by analyses of seafood contamination and infection.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Kumagai, S

    2014-11-01

    Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes foodborne infections, which are on the rise owing to increased consumption of raw seafood in Asia, Europe, North America, and other regions. V. parahaemolyticus infections have been common in Japan since the 1960s. Following an epidemic in 1997, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare instituted regulations for seafood in 1999, which appear to be reducing V. parahaemolyticus infections. In this review, we describe the scientific findings for these regulations. Analyses of the V. parahaemolyticus serotypes and isolate characteristics in samples from infected patients and contaminated seafood are discussed. In addition, based on the results of a survey, we show that new food safety regulations have led to improvements in food hygiene at many seafood retail shops, food service facilities, and restaurants. This example from Japan could be of immense help to control foodborne infections in other countries.

  9. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  10. Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The seafood industry in Florida is complex, with more than 80 varieties of Florida seafood commodities and an increasing number of imported products. This variety increases consumer confusion, especially with the growing concern about the origin, sustainability, and safety of seafood products. The objective of the Florida Seafood At Your…

  11. Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The seafood industry in Florida is complex, with more than 80 varieties of Florida seafood commodities and an increasing number of imported products. This variety increases consumer confusion, especially with the growing concern about the origin, sustainability, and safety of seafood products. The objective of the Florida Seafood At Your…

  12. Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaeomolyticus, a natural inhabitant in estuarine marine water, has been frequently isolated from seafood. It has been recognized as the leading causative agent for seafoodborne illness all over the world. Numerous physical, chemical, and biological intervention methods for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood products have been investigated and practiced. Each intervention method has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on the processing needs and consumer preference. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various intervention strategies for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood with an emphasis on the efficiency of bacterial inactivation treatments and the changes in sensory qualities of seafood. In the meantime, reported researches on alternative technologies which have shown effectiveness to inactivate V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and other food products, but not directly in seafood are also included. The successful applications of appropriate intervention strategies could effectively reduce or eliminate the contamination of V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood, and consequently contribute to the improvement of seafood safety and the reduction of public health risk. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Evaluation of benefits and risks related to seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Van Camp, J

    2007-01-01

    Dietary intake of long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) in developed countries is low compared to recommendations. Seafood is naturally rich in LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine, but is also a dietary source of heavy metals and organic pollutants. This study investigated the current intake of selected nutrients and contaminants via seafood and studied whether the recommendation for LC n-3 PUFAs could be reached through seafood consumption, without exceeding tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) of methyl mercury (MeHg) and dioxin-like compounds. Also the contribution of LC n-3 enriched margarines was assessed. On the basis of the current seafood consumption data, the simulation results predicted that the population currently does not reach an adequate intake for the three nutrients considered, at least when only seafood consumption is accounted for. This is mainly due to low frequency of seafood consumption. Regarding the contaminants, MeHg contamination in seafood assumed to be available on the Belgian market is not a major issue. In contrast, exceeding the TDI was noticed for the intake of dioxin-like compounds and this for heavy seafood consumers. Combination of regular seafood consumption (twice a week), with important contribution of fatty fish species (at least 50%), with regular consumption of EPA plus DHA enriched margarine can be advised to maximize LC n-3 PUFA intake without exceeding the TDI for dioxin-like compounds. It is important to add that no other dietary sources of dioxin-like compounds were taken into account in this assessment.

  14. Quality evaluation of fish and other seafood by traditional and nondestructive instrumental methods: Advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Abdo; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-06-13

    Although being one of the most vulnerable and perishable products, fish and other seafoods provide a wide range of health-promoting compounds. Recently, the growing interest of consumers in food quality and safety issues has contributed to the increasing demand for sensitive and rapid analytical technologies. Several traditional physicochemical, textural, sensory, and electrical methods have been used to evaluate freshness and authentication of fish and other seafood products. Despite the importance of these standard methods, they are expensive and time-consuming, and often susceptible to large sources of variation. Recently, spectroscopic methods and other emerging techniques have shown great potential due to speed of analysis, minimal sample preparation, high repeatability, low cost, and, most of all, the fact that these techniques are noninvasive and nondestructive and, therefore, could be applied to any online monitoring system. This review describes firstly and briefly the basic principles of multivariate data analysis, followed by the most commonly traditional methods used for the determination of the freshness and authenticity of fish and other seafood products. A special focus is put on the use of rapid and nondestructive techniques (spectroscopic techniques and instrumental sensors) to address several issues related to the quality of these products. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of each technique are reviewed and some perspectives are also given.

  15. Vaccination and consumer perception of seafood quality.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, M

    2005-01-01

    Unlike other segments of international food production, finfish aquaculture has so far not been associated with major food scandals. However, because of increased focus on food safety, the seafood industry and associated businesses have to respond to and document all aspects related to their products and processes. Consumers have a right to know, and need knowledge and information to be able to make qualified choices. In aquaculture good management and environmental attention is essential for both product quality and economic sustainability. One of the main challenges in all farming activities is efficient fish health management, which is crucial for maintaining and further developing the industry. In all biological production, and also in aquaculture, diseases have been, are, and will continue to present a challenge. When dealing with disease incidents, environmental, ethical, biological and economic issues must be taken into account. In animal health management there is a common understanding that prevention is better than treatment, so also in aquaculture. In many segments of industrial fish farming, vaccines have proved a good management tool to control diseases and to reduce both mortality and the use of chemotherapeutics. As seen in a recent Norwegian consumer survey, this might unfortunately look somewhat different from a consumer point of view. The perception of vaccines as foreign substances, visible vaccine lesions or pigment, words about genetically produced vaccines, and a general lack of knowledge may fuel scepticism. Even when experts are giving good and well-documented information, consumers still stick to their original perception of food, including seafood. Given this background, this papers discusses the aquaculture industry's priorities regarding vaccines and vaccination strategies, and its information policy towards the customer.

  16. The Psychology of Sustainable Seafood Consumption: A Comprehensive Approach.

    PubMed

    Richter, Isabel G M; Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-09-28

    This paper discusses conceptual confusions of sustainable seafood consumption, practical challenges, and potential anchors from where this behaviour can be fostered. The main focus lies on psychological variables. The resulting framework comprises (1) a definition of sustainable seafood consumption, (2) suggestions for corresponding behaviours, (3) the identification of facilitating and hindering factors, (4) an assemblage of these factors into a theoretical model, and (5) a short discussion of how the model adds up value to the current state of the art in marine resource conservation. Behavioural models significantly contribute to behavioural change research. The originality and value of this research are that it tackles the so far relatively neglected field of sustainable seafood consumption as important part of sustainable development and marine conservation in the future. From an interventional perspective, the developed model facilitates the identification of contact points to approach consumers and disseminate sustainable seafood consumption among modern Western consumers.

  17. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  18. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  19. How to Determine the Geographical Origin of Seafood?

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Traceability of seafood is a much needed service for the seafood industry. Current ways of tracing seafood are minimal while tracing of shellfish is nearly nonexistent. Tracing fish and shellfish are necessary for indicating where the fish and shellfish were fished from, farmed and packed from. This study reviews history of traceability of aquaculture and analytical approaches to verify the origin of seafood. It then describes the new molecular technique of the traceability by using PCR-DGGE to discriminate the geographical origin of fish (cases studies of Pangasius fish from Viet Nam and Sea bass fish from France) by analysis the DNA fragments of microorganisms (bacteria) on fish. This method is based on the assumption that the microbial communities of food are specific to a geographic area.

  20. Health benefits of seafood; is it just the fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Lund, Elizabeth K

    2013-10-01

    There is a considerable body of literature suggesting a wide range of health benefits associated with diets high in seafood. However, the demand for seafood across the world now exceeds that available from capture fisheries. This has created a rapidly increasing market for aquaculture products, the nutrient composition of which is dependent on feed composition. The use of fishmeal in this food chain does little to counteract the environmental impact of fisheries and so the on-going development of alternative sources is to be welcomed. Nevertheless, an in-depth understanding as to which nutrients in seafood provide benefit is required to permit the production of foods of maximal health benefit to humans. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the beneficial nutrient composition of seafood, in particular omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, taurine, vitamins D and B12, in the context of the development of environmentally sustainable aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Significance of antioxidants for seafood safety and human health.

    PubMed

    Kulawik, Piotr; Ozogul, Fatih; Glew, Robert; Ozogul, Yesim

    2013-01-23

    The demand for high-quality seafood products is constantly growing worldwide. Nevertheless, seafood is susceptible to rapid rancidity mainly due to lipid oxidation and microbiological spoilage. Thus, treatment with antioxidants offers a preservation technique that can prolong the shelf life of seafood. However, because of food safety and health concerns about the use of synthetic antioxidants, there is growing interest in the application of natural antioxidants, mainly plant extracts and compounds, as an alternate means of confronting the problem of lipid oxidation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about different naturally occurring antioxidants on the oxidation progress, synthetic antioxidants and their health concerns, health benefits of antioxidants, antioxidants used for seafood, and food safety concerns are addressed. The antibacterial effects of natural antioxidants are also reviewed. Finally, the most effective methods for analyzing a wide range of antioxidants in plants are described.

  2. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  3. Is shellfish consumption safe?

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Louisiana provides nearly 40% of domestic seafood production. America's commercial fisheries, especially coastal shellfish fisheries, now face crippling economic and environmental pressures from seafood imports, over-fishing, urban and agricultural wastewater runoff, harmful algal blooms, and coastal wetlands loss. As a result of these ecosystem stresses, seafood-borne disease now causes 37% of all foodborne illness in the United States. Louisiana and other coastal-state physicians can effectively curtail the rising threat of local shellfish-borne disease outbreaks by supporting responsible coastal restoration and regulation of commercial shell-fishing, especially oyster fishing, and by recommending careful selection and preparation of all shellfish and crustaceans.

  4. Musculoskeletal symptoms among seafood production workers in North Norway.

    PubMed

    Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit; Egeness, Cathrine; Løchen, Maja-Lisa

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among male and female production workers in different types of seafood industries in North Norway and to analyse associations between musculoskeletal symptoms and some possible risk factors in the seafood industry. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, covering several aspects concerning occupational environment and health issues, was mailed to employees in seafood-processing plants in North Norway. A total of 1767 employees in 118 seafood-processing plants participated giving a 50% response rate. This included 744 production workers in whitefish, shrimp and salmon industries, and 129 administrative workers in all types of seafood industries. The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high among seafood production workers. The odds ratio for symptoms from upper limbs was significantly higher for females compared to men. Production workers had the highest relative risk for symptoms from wrist/hands (OR = 4.1-9.4) and elbows (OR = 3.5-5.2) when compared to administrative workers. The main difference between types of seafood industries was the high prevalence of symptoms from wrist/hands among female (82%) and male (64%) production workers in the salmon industry compared to whitefish (62 and 47%, respectively) and shrimp industry (66 and 37%, respectively). Musculoskeletal symptoms were found among the majority of production workers in the whitefish, shrimp and salmon industry, the highest prevalence being among female workers. The main difference between types of seafood industries was the high prevalence of symptoms from wrist/hands among workers in the salmon industry. Cold work was an important risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms.

  5. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  6. Fast and safe fabrication of a free-standing chitosan/alginate nanomembrane to promote stem cell delivery and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi; Xu, Rui; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Zhong, Wen; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm MQ; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric ultrathin membranes that are compatible with cells offer tremendous advantages for tissue engineering. In this article, we report a free-standing nanomembrane that was developed using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with a safe and sacrificial substrate method. After ionization, two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, were alternately deposited on a substrate of a solidified gelatin block to form an ultrathin nanomembrane. The space between the two adjacent layers was ∼200 nm. The thickness of the nanomembrane was proportional to the number of layers. The temperature-sensitive gelatin gel served as a sacrificial template at 37°C. The free-standing nanomembrane promoted bone marrow stem cell adhesion and proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to analyze green-fluorescent-protein-positive mesenchymal stem cells from the wounds, which showed a significantly high survival and proliferation from the nanomembrane when cells were transplanted to mouse dorsal skin that had a full-thickness burn. The bone-marrow-stem-cell-loaded nanomembrane also accelerated wound contraction and epidermalization. Therefore, this methodology provides a fast and facile approach to construct free-standing ultrathin scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility and free-standing nature of the fabricated nanomembrane may be particularly useful for stem cell delivery and wound healing. PMID:27354789

  7. Fast and safe fabrication of a free-standing chitosan/alginate nanomembrane to promote stem cell delivery and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Xu, Rui; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Zhong, Wen; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm Mq; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric ultrathin membranes that are compatible with cells offer tremendous advantages for tissue engineering. In this article, we report a free-standing nanomembrane that was developed using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with a safe and sacrificial substrate method. After ionization, two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, were alternately deposited on a substrate of a solidified gelatin block to form an ultrathin nanomembrane. The space between the two adjacent layers was ∼200 nm. The thickness of the nanomembrane was proportional to the number of layers. The temperature-sensitive gelatin gel served as a sacrificial template at 37°C. The free-standing nanomembrane promoted bone marrow stem cell adhesion and proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to analyze green-fluorescent-protein-positive mesenchymal stem cells from the wounds, which showed a significantly high survival and proliferation from the nanomembrane when cells were transplanted to mouse dorsal skin that had a full-thickness burn. The bone-marrow-stem-cell-loaded nanomembrane also accelerated wound contraction and epidermalization. Therefore, this methodology provides a fast and facile approach to construct free-standing ultrathin scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility and free-standing nature of the fabricated nanomembrane may be particularly useful for stem cell delivery and wound healing.

  8. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid.

  9. An Overview of Seafood Supply, Food Safety and Regulation in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Malik A.; Saputra, Themy; Szabo, Elizabeth A.; Nelan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012–2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW. Most of the outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 were related to ciguatera poisoning. The regulation of the seafood industry and the management of food safety is an example of the coordinated work of multiple government agencies and organizations in which NSW Food Authority is responsible for managing the overall risks through the Seafood Safety Scheme. Overall, seafood supply in NSW is of high quality and poses low food safety risk to consumers. PMID:28753923

  10. Novel electrochemical immunosensors for seafood toxin analysis.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Mark P; Pravda, Miloslav; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Guilbault, George G

    2002-09-01

    The current work describes the optimisation of a screen-printed electrode (SPE) system for measurement of a variety of seafood toxins, such as okadaic acid, brevetoxin, domoic acid and tetrodotoxin. A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode coupled with amperometric detection of p-aminophenol at +300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, produced by the label, alkaline phosphatase, was used for signal measurement. ELISA was primarily used to develop all toxin systems, prior to transferring to SPE. The sensors incorporate a relevant range for toxin detection, by which humans become ill, with detection limits achieved at SPE to the order of ng ml (-1) (ppb) or lower in some cases. The SPE system is simple and cost-effective due to their disposable nature, and analysis time is complete in 30 min. In addition, analyses can be achieved outside of a laboratory environment allowing for in-field measurements. Recovery experiments on selected toxins using the relevant working ranges highlighted the functionality of these systems yielding a +/-10% deviation for the true value.

  11. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of ...

  12. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  13. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables.

  14. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in seafood from Sydney Harbour, Australia.

    PubMed

    Manning, Therese M; Roach, Anthony C; Edge, Katelyn J; Ferrell, Doug J

    2017-05-01

    Sydney Harbour, Australia is contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) due to a historical Union Carbide chemical manufacturing facility. We measured levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in over 400 seafood samples (covering 20 species) collected throughout Sydney Harbour. Concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 193 pg total TEQ (WHO05)/g wet weight. These concentrations were above those considered safe for human consumption in many cases. Dioxin accumulation varied among species and was associated with life history traits. Mobile species had elevated concentrations throughout Sydney Harbour whereas accumulation in species likely to move less widely was dependent on the distance they were caught from the point source. This large scale study on multiple species of recreationally caught seafood resulted in the implementation of human consumption advisories for recreational fishing based on individual species and distance from point source. In addition, all forms of commercial fishing in Sydney Harbour were banned. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Washington Seafood Companies Agree to Cut Ozone-Depleting and Greenhouse Gas Refrigerant Releases

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 8, 2016) Two seafood processing and cold storage companies, Ocean Gold Seafoods Inc. and Ocean Cold LLC, have agreed to cut their releases of ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases from leaking refrigeration equipment at their facilities in

  16. Monitoring program for radionuclides in marketplace seafoods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, W.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the results of a monitoring program, conducted in 1981 and 1982, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to measure concentrations of man-made radionuclides in seafoods to determine effects from previous U.S. ocean disposals of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Commercially-marketed seafood samples were collected from Boston, Massachusetts, Atlantic City, New Jersey and San Francisco, California. Each of these cities is near a previously-used U.S. ocean disposal site for LLW. The data obtained during this monitoring program shows that the concentrations of man-made radioactivity in seafoods sampled are below levels of public health concern. The data are considered to be of normal background level, attributable to global fallout over the oceans.

  17. Seafood inclusion in commercial main meal early years' food products.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Safe environments.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  19. [Microbial risk assessment of Vibrio spp. in seafood products in Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Karla M; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta T; Williams, José de Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne diseases are among the major public health problems that currently exist. Microbiological risk assessment is a process used to evaluate the hidden hazards in food, the likelihood of exposure to these hazards and their impact on public health. Risk assessment is performed in four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, assessment of exposure and risk characterization. According to the process/response microbial risk assessment is classified in two categories, qualitative and quantitative. The aim of this review is to underline the importance of implementing assessments in seafood that is usually consumed raw, strengthening access to good quality and safe food for the consumer's benefit and to stress the necessity of microbiological risks assessments in Mexico.

  20. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in seafood products of south China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wu, Feng-Chang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-10-31

    South China is probably one of the heaviest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) polluted regions in the world, thanks to the presence of huge and rapidly growing electronics manufacturing industries, as well as several of the world's largest e-waste recycling sites in the region. In the present work, a wide variety of nonfish seafood products collected from South China was analyzed for PBDE residues. The concentrations of PBDEs in seafood products were highly species-specific, and the magnitude of PBDE pollution was moderate in South China compared to the global levels. Congener patterns of PBDEs in seafood samples suggested that seafood products are prone to accumulating low-brominated congeners, and possible metabolic debromination of BDE-99 to BDE-47 could occur in certain organisms, such as crabs and mantis shrimp. Generally, the congener profile was dominated by BDE-209, and to a lesser extent by BDE-47 and BDE-99, which was consistent with the fact that Deca-BDE is mass-produced in China and with previous sediment results from the same area. The occurrence of BDE-209 in aquatic species from South China suggests that BDE-209 appears to be more bioavailable than previously thought, and the environmental fate and safety of BDE-209 require further investigation and call for a thorough reassessment.

  2. [Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 μg/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 μg/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected.

  3. Human exposure to organic arsenic species from seafood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vivien; Goodale, Britton; Raab, Andrea; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Reimer, Ken; Conklin, Sean; Karagas, Margaret R; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2017-02-15

    Seafood, including finfish, shellfish, and seaweed, is the largest contributor to arsenic (As) exposure in many human populations. In contrast to the predominance of inorganic As in water and many terrestrial foods, As in marine-derived foods is present primarily in the form of organic compounds. To date, human exposure and toxicological assessments have focused on inorganic As, while organic As has generally been considered to be non-toxic. However, the high concentrations of organic As in seafood, as well as the often complex As speciation, can lead to complications in assessing As exposure from diet. In this report, we evaluate the presence and distribution of organic As species in seafood, and combined with consumption data, address the current capabilities and needs for determining human exposure to these compounds. The analytical approaches and shortcomings for assessing these compounds are reviewed, with a focus on the best practices for characterization and quantitation. Metabolic pathways and toxicology of two important classes of organic arsenicals, arsenolipids and arsenosugars, are examined, as well as individual variability in absorption of these compounds. Although determining health outcomes or assessing a need for regulatory policies for organic As exposure is premature, the extensive consumption of seafood globally, along with the preliminary toxicological profiles of these compounds and their confounding effect on assessing exposure to inorganic As, suggests further investigations and process-level studies on organic As are needed to fill the current gaps in knowledge.

  4. Enzymes from Seafood Processing Waste and Their Applications in Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V

    Commercial fishery processing results in discards up to 50% of the raw material, consisting of scales, shells, frames, backbones, viscera, head, liver, skin, belly flaps, dark muscle, roe, etc. Besides, fishing operations targeted at popular fish and shellfish species also result in landing of sizeable quantity of by-catch, which are not of commercial value because of their poor consumer appeal. Sensitivity to rapid putrefaction of fishery waste has serious adverse impact on the environment, which needs remedial measures. Secondary processing of the wastes has potential to generate a number of valuable by-products such as proteins, enzymes, carotenoids, fat, and minerals, besides addressing environmental hazards. Fishery wastes constitute good sources of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, chitinase, alkaline phosphatase, transglutaminase, hyaluronidase, acetyl glycosaminidase, among others. These enzymes can have diverse applications in the seafood industry, which encompass isolation and modification of proteins and marine oils, production of bioactive peptides, acceleration of traditional fermentation, peeling and deveining of shellfish, scaling of finfish, removal of membranes from fish roe, extraction of flavors, shelf life extension, texture modification, removal of off-odors, and for quality control either directly or as components of biosensors. Enzymes from fish and shellfish from cold habitats are particularly useful since they can function comparatively at lower temperatures thereby saving energy and protecting the food products. Potentials of these applications are briefly discussed.

  5. SEAFOOD MERCHANDISING, A GUIDE FOR TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAUMONT, JOHN A.

    GUIDELINES ARE SUGGESTED FOR THE PROMOTION AND ORGANIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS THAT WILL AID IN THE ORDERLY DISTRIBUTION OF FISHERY PRODUCTS TO THE CONSUMER. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT CONDUCTED BY THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE BUREAU AND THE DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION SERVICE OF TEMPLE UNIVERSITY. CHAPTERS IN THE GUIDE…

  6. Methylmercury determination in seafood by photochemical vapor generation capacitively coupled plasma microtorch optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Eniko; Senila, Marin; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Petreus, Dorin; Frentiu, Maria; Frentiu, Tiberiu

    2017-08-01

    A non-chromatographic method based on double liquid-liquid extraction and measurements by UV photochemical vapor generation capacitively coupled plasma microtorch optical emission spectrometry was developed and characterized for methylmercury determination in seafood. Samples were prepared following the procedure recommended in JRC Technical Report of European Commission formerly proposed for the determination of methylmercury in seafood by thermal decomposition atomic absorption spectrometry, namely confinement of Hg species in 47% HBr solution, extraction of CH3Hg(+) in toluene and back-extraction in 1% l-cysteine aqueous solution. Mercury cold vapor was generated by flow injection UV photo-reduction from CH3Hg(+) in 0.6molL(-1) HCOOH, while quantification was performed against external Hg(2+) aqueous standards and measuring Hg 253.652nm emission using a low power/Ar consumption plasma microtorch (15W, 100mLmin(-1)) and a low resolution microspectrometer (Ocean Optics). The figures of merit and analytical capability were assessed by analyzing certified reference materials and test samples of fish fillet and discussed in relation with requirements for Hg determination in seafood in European legislation (Decisions 2007/333/EC and 2002/657/EC) as well as compared to performances achieved in thermal decomposition atomic absorption spectrometry. The limit of detection and quantification of 2µgkg(-1) and 6µgkg(-1) respectively, precision of 2.7-9.4% and accuracy of 99±8% of the proposed method for the determination of CH3Hg(+) fulfill the demands of European legislation for Hg quantification. The limit of detection and quantification were better than those in the used reference method or other non-/chromatographic methods taken for comparison. The analysis of certified reference materials and the Bland and Altman test performed on 12 test samples confirmed trueness of the proposed method and its reliability for the determination of traces of CH3Hg(+) with 95

  7. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Safe Baby Products: Bathtubs Choosing Safe Baby Products: Changing Tables Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Choosing Safe ...

  8. Virulence and cytotoxicity of seafood borne Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Illanchezian, Seethalakshmi; Jayaraman, SathishKumar; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Valsalam, Saritha

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the virulence and cytotoxicity of Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from seafood samples collected from 5 major fish markets in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 73 A. hydrophila strains isolated from fish and shrimp samples, 86.3% exhibited haemolysis, 78.1% produced slime, 98.63% produced protease and also demonstrated cytotoxicity on Vero cells. Cell shrinkage, detachment and rounding of Vero cells were recorded as cytotoxic changes. Only one strain did not show haemolysis, slime production, proteolytic activity and cytotoxicity on treatment with Vero cells. Positive correlation was observed between proteolytic activity and cytotoxicity irrespective of haemolytic activity of the strains. These results demonstrated the presence of wide spread, pathogenically characterized, cytotoxic seafood borne A. hydrophila in Chennai. PMID:24031577

  9. The safe home project.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  10. Pathogenic vibrios in environmental, seafood and clinical sources in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huehn, Stephan; Eichhorn, Christin; Urmersbach, Sara; Breidenbach, Janina; Bechlars, Silke; Bier, Nadja; Alter, Thomas; Bartelt, Edda; Frank, Christina; Oberheitmann, Boris; Gunzer, Florian; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae naturally occur in marine and estuarine environments. Only few species of Vibrionaceae are associated with human cases of gastroenteritis, ear and wound infections, caused by ingestion of seafood or contact with Vibrio containing water. Increasing consumption of seafood (fish, fishery products and shellfish) poses a possible source of Vibrio infections in Germany. Additionally, there is a growing concern that abundances of pathogenic vibrios may increase in German coastal waters as a result of e.g. climate change resulting in probably rising surface water temperatures. According to the One Health concept the VibrioNet consortium started in 2010 to investigate the occurrence and relevance of non-cholera vibrios of human concern in Germany. Vibrios from environmental, seafood and clinical sources were analyzed with the aim to find connections between different reservoirs or sources and to identify potential ways of transmission of these pathogens to assess the risk of infections associated with them. Potentially pathogenic strains mostly belong to the species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. Investigations on imported seafood and mussels from primary production areas confirmed the frequent occurrence of these species. Moreover, studies of German coastal waters and sediments showed the presence and seasonality of these marine bacteria. So far the incidence of clinical cases of vibriosis in Germany is low. Between 1994 and 2013 thirteen cases of Vibrio spp. associated wound infections and/or septicaemia have been reported. However, the high prevalence of vibrios in aquatic environments and aquatic organisms is of concern and demands continued control of food and surveillance for clinical infections with pathogenic vibrios.

  11. Brominated flame retardants and seafood safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cunha, Sara C; Casal, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide.

  12. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  13. Rollout Strategy to Implement Interoperable Traceability in the Seafood Industry.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Martin; Dent, Benjamin; Sylvia, Gilbert; Cusack, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Verifying the accuracy and rigor of data exchanged within and between businesses for the purposes of traceability rests on the existence of effective and efficient interoperable information systems that meet users' needs. Interoperability, particularly given the complexities intrinsic to the seafood industry, requires that the systems used by businesses operating along the supply chain share a common technology architecture that is robust, resilient, and evolves as industry needs change. Technology architectures are developed through engaging industry stakeholders in understanding why an architecture is required, the benefits provided to the industry and individual businesses and supply chains, and how the architecture will translate into practical results. This article begins by reiterating the benefits that the global seafood industry can capture by implementing interoperable chain-length traceability and the reason for basing the architecture on a peer-to-peer networked database concept versus more traditional centralized or linear approaches. A summary of capabilities that already exist within the seafood industry that the proposed architecture uses is discussed; and a strategy for implementing the architecture is presented. The 6-step strategy is presented in the form of a critical path. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Global incidence of rhabdomyolysis after cooked seafood consumption (Haff disease).

    PubMed

    Diaz, James Henry

    2015-06-01

    Haff disease is a syndrome of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that occurs after consuming cooked seafood. (1) To identify the most common seafood vectors of Haff disease worldwide. (2) To describe and to compare the most commonly recurring clinical and laboratory manifestations of Haff disease. (3) To compare the Haff disease toxidrome with other similar toxidromes. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords, and selected articles were stratified by reporting Old World or New World nations. Continuous variables were reported as means with standard deviations; categorical values were reported as proportions. Over 1,000 cases of Haff disease were initially described in Eastern Europe and Sweden during and following the ingestion of several species of cooked freshwater fish including burbot, pike, freshwater eel, and whitefish. More recent case reports followed consumption of cooked freshwater pomfret and boiled crayfish in China, and cooked or raw boxfish in Japan. There were 29 case reports of Haff disease in the United States with most following consumption of buffalo fish, crayfish, or Atlantic salmon. The consumption of several species of cooked fish has caused Haff disease outbreaks worldwide. The bioaccumulation of a new heat-stable, fresh, and/or brackish/ salt-water algal toxin in seafood, similar to palytoxin, but primarily myotoxic and not neurotoxic, is suspected for causing Haff disease.

  15. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  16. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day).

  17. Innovations in seafood preservation and storage.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, M L; Panebianco, A; Giuffrida, A; Anastasio, A

    2009-09-01

    The increasing amount of farmed fish cannot be easily absorbed by the market as only fresh fish. The production and promotion of value-added fresh and processed fish products, which could fulfil consumers' present demands, may represent a solution to this problem. The aim of this paper is to review some of the most recent technologies, such as surface decontamination, use of "natural" additives and compounds, active packaging, used or experimented with to prolong shelf life, while ensuring the safety of fresh fish and fishery products.

  18. The study of lead content distribution in Chinese seafood and its oral bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yongpeng; Zhu, Zhipeng; Hao, Xin; He, Long; He, Weibiao; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the lead concentrations and isotope ratios of 32 kinds of seafood collected from local markets of China were measured. Among these seafoods, the highest concentrations of lead were found in Patinopecten yessoensis and Mugil cephalus, which were 2.94 ± 0.40 and 2.02 ± 0.26 μg g(-1) of dry weight, respectively. Pb concentration was found to be higher in benthic fish than in other fish. The result indicated that lead concentrations in some seafood exceeded the maximum levels of Pb in foods proposed by European Commission (EC). Nine species of cooked seafood were chosen to feed mice (35-38 g). The result showed that Pb oral bioavailability of cooked seafood in vivo was below 10%. Furthermore, oral bioavailability of the same lead-containing seafood increased greatly in pregnant mice compared with non-pregnant mice.

  19. Abortion in a progressive legal environment: the need for vigilance in protecting and promoting access to safe abortion services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Karen A; Magwentshu, Makgoale

    2013-03-01

    The importance of South Africa as a model for reproductive self-determination in Africa cannot be underestimated. Abortion has been legal since 1996, and the country has some of the most developed government systems for the provision of abortion care on the continent. Yet in the same way opponents of abortion in the United States have whittled away at access with increased bureaucracy, South Africa faces similar assaults that leave women without safe care and threaten to turn back achievements made during the past 16 years. I explore the history of the law, subsequent legal challenges, and new threats to women's access to abortion services, including service delivery issues that may influence the future of public health in the country.

  20. Perfluorinated compounds in seafood from coastal areas in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongning; Wang, Yuxin; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Guo, Feifei; Liu, Jiaying; Cai, Zongwei

    2012-07-01

    Diet is an important source of perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure and seafood is an important diet component for coastal populations. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the concentrations of PFCs in seafood. In this study, we measured thirteen PFCs in 47 fatty fish and 45 shellfish samples collected from six coastal provinces in China (Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong), using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in fatty fish which accounted for 38% of total PFCs, whereas perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFC in shellfish. Concentrations of PFOS were ranged from less than 1.4 to 1627 pg/g wet weight in fatty fish, with the highest concentration in red drum from Jiangsu. Concentrations of PFOA in shellfish ranged from less than 5.4 to 7543 pg/g wet weight, with the maximum concentration found in briny clam also from Jiangsu. Compared with other studies, the PFC levels in seafood collected from our studied areas are relatively low. The estimated dietary intakes (EDI, pg/kg body weight /day) of PFOA, PFOS and total PFCs for the reference man (63 kg body weight) were calculated by multiplying the mean concentrations (pg/g wet weight) of PFOA, PFOS and total PFCs in six coastal provinces with the daily consumption data (g/day) from the fourth Chinese total diet study carried out in 2007. The highest EDI of PFOS and PFOA were found to be 694 pg/kg body weight/day and 914 pg/kg body weight/day in Guangdong and Jiangsu, respectively. However, the highest EDI of total PFCs was found in Fujian at 2513 pg/kg body weight/day. The EDI from seafood is much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority in 2008 indicating low health risk of PFC exposure via eating seafood among the coastal populations in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A quantitative synthesis of mercury in commercial seafood and implications for exposure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that presents public health risks through fish consumption. A major source of uncertainty in evaluating harmful exposure is inadequate knowledge of Hg concentrations in commercially important seafood. We examined patterns, variability, and knowledge gaps of Hg in common commercial seafood items in the United States and compared seafood Hg concentrations from our database to those used for exposure estimates and consumption advice. We developed a database of Hg concentrations in fish and shellfish common to the U.S. market by aggregating available data from government monitoring programs and the scientific literature. We calculated a grand mean for individual seafood items, based on reported means from individual studies, weighted by sample size. We also compared database results to those of federal programs and human health criteria [U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3-2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to 12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined. The high variability in Hg in common seafood items has considerable ramifications for public health and the formulation of consumption guidelines. Exposure and risk analyses derived from smaller data sets do not reflect our collective, available information on seafood Hg concentrations.

  2. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that presents public health risks through fish consumption. A major source of uncertainty in evaluating harmful exposure is inadequate knowledge of Hg concentrations in commercially important seafood. Objectives: We examined patterns, variability, and knowledge gaps of Hg in common commercial seafood items in the United States and compared seafood Hg concentrations from our database to those used for exposure estimates and consumption advice. Methods: We developed a database of Hg concentrations in fish and shellfish common to the U.S. market by aggregating available data from government monitoring programs and the scientific literature. We calculated a grand mean for individual seafood items, based on reported means from individual studies, weighted by sample size. We also compared database results to those of federal programs and human health criteria [U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Results: Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3–2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined. Conclusions: The high variability in Hg in common seafood items has considerable ramifications for public health and the formulation of consumption guidelines. Exposure and risk analyses derived from smaller data sets do not reflect our collective, available information on seafood Hg concentrations. PMID:22732656

  3. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  4. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  5. Trace metal content in mussels, Perna viridis L., obtained from selected seafood markets in a Metropolitan City.

    PubMed

    Dumalagan, H G D; Gonzales, A C; Hallare, A V

    2010-04-01

    Mussels, Perna viridis L., obtained from three selected seafood markets in Metro Manila, were tested for metal content including cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Water samples from Bacoor Bay, Cavite, which supplies mussels to the market, were likewise subjected to similar metal analyses. Of the metals analyzed in the soft tissues of mussels, only copper and lead with highest obtained values of 10.4 mg/kg and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively exceeded the PEMSEA guideline for safe human consumption. Water samples collected from the harvest sites in Bacoor Bay showed high concentrations of cadmium (0.023 mg/L) and lead (0.25 mg/L) that exceeded the standards of DENR, ASEAN, and US EPA. Zinc, though detected in relatively high concentrations in both water (0.03 mg/L) and soft tissues (12.16-14.43 mg/kg) of mussels remained below the criteria set by the above-mentioned agencies. Overall, the present study indicates that mussels being sold in selected Metro Manila seafood markets were contaminated with metals, notably Cu and Pb, at concentrations that are unsafe for human consumption and thus, represents a health risk.

  6. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkoch, Edward A.; Stuff, John R.; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A.; Blevins, John M.; Seely, Kathryn A.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  7. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE.

    PubMed

    Pfannkoch, Edward A; Stuff, John R; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A; Blevins, John M; Seely, Kathryn A; Moran, Jeffery H

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue.

  8. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Using Medications Safely Pharmacists in hospitals and health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely ...

  9. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease.

  10. Cancer and Noncancer Mortality Among American Seafood Workers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric S.; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Sall, Macodu; Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated mortality in seafood workers worldwide, and no such study has been conducted in the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in American seafood workers. Methods The study population was derived from 4 states and consisted of 4116 subjects who worked mainly in seafood processing plants. They were followed up from 1966 to 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were estimated, using the US general population for comparison. Results About 45% of the cohort was born after 1949. A total of 788 deaths were recorded; 53% of the decedents were female, and 88% were white. The SMRs for stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland in the cohort as a whole were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.3–18.0), respectively. The SMRs for breast cancer, and occlusion/stenosis of the pre-cerebral/cerebral arteries in the cohort as a whole were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–0.8), respectively. The SMR for ischemic heart disease in white females was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6–0.9). Conclusions This cohort had excess deaths from stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland, and deficit of deaths from breast cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease. The significance of these findings is unknown, especially as less than 20% of the cohort were deceased. Nevertheless, the cohort is unique and important, and further follow-up may shed more light on mortality patterns in this occupational group. PMID:21467730

  11. [Molecular Detection Methods for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Tomohiro; Ohtsuka, Kayoko; Oda, Midori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2015-07-01

    To detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood, we evaluated efficient combinations of molecular methods with DNA extraction methods using heat extraction and alkaline heat extraction, and PCR, real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were performed targeting V parahaemolyticus species-specific genes (tlh and rpoD) and pathogenic factors genes (tdh and trh). The species-specific genes were detected in all combinations of two strains (a tdh * trh1-positive strain and a trh2-positive strain), two kinds of shellfish (oyster and bloody clams) and molecular methods with tlh-real time PCR or rpoD-LAMP assays with DNA of alkaline heat extraction at 85-145cfu/test level. tdh was detected in both seafoods with real time PCR assay with DNA of heat extraction at 85cfu/test level, and detected with the LAMP and real time PCR assays with DNA of alkaline heat extraction at 85cfu/test level. Detection of both trh1 and trh2 with the PCR assay with DNA of alkaline heat extraction was comparatively high though trh2 was detected with the LAMP assay with DNA of alkaline heat extraction at 145cfu/test level. It, however, is necessary to investigate more sensitive trh-detection methods. In this study, the results indicated that tlh-real time PCR or rpoD-LAMP, tdh-real time PCR and tdh-LAMP assays with DNA of alkaline heat extraction are relatively-sensitive methods to detect V. parahaemolyticus in seafood.

  12. JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2009-03-30

    Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

  13. Processing, quality and safety of irradiation - and high pressure processed meat and seafood products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past two decades, worldwide demands for meat and seafood products have increased dramatically due to the improved economical condition in many countries. To meet the demand, the producers have increased the production of meat and seafood products as well as applied new processing techniques t...

  14. World Foods. Fish and Seafood - The Present and Future Use in World Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in the study of fish and seafood and their contribution in the present and future to feeding the world's people. The guide's one unit provides an overview of the various uses of fish and seafood in various cuisines, their nutritional qualities, their various classifications and forms, and the…

  15. Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentrations in adults aged ≥20 y, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Kit, Brian K; Aoki, Yutaka; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2014-05-01

    Seafood is part of a healthy diet, but seafood can also contain methyl mercury-a neurotoxin. The objective was to describe seafood consumption in US adults and to explore the relation between seafood consumption and blood mercury. Seafood consumption, obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire, and blood mercury data were available for 10,673 adults who participated in the 2007-2010 NHANES-a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of the US population. Seafood consumption was categorized by type (fish or shellfish) and by frequency of consumption (0, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 times/mo). Linear trends in geometric mean blood mercury concentrations by frequency of seafood consumption were tested. Logistic regression analyses examined the odds of blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L (as identified by the National Research Council) based on frequency of the specific type of seafood consumed (included in the model as continuous variables) adjusted for sex, age, and race/Hispanic origin. In 2007-2010, 83.0% ± 0.7% (±SE) of adults consumed seafood in the preceding month. In adults consuming seafood, the blood mercury concentration increased as the frequency of seafood consumption increased (P < 0.001). In 2007-2010, 4.6% ± 0.39% of adults had blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L. Results of the logistic regression on blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L showed no association with shrimp (P = 0.21) or crab (P = 0.48) consumption and a highly significant positive association with consumption of high-mercury fish (adjusted OR per unit monthly consumption: 4.58; 95% CI: 2.44, 8.62; P < 0.001), tuna (adjusted OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17; P < 0.001), salmon (adjusted OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.20; P < 0.001), and other seafood (adjusted OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15; P < 0.001). Most US adults consume seafood, and the blood mercury concentration is associated with the consumption of tuna, salmon, high-mercury fish, and other seafood.

  16. Risks of consumption of contaminated seafood: the Quincy Bay case study.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C B; Doyle, M E; Kipp, K

    1991-01-01

    A recent EPA-sponsored study of sediment and seafood contamination in Quincy Bay revealed elevated levels of several complex organic pollutants frequently of concern in human health assessments. A seafood consumption risk assessment was conducted using data from samples collected in Quincy Bay in the methodology developed for EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection for such assessments. Results showed estimated plausible, upperbound excess cancer risks in the 10(-5) to 10(-2) range. These results are comparable to those found in other seafood contamination risk assessments for areas where consumption advisories and fishing restrictions were implemented. Regulatory response included consumption advisories for lobster tomalley (hepatopancreas) and other types of locally caught seafood. Uncertainties inherent in seafood risk assessment in general and for the Quincy Bay case are discussed, along with implications for further action. PMID:2050051

  17. Risks of consumption of contaminated seafood: The Quincy Bay case study

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.B.; Doyle, M.E. ); Kipp, K. )

    1991-01-01

    A recent EPA-sponsored study of sediment and seafood contamination in Quincy Bay revealed elevated levels of several complex organic pollutants frequently of concern in human health assessments. A seafood consumption risk assessment was conducted using data from samples collected in Quincy Bay in the methodology developed for EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection for such assessments. Results showed estimate plausible, upperbound excess cancer risks in the 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}2} range. These results are comparable to those found in other seafood contamination risk assessments for areas where consumption advisories and fishing restrictions were implemented. Regulatory response included consumption advisories for lobster tomalley (hepatopancreas) and other types of locally caught seafood. Uncertainties inherent in seafood risk assessment in general and for the Quincy Bay case are discussed, along with implications for further action.

  18. Levels and distribution of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plant and soil samples surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) along with hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were found in plant and soil samples collected surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market in China. The profiles of MeO-PBDE congeners were different between seafood processing factory and seafood market. The detection frequency and concentration of 6-OH-BDE-47 were lower than that of MeO-PBDEs. Near seafood processing factory, a decreasing trend of analyte concentrations in plants was found downstream the river where factory wastewater was discharged. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs in plant and soil samples showed difference as root > soil > leaf. However, at seafood market, the concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs were much higher in leaves than those in soil. The concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs in leaves showed a remarkable difference between Calystegia soldanella (Linn.) R. Br. and Setaira viridis (L.) Beauv. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and psychrotolerant lactic acid bacteria in processed seafood and mayonnaise-based seafood salads.

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-04-01

    A new combined model for Listeria monocytogenes and psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was constructed and evaluated for processed seafood and mayonnaise-based seafood salads. The new model was constructed by combining existing cardinal parameter models for L. monocytogenes and Lactobacillus spp. using the classical Jameson effect to model microbial interaction. Maximum population density (MPD) values of L. monocytogenes were accurately predicted in processed seafood with a known initial cell concentration of Lactobacillus spp. For these experiments, average MPD values of 4.5 and 4.3 log (cfu/g) were observed and predicted, respectively for L. monocytogenes. In seafood salads, growth of L. monocytogenes continued at a reduced growth rate after Lactobacillus sakei had reached their MPD. This growth pattern was successfully described by an expanded version of the classical Jameson effect model, but only for products with pH of 6.0 or higher. For seafood salads with pH below 6.0 the performance of the new model was unacceptable, primarily due to prediction of no-growth by L. monocytogenes when growth was actually observed. Within its range of applicability the new model can be valuable for risk assessment and risk management of processed seafood as well as for evaluating the compliance of products with the EU regulation for ready-to-eat foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another.

  1. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million–2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies. PMID:27918581

  2. Utilization of seafood processing by-products: medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Large amount of underutilized by-products are generated from the seafood processing plants annually. Consequently, researches have been initiated to investigate those discarded materials and have identified a number of bioactive compounds including bioactive peptides, collagen and gelatin, oligosaccharides, fatty acids, enzymes, calcium, water-soluble minerals, and biopolymers. Bioactive peptides derived from fish by-products have shown various biological activities including antihypertensive and antioxidant activities and hence may be a potential material for biomedical and food industries. Collagen and gelatin are currently used in diverse fields including food, cosmetic, and biomedical industries. Other than that, they are promising drug carriers for the treatment of cancer. Many studies have reported that chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives possess biologically active polysaccharides and hence they are potential agents for many applications. Further, those compounds have also showed potential activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, etc. Hence, seafood by-products are valuable natural resources that show range of functionalities and hence potential materials for biomedical and nutraceutical industries.

  3. Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.

    PubMed

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 μg/d with concentrations of 4749 μg/L and 3769 μg/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 μg/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 μg/d with concentrations of 30 μg/L and 21 μg/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy.

  4. Microplastics as contaminants in commercially important seafood species.

    PubMed

    Santillo, David; Miller, Kathryn; Johnston, Paul

    2017-05-01

    The ingestion of microplastic fragments, spheres, and fibers by marine mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, including a number of commercially important species, appears to be a widespread and pervasive phenomenon. Evidence is also growing for direct impacts of microplastic ingestion on physiology, reproductive success and survival of exposed marine organisms, and transfer through food webs, although the ecological implications are not yet known. Concerns also remain over the capacity for microplastics to act as vectors for harmful chemical pollutants, including plastic additives and persistent organic pollutants, although their contribution must be evaluated alongside other known sources. The potential for humans, as top predators, to consume microplastics as contaminants in seafood is very real, and its implications for health need to be considered. An urgent need also exists to extend the geographical scope of studies of microplastic contamination in seafood species to currently underrepresented areas, and to finalize and adopt standardized methods and quality-assurance protocols for the isolation, identification, and quantification of microplastic contaminants from biological tissues. Such developments would enable more robust investigation of spatial and temporal trends, thereby contributing further evidence as a sound basis for regulatory controls. Despite the existence of considerable uncertainties and unknowns, there is already a compelling case for urgent actions to identify, control, and, where possible, eliminate key sources of both primary and secondary microplastics before they reach the marine environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:516-521. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Providencia thailandensis sp. nov., isolated from seafood processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khunthongpan, Suwannee; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Benjakul, Soottawat; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial strain C1112(T) was isolated from seafood processing wastewater collected from a treatment pond of the seafood factory in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences from the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes, fusA, lepA, leuS, gyrB and ileS respectively showed that the strain C1112(T) belonged to the genus Providencia, and share 91.75% similarity with P. stuartii DSM 4539(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between the strain C1112(T) and P. stuartii KCTC 2568(T) was 48.1% relatedness. Moreover, some results from biochemical properties indicated that the strain C1112(T) was distinguished from the phylogenetically closest relatives. The major fatty acids of the strain C1112(T) were C16:0, iso-C15:0, C14:0 and C17:0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content was 41 mol%. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic considerations, it should be classified as a novel species of the genus Providencia for which the name Providencia thailandensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C1112(T) (= KCTC 23281(T) =NBRC 106720(T)).

  6. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M; Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Ota, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million-2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies.

  7. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  8. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the mid-1990s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. Results The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long

  9. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chamot, Eric; Kristensen, Sibylle; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H

    2010-04-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long-term reproductive outcomes of treatment

  10. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  11. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Teneva, Lida T; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1) (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change.

  12. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Kittinger, Daniela S.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr-1 (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the “food shed” for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  13. Beth Reis and the Safe Schools Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2007-01-01

    This article chronicles the formation and organization of the Safe Schools Coalition (SCC) through the experiences of Beth Reis, co-founder and co-Chair. The article suggests ways in which the SCC can serve as a model for both collective and individual work in promoting safe schools.

  14. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  15. Evaluation of culture, ELISA and PCR assays for the detection of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, N

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated seafood. In this study, 215 seafood samples comprising fish, shrimp, crab, clam, mussel, oyster, squid, cuttlefish and octopus from fish market of Cochin (India), were compared by culture, ELISA and PCR methods. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) method was followed for culture assay, and Salmonella Tek, a commercial sandwich ELISA kit, was used for ELISA assay. Salmonella-specific PCR assay was developed for 284 bp Salmonella-specific invA gene amplicon. PCR assay exhibited 31.6% seafood positive for Salmonella followed by ELISA (23.7%) and culture method (21.3%). There was fair to excellent agreement between culture, ELISA and PCR assays (kappa coefficient values ranging from 0.385 to 1.0) for different seafood samples. The investigation revealed the greater concordance between culture and ELISA methods for seafood. Among the three methods, PCR assay was most sensitive. Lower detection rate with culture and ELISA assays could be attributed to greater sensitivity of the PCR method in the detection of Salmonella in seafood. We propose the incorporation of dual tests based on different principle and procedure for the routine analysis of Salmonella in seafood.

  16. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    PubMed

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice.

  17. Attribute importance segmentation of Norwegian seafood consumers: The inclusion of salient packaging attributes.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huu; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seafood types and age-related cognitive decline in the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard; Kang, Jae H; Cook, Nancy R; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I

    2013-10-01

    Seafood consumption may prevent age-related cognitive decline. However, benefits may vary by nutrient contents in different seafood types. We examined associations between total seafood consumption and cognitive decline and whether these associations differ by seafood types. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5,988 women (mean age, 72 years) from the Women's Health Study who self-reported seafood intake at Women's Health Study baseline and also participated in telephone assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency administered 5.6 years after Women's Health Study baseline and 2 and 4 years thereafter. Primary outcomes were standardized composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. After adjusting for potential confounders, different amounts of total seafood consumption were not associated with changes in global cognition (p = .56) or verbal memory (p = .29). Considering seafood types, however, compared with women consuming less than once-weekly tuna or dark-meat finfish, those with once-weekly or higher consumption had significantly better verbal memory (0.079 standard units; p < .01) after 4 years-a difference comparable to that for women 2.1 years apart in age. There was also a statistically nonsignificant suggestion of better global cognition (p = .13) with once-weekly or higher tuna or dark-meat fish consumption. No significant associations were observed for light-meat finfish or shellfish. The relation of seafood to cognition may depend on the types consumed. Total consumption levels of seafood were unrelated to cognitive change. However, consumption of tuna and dark-meat fish once weekly or higher was associated with lower decline in verbal memory for a period of 4 years.

  19. Seafood Types and Age-Related Cognitive Decline in the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Seafood consumption may prevent age-related cognitive decline. However, benefits may vary by nutrient contents in different seafood types. We examined associations between total seafood consumption and cognitive decline and whether these associations differ by seafood types. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5,988 women (mean age, 72 years) from the Women’s Health Study who self-reported seafood intake at Women’s Health Study baseline and also participated in telephone assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency administered 5.6 years after Women’s Health Study baseline and 2 and 4 years thereafter. Primary outcomes were standardized composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. Results. After adjusting for potential confounders, different amounts of total seafood consumption were not associated with changes in global cognition (p = .56) or verbal memory (p = .29). Considering seafood types, however, compared with women consuming less than once-weekly tuna or dark-meat finfish, those with once-weekly or higher consumption had significantly better verbal memory (0.079 standard units; p < .01) after 4 years—a difference comparable to that for women 2.1 years apart in age. There was also a statistically nonsignificant suggestion of better global cognition (p = .13) with once-weekly or higher tuna or dark-meat fish consumption. No significant associations were observed for light-meat finfish or shellfish. Conclusions. The relation of seafood to cognition may depend on the types consumed. Total consumption levels of seafood were unrelated to cognitive change. However, consumption of tuna and dark-meat fish once weekly or higher was associated with lower decline in verbal memory for a period of 4 years. PMID:23554464

  20. National estimation of seafood consumption in Mexico: Implications for exposure to methylmercury and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Batis, Carolina; Basu, Niladri

    2017-05-01

    Seafood is a good source of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA) but also contains the toxic contaminant methylmercury (MeHg). National estimates of exposure to both compounds through seafood intake in Mexico are not known. The objective of the current study was to describe national seafood consumption habits and to estimate seafood-based exposure to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg. We analyzed data from a 24-h dietary recall extracted from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico (n = 10,096 subjects aged 1y and older). National per capita seafood intake as well as information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and geographic region was obtained. The contribution of each seafood item to the total MeHg exposure was estimated, as was the balance between estimated exposures to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg. A mean daily seafood intake of 10 g/day was estimated. The top species consumed in decreasing order were: canned tuna, sunfish, shrimp, mullet, carp and schoolshark (constituted 60% of seafood intake). Canned tuna and schoolshark contributed 75% of the population's estimated exposure to MeHg. The best balance of population-level exposures to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg was found in salmon, sardine, trout and anchovies. Environmental dietary exposure to MeHg is a public health concern and thus a good understanding of seafood consumption is needed to create national consumption guidelines. The current study provides nationally-representative data in Mexico from which decisions can be made (e.g., UN Minamata Convention) and future studies conducted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods using QuEChERS-based extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Samuel R; Ciolino, Laura A; Mohrhaus, Angela S; Gamble, Bryan M; Gracie, Jill M; Jackson, David S; Roetting, John P; McCauley, Heather A; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Fricke, Fred L; Krol, Walter J; Arsenault, Terri L; White, Jason C; Flottmeyer, Michele M; Johnson, Yoko S

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible seafood is described. The method uses quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). The method was developed and validated in response to the massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Rapid and highly sensitive PAH screening methods are critical tools needed for oil spill response; they help to assess when seafood is safe for harvesting and consumption. Sample preparation involves SPE of edible seafood portions with acetonitrile, followed by the addition of salts to induce water partitioning. After centrifugation, a portion of the acetonitrile layer is filtered prior to analysis via HPLC-FLD. The chromatographic method uses a polymeric C18 stationary phase designed for PAH analysis with gradient elution, and it resolves 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority parent PAHs in fewer than 20 min. The procedure was validated in three laboratories for the parent PAHs using spike recovery experiments at PAH fortification levels ranging from 25 to 10 000 microg/kg in oysters, shrimp, crab, and finfish, with recoveries ranging from 78 to 99%. Additional validation was conducted for a series of alkylated homologs of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene, with recoveries ranging from 87 to 128%. Method accuracy was further assessed based on analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1974b. The method provides method detection limits in the sub to low ppb (microg/kg) range, and practical LOQs in the low ppb (microg/kg) range for most of the PAH compounds studied.

  2. Recovery of astaxanthin from seafood wastewater utilizing fish scales waste.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, P; Olafsson, G; Helgason, H; Jastorff, B

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents basic data on astaxanthin adsorption from fisheries wastewater to fish scales. This process has been proposed to be applicable in fisheries and shrimp waste management [Helgason, Recovery of compounds using a natural adsorbent, Patent WO 01/77230, 2001]. The innovative feature of the method is the application of a solid waste (fish scales) as a natural adsorbent for a carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) from the seafood industry wastewater. The model investigations were performed with pure synthetic carotenoids to exclude the role of matrix in which astaxanthin is present in the wastewater. Under the experimental conditions used, the maximum loading capacity of astaxanthin onto the scales is 360 mg kg(-1) dry wt. Studies of the thus formed value added product indicated that drying causes significant loss of astaxanthin activity. Due to the effective filtration characteristics of the studied sorption material, we suggest the scale/astaxanthin sorption process to be suitable for treatment of wastewater from different industries.

  3. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  4. Optimization for growth of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus in seafood processing effluents.

    PubMed

    Prasertsan, P; Choorit, W; Suwanno, S

    1993-09-01

    Tuna condensate was a better substrate than shrimp-blanching water or effluent from a frozen-seafood plant for growing Rhodocyclus gelatinosus under anaerobic conditions in the light. One strain out of four examined, R7, gave the highest biomass (4.0 g/l), cell yield (0.32 g cell/g COD), and COD removal (78%) in 1:10 (v/v) diluted tuna condensate. Shrimp-blanching water added to the tuna condensate further increased growth rate, biomass and COD removal. Optimal growth was at pH 7.0 and 3000 Lux light intensity. Acetate, pyruvate, glucose, glutamate, propionate or malate added to the tuna condensate did not increase cell yield, carotenoid or bacteriochlorophyll content or biomass protein. A maximum cell mass of 5.6 g/l (containing 50% protein) and 86% COD removal were obtained after 5 days' incubation under optimal conditions.

  5. Seafood Wars: Reviving a Tired Sustainability Education Program with Pop Culture Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peart, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    Texas State Aquarium revived its sustainable seafood education program by embedding expert speakers into the pop culture chef competition. Chefs are nominated by diners and vetted by Aquarium staff. Seafood selections are made in consultation with fishery experts and sustainability partners including Gulf United for Lasting Fisheries. Through these efforts, the Seafood Wars audience has expanded from the over-40 set to college and graduate students, families, and adults of all ages. Surveyed participants at these sell-out events are 100% as, or more likely to purchase and consume featured sustainable selections.

  6. Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

  7. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Even though babies are small and seem uncomplicated, there's nothing small ...

  8. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  9. Safe Kids Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Sleep 5 tips to create safer sleeping environment. Learn More About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research Safe Kids Near You Join Our Team Staying Safe Safety by Age Safety by Risk Safety Issues Get Your Car Seat Checked Safety Tips Safety ...

  10. Persistent perfluorinated acids in seafood collected from two cities of China.

    PubMed

    Gulkowska, Anna; Jiang, Qinting; So, Man Ka; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2006-06-15

    As an initial survey of human exposure to perfluorinated acids through food consumption in China, seven types of seafood collected from fish markets in two coastal cities were analyzed. Nine perfluorinated compounds were determined using HPLC coupled with ESI-MS/MS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant fluorochemical and was found in all 27 seafood samples, including fish, molluscs, crabs, shrimp, oysters, mussels, and clams. Concentrations of PFOS in seafood samples ranged from 0.3 to 13.9 ng/g wet weight, with the highest concentration in mantis shrimp. The hazard ratios of noncancer risk through seafood consumption based on PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were calculated and were less than unity.

  11. Delivering on seafood traceability under the new U.S. import monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Willette, Demian A; Cheng, Samantha H

    2017-08-07

    The United States is the world's largest fish importer. Recent reports, however, indicate that 25-30% of wild-caught seafood imported into the US is illegally caught, heightening concerns over the country's significant role in driving Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. In January 2017, NOAA enacted the Seafood Import Monitoring Program in an effort to combat IUU fishing through mandating improved seafood traceability requirements. This program requires reporting of fisheries data from harvest to arrival at the US border. Given the role of the US as a major global importer of seafood, this regulation could be a transformative action on fisheries worldwide if implementation includes two key components-(1) applying best available and most appropriate technologies and (2) building monitoring and enforcement capacity among trading nations. This paper provides insightful commentary on the potential for this US policy to lead by example and improve an essential natural resource that over a billion people worldwide depend on for nutrition and livelihoods.

  12. Proposed Consent Agreement and Final Order: Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation dba Norton Sound Seafood Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's proposed administrative penalty settlement with Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation d/b/a Norton Sound Seafood Products for violations of the Clean Water Act at its facility located in Nome, Alaska.

  13. 76 FR 55363 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Seafood Inspection and Certification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Seafood Inspection and Certification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  14. Reconnaissance of 47 Antibiotics and Associated Microbial Risks in Seafood Sold in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n= 27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7 ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development and publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991–2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority. PMID:25449970

  15. Reconnaissance of 47 antibiotics and associated microbial risks in seafood sold in the United States.

    PubMed

    Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-23

    Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n=27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development; publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991 to 2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority.

  16. Two patients with ciguatera toxicity: a seafood poisoning in travellers to (sub) tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Slobbe, L; van Genderen, P J J; Wismans, P J

    2008-10-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a type of seafood poisoning caused by the consumption of ciguatoxic reef fish. We describe two patients with characteristic gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, both of whom had eaten local seafood. Although mortality is low, morbidity can be considerable due to debilitating symptoms. Most cases originate in the (sub)tropics but due to expanding tourism and fish exportation, it may be encountered in more temperate regions. Treatment is supportive, but some benefit from intravenous mannitol has been reported.

  17. Estimation of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure in Populations With Frequent Seafood Intake: Evidence From MESA and NHANES.

    PubMed

    Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Grau, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-10-15

    The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylated arsenic (monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate (DMA)) species is the main biomarker of iAs exposure. Assessing iAs exposure, however, is difficult in populations with moderate-to-high seafood intakes. In the present study, we used subsamples from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002) (n = 310) and the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1,175). We calibrated urinary concentrations of non-seafood-derived iAs, DMA, and methylarsonate, as well as the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species, in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and of DMA in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by regressing their original concentrations by arsenobetaine and extracting model residuals. To confirm that calibrated biomarkers reflected iAs exposure but not seafood intake, we compared urinary arsenic concentrations by levels of seafood and rice intakes. Self-reported seafood intakes, estimated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, and measured n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were positively associated with the original urinary arsenic biomarkers. Using the calibrated arsenic biomarkers, we found a marked attenuation of the associations with self-reported seafood intake and estimated or measured n-3 fatty acids, whereas associations with self-reported rice intake remained similar. Our residual-based method provides estimates of iAs exposure and metabolism for each participant that no longer reflect seafood intake and can facilitate research about low-to-moderate levels of iAs exposure in populations with high seafood intakes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. New shrimp IgE-binding proteins involved in mite-seafood cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, M Paz; Boquete, Manuel; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, M Dolores; Sánchez-García, Silvia; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Shrimp is a seafood consumed worldwide and the main cause of severe allergenic reactions to crustaceans. Seafood allergy has been related to mite sensitization, mainly mediated by tropomyosin, but other proteins could be involved. The aim of the study was to identify new shrimp allergens implicated in mite-seafood cross-reactivity (CR) in two different climate populations: dry and humid climates. Shrimp and mite IgE-binding profiles of patients from continental dry and humid climates were analyzed by immunoblotting, and the most frequently recognized Solenocera melantho shrimp proteins were identified by MS as α-actinin, β-actin, fructose biphosphate aldolase, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and ubiquitin. Using inhibition immunoblot assays, we demonstrate that tropomyosin and ubiquitin were responsible for mite-seafood CR from both climates; but also α-actinin and arginine kinase are implicated in dry- and humid-climate populations, respectively. Reciprocal inhibition assays demonstrated that mites are the primary sensitizer in humid-climate, as shrimp is in continental dry-climate population. Several new shrimp allergens have been identified and should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of shrimp allergy and mite-seafood CR. Differences in mite-seafood CR were founded to be based on the climate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via seafood consumption and dust ingestion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-01-15

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in commonly consumed seafood and house dust collected from Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs in seafood and house dust samples were in the ranges of 0.06 to 6.25 ng/g wet weight and 80 to 16,000 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Predominant congeners in seafood were BDEs 47, 99 and 100 and those in dust samples were BDE 209. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PBDEs through seafood consumption and dust ingestion for adults (>20 years) and toddlers (<2 years) were 1.83 and 11.4 ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. In comparison with the EDIs reported for PBDEs by general population in several countries, the contribution of seafood consumption to PBDE intake in Korea was the highest. Seafood consumption and dust ingestion contributed equally to the total PBDE intakes in Korean adults, while dust ingestion was the major contributor to toddlers. This study was the first to assess exposure of humans to PBDEs through two major exposure pathways.

  20. Individual methylmercury intake estimates from local seafood of the Mediterranean Sea, in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dellatte, Elena; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Miniero, Roberto; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Orletti, Roberta; Chessa, Giannina; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Tiso, Micaela; Ferrari, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    A Seafood Frequency Questionnaire (SFQ) broken down in more than 42 items with 8-week coverage was interview-administered to 278 adults aged 19-82years (167 women, 98 in the reproductive age 19-45years, and 111 men), resident on the Italian Mediterranean shore and frequent buyer at local fish markets. Methylmercury (MeHg) intake on individual basis was estimated for a selected occurrence equal to the median value+Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) in each seafood species reported (conservative scenario). MeHg occurrence was derived from an extensive seafood database referred to years 2009-2011. Accounting for an average body weight of 62.2kg, 24.6% of women resulted overexposed with respect to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) for MeHg of 1.3μg/kg bw, with a mean of 0.92μg/kg bw. In the vulnerable group aged 19-45years, 29.6% exceeded the TWI. Rather than the amount of seafood consumed, the seafood choice appears to be the main determinant of the MeHg intake. Risk awareness was reported in the 49% of SFQs. Uncertainties related to such estimates from questionnaires are discussed, in order to give adequate health recommendations without compromising seafood consumption in the Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The arsenic content in marketed seafood and associated health risks for the residents of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Gao, Mi; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yongju; Bi, Ran; Li, Lixia; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-04-01

    Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037 μg/g ww in fish to 3.4 μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A risk-benefit analysis approach to seafood intake to determine optimal consumption.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2012-06-01

    Seafood provides n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), vitamins and minerals, which are essential to maintain good health. Moreover, seafood is a source of contaminants such as methylmercury, arsenic and persistent organic pollutants that may affect health. The aim of the present study was to determine in what quantities seafood consumption would provide nutritional benefits, while minimising the risks linked to food contaminants. Seafood was grouped into clusters using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Those nutrients and contaminants were selected for which it is known that seafood is a major source. The risk-benefit analysis consisted in using an optimisation model with constraints to calculate optimum seafood cluster consumption levels. The goal was to optimise nutrient intakes as well as to limit contaminant exposure with the condition being to attain recommended nutritional intakes without exceeding tolerable upper intakes for contaminants and nutrients, while taking into account background intakes. An optimum consumption level was calculated for adults that minimises inorganic arsenic exposure and increases vitamin D intake in the general population. This consumption level guarantees that the consumer reaches the recommended intake for n-3 LC-PUFA, Se and I, while remaining below the tolerable upper intakes for methylmercury, Cd, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, Zn, Ca and Cu. This consumption level, which is approximately 200 g/week of certain fatty fish species and approximately 50 g/week of lean fish, molluscs and crustaceans, has to be considered in order to determine food consumption recommendations in a public health perspective.

  3. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese.

  4. Salmonella grows vigorously on seafood and expresses its virulence and stress genes at different temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha K; Lalitha, Kuttanappilly V

    2015-11-03

    Seafood is not considered the natural habitat of Salmonella except the river fish, but still, the incidence of Salmonella in seafood is in a steady rise. By extending our understanding of Salmonella growth dynamics and pathogenomics in seafood, we may able to improve seafood safety and offer better strategies to protect the public health. The current study was thus aimed to assess the growth and multiplication of non-typhoidal and typhoidal Salmonella serovars on seafood and further sought to evaluate their virulence and stress genes expression while in contact with seafood at varying temperature exposure. Salmonella enterica Weltevreden and Salmonella enterica Typhi were left to grow on fish fillets at -20, 4, room temperature (RT) and 45 °C for a period of one week. Total RNA from both Salmonella serovars were extracted and qRT-PCR based relative gene expression approach was used to detect the expression of rpoE, invA, stn and fimA genes at four different temperature conditions studied on incubation days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7. Salmonella Weltevreden growth on seafood was increased ~4 log10 at RT and 45 °C, nevertheless, nearly 2 and >4 log 10 reduction was observed in cell count stored at 4 and -20 °C on seafood, respectively. Growth pattern of Salmonella Typhi in seafood has shown identical pattern at RT and 45 °C, however, growth was sharply reduced at 4 and -20 °C as compared to the Salmonella Weltevreden. Total RNA of Salmonella Weltevreden was in the range from 1.3 to 17.6 μg/μl and maximum concentration was obtained at 45 °C on day 3. Similarly, RNA concentration of Salmonella Typhi was ranged from 1.2 to 11.8 μg/μl and maximum concentration was obtained at 45 °C on day 3. The study highlighted that expression of invA and stn genes of Salmonella Weltevreden was >8-fold upregulated at RT, whereas, fimA gene was increasingly down regulated at room temperature. Storage of Salmonella Weltevreden at 45 °C on seafood resulted in an increased expression

  5. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  6. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  7. Connecting mercury science to policy: from sources to seafood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia Y; Driscoll, Charles T; Lambert, Kathleen F; Mason, Robert P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report.

  8. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  9. Alkylphenols and their ethoxylates in seafood from the Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fulvio; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Delise, Mirella; Fabietti, Fabio; Funari, Enzo

    2008-07-01

    The present study reports the results of an investigation on occurrence of octylphenols (OPs), nonylphenols (NPs) and their respective ethoxylates (with 1-6 ethoxylic group) in aquatic species of commercial interest from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Samples were collected at Livorno, Fiumicino and Salerno commercial harbors, during September-October 2003. The data obtained showed that almost all of the tested compounds were found in all the samples. NP was generally detected at the highest concentrations. Among the tested species common to the three sampling sites, mullets and seabreams generally showed high values of total alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) (44-55 ng g(-1) and 27-525 ng g(-1) fw), yet, the maximum concentrations were found in shrimps from Fiumicino (1255 ng g(-1) fw). On the contrary, the lowest concentrations were observed in hakes and anchovies (34-36 ng g(-1) and 6-37 ng g(-1) fw). Tuna, exhibited very high concentrations of total alkylphenolic compounds (APEs) (889 ng g(-1) fw). Seafood from Fiumicino fishing area, which is under the influence of the River Tiber, showed a degree of contamination of at least one order of magnitude higher than the other two sites. On the basis of the results of this study, the corresponding daily intakes of NPs are much lower than the TDI proposed by the Danish Environmental Agency.

  10. Mercury speciation in seafood using isotope dilution analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Clémens, Stéphanie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Donard, Olivier F X; Amouroux, David; Guérin, Thierry

    2012-01-30

    Mercury is a toxic compound that can contaminate humans through food and especially via fish consumption. Mercury's toxicity depends on the species, with methylmercury being the most hazardous form for humans. Hg speciation analysis has been and remains a widely studied subject because of the potential difficulty of preserving the initial distribution of mercury species in the analysed sample. Accordingly, many analytical methods have been developed and most of them incur significant loss and/or cross-species transformations during sample preparation. Therefore, to monitor and correct artefact formations, quantification by isotope dilution is increasingly used and provides significant added value for analytical quality assurance and quality control. This review presents and discusses the two different modes of application of isotope dilution analysis for elemental speciation (i.e. species-unspecific isotope dilution analysis and species-specific isotope dilution analysis) and the different quantification techniques (i.e. classical and multiple spike isotope dilution analyses). Isotope tracers are thus used at different stages of sample preparation to determine the extent of inter-species transformations and correct such analytical artefacts. Finally, a synthesis of the principal methods used for mercury speciation in seafood using isotope dilution analysis is presented.

  11. Incidence and toxigenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila in seafood.

    PubMed

    Tsai, G J; Chen, T H

    1996-08-01

    Three selective media, Oxoid Aeromonas agar (OA), blood ampicillin agar (BA) and starch ampicillin agar (SA) were used to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in 66 samples of oyster, shrimp, fish and surimi products. Oyster had the highest incidence, with 50% positive, whilst no A. hydrophila was found in the surimi. Of the three selective media, BA displayed the highest recovery rate of A. hydrophila from seafood. Forty-eight isolates from this survey were tested for their capability to produce hemolysin and cytotoxin. Hemolysin was produced by 79.2% of the isolates and cytotoxin was produced by 91.7% of the isolates in brain heart infusion broth. One of the toxin-producing isolates from oyster, strain 8-169, was further tested for growth and toxin production in oyster, shrimp and fish at various temperatures. This particular isolate grew best and had highest toxin production in oyster. Hemolysin and cytotoxin were produced earlier at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, and titers of hemolysin were also higher at 28 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, it was able to grow and produce hemolysin in oyster.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gagnon, Graham A; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing effluents on the aquatic environment through physical-chemical characterization. Shellfish and finfish effluent samples were collected and characterized by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), adsorbable organic halides (AOX), soluble BOD5 and soluble COD. Effluent concentration ranges were BOD5 (179 to 276mgL(-1)), COD (458 to 1717mgL(-1)), turbidity (28.8 to 88.3NTU), TSS (27.2 to 120.1mgL(-1)), NH3-N (1.5 to 12.9mgL(-1)) and AOX (3.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) for flatfish and salmon processing effluents respectively, and cleanup shift AOX (3.5 and 0.5mgL(-1)). The characteristics of these effluents assessed have the potential to contaminate and degrade receiving water body environments. Improved performance may be possible with further treatment technology optimization on an effluent-specific basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6.

  14. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts.

  15. Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Kee-Sun; Nam, Young-Do; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-02-01

    Strain 104(T) was isolated from a traditional salt-fermented seafood in Korea. It was a Gram-positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium. It formed lemon-yellow, opaque colonies that were circular with entire margins. Optimal growth occurred at 30-37 °C, pH 7-8 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from strain 104(T) and reference species of the genus Kocuria indicated that strain 104(T) formed an independent line. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.6 mol%. MK-7 was the major menaquinone and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (76.7 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (10.9 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) (4.5 %). Strain 104(T) was most closely related to Kocuria rhizophila TA68(T) (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain 104(T) and K. rhizophila TA68(T) was 14.1±3.4 %. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain 104(T) appears to represent a novel species in the genus Kocuria. The name Kocuria salsicia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 104(T) (=KACC 21128(T)=JCM 16361(T)).

  16. Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-04-01

    A novel actinobacterium, strain P30(T), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. Optimal growth occurred at 30-37 degrees C, at pH 8-9 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P30(T) was phylogenetically closely related to Kocuria carniphila, Kocuria gwangalliensis, Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria marina, Kocuria rosea and K. varians with levels of similarity of 98.6, 98.2, 98.1, 97.4, 97.3 and 97.3 %, respectively, to the type strains of these species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain P30(T) and the type strains of K. carniphila, K. rhizophila, K. marina, K. rosea and K. varians were 37, 43, 37, 25 and 17 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone of strain P30(T) was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain P30(T) was 70.2 mol%. Based on these data, strain P30(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria atrinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P30(T) (=KCTC 19594(T)=JCM 15914(T)).

  17. Connecting Mercury Science to Policy: from Sources to Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Mason, Robert P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  18. Health Informatics 3.0 and other increasingly dispersed technologies require even greater trust: promoting safe evidence-based health informatics. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development in Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Rigby, M; Ammenwerth, E; Talmon, J; Nykänen, P; Brender, J; de Keizer, N

    2011-01-01

    Health informatics is generally less committed to a scientific evidence-based approach than any other area of health science, which is an unsound position. Introducing the new Web 3.0 paradigms into health IT applications can unleash a further great potential, able to integrate and distribute data from multiple sources. The counter side is that it makes the user and the patient evermore dependent on the 'black box' of the system, and the re-use of the data remote from the author and initial context. Thus anticipatory consideration of uses, and proactive analysis of evidence of effects, are imperative, as only when a clinical technology can be proven to be trustworthy and safe should it be implemented widely - as is the case with other health technologies. To argue for promoting evidence-based health informatics as systems become more powerful and pro-active yet more dispersed and remote; and evaluation as the means of generating the necessary scientific evidence base. To present ongoing IMIA and EFMI initiatives in this field. Critical overview of recent developments in health informatics evaluation, alongside the precedents of other health technologies, summarising current initiatives and the new challenges presented by Health Informatics 3.0. Web 3.0 should be taken as an opportunity to move health informatics from being largely unaccountable to one of being an ethical and responsible science-based domain. Recent and planned activities of the EFMI and IMIA working groups have significantly progressed key initiatives. Concurrent with the emergence of Web 3.0 as a means of new-generation diffuse health information systems comes an increasing need for an evidence-based culture in health informatics.

  19. Frequency and type of seafood consumed influence plasma (n-3) fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyoju; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Barr, R Graham; Tsai, Michael Y; Tracy, Russell P; Siscovick, David S

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between different seafood meals and long-chain (n-3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with white, Chinese-American, black, and Hispanic participants. Dietary intake from a FFQ and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed in 900 MESA participants who were not taking fish oil supplements. When simultaneously adjusting for all seafood groups, concentrations of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipids were positively correlated with nonfried fish consumption in all 4 ethnic groups (r = 0.24-0.46; P < 0.01) but not with nonfried shellfish, fried fish, or fish in mixed dishes. The magnitude of this correlation was attenuated by up to 67% when type of seafood was not taken into account. After further adjusting for demographic characteristics and other dietary characteristics in multivariate regression models, the association of nonfried fish consumption remained significant (P-trend < 0.001). Data were suggestive of a plateau effect at a nonfried fish intake of about twice weekly. The association of nonfried fish consumption was not modified by intake of (n-6) PUFA or alpha-linolenic acid. This study highlights the importance of cooking methods (nonfried vs. fried fish), types of seafood (fish vs. shellfish), and the overall seafood consumption when assessing health effects of long-chain (n-3) fatty acids of seafood consumption.

  20. Factors influencing mothers' decisions on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone C A; Marais, Debbi; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    The first year of a child's life is a key period of transition from an exclusive milk diet to solid foods to meet growing nutritional demands. An increased requirement for nutrients includes the introduction of protein-rich solid foods, such as seafood, which additionally provides valuable omega-3 fatty acids. However, consumption of seafood is low in the British child population. The aim of this study was to identify maternal perceptions of the factors that can influence the decision on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding using a multi-method qualitative study design. A total of 26 discussions posted by mothers on parenting websites; Mumknowsbest, Mumsnet and Netmums, accessed July 2013, together with discussions from six focus groups (February-July 2014) in the North East of Scotland were included for thematic qualitative analysis. Discussions on the inclusion of seafood during the early years were centred across four interrelating themes; - food-related attributes, mother-centred aspects, family-centred aspects, and external information sources. Concerns regarding safety and mothers' limited knowledge and skills on seafood were apparent from discussions; however, the practicalities of providing a cost effective family meal were also issues raised by mothers. An understanding of the numerous and sometimes contradictory influences on mothers' decisions to include seafood during early years' period could be used to develop strategies to help increase regular seafood consumption. In particular, ensuring formal information and guidance clearly addresses the safety concerns of mothers and the development of practical education schemes to encourage and teach cooking skills should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ≥6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ≥2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  2. Integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC): Pilot study in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, German; Sioen, Isabelle; Vandermeersch, Griet; Jacobs, Silke; Robbens, Johan; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of seafood is one of the most relevant pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants present in food. The list of toxic compounds in seafood is very extensive, including heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to quantify the importance of the problem, tools to combine and simplify large data collections are mandatory for risk managers and decision-makers. In this study, the development of a prioritization setting focusing on chemical hazards taken up through seafood was aimed. For this purpose, the toxicity data of several chemicals was integrated with concentration and seafood consumption data, building an integrated risk index for seafood contaminants (IRISC) able to draw a map of risk for each chemical and family of chemicals. A pilot trial was performed on a sample of 74 pollutants, four seafood species and five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The preliminary results revealed that Portugal and Spain presented the highest IRISC, while Belgium was the region with the lowest IRISC. The contribution of each group of contaminants to the IRISC was very similar among countries, with heavy metals being the major contributor, followed by PCBs, PCDD/Fs and endocrine disrupting compounds. When the contribution of different seafood species to the Risk Indexes (RIs) was compared, the results elucidated the high input from sardines, showing the highest rates (54.9-76.1) in the five countries. The IRISC provides a friendly approach to the chemical risk scene in Europe, establishing normalized prioritization criteria considering toxicity and consumption as well as concentration of each chemical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 most probable number (MPN) per gram. In samples from markets, densities of V. parahaemolyticus showed higher values ranging from 0.61 to >110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens.

  4. Promoting Road Safety for Preadolescent Boys with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Effect of Cognitive Style and the Role of Attention in the Identification of Safe and Dangerous Road-Crossing Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasia, Alevriadou

    2010-01-01

    An important pedestrian skill that young people with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mental retardation) find difficult is the ability to find a safe place to cross the road. Safe pedestrian behaviour relies on cognitive skills, including the ability to focus attention on the traffic environment and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Individuals with ID…

  5. Safe sex or safe love: competing discourses?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D; Gifford, S; Moore, S

    1998-02-01

    The way in which sex may be constructed as safe through its relationship with 'love' is the concern of this study. Interviews with 112 heterosexual women and men from discos and bars in Melbourne, Australia, catering to single adults revealed the pervasive construction of sex within the discourses of 'love' and 'romance'. The relationship of these discourses to unsafe practices is discussed and the article presents an analysis of the normative function of the sex-as-love/sex-as-desire opposition in terms of safe sex and HIV/AIDS prevention. We conclude that health messages which emphasize that 'sex is unsafe' may be counterproductive. We illustrate how women and some men construct casual sex as a strategy for obtaining the possibility of 'love'. For these women and men, 'safe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy for maximizing the possibility that the casual encounter will result in a longer term relationship. On the other hand, 'unsafe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy that is more likely to interrupt the construction of romance in the causal encounter thus risking the possibility of love as the desired outcome.

  6. SafePatch

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.; Elko, S.

    2000-10-01

    Authenticating and upgrading system software plays a critical role in information security, yet practical tools for assessing and installing software are lacking in today's marketplace. The SafePatch tool provides the mechanism of performing automated analysis, notification, distribution, and installation of security patches and related software to network-based computer systems in a vendor-independent fashion. SafePatch assists in the authentication of software by comparing the system's objects with the patch's objects. SafePatch will monitor vendor's sites to determine when new patches are released and will upgrade system software on target systems automatically. This paper describes the design of SafePatch, motivations behind the project and the advantages of SafePatch over existing tools.

  7. Activity concentrations of (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in seafood from fishing regions of New Zealand and the dose assessment for seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine activity concentrations for (134)Caesium, (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in New Zealand seafood, and establish if activity concentrations varied with respect to species/ecological niche and coastal region. Thirty seafood samples were obtained from six fishing regions of New Zealand along with a further six samples of two commercially important species (hoki and arrow squid) with well-defined fisheries. (134)Caesium was not detected in any sample. (137)Caesium was detected in 47% of samples, predominantly in pelagic fish species, with most activities at a trace level. Detections of (137)Caesium were evenly distributed across all regions. Activity concentrations were consistent with those expected from the oceanic inventory representing residual fallout from global nuclear testing. (210)Polonium was detected above the minimum detectable concentration in 33 (92%) of the analysed samples. Molluscs displayed significantly elevated activity concentrations relative to all other species groups. No significant regional variation in activity concentrations were determined. Two dose assessment models for high seafood consumers were undertaken. Dose contribution from (137)Caesium was minimal and far below the dose exemption limit of 1 mSv/year. Exposure to (210)Polonium was significant in high seafood consumers at 0.44-0.77 mSv/year (5th-95th percentile). (137)Caesium is concluded to be a valuable sentinel radionuclide for monitoring anthropogenic releases, such as global fallout and reactor releases, in the marine environment. (210)Polonium is of importance as a natural radionuclide sentinel due to its high contribution to dietary committed dose in seafood consumers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  9. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  10. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  11. Current immunological and molecular biological perspectives on seafood allergy: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Nicki Y H; Wai, Christine Y Y; Shu, ShangAn; Wang, Jinjun; Kenny, Thomas P; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Seafood is an important component in human diet and nutrition worldwide. However, seafood also constitutes one of the most important groups of foods in the induction of immediate (type I) food hypersensitivity, which significantly impacts the quality of life and healthcare cost. Extensive efforts within the past two decades have revealed the molecular identities and immunological properties of the major fish and shellfish allergens. The major allergen involved in allergy and cross-reactivity among different fish species was identified as parvalbumin while that responsible for shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) allergy was identified as tropomyosin. The cloning and expression of the recombinant forms of these seafood allergens facilitate the investigation on the detailed mechanisms leading to seafood allergies, mapping of IgE-binding epitopes, and assessment of their allergenicity and stability. Future research focusing on the immunological cross-reactivity and discovery of novel allergens will greatly facilitate the management of seafood allergies and the design of effective and life-long allergen-specific immunotherapies.

  12. Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood products from hypermarkets in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Lou, Yang; Du, Suping; Xiao, LiLi; Niu, Ben; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important gastroenteritis pathogen contaminating seafood in China. In this study a total of 992 seafood samples from major hypermarkets in Shanghai were monitored for prevalence and burden of V. parahaemolyticus from January 2011 to December 2012. Additionally, appropriate probability distributions for describing V. parahaemolyticus concentrations were assessed based on these surveillance data. Seventeen of 992 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus and the geometric mean was 0.1581 most probable number (MPN) g(-1) . The variation in prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was seasonal and the burden of contamination in August (0.1942 MPN g(-1) ) was significant (P < 0.01) between 2011 and 2012. Also, the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was higher in shellfish and cephalopods than in other seafood (P < 0.05). By comparison, the lognormal distribution and integrated distribution showed no obvious difference for characterizing V. parahaemolyticus contamination. The low prevalence and burden found indicated that seafood from hypermarkets may not be an important risk source for V. parahaemolyticus infection in Shanghai, and more attention should be paid to other areas for selling seafood, such as farmlands or farmers' markets. The simple and effective lognormal distribution is recommended as a better choice for describing V. parahaemolyticus contamination in future risk assessment studies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Life cycle considerations for improving sustainability assessments in seafood awareness campaigns.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  14. Seafood prices reveal impacts of a major ecological disturbance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin D; Oglend, Atle; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S; Craig, J Kevin; Nance, James M

    2017-02-14

    Coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen ≤ 2 mg/L) is a growing problem worldwide that threatens marine ecosystem services, but little is known about economic effects on fisheries. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia causes economic impacts on a major fishery. Ecological studies of hypoxia and marine fauna suggest multiple mechanisms through which hypoxia can skew a population's size distribution toward smaller individuals. These mechanisms produce sharp predictions about changes in seafood markets. Hypoxia is hypothesized to decrease the quantity of large shrimp relative to small shrimp and increase the price of large shrimp relative to small shrimp. We test these hypotheses using time series of size-based prices. Naive quantity-based models using treatment/control comparisons in hypoxic and nonhypoxic areas produce null results, but we find strong evidence of the hypothesized effects in the relative prices: Hypoxia increases the relative price of large shrimp compared with small shrimp. The effects of fuel prices provide supporting evidence. Empirical models of fishing effort and bioeconomic simulations explain why quantifying effects of hypoxia on fisheries using quantity data has been inconclusive. Specifically, spatial-dynamic feedbacks across the natural system (the fish stock) and human system (the mobile fishing fleet) confound "treated" and "control" areas. Consequently, analyses of price data, which rely on a market counterfactual, are able to reveal effects of the ecological disturbance that are obscured in quantity data. Our results are an important step toward quantifying the economic value of reduced upstream nutrient loading in the Mississippi Basin and are broadly applicable to other coupled human-natural systems.

  15. Seafood prices reveal impacts of a major ecological disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martin D.; Oglend, Atle; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Asche, Frank; Bennear, Lori S.; Craig, J. Kevin; Nance, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen ≤ 2 mg/L) is a growing problem worldwide that threatens marine ecosystem services, but little is known about economic effects on fisheries. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia causes economic impacts on a major fishery. Ecological studies of hypoxia and marine fauna suggest multiple mechanisms through which hypoxia can skew a population’s size distribution toward smaller individuals. These mechanisms produce sharp predictions about changes in seafood markets. Hypoxia is hypothesized to decrease the quantity of large shrimp relative to small shrimp and increase the price of large shrimp relative to small shrimp. We test these hypotheses using time series of size-based prices. Naive quantity-based models using treatment/control comparisons in hypoxic and nonhypoxic areas produce null results, but we find strong evidence of the hypothesized effects in the relative prices: Hypoxia increases the relative price of large shrimp compared with small shrimp. The effects of fuel prices provide supporting evidence. Empirical models of fishing effort and bioeconomic simulations explain why quantifying effects of hypoxia on fisheries using quantity data has been inconclusive. Specifically, spatial-dynamic feedbacks across the natural system (the fish stock) and human system (the mobile fishing fleet) confound “treated” and “control” areas. Consequently, analyses of price data, which rely on a market counterfactual, are able to reveal effects of the ecological disturbance that are obscured in quantity data. Our results are an important step toward quantifying the economic value of reduced upstream nutrient loading in the Mississippi Basin and are broadly applicable to other coupled human-natural systems. PMID:28137850

  16. Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Frère, Laura; Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Himber, Charlotte; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Rivière, Gilles; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud; Duflos, Guillaume; Paul-Pont, Ika

    2016-08-01

    relevance and comparison of environmental and seafood product quality studies.

  17. Seafood consumption habits of South Carolina shrimp baiters.

    PubMed

    Laska, Deborah; Vahey, Grace; Faith, Trevor; Vena, John; Williams, Edith M

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp baiting is a fishing technique used by many South Carolinians and has been regulated in the state since the late 1980s. A postcard survey was developed and included with 400 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) annual surveys of registered shrimp baiters over a two-year period. The survey contained questions concerning frequency, portion size, baiting locations, and preparation techniques for shrimp as well as other species consumed and demographic information. An overall response rate of 37% was received. The majority of respondents were men over the age of 55 years. Charleston and Beaufort counties were the most common locations for shrimp baiting. Almost half (45.9%) of respondents reported eating locally caught shrimp at least 2-3 times per month. The most common portion size was ½ pound (8 oz. or 277 g), with 44.8% of respondents reporting this as their typical amount of shrimp ingested at one meal. Only 3.7% of respondents reported typically eating the whole shrimp, while all other respondents ingested shrimp with the head removed. The most commonly consumed species besides shrimp were blue crab, oysters, and flounder. According to the US Food and Drug Administration mercury (Hg) guidelines, the majority (97%) of our respondents were not at risk for consuming unsafe levels of Hg from locally caught shrimp. However, this does not take into account other local seafood eaten or other contaminants of concern. These consumption results may be used in conjunction with data on contaminant levels in shrimp to determine potential adverse health risks associated with consumption of locally caught shrimp.

  18. The elements of a consumer-based initiative in contributing to positive environmental change: Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch program.

    PubMed

    Kemmerly, Jennifer Dianto; Macfarlane, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium launched the Seafood Watch program in 2000. The program's Seafood Watch pocket guide is a simple tool that visitors can use to identify seafood from environmentally responsible sources. Since its inception, more than 2 million pocket guides have been distributed to Monterey Bay Aquarium visitors and 20 million have been distributed through partnerships across the United States. Partner institutions such as aquariums, conservation organizations, and businesses also conduct outreach and are working to influence their local seafood purveyors. An evaluation conducted in 2003 and 2004 assessed the program's strategies for increasing awareness and shifting consumer buying habits as they relate to sustainable seafood, including use of the pocket guide. Visitors who picked up pocket guides were surveyed immediately after their aquarium visit, and again four months later. The evaluation found that most visitors continued to use the guides and had changed their seafood buying habits in several respects. Those interviewed also reported some barriers to using the guides. The elements that appear to be critical to the success of the strategy with respect to changing consumer purchasing habits include: a focused distribution approach; providing credible and specific information on problems and solutions to increase action-related knowledge; providing a trigger or prompt that is available at the time of purchase; and reducing barriers to action, at the point of action, by working with seafood purveyors and the broader sustainable seafood movement to increase knowledge and available options. In response to the evaluation, Seafood Watch has strengthened these elements and expanded to help meet the needs of the broader sustainable seafood movement. A process of strategic planning, evaluation, cooperation among partners, and adaptability to the movement's natural evolution has proven to be critical to the program's success in contributing to the development of a

  19. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period May, 2015 to May 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 June 2015...15 JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-05-2015 to 31-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery

  20. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-20

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Jan 1, 2014 to Jan 31, 2014 Submitted: 20 February...control number. 1. REPORT DATE FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-01-2015 to 00-01-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer...Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is

  1. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-19

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Dec1, 2014 to Dec 31, 2014 Submitted: 19 February...control number. 1. REPORT DATE FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-2014 to 00-12-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a...Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is

  2. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Feb 1, 2014 to Feb 28, 2014 Submitted: 15 March 2015...DATE MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-02-2014 to 28-02-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...COVERED 01-02-2014 to 28-02-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  4. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  5. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  6. Navigating Ski Slopes Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162902.html Navigating Ski Slopes Safely National Ski Areas Association offers advice on ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many people head for the slopes at the first sign of snow, but it's ...

  7. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  8. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  9. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  10. Raw ready-to-eat seafood safety: microbiological quality of the various seafood species available in fishery, hyper and online markets.

    PubMed

    Kim, H W; Hong, Y J; Jo, J I; Ha, S D; Kim, S H; Lee, H J; Rhee, M S

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological quality of 206 raw ready-to-eat seafood samples was investigated according to species (gizzard shad, halibut, rockfish, tuna, oyster and squid) and distribution channels (fishery, hyper and online market). Enumeration of aerobic plate count and total coliforms (TC) and pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) was performed, and level of microbiological quality was classified into four groups: satisfactory, acceptable, unsatisfactory and unacceptable. Qualitative analysis was also performed for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., S. aureus, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus). Raw ready-to-eat seafood products revealed 0·5% at an unsatisfactory level and 4·9% at an unacceptable level due to ≥4 log CFU g(-1) of TC in squid and ≥3 log CFU g(-1) of V. parahaemolyticus in gizzard shad respectively. Gizzard shad was shown to be potentially hazardous, as its sashimi is eaten with its skin attached. Bacillus cereus, E. coli, S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were qualitatively detected. Samples from the fishery market showed higher detection rate especially in V. parahaemolyticus (21·6%) and V. vulnificus (1·7%) which indicates the need to improve microbiological safety of raw ready-to-eat seafood products in fishery market. Raw ready-to-eat seafood products like sashimi can be easily contaminated with various bacteria from aquatic environments and human reservoirs, which subsequently bring about a risk in food poisoning due to no heating process before consumption. The results of this study provide comprehensive microbiological data on various species of raw ready-to-eat seafood from various distribution channels. It may contribute to establish reasonable standard and effective strategies to ensure a good microbiological quality of raw ready-to-eat seafood for the

  11. Vibrio vulnificus peritonitis after handling of seafood in a patient receiving CAPD.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ping-Nam; Mak, Siu-Ka; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kin-Yee; Tong, Gensy Mei-Wa; Wong, Yuk; Wong, Andrew Kui-Man

    2005-11-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium and opportunistic human pathogen. Associated infections have contributed to the majority of seafood-related deaths in the United States. In patients with such predisposed clinical conditions as chronic liver disease, immunocompromised state, and end-stage renal disease, this organism has been associated with the development of life-threatening primary septicemia and severe wound infection. However, continuous ambulatory peritonitis dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis caused by V vulnificus has not been reported. We describe a patient receiving CAPD who developed peritonitis caused by V vulnificus after handling seafood. This case highlights the importance of strict aseptic technique during CAPD exchanges and calls for an effort in educating our dialysis patients on precautions about seafood handling.

  12. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities.

  13. Influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood products: A review.

    PubMed

    Mariutti, Lilian R B; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2017-04-01

    Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is a widely used additive in food industry due to its preservation and antimicrobial properties provided by its ability to reduce water activity. Moreover, the addition of salt to meat and seafood aims at improving water retention capacity and enhancing flavor due to its influence on the activity of some enzymes responsible for flavor development. On the other hand, salt added in meat and seafood can favor lipid oxidation, which is one of the main responsibles for quality losses in the food industry. In this review, the main mechanisms of fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation are described as well as the influence of salt on lipid oxidation in meat and seafood. Besides, the possible mechanisms of the pro-oxidant action of sodium chloride are presented and potential solutions to inhibit the salt action in lipid oxidation and decrease the salt content in food are discussed.

  14. Identification of shark species in seafood products by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS).

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Pérez-Martín, R I; Sotelo, C G

    2008-11-12

    The identification of commercial shark species is a relevant issue to ensure the correct labeling of seafood products, to maintain consumer confidence in seafood, and to enhance the knowledge of the species and volumes that are at present being captured, thus improving the management of shark fisheries. The polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a 423 bp amplicon from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences from this fragment, belonging to 63 authentic individuals of 23 species, were analyzed using a genetic distance method. Nine different samples of commercial fresh, frozen, and convenience food were obtained in local and international markets to validate the methodology. These samples were analyzed, and sequences were employed for species identification, showing that forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) is a suitable technique for identification of processed seafood containing shark as an ingredient. The results also showed that incorrect labeling practices may occur regarding shark products, probably because of incorrect labeling at the production point.

  15. Harnessing the Power of Genomics to Secure the Future of Seafood.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, Louis; Wellenreuther, Maren; Araneda, Cristián; Ashton, David T; Barth, Julia M I; Beacham, Terry D; Maes, Gregory E; Martinsohn, Jann T; Miller, Kristina M; Naish, Kerry A; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Primmer, Craig R; Young Suk, Ho; Therkildsen, Nina O; Withler, Ruth E

    2017-09-01

    Best use of scientific knowledge is required to maintain the fundamental role of seafood in human nutrition. While it is acknowledged that genomic-based methods allow the collection of powerful data, their value to inform fisheries management, aquaculture, and biosecurity applications remains underestimated. We review genomic applications of relevance to the sustainable management of seafood resources, illustrate the benefits of, and identify barriers to their integration. We conclude that the value of genomic information towards securing the future of seafood does not need to be further demonstrated. Instead, we need immediate efforts to remove structural roadblocks and focus on ways that support integration of genomic-informed methods into management and production practices. We propose solutions to pave the way forward. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

  17. Mercury exposure and a shift toward oxidative stress in avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms of mercury (Hg) toxicity at low doses from seafood consumption, the most common exposure route, are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that seafood Hg exposure is related to a shift in redox status, indicated by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) in blood, or increase in redox potential (Eh). We also examined whether key seafood nutrients (selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) confound or modify this shift. We measured blood concentrations of total Hg, Se, GSH, GSSG, and the Omega-3 Index (% omega-3s of total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) in seafood consumers in Long Island, NY. We examined relationships between Hg, GSH:GSSG ratio and Eh. Elevated blood Hg (>5.8µgL(-1)) was associated with lower GSH:GSSG (β=-116.73, p=0.01), with no evidence of confounding by Se or Omega-3 Index. However, in models stratified by Omega-3 Index levels, Hg-GSH:GSSG associations were weakened among those with high Omega-3 Index levels (>6% of fatty acids, β=-63.46, p=0.28), and heightened among those with low Omega-3 Index (β=-182.53, p<0.01). We observed comparable patterns for Eh in relation to Hg. These results support the hypothesis that Hg exposure from seafood is linked to a shift in redox status toward oxidative stress, modified by omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Further work should examine the role of different seafood nutrients and Hg-induced shifts in redox status in the diverse health effects associated with elevated Hg exposure.

  18. Longitudinal monitoring of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria phages in seafood processing environments in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kim Vu, Hue Thi; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2017-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen commonly found in environments of seafood processing, thus presenting a challenge for eradication from seafood processing facilities. Monitoring the prevalence and subtype diversity of L. monocytogenes together with phages that are specific to Listeria spp. ("Listeria phages") will provide knowledge on the bacteria-phage ecology in food processing plants. In this work, a total of 595 samples were collected from raw material, finished seafood products and environmental samples from different sites of a seafood processing plant during 17 sampling visits in 1.5 years of study. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. (non-monocytogenes) were found in 22 (3.7%) and 43 (7.2%) samples, respectively, whereas 29 Listeria phages were isolated from 9 (1.5%) phage-positive samples. DNA fingerprint analysis of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed 11 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles, with two subtypes were frequently observed over time. Our data reveal a presence of Listeria phages within the same seafood processing environments where a diverse set of L. monocytogenes subtypes was also found. Although serotype 4b was observed at lower frequency, data indicate that isolates from this seafood processing plant belonged to both epidemiologically important serotypes 1/2a and 4b, which may suggest a potential public health risk. Phages (all showed a unique genome size of 65 ± 2 kb) were classified into 9 host range groups, representing both broad- and narrow-host range. While most L. monocytogenes isolates from this facility were susceptible to phages, five isolates showed resistance to 12-20 phages. Variations in phage host range among Listeria phages isolated from food processing plant may affect a presence of a diverse set of L. monocytogenes isolates derived from the same processing environment in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Seafood Consumption in a Group of Italian Mother-Child Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Francesca; Parpinel, Maria; Barbone, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Seafood is an important component of healthful human diets. Intake of seafood is recommended both for young women and children. In fact, it is a good source of high-quality protein, low in saturated fats, and rich in essential nutrients (e.g. iodine, iron, choline, and selenium) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), especially omega-3. However, the relationship between maternal diet and the children's dietary habits is controversial. This study investigated the possible association between the seafood consumption by mothers and that by their 8-11 years old children and compared maternal seafood intakes during pregnancy and about 10 years later. The seafood consumption by 37 pregnant women was assessed in 1999-2001. In 2009, mothers were asked to report their weekly intake and their children's. Mother-child pairs showed a similar consumption pattern: the overall intake was 1.28±0.77 vs 1.19±0.64 (p=0.49) while the sum of specific items was 3.71±3.01 vs 3.18±2.90 (p=0.049). However, it cannot be discerned whether maternal diet affected the children's nutritional habits or vice-versa. In fact, mothers showed to have a higher seafood intake about 10 years after pregnancy (3.71 vs 1.83; p<0.001), suggesting that a progressive modification of dietary habits occurred after delivery, possibly due to the influence of maternal diet on the nutritional habits of offspring or due to the presence of children in the family unit, that could have influenced maternal dietary habits. This dietary improvement could be brought forward through educational interventions addressed to young women, that could also allow a more informed choice of the healthier species of fish both for them and their children. PMID:24592586

  20. Comparison of seafood consumption in a group of Italian mother-child pairs.

    PubMed

    Deroma, Laura; Valent, Francesca; Parpinel, Maria; Barbone, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    Seafood is an important component of healthful human diets. Intake of seafood is recommended both for young women and children. In fact, it is a good source of high-quality protein, low in saturated fats, and rich in essential nutrients (e.g. iodine, iron, choline, and selenium) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), especially omega-3. However, the relationship between maternal diet and the children's dietary habits is controversial. This study investigated the possible association between the seafood consumption by mothers and that by their 8-11 years old children and compared maternal seafood intakes during pregnancy and about 10 years later. The seafood consumption by 37 pregnant women was assessed in 1999-2001. In 2009, mothers were asked to report their weekly intake and their children's. Mother-child pairs showed a similar consumption pattern: the overall intake was 1.28 +/- 0.77 versus 1.19 +/- 0.64 (p = 0.49) while the sum of specific items was 3.71 +/- 3.01 versus 3.18 +/- 2.90 (p = 0.049). However, it cannot be discerned whether maternal diet affected the children's nutritional habits or vice-versa. In fact, mothers showed to have a higher seafood intake about 10 years after pregnancy (3.71 versus 1.83; p < 0.001), suggesting that a progressive modification of dietary habits occurred after delivery, possibly due to the influence of maternal diet on the nutritional habits of offspring or due to the presence of children in the family unit, that could have influenced maternal dietary habits. This dietary improvement could be brought forward through educational interventions addressed to young women, that could also allow a more informed choice of the healthier species of fish both for them and their children.

  1. Seafood consumption and umbilical cord blood mercury concentrations in a multiethnic maternal and child health cohort.

    PubMed

    Soon, Reni; Dye, Timothy D; Ralston, Nicholas V; Berry, Marla J; Sauvage, Lynnae M

    2014-06-18

    Fish consumption is common among the cultures of Hawaii, and given public health attention to mercury exposure in pregnancy, it is important to better understand patterns of fish consumption and mercury in pregnancy. This study examined the influence of maternal fish consumption during pregnancy on umbilical cord mercury (Hg) concentrations in a multiethnic cohort of women in Hawaii. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort pilot study examined antenatal seafood consumption and neonatal outcomes in Hawaii. The first 100 eligible women who consented were enrolled. After delivery, umbilical cord blood and a dietary survey were obtained. Most women (86%) consumed seafood during the month prior to delivery. Overall, 9% of women consumed more than the recommended limit of 12 ounces/week. Seafood consumption varied significantly by ethnicity and income, with 30% of poor women consuming more than the recommended limit. Seafood consumption did not vary by age or education.Umbilical cord blood Hg levels were 5 μg/L or more in 44% of women. Filipina were significantly less likely to have elevated Hg levels compared with non- Filipina (p < .05). Mercury levels did not vary by other demographic characteristics.Women reporting consumption exceeding 12 ounces fish per week were significantly more likely to have cord blood Hg levels of 5 μg/L or more, but mean Hg concentrations were not significantly higher (6.1 ± 3.3 v 5.0 ± 3.7). The odds ratio for elevated Hg, however, was significant among seafood-consumers compared with non-consumers (5.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 27.1). Despite Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, a significant portion of pregnant women consumed more than the recommended amount of seafood, which was associated with race and income. Further, almost half of study participants had cord blood Hg concentrations at or exceeding 5 μg/L.

  2. Presence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in waters and seafood from the Tunisian Sea.

    PubMed

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Croci, Luciana; Colombo, Mauro M; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected from various exported seafood products comprising of fishes and shellfish (Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas) or seawater, was studied. Eight strains were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by toxR -based polymerase chain reaction and only one strain out of these 8 strains was positive for tdh and trh genes. Toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Tunisian coastal areas and they may also be present in Tunisian exported seafood products.

  3. Determination of histamine in seafood by hydrophilic interaction chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuo; Hamada, Hirotoshi; Murakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Hidekazu; Tobino, Toshiaki; Toda, Kei

    2012-01-01

    A simple method was developed to determine histamine, an important compound in chemical food poisoning, by extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a hydrophilic column with sulfobetaine-type zwitterion groups. The quantitation range in seafood products was from 0.4 to 200 mg kg(-1) for 5 g food samples. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with four types of seafood product. These results agreed well with those from the more complex, conventional HPLC method, which requires sample derivatization with dansyl chloride.

  4. Health-risk assessment of chemical contamination in Puget Sound seafood. Final report 1985-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.

    1988-09-01

    This report provides resource management and health agencies with a general indication of the magnitude of potential human health risks associated with consumption of recreationally harvested seafoods from Puget Sound. Data collection and evaluation focused on a variety of metal and organic contaminants in fish, shellfish and edible seaweeds from 22 locations in the Sound. EPA risk assessment techniques were used to characterize risks to average and high consumer groups for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Theoretical risks associated with consumption of both average and high quantities of Puget Sound seafood appear to be comparable to or substantially less than those for fish and shellfish from other locations in the United States.

  5. A model for communication of sensory quality in the seafood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Sensory quality has a key influence of consumer perception of a product. It is therefore of great importance for the processing industry that the sensory quality fulfils the expectations of the consumer. Sensory evaluations are the ultimate tool to measure and communicate sensory quality, but it is generally not fully implemented in the chain from catch to consumer. The importance of communicating sensory demands and results from evaluations in the seafood processing chain is described and a Seafood Sensory Quality Model (SSQM) is suggested as a communication tool.

  6. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments.

  7. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Peter D.; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. PMID:24618601

  8. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-03-11

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  9. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period June 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015 Submitted: 15 July...DATE JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-06-2015 to 30-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction on

  10. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 Aug 2015...DATE 15 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 31-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  11. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Mar 1, 2014 to Mar 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 May 2015...15 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-03-2014 to 31-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction on

  12. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Mar 1, 2014 to Mar 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 April 2015...DATE 15 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  13. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  14. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2014 to July 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 August...DATE 15 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2014 to 31-07-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 1 July 2014 to 31 July 2014 Unclassified 15 August 2014 Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained

  15. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  16. A community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower James River, Virginia, USA: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2010-04-01

    The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. Ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income African-American women (ages 16-49) residing in the Southeast community of Newport News, VA, USA, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. Only the results of the seafood consumption surveys are presented in this manuscript. Approximately 65% of the women surveyed do not fish; however, 83% had consumed seafood within the last 7 days. Whiting, shrimp, and canned tuna were the three items most frequently consumed. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed stated that grocery/seafood markets were the main sources of the seafood items generally consumed. The mean seafood consumption rate for the women surveyed was 147.8 g/day (95% CI: 117.6-185.8), a rate substantially higher than the mean seafood consumption rate reported for US women (1.8 g/day 95% CI: 1.51-2.04). Shrimp, croaker, and blue crab were the top three seafood items with the highest summed amount (g/day) consumed. There was no significant association between demographic variables (age, income, education, and weight) and total number of seafood items listed, ingestion rate (g/meal), exposure frequency (meals/year), and seafood consumption rate (g/day). By using CBPR to assess seafood consumption in this community, we learned that even though women in Southeast Newport News, Virginia are not subsistence fishers, they consume seafood at a subsistence fisher rate. Of the three seafood items most frequently consumed, canned tuna potentially plays a significant role in dietary mercury exposure for women in this community. Future work includes determining mercury concentrations in seafood items consumed and generating community-specific statements of dietary mercury risks.

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Seafood Processing Training Sessions in the Galveston Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Robert F.

    A cost-benefit study was conducted to determine the economic viability of continuing to offer training sessions for seafood processors through the College of the Mainland in Texas. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including the college and local company participating in the program, federal and state…

  18. Factors influencing consumption of farmed seafood products in the Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Hall, Troy E; Amberg, Shannon M

    2013-07-01

    This study used a mail survey (n=1159 usable surveys) of Pacific northwest (US) residents to understand general seafood preferences (familiarity, price, freshness, health and environmental concerns), beliefs and attitudes specific to aquaculture versus wild products, and how those cognitive factors affect decisions to consume types of farmed seafood products. Respondents strongly agreed that seafood is healthy, and they preferred wild over farmed products. Many respondents were uncertain about human health and environmental benefits and problems associated with aquaculture. While there was agreement that aquaculture reduces pressure on wild fish, there was equally strong agreement that it has the same problems as other agricultural practices. Belief in the superiority of wild seafood was a strong predictor of consumption choices. Belief in the benefits of aquaculture was positively related to higher consumption of farmed products, but--unexpectedly--beliefs related to environmental and health problems associated with aquaculture did not predict specific consumption choices. Nearly half of respondents recalled hearing or reading about aquaculture in the mass media, and recall of negative stories contributed to a general preference for wild products, but not consumption of specific types of farmed products. Consumption of the different classes of products had some different predictors, and communication efforts directed at different beliefs may have different impacts on consumer behavior. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031, a Bioprotective Strain for Seafood Products

    PubMed Central

    Marché, Laurent; Saraoui, Taous; Remenant, Benoit; Zagorec, Monique; Prévost, Hervé; Delbarre-Ladrat, Christine; Leroi, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031 is a psychotrophic foodborne lactic acid bacterium showing potential interest for the biopreservation of seafood products due to its inhibition properties toward pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The analysis of its genome will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between these bacteria. PMID:28126939

  1. 77 FR 50593 - Safety Zone; Seafood Festival Fireworks Display, Marquette, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Seafood Festival Fireworks Display... from a portion of Lake Superior due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display....

  2. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Domingo, José L; Sloth, Jens J; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-06-01

    Although seafood is a nutritious protein source, due to marine environmental pollution, seafood may also be a source of contaminants. The results obtained within the FP7-ECsafeSEAFOOD-project show that among the range of studied environmental contaminants certainly methylmercury (MeHg) requires deeper investigation. This paper presents the results of a probabilistic risk assessment for MeHg based on: (1) primary concentration data, as well as secondary data from published papers, and (2) primary species-specific consumption data collected in five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The results indicated that in the southern European countries, larger subgroups of the population (up to 11% in Portugal) are potentially at risk for a MeHg exposure above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value, while this risk is much lower in Ireland and Belgium. This research confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt the results of this study in order to develop consumer advices that optimise health benefits versus potential health risks by providing species-specific information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic in the human food chain, biotransformation and toxicology--Review focusing on seafood arsenic.

    PubMed

    Molin, Marianne; Ulven, Stine Marie; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Fish and seafood are main contributors of arsenic (As) in the diet. The dominating arsenical is the organoarsenical arsenobetaine (AB), found particularly in finfish. Algae, blue mussels and other filter feeders contain less AB, but more arsenosugars and relatively more inorganic arsenic (iAs), whereas fatty fish contain more arsenolipids. Other compounds present in smaller amounts in seafood include trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and sulfur-containing arsenicals. The toxic and carcinogenic arsenical iAs is biotransformed in humans and excreted in urine as the carcinogens dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA), producing reactive intermediates in the process. Less is known about the biotransformation of organoarsenicals, but new insight indicates that bioconversion of arsenosugars and arsenolipids in seafood results in urinary excretion of DMA, possibly also producing reactive trivalent arsenic intermediates. Recent findings also indicate that the pre-systematic metabolism by colon microbiota play an important role for human metabolism of arsenicals. Processing of seafood may also result in transformation of arsenicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Seafood Processing Training Sessions in the Galveston Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Robert F.

    A cost-benefit study was conducted to determine the economic viability of continuing to offer training sessions for seafood processors through the College of the Mainland in Texas. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including the college and local company participating in the program, federal and state…

  5. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  6. Comparison of Methods for Detection of Erysipelothrix spp. and Their Distribution in Some Australasian Seafoods

    PubMed Central

    Fidalgo, S. G.; Wang, Q.; Riley, T. V.

    2000-01-01

    For many years, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has been known to be the causative agent of the occupationally related infection erysipeloid. A survey of the distribution of Erysipelothrix spp. in 19 Australasian seafoods was conducted, and methodologies for the detection of Erysipelothrix spp. were evaluated. Twenty-one Erysipelothrix spp. were isolated from 52 seafood parts. Primary isolation of Erysipelothrix spp. was most efficiently achieved with brain heart infusion broth enrichment followed by subculture onto a selective brain heart infusion agar containing kanamycin, neomycin, and vancomycin after 48 h of incubation. Selective tryptic soy broth, with 48 h of incubation, was the best culture method for the detection of Erysipelothrix spp. with PCR. PCR detection was 50% more sensitive than culture. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from a variety of different fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans, including a Western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus). There was no significant correlation between the origin of the seafoods tested and the distribution of E. rhusiopathiae. An organism indistinguishable from Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was isolated for the first time from an Australian oyster and a silver bream. Overall, Erysipelothrix spp. were widely distributed in Australasian seafoods, illustrating the potential for erysipeloid-like infections in fishermen. PMID:10788383

  7. Prevalence and Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (tdh+) isolated from seafood using PCR-based methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogen most frequently implicated in foodborne outbreaks linked to the consumption of seafood in the coastal cities of China. The pathogenicity of environmental V. parahaemolyticus is mostly correlated with the production of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). In orde...

  8. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  9. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  10. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  11. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  12. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  13. A Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinacci, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Presents four key steps in planning for school security and creating a safe, secure environment for students: deterring the possibility of crime; detecting when something potentially troublesome has occurred; delaying criminals in order to give law enforcement officials the additional time needed to catch them; and recovering and continuing the…

  14. Occupational allergies in the seafood industry--a comparative study of Australian and South African workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lopata, A L; Baatjies, R; Thrower, S J; Jeebhay, M F

    2004-01-01

    Although seafood allergy due to ingestion is commonly observed in clinical practice, the incidence of seafood allergies in general and more specifically in the occupational setting in Australia is largely unknown. The work practices, occupational health services and allergic health problems in 140 seafood processing workplaces in Australia were examined and compared to previous studies in South Africa. A cross-sectional employer-based survey design was used to conduct the study in both countries. In the South African study a response rate of 60% (n = 41) was obtained, compared to a response rate of 18% (n = 140) in Australia. The most common seafood processed by workplaces in South Africa was finfish (76%) and rock lobster (34%). Similarly in Australia, finfish (34%) was the most frequently handled seafood. However, processing of prawns (24%) and oysters (21%) was more common in Australia. Common work processes in South Africa involved freezing (71%), cutting/filleting (63%) and degutting (58%) procedures. Similar processes were followed in Australian industries with the exception of shucking of oysters, particularly common in the aquaculture industries. About half of the workplaces in both countries provided an occupational health service and medical surveillance of workers. However, none of the workplaces in South Africa and only 9% of the workplaces in Australia had industrial hygiene programs for seafood aerosols in place. In both countries positive trends were observed between the size of the workforce and the provision of occupational health services (p<0.005). Similarly, skin rash accounted for highest of all reported health problems (78-81%) followed by asthmatic symptoms (7-10%) and other non-specific allergic symptoms (9-15%) in both countries. Most workplaces reported the annual prevalence of work-related symptoms to be less than 5%. In Australia 7% of respondents in workplaces reported workers having left their workplace due to work-related allergic

  15. [Analysis on heavy metal pollution in major seafoods from Zhoushan Fishery, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yue; Wang, Yu-Chao; Lou, Jiang-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Through reviewing data on surveys, tested materials especially on lead in Zhoushan fisheries, with ground lead, cadmium and methyl-mercury were analyzed and evaluated. According to the distribution of Zhoushan fisheries, we randomly selected a certain number of Zhoushan seafood as research objects from four counties or districts. Different kinds of seafood would include sea fish, seawater crustaceans, seawater soft-bodied animals and sea algae. The inedible parts of all the seafood were removed, and then the samples of the edible parts were grinding into homogenate. We measured the contents of lead and cadmium, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method. The content of methylmercury was measured, using the gas chromatography (acid extraction method of mercaptoacetic cotton). Data from 2007 to 2009 was analyzed under SPSS software. (1) The average standardized rates were: lead as 3.90% (11/282), cadmium as 11.35% (32/282) and methylmercury as 2.84% (8/282). (2) Results from the comprehensive evaluation on the contents of metals showed the following rankings: seaweed (0.4513 mg/kg), marine molluscs (0.1155 mg/kg), marine crustaceans (0.0486 mg/kg), sea-fish (0.0419 mg/kg). (3) Results from the single-factor variance analysis showed that the accumulation of lead, cadmium and methylmercury in different types of seafood were: lead F = 35.683 (P < 0.001); cadmium F = 25.301 (P < 0.001); methylmercury F = 25.990 (P < 0.001). (4) Data on the safety analysis related to the different types of seafood on lead, cadmium, methylmercury food, the Chi-square tests showed as: lead χ(2) = 10.167, P < 0.05; cadmium χ(2) = 62.940, P < 0.001; methylmercury χ(2) = 20.960, P < 0.001. (5) Seafood in different years on lead, cadmium, methylmercury accumulation comparison, the Spearman correlation test results showed: lead P = 0.000, cadmium P = 0.974, methylmercury P = 0.024. (6) The contents of seafood lead, cadmium and methylmercury in different years that with

  16. Seafood Contamination after the BP Gulf Oil Spill and Risks to Vulnerable Populations: A Critique of the FDA Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Karen K.; Solomon, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The BP oil spill of 2010 resulted in contamination of one of the most productive fisheries in the United States by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which can accumulate in seafood, are known carcinogens and developmental toxicants. In response to the oil spill, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed risk criteria and established thresholds for allowable levels [levels of concern (LOCs)] of PAH contaminants in Gulf Coast seafood. Objectives: We evaluated the degree to which the FDA’s risk criteria adequately protect vulnerable Gulf Coast populations from cancer risk associated with PAHs in seafood. Discussion: The FDA LOCs significantly underestimate risk from seafood contaminants among sensitive Gulf Coast populations by failing to a) account for the increased vulnerability of the developing fetus and child; b) use appropriate seafood consumption rates; c) include all relevant health end points; and d) incorporate health-protective estimates of exposure duration and acceptable risk. For benzo[a]pyrene and naphthalene, revised LOCs are between two and four orders of magnitude below the level set by the FDA. Comparison of measured levels of PAHs in Gulf seafood with the revised LOCs revealed that up to 53% of Gulf shrimp samples were above LOCs for pregnant women who are high-end seafood consumers. Conclusions: FDA risk assessment methods should be updated to better reflect current risk assessment practices and to protect vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children. PMID:21990339

  17. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Shigeru; Arphorn, Sara; Muto, Takashi; Koetkhlai, Kanatid; Naing, Saw Sandy; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and investigated risk factors for LBP among seafood processing factory workers in Thailand including migrant workers. The subjects were Thai and Myanmar workers in the typical seafood processing factory. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of LBP, general characteristics, life style, and working condition were investigated. The associations between LBP and risk factors were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of 254 workers, 165 completed the questionnaire. Half of these workers were Thai, the others were from Myanmar. The point prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. Risk factors for LBP were age over 40 yr, poor health status, history of back injury, twisting posture at work, and slipping on wet floors. The results suggest that health promotion should focus on working conditions rather than individual life style in order to prevent LBP. Furthermore, greater attention to other risk factors such as history of back injury and perception of health status after regular health check up, especially in older age groups may be needed.

  19. Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants.

    PubMed

    Willette, Demian A; Simmonds, Sara E; Cheng, Samantha H; Esteves, Sofia; Kane, Tonya L; Nuetzel, Hayley; Pilaud, Nicholas; Rachmawati, Rita; Barber, Paul H

    2017-10-01

    Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g., >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, which means it is difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth-in-labeling regulations. We used DNA barcoding to assess seafood labeling in 26 sushi restaurants in Los Angeles over 4 years. Seafood from 3 high-end grocery stores were also sampled (n = 16) in 2014. We ordered 9 common sushi fish from menus, preserved tissue samples in 95% ethanol, extracted the genomic DNA, amplified and sequenced a portion of the mtDNA COI gene, and identified the resulting sequence to known fish sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide database. We compared DNA results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of acceptable market names and retail names. We considered sushi-sample labels that were inconsistent with FDA names mislabeled. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%; 151 of 323) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species. Halibut, red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail had consistently high (<77%) occurrences of mislabeling on menus, whereas mislabeling of salmon and mackerel were typically low (>15%). All sampled sushi restaurants had at least one case of mislabeling. Mislabeling of sushi-grade fish from high-end grocery stores was also identified in red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail, but at a slightly lower frequency (42%) than sushi restaurants. Despite increased regulatory measures and media attention, we found seafood mislabeling continues to be prevalent. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Cadmium dietary intake and biomarker data in French high seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Veronique; Samieri, Cecilia; Volatier, Jean-luc; Leblanc, Jean-charles

    2008-07-01

    Seafood and especially mollusks are known to be a rich source of cadmium (Cd), but little data are available concerning French seafood contamination and Cd exposure of French populations. The objective was then to assess food intake and biological level of Cd in high consumers of seafood, and to determine the impact of the consumption of self-fished mollusks on urinary Cd. Seafood consumption levels of 80 products were assessed for 1011 high consumers aged 18 and over in four French coastal areas, thanks to a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). According to a total diet study approach, seafood samples were collected taking into account preservation methods and supply habits. Food samples were analyzed for Cd. Exposure was assessed by crossing consumption data with contamination data. Total blood and urine samples were collected from 380 subjects of the cohort and analyzed for Cd. The impact of the self-collected mollusks consumption on the Cd biological level adjusted for creatinine was assessed by a multivariate linear regression model. The mean dietary intake of Cd is 2.44+/-3.34 microg/kg bw/wk and the mean urinary Cd (U-Cd) level is 0.65+/-0.45 microg/g creatinine, and is significantly higher in women than in men (P<0.05). The consumption of self-fished mollusks is significantly negatively associated with U-Cd (r=-0.11 [-0.185, -0.009], P=0.03). The results of this study indicate that the biological Cd levels remain below the standards, and also suggest a protective effect of self-fishing, which inspires confidence about the high consumer health safety in terms of Cd exposure.

  1. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2–8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child’s frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P <0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

  2. Rhabdomyolysis After Cooked Seafood Consumption (Haff Disease) in the United States vs China

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Haff disease is a syndrome of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that occurs after eating cooked seafood. Methods For this descriptive analytical article, a literature search identified the scientific articles on Haff disease and/or rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked seafood in the United States and China. Analysis of those articles focused on identifying the seafood vectors of Haff disease, describing the most commonly recurring clinical and laboratory manifestations of Haff disease, and comparing the Haff disease toxidrome with other similar seafood-borne toxidromes. Statistically significant differences were determined using unpaired t tests and Fisher exact tests. Results Twenty-nine confirmed cases of Haff disease were identified in the United States, and 60 cases were identified in China during 1984-2014. Most of the US cases followed consumption of buffalo fish, and most of the Chinese cases followed consumption of freshwater pomfret. However, Haff disease also followed consumption of the same species of boiled crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in the United States (n=9) and China (n=6). US patients with crayfish-transmitted Haff disease reported significantly more nausea with and without vomiting, chest pain, body and back pain, dyspnea, and diaphoresis than the Chinese patients and were more frequently misdiagnosed as having myocardial infarctions. Conclusion The bioaccumulation of a new, heat-stable freshwater and/or brackish/saltwater algal toxin, similar to palytoxin but primarily myotoxic and not neurotoxic, is suspected of causing Haff disease. At present, only the rapid identification of the seafood vectors of Haff disease will limit disease outbreaks and prevent further cases. PMID:26130980

  3. Is the Ghost of Waste Management's Past Coming Back to Haunt Us In Our Seafood?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, C. M.; Tahir, A.; Serrato, S.; Williams, S.; Baxa, D.; Lam, R.; Teh, C.; Miller, J.; Werorilangi, S.; Teh, S.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic debris is recognized globally as a persistent contaminant, littered across multiple habitats worldwide. Most striking is its occurrence in wildlife. Plastic has been recovered from hundreds of species across multiple trophic levels and in animals we consider seafood. This has led policy-makers to ask about the extent that our seafood is contaminated with plastic debris and associated contaminants. To help address these policy-relevant and emerging scientific questions, we first measured the simple presence of anthropogenic debris in many different species of fish and one species of shellfish sold as seafood at local fish markets in Half Moon Bay, California, USA and Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found anthropogenic debris in roughly 25% of all animals purchased, demonstrating that some seafood items are contaminated with plastic debris, including some that we consume whole (e.g., anchovies and oysters). Next, to understand if plastic debris can act as a vector for organic pollutants to move through the food chain and indirectly into the meat of fish at higher trophic levels, we designed a laboratory dietary exposure to measure the bioaccumulation of sorbed PCBs in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) and the biomagnifications in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Asian clams were exposed for 30 days to separate treatments of microplastic (polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and polystyrene) with and without sorbed PCBs. Next, diets were formulated using purified ingredients and clams from the first exposure and fed to their predators (sturgeon) for 30 days. Chemical analyses, allowing us to understand how chemical contaminants from plastics move through food chains, will be presented. Combined, this work demonstrates the presence of plastic debris in seafood and will help us understand whether plastic acts as a vector for chemicals to transfer through aquatic foodwebs, including our own.

  4. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of archaeal and bacterial diversity in fermented seafood using barcoded pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Nam, Young-Do; Chang, Ho-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the archaeal diversity of fermented seafood; most of the earlier studies of fermented food have focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the fermentation process. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial diversity in seven kinds of fermented seafood were culture-independently examined using barcoded pyrosequencing and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The multiplex barcoded pyrosequencing was performed in a single run, with multiple samples tagged uniquely by multiplex identifiers, using different primers for Archaea or Bacteria. Because PCR-DGGE analysis is a conventional molecular ecological approach, this analysis was also performed on the same samples and the results were compared with the results of the barcoded pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 13 372 sequences were retrieved from 15 898 pyrosequencing reads and were analyzed to evaluate the diversity of the archaeal and bacterial populations in seafood. The most predominant types of archaea and bacteria identified in the samples included extremely halophilic archaea related to the family Halobacteriaceae; various uncultured mesophilic Crenarchaeota, including Crenarchaeota Group I.1 (CG I.1a and CG I.1b), Marine Benthic Group B (MBG-B), and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG); and LAB affiliated with genus Lactobacillus and Weissella. Interestingly, numerous uncultured mesophilic Crenarchaeota groups were as ubiquitous in the fermented seafood as in terrestrial and aquatic niches; the existence of these Crenarchaeota groups has not been reported in any fermented food. These results indicate that the archaeal populations in the fermented seafood analyzed are diverse and include the halophilic and mesophilic groups, and that barcoded pyrosequencing is a promising and cost-effective method for analyzing microbial diversity compared with conventional approaches.

  6. Modification of the excess risk of coronary heart disease due to smoking by seafood/fish intake.

    PubMed

    Eshak, E S; Iso, H; Yamagishi, K; Kokubo, Y; Saito, I; Yatsuya, H; Sawada, N; Inoue, M; Tsugane, S

    2014-05-15

    Seafood/fish intake has been regarded as a protective factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), while smoking is a strong risk factor. To examine whether associations between smoking and risk of CHD are modified by seafood/fish intake, we studied 72,012 Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who completed 2 food frequency questionnaires, 5 years apart, during the period 1995-2009. After 878,163 person-years of follow-up, 584 incident cases of CHD (101 fatal and 483 nonfatal), including 516 myocardial infarctions, were documented. There was a clear dose-response association between smoking and CHD risk among subjects with a low seafood/fish intake (<86 g/day) but not among those with a high seafood/fish intake (≥86 g/day). Compared with never smokers, the multivariable hazard ratios in light (1-19 cigarettes/day), moderate (20-29 cigarettes/day), and heavy (≥30 cigarettes/day) smokers were 2.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60, 3.56), 2.74 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.95), and 3.24 (95% CI: 2.12, 4.95), respectively, among low seafood/fish eaters and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.99), 1.29 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.04), and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.18, 3.51), respectively, among high seafood/fish eaters. Compared with heavy smokers with a low seafood/fish intake, light smokers with a high seafood/fish intake had substantially reduced risk of CHD (hazard ratio = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98). High seafood/fish intake attenuated the positive association between smoking and risk of CHD.

  7. Prenatal mercury contamination: relationship with maternal seafood consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth in the 'EDEN mother-child' cohort

    PubMed Central

    Drouillet-Pinard, Peggy; Huel, Guy; Slama, Rémy; Forhan, Anne; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Goua, Valérie; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Foliguet, Bernard; Magnin, Guillaume; Kaminski, Monique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Maternal seafood intake is of great health interest since it constitutes an important source of n-3 fatty acids, but provides also an important pathway for fetal exposure to mercury (Hg). Objectives To determine associations between Hg contamination and both maternal seafood consumption and fetal growth in French pregnant women. Design Pregnant women included in the “EDEN mother-child” cohort study answered food frequency questionnaires on their usual diet in the year before and during the last three months of pregnancy, from which frequencies of seafood intake were evaluated. Total hair-Hg level was determined for the first 691 included women. Associations between Hg level, seafood intake and several neonatal measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for confounding variables. Results The median Hg level for mothers was 0.52 μg/g. Maternal seafood intake was associated with Hg level (r=0.33, p<0.0001). There was no association between Hg level and fetal growth in the whole sample of women, except for an early negative relation with biparietal diameter. A positive association was found between seafood intake and fetal growth in overweight women only which remained unchanged after adjustment for Hg level (birthweight: +101g for a difference of 1SD in seafood consumption, p=0.008). Conclusions Although seafood intake was associated with Hg contamination in French pregnant women, the contamination level was low. There was no consistent association between Hg level and fetal growth. Taking into account Hg level did not modify associations between seafood intake and fetal growth. PMID:20487582

  8. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  9. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  10. Validity of surveys to assess safe routes to school programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Safe Routes to School programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. These programs promote children's physical activity and show promise for obesity prevention. However, there are few validated surveys to measure important outcomes such as student tr...

  11. Humans seem to produce arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinate after a bolus dose of seafood.

    PubMed

    Molin, M; Ulven, S M; Dahl, L; Telle-Hansen, V H; Holck, M; Skjegstad, G; Ledsaak, O; Sloth, J J; Goessler, W; Oshaug, A; Alexander, J; Fliegel, D; Ydersbond, T A; Meltzer, H M

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is the predominant food source of several organoarsenic compounds. Some seafood species, like crustaceans and seaweed, also contain inorganic arsenic (iAs), a well-known toxicant. It is unclear whether human biotransformation of ingested organoarsenicals from seafood result in formation of arsenicals of health concern. The present controlled dietary study examined the urinary excretion of arsenic compounds (total arsenic (tAs), iAs, AB (arsenobetaine), dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA)) following ingestion of a single test meal of seafood (cod, 780 μg tAs, farmed salmon, 290 μg tAs or blue mussel, 690 μg tAs or potato (control, 110 μg tAs)) in 38 volunteers. The amount of ingested tAs excreted via the urine within 0-72 h varied significantly among the groups: Cod, 74% (52-92%), salmon 56% (46-82%), blue mussel 49% (37-78%), control 45% (30-60%). The estimated total urinary excretion of AB was higher than the amount of ingested AB in the blue mussel group (112%) and also ingestion of cod seemed to result in more AB, indicating possible endogenous formation of AB from other organoarsenicals. Excretion of iAs was lower than ingested (13-22% of the ingested iAs was excreted in the different groups). Although the ingested amount of iAs+DMA+MA was low for all seafood groups (1.2-4.5% of tAs ingested), the urinary DMA excretion was high in the blue mussel and salmon groups, counting for 25% and 11% of the excreted tAs respectively. In conclusion our data indicate a possible formation of AB as a result of biotransformation of other organic arsenicals. The considerable amount of DMA excreted is probably not only due to methylation of ingested iAs, but due to biotransformation of organoarsenicals making it an inappropriate biomarker of iAs exposure in populations with a high seafood intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 35934 - In the Matter of: SHC Corp. (f/k/a Victormaxx Technologies, Inc.), Shells Seafood Restaurants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    .../k/a Victormaxx Technologies, Inc.), Shells Seafood Restaurants, Inc., SI Restructuring, Inc. (f/k/a... Restaurants, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June 29, 2008. It...

  13. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Keeping food safe.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2011-11-01

    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  15. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  16. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Mæland, Camilla A; Bjørkkjær, Tormod

    2011-11-19

    Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r=0.73, p<0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r=0.37, p<0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232±65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73±33 nmol/L serum, respectively. The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults.

  17. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  18. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  19. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  20. Mercury occurrence in Italian seafood from the Mediterranean Sea and possible intake scenarios of the Italian coastal population.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Binato, Giovanni; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Cossu, Maurizio; Dellatte, Elena; Miniero, Roberto; Orletti, Roberta; Piras, Pierluigi; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Chessa, Giannina

    2013-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) settlements in the Mediterranean Sea determine a potential toxicological relevance of seafood intakes for coastal populations. To assess this possibility, fish, molluscs, and crustaceans of commercial size of 69 different species were sampled and analyzed for total mercury (Hg(TOT)) from georeferenced areas and evaluated for their compliance with the European Union Maximum Residue Limits of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg wet weight (ww). Accounting for the weekly estimated seafood intake in the Italian coastal population (mean 469-626 g/person/week) it was then possible to recover threshold contamination values in seafood. Under a Tolerable Weekly Intake of 1.3 μg/kg/bw/week, a threshold seafood contamination <0.10 mg/kg ww has been derived for sensitive groups. A suitable algorithm based on the parallel MeHg and Hg(TOT) analysis on the most consumed species, helped to refine the uncertainties related to the conservative assumption in seafood all the Hg(TOT) present is in form of MeHg. This work aims to improve the link between the risk management and risk assessment strategies, with the identification of those fish and seafood species, that, when regularly consumed, could determine or prevent potential Hg(TOT)/MeHg overintakes in sensitive groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probabilistic intake assessment of multiple compounds as a tool to quantify the nutritional-toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; Verdonck, Frederik; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Willems, Jan; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-04-01

    Seafood represents a natural source of valuable nutrients (e.g., long chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), vitamin D, and iodine), but the favourable health perception is troubled by the presence of contaminants (e.g., PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, and (methyl) mercury (MeHg)). This dualism forms the basis for an important public health conflict. The objective of this study was to calculate and evaluate the simultaneous intake of multiple beneficial and harmful compounds (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, iodine, (Me)Hg, PCBs, and dioxin-like compounds) via seafood consumption in Belgium. A methodology and a software module were developed for executing probabilistic assessments of the simultaneous intake of multiple compounds leading to better insight in the problematic nature of food items involving both health benefits and risks. The simulations concerning seafood consumption in Belgium predicted that, as far as only seafood consumption is concerned, the considered populations do not reach a sufficiently high intake for the three nutrients considered (LC n-3 PUFAs, vitamin D, and iodine). Regarding the contaminants, (Me)Hg contamination of seafood on the Belgian market does not seem to be an issue of major toxicological concern. In contrast, for dioxin-like compounds the tolerable daily intake is reached by people with high seafood consumption.

  2. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health. PMID:28101454

  3. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  4. Utilization of a saltwater-marsh ecosystem for the management of seafood-processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The report presents the results of a cooperative study that examined the potential for using a saltwater wetland to manage seafood-processing wastewater. An irregularly flooded black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh located at Point aux Pins in coastal Alabama was selected for the study. The study determined that the application of seafood-processing wastewater to the marsh affected a number of the marsh's water-quality characteristics in direct relation to the wastewater loading rate. However, monitoring of the marsh flora and fauna showed virtually no impact at any of the experimental loading rates. As a result of the study a number of design and loading criteria are suggested for any future projects involving wastewater discharges to saltwater wetlands.

  5. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure and airway effects of seafood industry workers in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bang, Berit; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Aamodt, Beate Hustad; Aardal, Laila; Andorsen, Gerd Sissel; Bolle, Roald; Bøe, Roald; Van Do, Thien; Evans, Rosalie; Florvåg, Erik; Gram, Inger Torill; Huser, Per Ole; Kramvik, Eva; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Pedersen, Bodil; Rasmussen, Tine

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we explored airway symptoms and exposure to bioaerosols and exhaust gases in seafood industry plants. The study details the results from personal and environmental exposure measurements (17 plants), a questionnaire (n = 984), and clinical examinations (n = 225). The workers were exposed to allergens, endotoxins, molds, and exhaust. The 1-year prevalence of work-related airway symptoms was 42.8% for production workers and 25.9% for administrative workers. Mean levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were less than the predicted values in all exposed nonsmoker groups. A total of 20.5% had increased levels of total IgE (>/=100 kU/L). Specific IgE-mediated reactions seemed to be relevant only in the shrimp industry. Seafood industry workers showed a high prevalence of work-related airway symptoms. Further research on the relationship between exposure and effects is necessary.

  7. A content analysis of Internet resources about the risks of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather C; Hong, Jie; Friedman, Daniela B; Porter, Dwayne E; Halfacre, Angela C; Scott, Geoffrey I; Lead, Jamie R

    2016-08-01

    Seafood consumption is a main source of human exposure to certain environmental contaminants. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the online health risk messages focused on this topic, as people in the US are increasingly accessing the Internet for health-related information. Previous research indicates that online health information tends to be written at a reading level that is more advanced than ability of the general population. The purpose of this research was to examine the content and readability of Internet resources targeted toward consumers in the US regarding the health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood. Sources for analysis were gathered through a targeted search of state and national government websites, as well as through a Google search. The overall mean readability level was Grade 9.21, which is slightly above the average reading level of US adults. Future research should evaluate the accuracy of the health risk messages, as well as consumer perceptions of risk.

  8. Preliminary exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hashash, H.; Al-Bahloul, M.

    1995-08-01

    Levels of PAHs in seafood from Kuwaiti market were determined. Results showed that most of the samples contained significant amounts of total PAHs. Naphthalene constituted the highest PAH burden of the samples. Nuwaibi had the highest level of total PAHs (472.6 {mu}g/kg, dry wt). Others ranged from 0.86 to 55.96 {mu}g/kg dry wt. The results of exposure assessment for the average consumer indicated a daily intake of 0.231 {mu}g of total PAH from seafood. BaP equivalent intake was calculated to be 0.0167 {mu}g/d. For the above average consumer, total PAH intake was 0.326 {mu}g/d; and BaP equivalents were 0.025 {mu}g/d. These daily intake levels were quite comparable with those reported for the average American consumer. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Protocol for building a reference standard sequence library for DNA-based seafood identification.

    PubMed

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Handy, Sara M; Fry, Frederick; Granade, Hudson; Williams, Jeffrey T; Powers, Monica; Shipp, Robert; Weigt, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    With the recent adoption of a DNA sequencing-based method for the species identification for seafood products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a library of standard sequences derived from reference specimens with authoritative taxonomic authentication was required. Provided here are details of how the FDA and its collaborators are building this reference standard sequence library that will be used to confirm the accurate labeling of seafood products sold in interstate commerce in the United States. As an example data set from this library, information for 117 fish reference standards, representing 94 species from 43 families in 15 orders, collected over a 4-year period from the Gulf of Mexico, U.S., that are now stored at the Smithsonian Museum Support Center in Suitland, MD, are provided.

  10. Hazard analysis and critical control point systems applied to public health risks: the example of seafood.

    PubMed

    Williams, R A; Zorn, D J

    1997-08-01

    The authors describe the way in which the two components of risk analysis--risk assessment and risk management--can be used in conjunction with the hazard analysis and critical control points concept to determine the allocation of resources at potential critical control points. This approach is examined in the context of risks to human health associated with seafood, and in particular with regard to ciguatera poisoning.

  11. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Perkinson, Matthew T.; Faith, Trevor D.; Vahey, Grace M.; Vena, John E.; Williams, Edith M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study’s sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area’s fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers. PMID:27891049

  12. Development and application of econometric demand and supply models for selected Chesapeake Bay seafood products

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Moe, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    Five models were developed to forecast future Chesapeake seafood product prices, harvest quantities, and resulting income. Annual econometric models are documented for oysters, hard and soft blue crabs, and hard and soft clams. To the degree that data permit, these models represent demand and supply at the retail, wholesale, and harvest levels. The resulting models have broad applications in environmental policy issues and regulatory analyses for the Chesapeake Bay. 37 references, 10 figures, 99 tables.

  13. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Perkinson, Matthew T; Faith, Trevor D; Vahey, Grace M; Vena, John E; Williams, Edith M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study's sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area's fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers.

  14. Preliminarily comparison of nutritional composition of some fresh and processed seafood.

    PubMed

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p < 0.05). Canned mackerel tuna, frozen sea bream and pressed caviar also contained higher amounts of fat, carbohydrate and energy, respectively (p < 0.05) than raw material. Except canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p < 0.05) of the fish. It is concluded that processed seafoods are rich in chemical components and very nutritive. Canned tuna with salted water may be advised for low-calorie diets. Caviar pressed was one the best sea foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation.

  15. Pathogenetic characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical and seafood sources.

    PubMed

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Wang, Shuna; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Beibei; Hu, Hongxia; Pan, Zijiang; Chen, Suyun; Fang, Weihuan

    2008-08-15

    A total of 216 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from seafood and clinical samples in eastern China were investigated for their hemolytic and urea-producing phenotypes, presence of putative virulence genes tdh and trh. Twenty-one clinical isolates (84%, 21/25) and 3 seafood isolates (1.57%, 3/191) were tdh-positive while only 3 clinical isolates (12%) and 7 seafood isolates (3.66%) were positive for trh gene. We further examined the pathogenicity of selected V. parahaemolyticus isolates in in vitro and in vivo systems. The clinical isolates were apparently more enteropathogenic (74.26 per thousand vs 62.07 per thousand expressed as intestine/body weight ratio, P<0.01) and more virulent than their seafood counterparts to mice (log LD(50) 6.86 vs 7.40 via orogastric route, P<0.05). They were also more adherent to in vitro cultured cells and of higher cytotoxicity as measured by LDH release of the HeLa cells although there were no statistical differences. The tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus isolates were of higher enteropathogenicity (P<0.05, 74.24 per thousand vs 60.55 per thousand) and more virulent (log LD(50) 6.55 vs 7.21 via intraperitoneal route, P<0.05) than tdh-negative isolates. The tdh-positive isolates were generally more cytotoxic and adhesive to the cultured cell lines as well. From the in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity profiles, trh-positive isolates seemed to line between tdh-positive isolates and those without tdh and trh. There were two isolates H8 and H10 from clinical cases having moderate enteropathogenicity and virulence to mice, but were tdh-negative yet trh-positive. These results seem to suggest that hemolysins TDH and/or TRH may not be necessarily the only virulence factors of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates.

  16. Recreational drug use within the employees of the mariculture and seafood industry in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alan R; Tait, Russell; Harvey, Peter; Newbury, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A study of recreational drug use among workers in the Port Lincoln mariculture and seafood industries was conducted by self report questionnaire. High rates of cannabis and alcohol use were revealed during the shore based fish farming season. The occupational health and safety implications of these findings in one of Australia's most dangerous industries are significant. Further research could inform the development of industry specific harm minimisation policies.

  17. Considerations for Safe Innovation: The Case of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Park, Margriet V D Z; Bleeker, Eric A J; Brand, Walter; Cassee, Flemming R; van Elk, Merel; Gosens, Ilse; de Jong, Wim H; Meesters, Johannes A J; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Quik, Joris T K; Vandebriel, Rob J; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2017-09-26

    The terms "Safe innovation" and "Safe(r)-by-design" are currently popular in the field of nanotechnology. These terms are used to describe approaches that advocate the consideration of safety aspects already at an early stage of the innovation process of (nano)materials and nanoenabled products. Here, we investigate the possibilities of considering safety aspects during various stages of the innovation process of graphene, outlining what information is already available for assessing potential hazard, exposure, and risks. In addition, we recommend further steps to be taken by various stakeholders to promote the safe production and safe use of graphene.

  18. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  19. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  20. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  1. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  2. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  3. Survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the portuguese population. Gender and regional variability.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos; Lourenço, Helena; Costa, Sara; Gonçalves, Susana; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of achieving a deeper knowledge of one of the most important seafood markets in Europe, a survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the Portuguese population was carried out. A thorough, comprehensive, and simple questionnaire was developed. Consumers were asked to state their preferences towards fish products, their consumption frequencies, the average meal portion, and the usual culinary treatments. Respondents provided personal data: gender, age, geographical location, education level, weight, height, and health condition. This paper presents the first part of the study's results, focusing mainly on the gender and regional variables. Portuguese consumers prefer wild to cultured fish as well as fat to lean fish. Chilled fish is preferred over frozen, salted/dried, canned, and smoked fish, being the latter the least preferred. Soaked cod, hake, and canned tuna are the most eaten seafood products. Men prefer to a greater extent wild and smoked fish. Men consume more cephalopods and sardine and women eat more frequently hake, pink cusk-eel, and redfish. Coastal populations prefer wild fish. Algarve (southern Portugal) consumers exhibit a stronger tendency to wild and whole fish and consume more sardine and sole. Madeira archipelago consumers are particularly fond of black scabbard fish.

  4. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish and semiprocessed fishery products from a Belgian seafood company.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Stals, Ambroos; Tang, Qing-Juan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Shellfish have been implicated in norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks worldwide. This study presents data obtained from various batches of shellfish and fishery products from a Belgian seafood company over a 6-month period. For the intact shellfish (oysters, mussels, and clams), 21 of 65 samples from 12 of 34 batches were positive for NoVs; 9 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 3,300 to 14,300 genomic copies per g. For the semiprocessed fishery products (scallops and common sole rolls with scallop fragments), 29 of 36 samples from all eight batches were positive for NoVs; 17 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 200 to 1,800 copies per g. This convenience study demonstrated the performance and robustness of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection and interpretation method and the added value of NoV testing in the framework of periodic control of seafood products bought internationally and distributed by a Belgian seafood processing company to Belgian food markets.

  5. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  6. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-02-13

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

  7. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood

    PubMed Central

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society. PMID:26097289

  8. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood.

    PubMed

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-03-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio, salmonella, and Aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woodring, Joseph; Srijan, Apichai; Puripunyakom, Paksathorn; Oransathid, Wilawan; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Mason, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand, and were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aeromonas species from January to February 2008. From 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. Of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of Vibrio, Salmonella, or Aeromonas, leaving only 6 (5%) samples free of them. All oyster sample (100%) had at least one pathogen, followed by sea bass (97%), blood cockles (97%), and shrimp (90%). Overall, 111 (92%) of all samples had detectable Vibrio spp., 32 (27%) had detectable Aeromonas spp., and 25 (21%) had detectable Salmonella enterica. There was no overall difference between positive samples collected from fresh markets versus supermarkets (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05). Resistance to ampicillin among isolated pathogens was relatively high (56%), while resistance to 12 other antibiotics, including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was relatively low (0, 0, and 3%, respectively). Study results indicate that uncooked seafood in Bangkok, Thailand, commonly harbors enteric pathogens and that consumption of uncooked seafood should be avoided to reduce foodborne illnesses.

  10. Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant, Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Enterobacteria in Fresh Seafood.

    PubMed

    Sanjit Singh, Asem; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Prakasan, Sreepriya; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kumar, Sanath

    2017-08-30

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae include several human pathogens that can be acquired through contaminated food and water. In this study, the incidence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria was investigated in fresh seafood sold in retail markets. The ESBL-positive phenotype was detected in 169 (78.60%) isolates, with Escherichia coli being the predominant species (53), followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (27), and K. pneumoniae (23). More than 90% of the isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to the monobactam drug aztreonam, 40.82% to ertapenem, and 31.36% to meropenem. Resistance to at least five antibiotics was observed in 38.46% of the isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis of ESBL-encoding genes detected blaCTX, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes in 76.92%, 63.3%, and 44.37% of the isolates, respectively. Multiple ESBL genes were detected in majority of the isolates. The recently discovered New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1) was detected in two ESBL⁺ isolates. Our study shows that secondary contamination of fresh seafood with enteric bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics may implicate seafood as a potential carrier of antibiotic resistant bacteria and emphasizes an urgent need to prevent environmental contamination and dissemination of such bacteria.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from seafood and humans in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdollahzadeh, Esmail; Ojagh, Seyed Mahdi; Hosseini, Hedayat; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah; Irajian, Gholamreza; Naghizadeh Heidarlo, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    Fourteen Listeria monocytogenes isolates previously collected from seafood (n = 7) and human patients (n = 7) were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibility against eight common antimicrobials (ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime). A high resistance level to ampicillin, cefotaxime (100%), and pencillin (57% in seafood isolates and 71.4% in clinical isolates) was observed in this study. However, all of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Simultaneous resistance was identified in 4 clinical isolates (57.1%). Genotypic characterization of fish isolates (isolated from three fish species) was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A high diversity among fish isolates was observed. PFGE analyses distinguished the 4 isolates into 4 reproducible pulsotypes. There was no correlation between the antibiograms with pulsotypes. In conclusion, the resistance of seafood isolates to the antibiotics commonly used to treat listeriosis could be a potential health hazard for consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in commercial seafood species available in European markets.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Trabalón, Laura; Jacobs, Silke; Barbosa, Vera Liane; Tejedor, Margarita Fernández; Granby, Kit; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Cunha, Sara C; Ferrari, Federico; Vandermeersch, Griet; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Vilavert, Lolita; Domingo, José L; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2016-12-24

    PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), HBCD (α, β, γ), emerging brominated flame retardants (PBEB, HBB and DBDPE), dechloranes (Dec 602, 603, 604, syn- and anti-DP), TBBPA, 2,4,6-TBP and MeO-PBDEs (8 congeners) were analysed in commercial seafood samples from European countries. Levels were similar to literature and above the environmental quality standards (EQS) limit of the Directive 2013/39/EU for PBDEs. Contaminants were found in 90.5% of the seafood samples at n. d.-356 ng/g lw (n. d.-41.1 ng/g ww). DBDPE was not detected and 2,4,6-TBP was detected only in mussels, but at levels comparable to those of PBDEs. Mussel and seabream were the most contaminated species and the Mediterranean Sea (FAO Fishing Area 37) was the most contaminated location. The risk assessment revealed that there was no health risk related to the exposure to brominated flame retardants via seafood consumption. However, a refined risk assessment for BDE-99 is of interest in the future. Moreover, the cooking process concentrated PBDEs and HBB.

  13. [Levels and distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in seafood from Dalian, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Chao; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Ya-Wei; Meng, Mei; Chen, Ru; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Seafood samples were collected from Dalian, China to study the accumulation and distribution characteristics of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by GC/ECNI-LRMS. Sum of SCCPs (dry weight) were in the range of 77-8 250 ng.g-1, with the lowest value in Scapharca subcrenata and highest concentration in Neptunea cumingi. The concentrations of sum of SCCPs (dry weight) in fish, shrimp/crab and shellfish were in the ranges of 100-3 510, 394-5 440, and 77-8 250 ng.g-1 , respectively. Overall, the C10 and C11 homologues were the most predominant carbon groups of SCCPs in seafood from this area,and a relatively higher proportion of C12-13 was observed in seafood with higher concentrations of sum of SCCPs . With regard to chlorine content, Cl1,, CI8 and CI6 were the major groups. Significant correlations were found among concentrations of different SCCP homologues (except C1, vs. Cl10 ) , which indicated that they might share the same sources and/or have similar accumulation, migration and transformation processes.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus parauberis from vacuum-packaging refrigerated seafood products.

    PubMed

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Calo-Mata, P; Cañas, B; Gallardo, J M; Barros-Velázquez, J

    2012-05-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is known as an etiological agent of mastitis in cows and for producing streptococcosis in farmed fish, although its presence in foods has seldom been reported. In this work, two bacterial isolates were recovered from a spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated seafood product. Both isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, exhibiting 99% homology with respect to S. parauberis. Both isolates were also characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Genetic analysis revealed the clonal homogeneity of the isolates and their grouping together with other S. parauberis strains in a different cluster with respect to Streptococcus uberis strains. Proteomic analysis by MALDI-TOF MS allowed for the identification of five mass peaks in the range of 2200-6000 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species S. parauberis and allowed its rapid and direct identification with respect to other pathogenic and spoilage bacteria potentially present in seafood and other food products. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of S. parauberis in seafood in general and in vacuum-packed food products in particular. Moreover, it provides a rapid method based on MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. parauberis.

  15. [Isolation of Vibrio cholerae in imported frozen seafood and their cholera-enterotoxin production].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, S; Takeda, K; Taga, K; Hirata, K; Hayashi, K; Honda, T

    1996-02-01

    A survey study for Vibrio cholerae in imported seafood was conducted during January 1991 to December 1994. A total of 7,439 specimens (approximately 20% of all imported food) were randomly picked up and examined for contamination of V. cholerae. Among these, V. cholerae O1 were isolated from 9 specimens, but they were all cholerae enterotoxin (CT)-negative. In terms of V. cholerae non-O1, a total of 2,803 specimens (37.4%) were contaminated with this vibrio. Shrimp, especially the ones still in their shells and imported from Asian countries such as India and Indonesia, were highly contaminated with V. cholerae. Although no strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated in this study produced CT, 2 strains of V. cholerae non-O1 were proved to be CT-producers. Taking together the high contamination of V. cholerae in imported seafood and a part of those strains producing CT, we believe that careful survey for the possible contamination of V. choleare in imported seafood is necessary.

  16. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control.

  17. A Safe and Welcoming Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the theme of safe and comforting places for children, and how libraries can help provide safe havens for children. Presents a survey of safe places in selected works of children's literature. Includes a sampler of creative activities focusing on the theme, and a list of resources (books and videotapes). (AEF)

  18. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  19. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  20. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2008-08-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  1. The environmentally safe battery

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  2. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  3. Technologies for safe births.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The basic elements of a safe birth are proper prenatal care, adequate preparation of the mother, health worker, and site, awareness of the progress of labor and safe delivery, recognition of danger signs, and appropriate follow-up care. Technologies are differentiated by determining 1) the needs of rural birth attendants, 2) the nature of delivery kits, 3) proper cleanliness of the hands and equipment, and appropriate use of 5) disinfecting equipment, 6) drugs and medications, 7) the vertical position, 8) specialized instruments, and 9) records and support materials. Alternatives for measuring time are indicated. Customized kits available from UNICEF are described; some of the problems with these kits are reported. The logistics, referral procedures, and training and supervision needed for appropriate program managements are discussed. Adapting technologies to the local environment requires assessing the practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), the provision of kits (cost, ease of use and maintenance, replacement, durability, availability), the training required for proper use of equipment, the logistics of kit use, side effects of technologies, community attitudes, and evaluation. The advantages and disadvantages of including or not including particular supplies in the kit are discussed, i.e., the container for boiling water would either be a local pot or the aluminum carrying case. In lieu of a fingernail brush, a twig may be used for nail cleaning. Hand washing where water shortages exist might entail using a tin with a hole plugged with a stick to let water trickle as needed. Antiseptic solutions such a Dettol or Savlon can be used where a severe shortage exists. Basic equipment includes: soap and water, a container for boiling, other sterile containers, a protective cover of delivery area, towels, swabs, an optional apron, cord ties, a cutting instrument, gauze, a receiving blanket, records, and a carrying case.

  4. Selenium and mercury in widely consumed seafood from South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Seixas, Tércia G; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Malm, Olaf

    2013-07-01

    The growing ingestion of predatory fish by humans has increased their exposure to toxic chemicals. Mercury (Hg) is an exogenous and harmful trace-element that accumulates in all marine organisms. Selenium (Se) is nutritionally important as a micronutrient, but is potentially harmful at intakes above 1mg per day. Se:Hg molar ratios in excess of 1:1 are thought to counteract the adverse effects of Hg, protecting against Hg toxicity. Evaluation of the health risk posed by Hg exposure from seafood consumption requires concurrent consideration of Se content in the same individuals. This study evaluated the Se and Hg concentrations in the edible tissues of 652 individual samples of commonly consumed varieties of carnivorous and planktivorous fish, squid, mussel, shrimp and crab collected from south-eastern Brazil. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed significant variation among and within tropical seafood. All organisms presented Se concentration in muscle of less than 2.0µgg(-1), the maximum allowed selenium concentrations. Only seven individuals of a carnivorous fish species presented Hg in muscle above the maximum permissible limit of 0.5µgg(-1) established by WHO and Brazilian legislation for human consumption of most aquatic species. These same individuals also showed Se:Hg molar ratio of less than 1:1. Se:Hg molar ratios were found to decline with increasing fish length, potentially reducing Se-dependent protection. As a result of their rich Se, low Hg contents and Se:Hg molar ratios exceeding 1:1, nearly all species included in this study provide benefits for human consumption. Two popular seafoods in the region, the carnivorous fish Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and Micropogonias furnieri (Atlantic croaker), had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values of 33 and 21, respectively. Among the invertebrates, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (seabob shrimp) and Loligo sanpaulensis (squid) had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values, higher than 20. A selenium health

  5. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed (<1 log CFU/ml) when cultures were infected with FWLLm3 at > 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Study on seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and its potential use for freshness evaluation by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Li, Gongke; Luo, Lin; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-05

    Seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases are various and can be used for freshness evaluation during storage. It is imperative to obtain the full volatile information prior to the further study of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage. Also, the efficient data-processing method is another important factor for the interpretation of seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage and related potential volatile markers. In this work, a new analytical strategy, including the efficient sampling technique, sensitive detection and suitable data-processing method, for seafood freshness evaluation was developed based on the volatile profile characteristics during storage. First, the study of volatiles of seafood samples including razor clam, redspot swimming crab and prawn at different storage phases were conducted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Then, seafood volatile profile characteristics at different storage phases were statistically interpreted by a combination data-processing method including normalization, principle component analysis (PCA) and common model strategy. The different seafood volatile profile characteristics and potential volatile markers were attempted to be distilled. The results tentatively suggested that the different seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage could reflect the transitional changing seafood freshness and provide more precise warning information for seafood spoilage during storage than any single chemical markers. This work developed an analytical method for study of seafood volatile profile characteristics and tentatively proposed a new idea of using seafood volatile profile characteristics during storage for the freshness evaluation from the point of view of analytical chemistry.

  7. Demographic Profiles, Mercury, Selenium, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Avid Seafood Consumers on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Monastero, Rebecca; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Meliker, Jaymie

    2016-02-01

    Seafood consumption is known to confer nutritional benefits and risks from contaminant exposure. Avid seafood consumers are neither well-characterized with regard to their demographic profile nor their underlying risk-benefit profile. Contaminants [e.g., mercury (Hg)] and nutrients [e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids] are prevalent in some seafood. Participants (N = 285) recruited on Long Island, NY, completed food frequency and health questionnaires and received blood draws analyzed for Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Participants were categorized based on frequency and type of seafood consumption. Logistic regression analyses evaluated relationships between seafood consumption and demographics, and were age- and sex-adjusted. t tests assessed relationships between seafood consumption patterns and biomarkers Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Consumption of both tuna and salmon was associated with older age: those aged 55-75 and over 75 years old were more likely than participants aged 18-34 to eat tuna and salmon (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.05, 4.89 and OR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20, 11.20, respectively). Males were less likely than females to eat fish other than tuna or salmon (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.97). Caucasians were more likely to consume tuna (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10, 0.96) or salmon and tuna (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12, 0.91), while non-Caucasians were more likely to consume other fish types (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.45, 5.12). Total blood Hg was associated with weekly consumption of any type of fish (p = 0.01) and with salmon and tuna consumption (p = 0.01). Salmon was associated with plasma omega-3s (p = 0.01). Se was not associated with fish intake categories. Risk communicators can use these findings to influence seafood preferences of different demographic groups.

  8. Hepatitis E seroprevalence and related risk factors among seafood processing workers: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weihong; Sun, Yuan; Xu, Aiqiang; Gao, Rihong; Gong, Lianfeng; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Mei

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the potential risk factors for acquiring HEV infection in the seafood processing factories in Yantai City of Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five randomly selected seafood processing factories in Yantai City. Subjects were 15-66 years of age and were raw seafood processing workers, semi-finished products processing workers, and administrative staff, etc. Each participant completed a structured questionnaire and agreed to blood drawing. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was detected in the blood samples by ELISA method. A total of 1028 of 1044 eligible workers were tested for HEV IgG antibody (response rate 98.5%). The prevalence of HEV IgG seropositivity was found to be 22.20%. Occupation was significantly associated with anti-HEV IgG antibody seropositivity (p<0.05). Subjects who had direct contact with raw seafood had a higher anti-HEV IgG antibody prevalence (32.54%) than the semi-finished products processing workers (24.74%) and less exposed group (11.85%). HEV seroprevalence in the workers showed an increasing trend with the increase in working years, and this phenomenon was most obvious in raw seafood processing workers. There is a higher risk of HEV infection in those who have direct contact with raw seafood. This study will help identify the risk factors for HEV infection and provide guidance on controlling HEV infection in the seafood processing occupations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Pregnancy is special -- let's make it safe. Special feature -- safe motherhood facts.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the 10 action messages (and the rationale behind them) that emerged from a technical consultation held in Sri Lanka in 1997 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. The 10 safe motherhood messages emphasize 1) establishing safe motherhood as a human right, 2) promoting safe motherhood as a vital economic and social investment, 3) empowering women and ensuring choices, 4) delaying marriage and first birth, 5) understanding that every pregnancy involves risks, 6) ensuring skilled attendance at deliveries, 7) improving access to quality maternal health services, 8) addressing unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, 9) measuring progress, and 10) using the power of partnerships. The document describes the extent of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world and notes that provision of quality maternal health care is the single most important intervention. The socioeconomic importance of safe motherhood is considered in the next section, followed by an explanation of the social justice and human rights aspects of safe motherhood. After a look at the importance of delaying childbearing and the fact that every pregnancy involves risks, the document highlights the need to ensure skilled attendance at delivery, to improve access to and quality of maternal health services, to prevent unwanted pregnancy, and to address unsafe abortion. The document ends by reviewing the difficulties involved in measuring maternal mortality and emphasizing the importance of analyzing each maternal death in detail and sharing the important information gleaned with the community.

  10. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  11. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  12. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  13. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  14. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95 to 100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r= -0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  15. Safe roundabouts for cyclists.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Søren Underlien

    2016-09-13

    May roundabouts be safer for cyclists than intersections? How are safe roundabouts designed? This paper tries to answer these questions on the basis of a before-after safety study of conversions of intersections to 255 single-lane roundabouts in Denmark. The before-after study accounts for long-term accident and injury trends and regression-to-the-mean effects. In order to relate safety effects for cyclists of various roundabout design features it is crucial to split the converted sites by speed limit, because safety effects for both cyclists and other road users of converting intersections to roundabouts depend heavily on speed limits on roads entering the converted sites. If speed limits are 70km/h or higher then converting intersections to roundabouts have resulted in bicycle safety improvements in Denmark. Results show that diameter and height of central islands and type of bicycle facilities at single-lane roundabouts have considerable impacts on cyclists' safety. Central island diameters of 20-40m are safer for cyclists than smaller or larger roundabouts. A central island, which middle is elevated 2m or more above the circulating lane, is safer for cyclists than single-lane roundabouts with lower central islands. Single-lane roundabouts with separate cycle paths, where cyclists must yield to motorists entering or exiting the roundabout, are safer than roundabouts with cycle lanes. Single-lane roundabouts are safer for cyclists than intersections regardless of speed limits when these roundabouts have high central islands and/or separate cycle paths.

  16. Determination of four different purines and their content change in seafood by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xin; Sui, Jianxin; Mi, Nasha; Lin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Seafood is regarded as a high-purine food that may induce gout, which has attracted extensive attention concerning its safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to determine the purine content in seafood and its change during storage to offer consumers healthy diet information. Chromatographic separation was carried out using Waters Atlantis dC18 column, and potassium phosphate monobasic solution (0.02 mol L(-1) , pH 3.6) as a mobile phase. The average recovery yields of four purines were 91.5-105.0%, and relative standard deviation values were around 1.8-6.5%. Shrimp and snail contained higher amounts of purine than fish and bivalves; the livers and skins of fish contained higher amounts of purine than muscles; and the main purine varied depending on the type of seafood. Also, purine content of seafood changed during storage. The purine content of seafood differed depending on species, body part and degree of freshness, which could recommend consumers a healthy diet, especially for people with hyperuricemia and gout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  18. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish, seafood and seaweeds--exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mania, Monika; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Szynal, Tomasz; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Postupolski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish, seafood and seaweeds are foodstuffs that significantly contribute to dietary arsenic intake. With the exception of some algal species, the dominant compounds of arsenic in such food products are the less toxic organic forms. Both the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and EFSA recommend that speciation studies be performed to determine the different chemical forms in which arsenic is present in food due to the differences in their toxicity. Knowing such compositions can thus enable a complete exposure assessment to be made. Determination of total and inorganic arsenic contents in fish, their products, seafood and seaweeds present on the Polish market. This was then followed by an exposure assessment of consumers to inorganic arsenic in these foodstuffs. Total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 55 samples of fish, their products, seafood as well as seaweeds available on the market. The analytical method was hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), after dry ashing of samples and reduction of arsenic to arsenic hydride using sodium borohydride. In order to isolate only the inorganic forms of arsenic prior to mineralisation, samples were subjected to concentrated HCl hydrolysis, followed by reduction with hydrobromic acid and hydrazine sulphate after which triple chloroform extractions and triple 1M HCl re-extractions were performed. Exposure of adults was estimated in relation to the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that resulted in a 0.5% increase in lung cancer (3.0 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day). Mean total arsenic content from all investigated fish samples was 0.46 mg/kg (90th percentile 0.94 mg/kg), whilst the inorganic arsenic content never exceeded the detection limit of the analytical method used (0.025 mg/kg). In fish products, mean total arsenic concentration was

  19. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N; McGready, John; Fox, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine biomarkers of methylmercury (MeHg) intake in women and infants from seafood-consuming populations globally and characterize the comparative risk of fetal developmental neurotoxicity. Methods A search was conducted of the published literature reporting total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood in women and infants. These biomarkers are validated proxy measures of MeHg, a neurotoxin found primarily in seafood. Average and high-end biomarkers were extracted, stratified by seafood consumption context, and pooled by category. Medians for average and high-end pooled distributions were compared with the reference level established by a joint expert committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Findings Selection criteria were met by 164 studies of women and infants from 43 countries. Pooled average biomarkers suggest an intake of MeHg several times over the FAO/WHO reference in fish-consuming riparians living near small-scale gold mining and well over the reference in consumers of marine mammals in Arctic regions. In coastal regions of south-eastern Asia, the western Pacific and the Mediterranean, average biomarkers approach the reference. Although the two former groups have a higher risk of neurotoxicity than the latter, coastal regions are home to the largest number at risk. High-end biomarkers across all categories indicate MeHg intake is in excess of the reference value. Conclusion There is a need for policies to reduce Hg exposure among women and infants and for surveillance in high-risk populations, the majority of which live in low-and middle-income countries. PMID:24700993

  20. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in seafood by ion chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Ji, Hongwei; Li, Huixin; Cui, He; Song, Tian; Duan, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Qianlin; Cai, Feng; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Ion chromatography-ultra violet-hydride generation-Atomic Florescence Spectrometry was applied to detect 5 arsenic species in seafoods. The arsenic species studied include arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenate (As(V)), which were extracted from samples using 2% formic acid. Gradient elution using 33 mmol L-1 CH3COONH4 and 15 mmol L-1 Na2CO3 with 10 mL CH3CH2OH at pH 8.4 allowed the chromatographic separation of all the species on a Hamilton PRP-X100 anion-exchange column in less than 8 min. In this study, an ultrasound extraction method was used to extract arsenic species from seafood. The extraction efficiency was good and the recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 72.6%-109%; the precision between sample replicates was higher than 3.6% for all determinations. The detection limits were 3.543 μg L-1 for AsB, 0.426 μg L-1 for As(III), 0.216 μg L-1 for DMA, 0.211 μg L-1 for MMA, and 0.709 μg L-1 for As(V), and the linear coefficients were greater than 0.999. We also developed an application of this method for the determination of arsenic species in bonito, Euphausia superba, and Enteromorpha with satisfactory results. Therefore, it was confirmed that this method was appropriate for the detection of arsenic species in seafood.

  1. Evaluation of the Compact Dry VP method for screening raw seafood for total Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Teramura, Hajime; Mizuochi, Shingo; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Compact Dry VP (CDVP) is a ready-to-use method for enumerating Vibrio parahaemolyticus in food. The presterilized plates contain a culture medium comprising peptone, NaCl, bile salts, antibiotics, chromogenic substrates, and polysaccharide gum as a cold water-soluble gelling. After diluting raw seafood samples in a phosphate-buffered saline solution, a 1-ml aliquot was inoculated onto the center of the plate and allowed to diffuse by capillary action. Blue-green colonies forming on the plates were counted after 18 to 20 h of incubation at 35 degrees C. A total of 85 V. parahaemolyticus strains (62 tdh+ strains and 23 tdh- strains) were studied for inclusivity, 81 (95.3 %) of which produced blue-green colonies. When 97 strains (14 strains of Vibrio spp., 33 strains of coliform bacteria, and 50 strains of noncoliform bacteria) were assessed for exclusivity, 10 strains of Vibrio spp. produced non-blue-green colonies, and 87 strains failed to grow. The CDVP and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) methods were compared with the use of four different types of raw seafood that were inoculated with four different V. parahaemolyticus strains. For raw tuna and oysters, the FDA-BAM colony lift method was used, whereas the FDA-BAM most-probable-number method was used for salmon and scallop. The linear correlation coefficients between the CDVP and FDA-BAM methods were 0.99 for fresh raw tuna, 0.95 for fresh raw oysters, 0.95 for frozen raw salmon, and 0.95 for frozen raw scallops. These results suggest that the CDVP method is useful for screening raw seafood for V. parahaemolyticus.

  2. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  3. Monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination and estrogenic activity in water, commercial feed and farmed seafood.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Barbara; Garritano, Sonia L; Cristofani, Renza; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Giuliano, Antonella; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata; Cirillo, Teresa; De Giusti, Maria; Boccia, Antonio; Reali, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    We evaluated the concentration and congener distribution of seven "target" polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in water collected in different aquaculture farms of the Mediterranean area, commercial feeds, and farmed seafood. PCBs were present in feed and in tissues of all the analysed organisms at levels ranging from 1.96 ng g(-1) to 124.00 ng g(-1) wet weight, and in 10.5% of the water samples, at levels from under detection limit to 33.0 ng l(-1) with total PCB concentrations significantly higher in samples from the Tyrrhenian Sea than the Adriatic Sea. PCB congener distribution in tissues resembled that of feed, suggesting that commercial feed is an important source of PCBs. The estrogenicity of organic extracts of the samples was also evaluated by using an in vitro yeast reporter assay. Estrogenic activity higher than 10% of the activity induced by 10 nM 17 beta-estradiol was observed in 20.0% of seafood samples and 15.8% of water samples. Seafood and water samples from the Tyrrhenian Sea were more frequently estrogenic than the Adriatic ones (16.45 versus 4.08%). A significant correlation of total PCB concentrations on biological activity was observed for sea bass and mussels from the Adriatic Sea (p < 0.045 and p < 0.04, respectively), and for sea bass of the Tyrrhenian Sea (p = 0.05). These results indicate the need of an integral approach in the exposure assessment to potential toxic compounds for human via food.

  4. Eco-label conveys reliable information on fish stock health to seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Valencia, Sarah R; Branch, Trevor A; Agnew, David J; Baum, Julia K; Bianchi, Patricia L; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D; Larsen, Ashley E; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D M; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J; Thorson, James T; Williams, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer's point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3-5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers.

  5. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Mary C; Burke, Thomas A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N; McGready, John; Fox, Mary A

    2014-04-01

    To examine biomarkers of methylmercury (MeHg) intake in women and infants from seafood-consuming populations globally and characterize the comparative risk of fetal developmental neurotoxicity. A search was conducted of the published literature reporting total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood in women and infants. These biomarkers are validated proxy measures of MeHg, a neurotoxin found primarily in seafood. Average and high-end biomarkers were extracted, stratified by seafood consumption context, and pooled by category. Medians for average and high-end pooled distributions were compared with the reference level established by a joint expert committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Selection criteria were met by 164 studies of women and infants from 43 countries. Pooled average biomarkers suggest an intake of MeHg several times over the FAO/WHO reference in fish-consuming riparians living near small-scale gold mining and well over the reference in consumers of marine mammals in Arctic regions. In coastal regions of south-eastern Asia, the western Pacific and the Mediterranean, average biomarkers approach the reference. Although the two former groups have a higher risk of neurotoxicity than the latter, coastal regions are home to the largest number at risk. High-end biomarkers across all categories indicate MeHg intake is in excess of the reference value. There is a need for policies to reduce Hg exposure among women and infants and for surveillance in high-risk populations, the majority of which live in low-and middle-income countries.

  6. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in Seafood Processing Facilities and Smoked Salmon in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Zaouali, Sarah; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare but life-threatening disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the seafood processing industry in the Republic of Ireland. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was determined by regular sampling of both food samples and processing environment swabs at eight seafood processing facilities over two calendar years. All samples were analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1 standard method, and the isolates were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotyping, and the occurrence of some genes related to survival under stress (SSI-1, Tn6188, and bcrABC). A prevalence of 2.5% in 508 samples (433 environmental swabs and 75 food samples) was found. From the isolates obtained, eight different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified, two occurring in more than one facility and one occurring in food and the environment. Five of the eight pulsotypes identified contained at least one of the three stress survival-related genes tested. The tolerance of the isolates to benzalkonium chloride, a representative quaternary ammonium compound, was also examined and ranged from 5.5 ± 0.5 to 8.5 ± 0.5 ppm of benzalkonium chloride. To evaluate the ability of smoked salmon to support the growth of L. monocytogenes, including the T4 widespread pulsotype that was isolated, a challenge test was performed on cold-smoked salmon obtained from two separate producers. The results showed clearly that both types of smoked salmon supported the growth of L. monocytogenes. Although occurrence of L. monocytogenes on seafood was low, this study showed that the smoked salmon used in this study can support the growth of L. monocytogenes; therefore, vigilance is required in the processing facilities to reduce the associated risk.

  7. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or "Chilean sea bass".

    PubMed

    Marko, Peter B; Nance, Holly A; van den Hurk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery) had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of seafood

  8. Mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and seafood from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Somers, Emily C; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Maria Téllez-Rojo, Martha

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, and urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4 μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7 μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8 μg/L, 0.6 μg/g, and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5 μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eco-Label Conveys Reliable Information on Fish Stock Health to Seafood Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L.; Valencia, Sarah R.; Branch, Trevor A.; Agnew, David J.; Baum, Julia K.; Bianchi, Patricia L.; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E.; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L.; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J.; Thorson, James T.; Williams, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer’s point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3–5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  10. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... Radioactive Material (TS-R-1), to promote the safe and secure transportation of radioactive material. The IAEA...

  11. Shifting post production patterns: exploring changes in New Zealand's seafood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Rees, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the changing nature of New Zealand's seafood companies' production practices. The past 15 years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Fish is head and gutted, frozen and then transported to processing sites in China where it is thawed, value-added processed and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets. Reasons advanced by the industry for this shift in production practices include quota reductions, increasing production costs and the sale of trawlers.

  12. Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-29

    The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

  13. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera; Sloth, Jens J; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Tediosi, Alice; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H M; Kotterman, Michiel; Marques, António

    2015-11-01

    The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15-0.94 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.37-0.89 mg kg(-1)), Co (0.48-1.1 mg kg(-1)), Cu (4.8-8.4 mg kg(-1)), Zn (75-153 mg kg(-1)), Cr (1.0-4.5 mg kg(-1)) and Fe (283-930 mg kg(-1)) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg(-1)). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg(-1) and 43 mg kg(-1), respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant

  14. Microbiological and other hazards from seafoods with special reference to Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, G. I.

    1974-01-01

    The salient features of some of the more important microbiological health hazards to man from seafoods are reviewed briefly. They include poisoning, indirectly from toxins produced by certain marine algae or more directly by Clostridium botulinum, as well as infection with the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Local culinary habits play a significant role in such kinds of illness, and food well cooked shortly before consumption is always preferable. Since established customs die hard, safety ultimately depends, not so much on arbitrary microbiological standards, but on hygienic production, correct storage and distribution, and on education in intelligent eating habits. PMID:4467856

  15. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  16. Reassuring or Risky: The Presentation of Seafood Safety in the Aftermath of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Lagasse, Lisa P.; Neff, Roni A.; Love, David C.; Chase, Rachel; Sokol, Natasha; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2013-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was enormously newsworthy; coverage interlaced discussions of health, economic, and environmental impacts and risks. We analyzed 315 news articles that considered Gulf seafood safety from the year following the spill. We explored reporting trends, risk presentation, message source, stakeholder perspectives on safety, and framing of safety messages. Approximately one third of articles presented risk associated with seafood consumption as a standalone issue, rather than in conjunction with environmental or economic risks. Government sources were most frequent and their messages were largely framed as reassuring as to seafood safety. Discussions of prevention were limited to short-term, secondary prevention approaches. These data demonstrate a need for risk communication in news coverage of food safety that addresses the larger risk context, primary prevention, and structural causes of risk. PMID:23678933

  17. Reassuring or risky: the presentation of seafood safety in the aftermath of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Amelia L; Lagasse, Lisa P; Neff, Roni A; Love, David C; Chase, Rachel; Sokol, Natasha; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2013-07-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was enormously newsworthy; coverage interlaced discussions of health, economic, and environmental impacts and risks. We analyzed 315 news articles that considered Gulf seafood safety from the year following the spill. We explored reporting trends, risk presentation, message source, stakeholder perspectives on safety, and framing of safety messages. Approximately one third of articles presented risk associated with seafood consumption as a standalone issue, rather than in conjunction with environmental or economic risks. Government sources were most frequent and their messages were largely framed as reassuring as to seafood safety. Discussions of prevention were limited to short-term, secondary prevention approaches. These data demonstrate a need for risk communication in news coverage of food safety that addresses the larger risk context, primary prevention, and structural causes of risk.

  18. Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns and insights from a sample of international studies.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.

  19. A COMPARISON OF EXTRACTION EFFICIENCIES IN SEAFOOD MATRICES USING A SYNTHETIC STOMACH AND AN ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION APPROACH WITH IC-ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seafood is one of the largest sources of dietary arsenic exposure. Because most of the arsenic present is non-toxic (such as arsenobetaine [AsB]), the consumption of seafood is thought to result in a low risk or non-toxic exposure. This can be misleading for two reasons. First...

  20. A COMPARISON OF EXTRACTION EFFICIENCIES IN SEAFOOD MATRICES USING A SYNTHETIC STOMACH AND AN ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION APPROACH WITH IC-ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seafood is one of the largest sources of dietary arsenic exposure. Because most of the arsenic present is non-toxic (such as arsenobetaine [AsB]), the consumption of seafood is thought to result in a low risk or non-toxic exposure. This can be misleading for two reasons. First...

  1. More than a Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  2. Adventure Programming: Keeping It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spacht, Roger J.; Hirsch, Jude

    1995-01-01

    Addresses issues related to administration of adventure programs, including liability, hiring well-trained staff, conducting safe activities, supervising safe adventure programs, maintaining appropriate facilities and equipment, keeping accurate records, posting information about potentially unsafe sites and activities, carrying adequate insurance…

  3. More than a Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  4. Variations in compliance with recommendations and types of meat/seafood/eggs according to sociodemographic and socioeconomic categories.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Estaquio, Carla; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2010-01-01

    Strategic goals for meat/seafood/egg consumption include variety and adherence to recommendations while avoiding excessive intake. The aim of this study was to investigate their association with sociodemographic and -economic characteristics in a general population of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using at least six 24-hour dietary records collected during a 2-year period from 4,574 subjects aged 45-60 years who participated in the SU.VI.MAX cohort study from 1995 to 1997. Compliance with the meat/seafood/egg (1-2 servings/day) and the specific seafood (> or =2 servings/week) recommendations, variety and daily costs were compared across sociodemographic and -economic categories using logistic regression and covariance analyses. Compliance with the sea- food recommendation was associated with older age (p(trend)< 0.0001), higher education level (p(trend) = 0.0002) and higher occupational category (p = 0.007). The variety of meat/seafood/egg intake was positively correlated with higher occupational category (p = 0.02) and not living alone (p = 0.01). The meat/seafood/egg budget spent on white meat was higher for younger subjects (p(trend) = 0.007) with a lower education level (p(trend) = 0.001) and occupational category (p = 0.0006). In contrast, fish costs increased with age (p(trend) = 0.002) and education level (p(trend) = 0.0002), while red meat costs were positively correlated with higher occupational category (p = 0.02). Compliance with recommendations, variety and types of meat/seafood/eggs differed across sociodemographic and -economic categories. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  6. The influence of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafood salad.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Tamplin, Mark L

    2005-07-25

    Seafood salad has been identified as a ready-to-eat food with a relatively high incidence of contamination by Listeria monocytogenes; however, little is known about the behavior of this pathogen in seafood salad as a function of product pH and storage temperature. To produce data towards the development of a predictive growth model, a 6-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto the surface of a shrimp-crabmeat product, mixed with mayonnaise that was previously adjusted with NaOH to pH 3.7, 4.0, 4.4, 4.7 or 5.1, and then stored at 4 degrees , 8 degrees or 12 degrees C under both aerobic and vacuum conditions. At each storage temperature, L. monocytogenes was able to grow in the seafood salad under both aerobic and vacuum conditions. The slowest growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in seafood salad with a mayonnaise pH of 3.7 and a storage temperature of 4 degrees C under vacuum condition. In salad with the same mayonnaise pH, the growth rate (GR, log10 cfu/h) of L. monocytogenes increased as a function of storage temperature. At the same storage temperature, the lag phase duration (LPD, h) of L. monocytogenes decreased as mayonnaise pH increased. At the same mayonnaise pH and temperature, LPD of L. monocytogenes was greater under aerobic than under vacuum conditions. Regression analyses indicated that mayonnaise pH is the main effector on the LPD of L. monocytogenes in seafood salad, and storage temperature was the main effector on the GR. Secondary models that describe LPD and GR of L. monocytogenes in seafood salad as a function of mayonnaise pH and storage temperature were produced.

  7. Evaluation of electron capture gas chromatographic method for determination of methyl mercury in freezer-case seafoods.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G H; Hight, S C; Capar, S G

    1984-01-01

    A method was recently adopted by AOAC for determination of methyl-bound mercury in canned and fresh-frozen seafood by electron capture gas chromatography. That method was applied to the analysis of commercially prepared freezer-case seafoods. None of the commercially added ingredients produced electron capture responses that interfered in the analysis for methyl mercury. Recoveries of 95.7-114% were obtained in fortification studies of methyl mercury at 0.2 and 1.0 ppm levels. The applicability of aqueous methyl mercuric chloride solution for fortification studies was demonstrated.

  8. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, G.A.; Nyman, P.J.; Fisher, S.; Joe, F.L. Jr.; Diachenko, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Modification of a previously published method for determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produces very clean seafood extracts in less than half the time. After alkaline digestion of the seafood, PAHs were partitioned into 1,2,3-trichlorotrifluoroethane. The resulting extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction on alumina, silica, and C{sub 18} adsorbents and then analyzed by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography with programmable fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of 12 PAHs [acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(k)-fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene] from 5 different matrixes (mussels, oysters, clams, crabmeat, and salmon)spiked at low parts-per-billion levels ranged from 76 to 94%. Estimated limits of quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ppb PAHs in extracts that were free of matrix interferences. Results of analyses of a mussels standard reference material obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were in good agreement with the certified values. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liying; Kiselova, Nadezda; Rosén, Johan; Ilag, Leopold L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01–0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments. PMID:25373604

  10. DNA Barcoding analysis of seafood accuracy in Washington, D.C. restaurants.

    PubMed

    Stern, David B; Castro Nallar, Eduardo; Rathod, Jason; Crandall, Keith A

    2017-01-01

    In Washington D.C., recent legislation authorizes citizens to test if products are properly represented and, if they are not, to bring a lawsuit for the benefit of the general public. Recent studies revealing the widespread phenomenon of seafood substitution across the United States make it a fertile area for consumer protection testing. DNA barcoding provides an accurate and cost-effective way to perform these tests, especially when tissue alone is available making species identification based on morphology impossible. In this study, we sequenced the 5' barcoding region of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene for 12 samples of vertebrate and invertebrate food items across six restaurants in Washington, D.C. and used multiple analytical methods to make identifications. These samples included several ambiguous menu listings, sequences with little genetic variation among closely related species and one sequence with no available reference sequence. Despite these challenges, we were able to make identifications for all samples and found that 33% were potentially mislabeled. While we found a high degree of mislabeling, the errors involved closely related species and we did not identify egregious substitutions as have been found in other cities. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding and robust analyses in identifying seafood items for consumer protection.

  11. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Kiselova, Nadezda; Rosén, Johan; Ilag, Leopold L

    2014-11-06

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01-0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments.

  12. Determination of total mercury in seafood and other protein-rich products

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, S.; Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C.

    1992-11-01

    A previously developed wet-digestion method for the determination of total mercury in plants by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) was extended to the analysis of seafood and other products rich in proteins. Oxidation of matrixes is accomplished by K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the presence of diluted H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; a simple air condenser is used to reflux vapors released from the boiling mixture. The original procedure (A) and 2 modifications (B and C), which differ with respect to the mode of acidification and/or digestion time and the types of condensers used, were compared for precision and accuracy by means of National Institute of Standards and Technology Research Material 50 Albacore Tuna and proved to be reliable (Hg present, 0.95{plus_minus}0.1 {mu}g/g; Hg found, 0.97 {plus_minus} 0.029 {mu}g/g [A], 0.98 {plus_minus} 0.018 {mu}g/g [B], and 0.94 {plus_minus} 0.025 {mu}g/g [C]). The modified procedures were tested further in Hg recovery experiments on a variety of biological matrixes with different spiking substances and again showed good analytical characteristics (overall average recoveries = 98 {plus_minus} 5.1% for seafood and 100 {plus_minus} 3.6 for protein-rich baby foods). 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Relationship between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in seafood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes as an outcome and Listeria spp. as an explanatory variable by food products, food contact surfaces, and nonfood contact surfaces in seafood processing plants by using peer-reviewed published data. Nine sets of prevalence data of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were collected from published studies and used for the analyses. Based on our analysis, the relationship between L. monocytogenes prevalence and Listeria spp. prevalence in food products (incoming raw materials and finish products) was significant (P = 0.04) with (low) R² = 0.36. Furthermore, Listeria spp. were not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes when testing food contact surfaces (R² = 0.10). Listeria spp. were a good indicator for L. monocytogenes only on nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.90). On the other hand, the presence of Listeria spp. on food contact surfaces (R² = 0.002) and nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.03) was not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes presence in food products. In general, prevalence of Listeria spp. does not seem to be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes prevalence in seafood processing plants.

  14. Managing seafood processing wastewater on the Oregon coast: A time of transition

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.; Miner, J.R.

    1997-12-01

    Seafood processors along the Oregon coast practice a wastewater management plan that is unique within the state. Most of these operations discharge wastewater under a General Permit issued by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) that requires only that they screen the wastewater to remove particles that will not pass through a 40 mesh screen. The General Permit was issued in February of 1992 and was scheduled to expire at the end of December, 1996. It has been extended until a replacement is adopted. Alternatives are currently under consideration by the DEQ. A second issue is the increasing competition for water within the coastal communities that are experiencing a growing tourist industry and a static water supply. Tourism and seafood processing both have their peak water demands during the summer months when fresh water supplies are most limited. Disposal of solid wastes has been simplified for many of the processors along the Lower Columbia River by a Fisheries Enhancement Program which allows processors to grind the solid waste then to discharge it into the stream under appropriate tidal conditions. There is no data which indicates water quality damage from this practice nor is there clear evidence of enhanced fishery productivity.

  15. Enterobacter siamensis sp. nov., a transglutaminase-producing bacterium isolated from seafood processing wastewater in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khunthongpan, Suwannee; Bourneow, Chaiwut; H-Kittikun, Aran; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain of Enterobacter, C2361(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and facultative anaerobic bacterium with the capability to produce transglutaminase, was isolated from seafood processing wastewater collected from a treatment pond of a seafood factory in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, including chemotaxonomic characteristics, showed that the strain was a member of the genus Enterobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain C2361(T) and Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047(T) and Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens LMG 2683(T) were 97.5 and 97.5%, respectively. Strain C2361(T) showed a low DNA-DNA relatedness with the above-mentioned species. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C17:0cyclo and C14:0. The DNA G+C content was 53.0 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence gathered in this study, it should be classified as a novel species of the genus Enterobacter for which the name Enterobacter siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C2361(T) (= KCTC 23282(T) = NBRC 107138(T)).

  16. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  17. Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) Due to Microcystins: A Threat from the Ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Vareli, Katerina; Jaeger, Walter; Touka, Anastasia; Frillingos, Stathis; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Sainis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a major and growing problem for freshwater ecosystems worldwide that increasingly concerns public health, with an average of 60% of blooms known to be toxic. The most studied cyanobacterial toxins belong to a family of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, called microcystins. The microcystins are stable hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptides with a potential to cause cell damage following cellular uptake via organic anion-transporting proteins (OATP). Their intracellular biologic effects presumably involve inhibition of catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and glutathione depletion. The microcystins produced by cyanobacteria pose a serious problem to human health, if they contaminate drinking water or food. These toxins are collectively responsible for human fatalities, as well as continued and widespread poisoning of wild and domestic animals. Although intoxications of aquatic organisms by microcystins have been widely documented for freshwater ecosystems, such poisonings in marine environments have only occasionally been reported. Moreover, these poisonings have been attributed to freshwater cyanobacterial species invading seas of lower salinity (e.g., the Baltic) or to the discharge of freshwater microcystins into the ocean. However, recent data suggest that microcystins are also being produced in the oceans by a number of cosmopolitan marine species, so that Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) is increasingly recognized as a major health risk that follows consumption of contaminated seafood. PMID:23921721

  18. Forensic assignment to geographic origin, a useful tool in seafood fraud control.

    PubMed

    Horreo, J L; Machado-Schiaffino, G; García-Vázquez, E

    2017-03-01

    Seafood fraud is an economically motivated and widely spread problem encompassing drastic consequences in both public health and species conservation. In Northern Spain, only the first Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) catch of the angling season (named Campanu) can be sold. In the year 2011, an angler denounced it on regional Court claiming that the Campanu (which was sold in 6000€) was fraudulent because it had been caught from another river than the fisherman ("the seller") stated. Here, we report the first judicial case of application of geographical genetic assignment in a fish species in Spain. In order to accomplish this, genetic assignments to their rivers of origin of the Campanu and another three following salmon catches of the angling season of the year 2011 were performed. A panel of eight microsatellite loci together with a comprehensive genetic baseline of the rivers of the region were employed. Results showed that the Campanu was the only case in which genetic assignment and fisherman declaration of the river of origin did not match. The methodology here employed showed to be very useful as a reinforcement of other evidences contributing to fight against seafood fraud in Courts.

  19. Determination of chlorate and chlorite and mutagenicity of seafood treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Marshall, M R; Du, W X; Otwell, W S; Wei, C I

    1999-09-01

    The use of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) as a potential substitute for aqueous chlorine to improve the quality of seafood products has not been approved by regulatory agencies due to health concerns related to the production of chlorite (ClO(2)(-)) and chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) as well as possible mutagenic/carcinogenic reaction products. Cubes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and red grouper (Epinephelus morio) were treated with 20 or 200 ppm aqueous chlorine or ClO(2) solutions for 5 min, and extracts of the treated fish cubes and test solutions were checked for mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. No mutagenic activity was detected in the treated fish samples or test solutions with ClO(2). Only the sample treated with 200 ppm chlorine showed weak mutagenic activity toward S. typhimurium TA 100. No chlorite residue was detected in sea scallops, mahi-mahi, or shrimp treated with ClO(2) at 3.9-34.9 ppm. However, low levels of chlorate residues were detected in some of the treated samples. In most cases, the increase in chlorate in treated seafood was time- and dose-related.

  20. Intake of chemical contaminants through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain: health risks.

    PubMed

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2007-10-01

    The intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2005, samples of the 14 most consumed marine species in Catalonia were randomly acquired in various cities of the country. Analysis of the above chemical contaminants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques and the daily intakes were estimated. For most pollutants, intake was higher in boys than in girls. Average exposure of children to contaminants through fish and seafood consumption did not exceed the respective tolerable daily intake of those pollutants for which it has been already established (metals, PCDD/Fs plus dioxin-like PCBs, HCB, and PAHs). In relation to body weight, intake by children of most contaminants was higher than that found for other age groups of the general population of Catalonia.

  1. [Growth inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood by tabletop dry ice cooler].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yumi; Kimura, Bon; Fujii, Tateo; Tokunaga, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Megumi; Aikawa, Yasushi

    2005-10-01

    Tabletop dry ice coolers (three types; dome model, cap model and tripod model), which are used in kitchens and hotel banquet halls to refrigerate fresh seafood, were investigated to determine whether growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was inhibited by their use. On TSA plates containing 1.8% NaCl and fresh seafood (fillets of squid, pink shrimp and yellowtail), V. parahaemolyticus (O3:K6, TDH+) inoculated at 4 to 5 log CFU/sample and left at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) grew by 1.0 to 2.8 orders in 4 hours. In contrast, with tabletop coolers no significant increase in viable count occurred in 3 to 4 hours, confirming that tabletop coolers inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. The temperature in each tabletop cooler was kept below 10 degrees C for 80 to 135 min, though the CO2 gas concentration in them remained high for only a short time (0 to 75 min). It was presumed that the refrigeration function mainly contributed to growth inhibition. Our results indicate that tabletop dry ice coolers are helpful for prevention of food-borne disease due to V. parahaemolyticus in food-service locations, such as kitchens and banquet halls.

  2. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liying; Kiselova, Nadezda; Rosén, Johan; Ilag, Leopold L.

    2014-11-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01-0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments.

  3. Edible protein energy return on investment ratio (ep-EROI) for Spanish seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Moreira, M Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2014-04-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed into a useful methodology to assess energy consumption of fishing fleets and their derived seafood products, as well as the associated environmental burdens. In this study, however, the life cycle inventory data is used to provide a dimensionless ratio between energy inputs and the energy provided by the fish: the edible protein energy return on investment (ep-EROI). The main objective was to perform a critical comparison of seafood products landed in Galicia (NW Spain) in terms of ep-EROI. The combination of energy return on investment (EROI) with LCA, the latter having standardized mechanisms regarding data acquisition and system boundary delimitation, allowed a reduction of uncertainties in EROI estimations. Results allow a deeper understanding of the energy efficiency in the Galician fishing sector, showing that small pelagic species present the highest ep-EROI values if captured using specific fishing techniques. Finally, results are expected to provide useful guidelines for policy support in the EU's Common Fisheries Policy.

  4. Survey of Clostridium difficile in retail seafood in College Station, Texas.

    PubMed

    Norman, Keri N; Harvey, Roger B; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America with the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to humans. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of C. difficile in retail seafood from grocery stores in College Station, Texas. C. difficile was found in 4.5% (3/67) of shellfish and finfish samples. The positive samples included one each from fresh mussel, frozen salmon and frozen shrimp. The mussel and salmon isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type-NAP7. The shrimp isolate was identified as toxinotype XII, but had an unknown PFGE type. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents were identical for the mussel and salmon isolates and were sensitive to eight of 11 antimicrobials (including ampicillin) and intermediate to clindamycin. However, the shrimp isolate was resistant to clindamycin and ampicillin. This study demonstrates that seafood, like other food commodities, can be contaminated by C. difficile.

  5. Chromium in basic foods of the Spanish diet: seafood, cereals, vegetables, olive oils and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lendinez, E; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C

    2001-10-20

    In the present study, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to determine the content of total chromium in some basic foods of the Spanish diet. The seafood samples, vegetables and olive oils were mineralized previously with HNO3 and V2O5. A procedure of slurries with Triton X-100 was applied to dairy products. The temperature-time program was optimized for every type of sample. An assessment of the analytical characteristics of the method verifies their reliability. The content of Cr ranged between 0.004 and 0.079 microg/g in seafood (fresh wt.), from 0.007 to 0.456 microg/g in cereals and vegetables (fresh wt.), between not detectable and 0.625 microg/g in dairy products and between not detectable and 0.040 microg/g in olive oils. The high consumption of these products conditions the fact that they should be significant sources of Cr in the diet.

  6. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting onto other food. · To maintain quality when freezing meat and poultry in its original package, wrap ... from spoiling or becoming dangerous to eat. Because freezing keeps food safe indefinitely, recommended storage times are ...

  7. How Safe Is Your Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocera, Joseph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Five articles address the realities of coping with downsizing: "Living with Layoffs" (Nocera); "How Safe Is Your Job?" (Lieber); "Career Makeover" (Robinson); "Ma Bell's Orphans" (O'Reilly); and "Where Are They Now?" (Martin). (SK)

  8. Safely Use Rodent Bait Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rat and mouse poison products, if misused, can potentially harm you, your children, or your pets. Always read the product label and follow all directions. Choose safe rodenticide products, store pesticides properly, and use bait stations appropriately.

  9. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/antibiotics-and-pregnancy/ ...

  10. Assessments and improvements in methods for monitoring seafood safety in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; DeJager, Lowri; Begley, Timothy

    2013-04-10

    As a result of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sensory testing protocols were established for reopening closed seafood harvest areas. In order to improve this method and quantitatively assess petrochemical taint, a new method using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and a 5975T transportable GC/MS was developed. This method can analyze 40 samples per instrument per day and could be an alternative to the human sensory panel. In seafood samples collected from supermarkets in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico, all compounds related to petrochemical taint were below the method detection limit (MDL) (0.14-2.6 ng/g). Additionally, to address consumer concerns regarding the presence of n-alkanes and iso-alkanes in seafood, these compounds were investigated in samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations in Gulf of Mexico finfish ranged from 0.066 to 1.2 mg/kg, which is within the same background range of iso- and n-alkanes measured in seafood samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area (0.0072-1.6 μg/g). These automated methods provide a transportable option to obtain rapid results for compounds indicative of petroleum taint and iso- and n-alkanes in case of a future disaster.

  11. Contamination by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Virulent Strains in Seafood Marketed in Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Infections by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are frequently reported in Southeast Asia. This is due to the frequent seafood contamination by virulent strains. In this study conducted from 2008 to 2011, seafood like fish, shrimp, squid, crab, and molluscan shellfish were purchased from provinces in Thailand and three Southeast Asian countries and examined for the prevalence of three genetic markers of V. parahaemolyticus (species-specific gene: toxR gene, virulence genes: tdh and trh genes). An enrichment culture of seafood was examined for these markers using PCR methods. Molluscan shellfish showed a high frequency of contamination in Thailand. The shellfish harvested from the Gulf of Thailand were significantly more contaminated with virulence genes than those from the Andaman Sea. The seafood purchased from three Southeast Asian countries was positive for the three markers of V. parahaemolytcus at differing frequencies. The virulence markers (tdh and trh markers) were frequently detected in molluscan shellfish from Vietnam (17.9 and 8.0%, respectively), Malaysia (11.1 and 16.7%), and Indonesia (9.1 and 13.6%). These data suggest that the molluscan shellfish sold in Southeast Asian markets are highly contaminated with virulent strains of V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:24155650

  12. Occurrence of palytoxin-group toxins in seafood and future strategies to complement the present state of the art.

    PubMed

    Aligizaki, Katerina; Katikou, Panagiota; Milandri, Anna; Diogène, Jorge

    2011-03-01

    Palytoxin (PlTX) and palytoxin-like (PlTX-like) compounds in seafood have been raising scientific concern in the last years. The constant increase in record numbers of the causative dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis together with the large spatial expansion of this genus has led to intensification of research towards optimization of methods for determination of PlTX presence and toxicity. In this context, identification of seafood species which could possibly contain PlTXs constitutes an important issue for public health protection. In the present paper, worldwide occurrence of PlTX-like compounds in seafood is reviewed, while potential future strategies are discussed. PlTX has been reported to be present in several species of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms. In one occasion, PlTX has been identified in freshwater puffer fish whereas all other records of PlTXs refer to marine species and have been recorded in latitudes approximately between 43°N and 15°S. PlTX determination in seafood has relied on different methodologies (mainly LC-MS, mouse bioassay and hemolysis neutralization assay) that have evolved over time. Future recommendations include systematic screening of PlTX in those species and areas where PlTX has already been recorded implementing updated methodologies.

  13. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  14. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF ARSENIC SPECIES SPECIFIC MASS BALANCE ON THE EVALUATION OF ARSENIC SPECIATION RESULTS IN SEAFOOD MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two predominant pathways to arsenic exposure are drinking water and dietary ingestion. A large percentage of the dietary exposure component is associated with a few food groups. For example, seafood alone represents over 50% of the total dietary exposure. From a daily dose...

  16. Contamination by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Its Virulent Strains in Seafood Marketed in Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu

    2013-09-01

    Infections by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are frequently reported in Southeast Asia. This is due to the frequent seafood contamination by virulent strains. In this study conducted from 2008 to 2011, seafood like fish, shrimp, squid, crab, and molluscan shellfish were purchased from provinces in Thailand and three Southeast Asian countries and examined for the prevalence of three genetic markers of V. parahaemolyticus (species-specific gene: toxR gene, virulence genes: tdh and trh genes). An enrichment culture of seafood was examined for these markers using PCR methods. Molluscan shellfish showed a high frequency of contamination in Thailand. The shellfish harvested from the Gulf of Thailand were significantly more contaminated with virulence genes than those from the Andaman Sea. The seafood purchased from three Southeast Asian countries was positive for the three markers of V. parahaemolytcus at differing frequencies. The virulence markers (tdh and trh markers) were frequently detected in molluscan shellfish from Vietnam (17.9 and 8.0%, respectively), Malaysia (11.1 and 16.7%), and Indonesia (9.1 and 13.6%). These data suggest that the molluscan shellfish sold in Southeast Asian markets are highly contaminated with virulent strains of V. parahaemolyticus.

  17. Marine neurotoxins: state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives for mode of action based methods of detection in seafood.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Gerssen, Arjen; Bovee, Toine F H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Marine biotoxins can accumulate in fish and shellfish, representing a possible threat for consumers. Many marine biotoxins affect neuronal function essentially through their interaction with ion channels or receptors, leading to different symptoms including paralysis and even death. The detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products is therefore a priority. Official methods for control are often still using in vivo assays, such as the mouse bioassay. This test is considered unethical and the development of alternative assays is urgently required. Chemical analyses as well as in vitro assays have been developed to detect marine biotoxins in seafood. However, most of the current in vitro alternatives to animal testing present disadvantages: low throughput and lack of sensitivity resulting in a high number of false-negative results. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new in vitro tests that would allow the detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products at a low cost, with high throughput combined with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and predictivity. Mode of action based in vitro bioassays may provide tools that fulfil these requirements. This review covers the current state of the art of such mode of action based alternative assays to detect neurotoxic marine biotoxins in seafood.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF ARSENIC SPECIES SPECIFIC MASS BALANCE ON THE EVALUATION OF ARSENIC SPECIATION RESULTS IN SEAFOOD MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two predominant pathways to arsenic exposure are drinking water and dietary ingestion. A large percentage of the dietary exposure component is associated with a few food groups. For example, seafood alone represents over 50% of the total dietary exposure. From a daily dose...

  19. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  20. Increased sensitivity in PCR detection of tdh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood with purified template DNA.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Kasuga, Y; Kiuchi, A; Horisaka, T; Kawasumi, T; Kumagai, S

    2003-09-01

    PCR is an important method for the detection of thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh)-positive (pathogenic hemolysin-producing) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood because tdh-negative (nonpathogenic) V. parahaemolyticus strains often contaminate seafood and interfere with the direct isolation of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, the use of PCR to detect the tdh gene of V. parahaemolyticus in various seafoods artificially contaminated with tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus was examined. PCR was inhibited by substances in oysters, squid, mackerel, and yellowtail but not by cod, sea bream, scallop, short-necked clam, and shrimp. To improve detection, DNA was purified by either the silica membrane method, the glass fiber method, or the magnetic separation method, and the purified DNA was used as the PCR primer template. For all samples, the use of the silica membrane method and the glass fiber method increased detection sensitivity. The results of this study demonstrate that the use of properly purified template DNA for PCR markedly increases the effectiveness of the method in detecting pathogenic tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated seafood.

  1. Safe sex messages for adolescents. Do they work?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A; Smith, A

    2000-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of risk taking. Constructive risk taking aids the developmental task of becoming a mature, confident adult with a sense of mastery of self and the world. However, ill judged and misinformed risk taking in sexual behaviour can have serious and life long consequences. To assess strategies used for promoting safe sex messages to adolescents and to delineate the role of the general practitioner in promoting these messages effectively. The most successful sexual health promotion strategies are those that acknowledge the social and media influences on young people and use these to help strengthen group norms around safe sexual behaviour. GPs have an important role to play in adopting a non judgmental approach to accepting young people as sexual beings and engaging in one to one opportunistic health promotion.

  2. Maternal intake of seafood and supplementary long chain n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Englund-Ögge, Linda; Haugen, Margareta; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Sengpiel, Verena; Myhre, Ronny; Alexander, Jan; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2017-01-19

    Preterm delivery increases the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Studies suggest that maternal diet may affect the prevalence of preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether maternal intakes of seafood and marine long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) from supplements were associated with preterm delivery. The study population included 67,007 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal food and supplement intakes were assessed by a validated self-reported food frequency questionnaire in mid-pregnancy. Information about gestational duration was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between total seafood, lean fish, fatty fish, and LCn-3PUFA intakes and preterm delivery. Preterm was defined as any onset of delivery before gestational week 37, and as spontaneous or iatrogenic deliveries and as preterm delivery at early, moderate, and late preterm gestations. Lean fish constituted 56%, fatty fish 34% and shellfish 10% of seafood intake. Any intake of seafood above no/rare intake (>5 g/d) was associated with lower prevalence of preterm delivery. Adjusted HRs were 0.76 (CI: 0.66, 0.88) for 1-2 servings/week (20-40 g/d), 0.72 (CI: 0.62, 0.83) for 2-3 servings/week (40-60 g/d), and 0.72 (CI: 0.61, 0.85) for ≥3 servings/week (>60 g/d), p-trend <0.001. The association was seen for lean fish (p-trend: 0.005) but not for fatty fish (p-trend: 0.411). The intake of supplementary LCn-3PUFA was associated only with lower prevalence of early preterm delivery (before 32 gestational weeks), while increasing intake of LCn-3PUFA from food was associated with lower prevalence of overall preterm delivery (p-trend: 0.002). Any seafood intake above no/rare was associated with lower prevalence of both spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm delivery, and with lower prevalence of late preterm delivery. Any

  3. An exposure assessment for methylmercury from seafood for consumers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Clark D; Bolger, Michael P

    2002-08-01

    An exposure model was developed to relate seafood consumption to levels of methylmercury (reported as mercury) in blood and hair in the U.S. population, and two subpopulations defined as children aged 2-5 and women aged 18-45. Seafood consumption was initially modeled using short-term (three-day) U.S.-consumption surveys that recorded the amount of fish eaten per meal. Since longer exposure periods include more eaters with a lower daily mean intake, the consumption distribution was adjusted by broadening the distribution to include more eaters and reducing the distribution mean to keep total population intake constant. The estimate for the total number of eaters was based on long-term purchase diaries. Levels of mercury in canned tuna, swordfish, and shark were based on FDA survey data. The distribution of mercury levels in other species was based on reported mean levels, with the frequency of consumption of each species based on market share. The shape distribution for the given mean was based on the range of variation encountered among shark, tuna, and swordfish. These distributions were integrated with a simulation that estimated average daily intake over a 360-day period, with 10,000 simulated individuals and 1,000 uncertainty iterations. The results of this simulation were then used as an input to a second simulation that modeled levels of mercury in blood and hair. The relationship between dietary intake and blood mercury in a population was modeled from data obtained from a 90-day study with controlled seafood intake. The relationship between blood and hair mercury in a population was modeled from data obtained from several sources. The biomarker simulation employed 2,000 simulated individuals and 1,000 uncertainty iterations. These results were then compared to the recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that tabulated blood and hair mercury levels in a cross-section of the U.S. population. The output of the model and NHANES results

  4. Seafood (wild and farmed) for the elderly: contribution to the dietary intakes of iodine, selenium, DHA and vitamins B12 and D.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M; Paquotte, P

    2008-03-01

    A large body of published data was analyzed to determine the concentrations of DHA, vitamins B12 and D, iodine, selenium in seafood (finfish and shellfish, wild and farmed, seawater and freshwater). The data on apparent consumption per inhabitant were taken from statistics prepared by OFIMER. This was used to determine the mean consumption of the main products of seafood in France in 2004 and the mean intakes of people aged 65 years and over. Not enough seafood is consumed by older people, according to the French recommended dietary allowances (french RDA), seafood provides 25% of the vitamin D RDA, 56% of the vitamin B12 RDA, 28% of iodine RDA, 23% of selenium RDA and 203% of DHA french RDA. For DHA, mean intake is aprox. 100% of international RDA. Seafood is the only class of food that provides major fractions of all these elements. We therefore recommend that older people increase their consumption of seafood to counteract the potential problems due to the low concentrations of these elements in their usual diets; this could overcome a potentially major public health problem. All elderly people would benefit from an increased intake of vitamin D and B12, iodine and selenium. Although some segments of the population seem not to lack DHA, others, such as those whose socio-economic positions or life styles restrict their seafood intakes, would benefit greatly from an increased intake of this omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  5. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD.

  6. Fish consumption among young overweight European adults and compliance to varying seafood content in four weight loss intervention diets.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Birgisdottir, Be; Kiely, M; Martinez, Ja; Bandarra, Nm

    2009-05-01

    Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet and is frequently recommended as a main course at least twice a week. To study the frequency of fish consumption among young overweight European adults and their compliance to varying seafood consumption in weight loss intervention diets. After meeting the inclusion criteria, the subject's seafood intake was evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups and were advised energy-restricted diets for 8 weeks, including no seafood (control), cod, salmon or fish oil. A validated FFQ was used to evaluate the consumption of seafood at baseline, midpoint and endpoint, and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in blood erythrocytes were measured. Iceland, Ireland and Spain. The sample (n 324); 20-40-year-olds with BMI = 27.5-32.5 kg/m2; 85 % participated. At baseline, 34 % of the participants reported eating fish at least twice a week as the main course. During the intervention, six participants reported that they did not finish their fish portions, 15 % of the participants consumed small amount of fish additional to the study protocol in weeks 1-4 and 23 % in weeks 5-8 (P = 0.010). Changes in erythrocyte long-chain n-3 fatty acids confirmed good compliance, with increases in the salmon (P < 0.001) and fish oil (P < 0.001) groups, smaller increase in the cod group (P = 0.037) and decrease in the control group (P = 0.030). Frequency of fish consumption among 66 % of young European overweight adults is lower than frequently recommended. Compliance to varying seafood consumption was good. Therefore, including more fish in the diet of this group should be encouraged.

  7. Effect of cooking temperatures on chemical changes in species of organic arsenic in seafood.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Martínez, A; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Almela, C; Montoro, R

    2001-05-01

    The concentrations of arsenobetaine (AB), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA(+)), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were determined in samples of sole, dory, hake, and sardine, raw and after being subjected to cooking processes--baking, frying, and grilling--at various temperatures. In all cases, the temperature attained inside the product during the cooking process was measured. The arsenic species extracted from the samples with methanol/water were separated by means of a column switching technique between a PRP-X100 column and a PRP-X200 column. AB was detected by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas TMA(+) and TMAO were detected by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results obtained showed that, in all of the types of seafood studied, TMA(+) appeared after cooking, possibly because heating facilitates decarboxylation of AB to TMA(+).

  8. Accumulation of organotins in seafood leads to reproductive tract abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; Sena, Gabriela C; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Matsumoto, Silvia T; da Costa, Mércia B; Zamprogno, Gabriela C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Miguel, Emilio de C; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-11-01

    Organotins (OTs) are environmental contaminants used as biocides in antifouling paints that have been shown to be endocrine disrupters. However, studies evaluating the effects of OTs accumulated in seafood (LNI) on reproductive health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that LNI leads to impairment in the reproductive tract of female rats, as the estrous cycle development, as well as for ovary and uterus morphology. Rats were treated with LNI, and their reproductive morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities, such as irregular estrous cycles, abnormal ovarian follicular development and ovarian collagen deposition, were observed in LNI rats. An increase in luminal epithelia and ERα expression was observed in the LNI uteri. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that LNI are toxic for reproductive morphophysiology, which may be associated with risks to reproductive function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cooking on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in Korean dried seafood products.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Shin, J H; Sung, N J; Kim, J G; Hotchkiss, J H

    2003-01-01

    Only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected when N-nitrosamines (NA) were analysed in seven dried seafood products, either uncooked or cooked. The cooking methods used were a briquet fire, a gas range, an electric oven, a microwave oven, a steam cooker and an electric coil cooker. The contents of NDMA ranged from 1.0 to 46.9 microgram kg(-1) in uncooked products. When these samples were cooked, regardless of the cooking method, the content of NDMA tended to increase, ranging from 1.1 to 630.5 microgram kg(-1). In general, indirect heating such as a steam cooker and a microwave oven, as compared with direct heating such as a gas range and a briquet fire, caused less increase in NDMA during cooking.

  10. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  11. First approach to assess the bioaccessibility of bisphenol A in canned seafood.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Sara C; Alves, Ricardo N; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana; Marques, António

    2017-10-01

    Human health risks due to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure through canned food consumption are an emerging safety concern worldwide. In this study, an in vitro digestion model was used to simulate human digestion and evaluate BPA bioaccessibility in canned seafood for the first time. BPA contents of canned tuna and sardine samples and their bioaccessible and non-bioaccessible fractions were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 21 samples of canned tuna and sardines, all from the same producer but with different kind of sauces, showed BPA levels ranging from <1µgkg(-1) (limit of quantification, LOQ) to 62µgkg(-1), with variable results within and between sample groups. BPA bioaccessibility was evaluated in six positive samples, with values ranging from 80 to 99%. The results suggest that BPA bioaccessibility was slightly lower in samples with higher lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  13. A pilot study of seafood consumption and exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic among infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsul; Bloom, Michael S; Parsons, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bell, Erin M; Steuerwald, Amy J; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2013-07-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to assess environmental exposures to toxic elements through seafood consumption, among infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Twenty-five women and 15 men completed a questionnaire, and provided biologic specimens for quantification of Hg, Pb, Cd, and As using ICP-MS. Consumption of 'mollusks' and 'shellfish' are associated with increased blood Hg. Other seafood consumption predicts blood Pb, and urine Cd and As. Though limited by small numbers and the cross-sectional design, these results suggest that consumption of specific seafood items increases exposure to toxic elements in couples undergoing IVF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-deepwater horizon blowout seafood consumption patterns and community-specific levels of concern for selected chemicals among children in Mobile County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Tipre, Meghan; Turner-Henson, Anne; Chen, Ligong; Leader, Mark; Gohlke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize risk pertaining to seafood consumption patterns following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, among school children (K to 4th grade) residing in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico in Mobile County, Alabama. Responses on seafood consumption pattern including the type of seafood and intake rate during the pre and post oil spill periods, from parents of 55 school children from three schools located <20mile radius from the Gulf of Mexico shoreline (coastal group) were compared with those from parents of 55 children from three schools located ≥20miles away from the shoreline (inland group). We also estimated levels of concern (LOCs) in seafood for selected chemicals found in crude oil including heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the primary compound in dispersants. The coastal group ate more seafood consisting primarily of crustaceans (62% vs. 42%, p=0.04) and fin fish (78% vs. 58%, p=0.02) from the Gulf of Mexico compared to the inland group, while the inland group ate more fin fish not found in the Gulf of Mexico (62% vs. 33%, p<0.01). In the post-oil spill time period, both groups substantially reduced their consumption of sea food. On average, the coastal group ate ≥2 seafood meals per week, while the inland group ate ≤1 meal per week; these frequency patterns persisted in the post oil-spill period. Comparison of the estimated LOCs with contaminant levels detected in the seafood tested by the Food and Drug Administration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, post-oil spill, found that the levels of PAHs, arsenic, and DOSS in seafood were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the LOCs calculated in our study. Levels of methyl mercury (MeHg) in the seafood tested pre- and post- oil spill were higher than the estimated LOCs suggesting presence of higher levels of MeHg in seafood independent of the oil spill. In sum, the study found higher than average

  15. Infectious Mononucleosis: Ensuring a Safe Return to Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKnight, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…

  16. Introduction to working safely with large animals in containment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This manuscript examines biosafety challenges posed when conducting work with animals and zoonotic pathogens. It provides solutions for working with animals in a manner that promotes both safe and responsible research. Good safety and animal husbandry are essential for good science. Best practices w...

  17. Injury and Illness Costs in the Certified Safe Farm Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Kelley J.; Rautiainen, Risto H.; Lange, Jeffrey L.; Schneiders, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: The Certified Safe Farm (CSF) intervention program aims to reduce occupational injuries and illnesses, and promote wellness to reduce health care and related costs to farmers, insurers, and other stakeholders. Purpose: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of CSF. Methods: Farms (316) located in a 9-county area of northwestern Iowa were…

  18. Infectious Mononucleosis: Ensuring a Safe Return to Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKnight, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…

  19. Estimate of the uncertainty in measurement for the determination of mercury in seafood by TDA AAS.

    PubMed

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Olivares, Igor R B; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    An approach for the estimate of the uncertainty in measurement considering the individual sources related to the different steps of the method under evaluation as well as the uncertainties estimated from the validation data for the determination of mercury in seafood by using thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) is proposed. The considered method has been fully optimized and validated in an official laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, in order to comply with national and international food regulations and quality assurance. The referred method has been accredited under the ISO/IEC 17025 norm since 2010. The approach of the present work in order to reach the aim of estimating of the uncertainty in measurement was based on six sources of uncertainty for mercury determination in seafood by TDA AAS, following the validation process, which were: Linear least square regression, Repeatability, Intermediate precision, Correction factor of the analytical curve, Sample mass, and Standard reference solution. Those that most influenced the uncertainty in measurement were sample weight, repeatability, intermediate precision and calibration curve. The obtained result for the estimate of uncertainty in measurement in the present work reached a value of 13.39%, which complies with the European Regulation EC 836/2011. This figure represents a very realistic estimate of the routine conditions, since it fairly encompasses the dispersion obtained from the value attributed to the sample and the value measured by the laboratory analysts. From this outcome, it is possible to infer that the validation data (based on calibration curve, recovery and precision), together with the variation on sample mass, can offer a proper estimate of uncertainty in measurement.

  20. Simple analysis of total mercury and methylmercury in seafood using heating vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Keisuke; Anh, Hoang Thi Van; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Masaaki; Nakano, Atsuhiro; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simpler method for determining total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples by using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in the degreasing step. The fat in the samples was extracted by MIBK to the upper phase. T-Hg transferred into the water phase. This was followed by the extraction of MeHg from the water phase using HBr, CuCl2 and toluene. The MeHg fraction was reverse-extracted into L-cysteine-sodium acetate solution from toluene. The concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were determined by heating vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry. Certified reference materials for T-Hg and MeHg in hair and fish were accurately measured using this method. This method was then applied to determine T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in the muscle, liver and gonads of seafood for the risk assessment of MeHg exposure. The mean T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in squid eggs were 0.023 and 0.022 µg/g, and in squid nidamental glands 0.052 and 0.049 µg/g, respectively. The MeHg/T-Hg ratios in the eggs and nidamental glands of squid were 94.4% and 96.5%, respectively. The mean T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in the gonads of sea urchins were 0.043 and 0.001 µg/g, respectively, with a MeHg/T-Hg ratio of 3.5%. We developed an efficient analytical method for T-Hg and MeHg using MIBK in the degreasing step. The new information on MeHg concentration and MeHg/T-Hg ratios in the egg or nidamental glands of squid and gonads of sea urchin will also be useful for risk assessment of mercury in seafood.