Science.gov

Sample records for proof-of-principle research proposal

  1. Novel optical gyroscope: proof of principle demonstration and future scope

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shailesh; Rao D. S., Shreesha; Nandakumar, Hari

    2016-01-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the resonant optical gyroscope with reflector that we have recently proposed. The device is very different from traditional optical gyroscopes since it uses the inherent coupling between the clockwise and counterclockwise propagating waves to sense the rotation. Our demonstration confirms our theoretical analysis and simulations. We also demonstrate a novel method of biasing the gyroscope using orthogonal polarization states. The simplicity of the structure and the readout method, the theoretically predicted high sensitivities (better than 0.001 deg/hr), and the possibility of further performance enhancement using a related laser based active device, all have immense potential for attracting fresh research and technological initiatives. PMID:27694987

  2. Soft magnetic tweezers: a proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Francesco; Allemand, Jean François; Croquette, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    We present here the principle of soft magnetic tweezers which improve the traditional magnetic tweezers allowing the simultaneous application and measurement of an arbitrary torque to a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. They take advantage of a nonlinear coupling regime that appears when a fast rotating magnetic field is applied to a superparamagnetic bead immersed in a viscous fluid. In this work, we present the development of the technique and we compare it with other techniques capable of measuring the torque applied to the DNA molecule. In this proof of principle, we use standard electromagnets to achieve our experiments. Despite technical difficulties related to the present implementation of these electromagnets, the agreement of measurements with previous experiments is remarkable. Finally, we propose a simple way to modify the experimental design of electromagnets that should bring the performances of the device to a competitive level.

  3. Research on Vacuum Laser Accelerator and Proof-of Principle Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei

    This thesis discovers a proof-of-principle theory of Vacuum Laser Acceleration (VLA) and proposes a new acceleration mechanism---Capture and Acceleration Scenario (CAS) in our far-field laser acceleration research, which is a promising new scheme in advanced acceleration field. In this thesis, I studied electrons' dynamic behaviors while interacting with intense laser beam. There are two kinds of dynamics trajectories, namely IS (Inelastic Scattering) and CAS. In CAS, electrons can be captured and moving along the laser beam for a long time and receive considerable energy exchange from the laser field, rather than quickly expelled from the intense field region of the laser as predicted by the conventional Ponderomotive Potential Model (PPM). This thesis shows the research on most parameters of both laser beam and electron beam which will affect this VLA scheme. One of the primary factors is the laser intensity. Relatively high laser intensity is critically required for VLA, and there are thresholds of intensity a0( th) for CAS occurrence; the thresholds are different under different laser beam waist widths which is also a very important parameter of laser beam. Laser intensity is still a big obstacle nowadays. In the last decade there are only a few laboratories have the laser power to ˜1019 W/cm2 and above. Our simulation shows that laser intensity threshold of CAS is around a0 = 5˜8, in correspondence to laser power around 1019˜1022 W/cm 2 depending on different wave length and waist width. The interaction is also sensitive to various electron beam parameters, such as the optimal initial electron energy falls in the range of 4--15 MeV, electron incident angle and position, and so on. At last the thesis presents out experimental work on this new VLA scheme. The collaboration is between our UCLA group and Brookhaven National Lab - Accelerator Test Facility (BNL-ATF). At BNL-ATF, they have both intense laser beam and high quality electron beam. The characters of

  4. Autonomous intelligent cars: proof that the EPSRC Principles are future-proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cock Buning, Madeleine; de Bruin, Roeland

    2017-07-01

    Principle 2 of the EPSRC's principles of robotics (AISB workshop on Principles of Robotics, 2016) proves to be future proof when applied to the current state of the art of law and technology surrounding autonomous intelligent cars (AICs). Humans, not AICS, are responsible agents. AICs should be designed; operated as far as is practicable to comply with existing laws and fundamental rights and freedoms, including privacy by design. It will show that some legal questions arising from autonomous intelligent driving technology can be answered by the technology itself.

  5. Outline for a Spheromak Proof of Principle Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Macnab, Angus

    2007-11-01

    A possible means for reducing reactor core complexity and size (and hence cost) could lie with research into the Spheromak concept: a plasma ring with no coils linking the plasma. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years, and now tokamak-like confinement is being reported, with work focusing on understanding beta-limits, transport and novel means of generating magnetic fields both in sustained and pulsed scenarios. Spheromak research is maturing, with many experiments integrated into a national program to resolve well defined critical physics issues. This poster summarizes the work from the last 20 years both as a historical overview and an outline of the present status. A natural consequence is to suggest the possibility of a Next-Step Spheromak, or advanced Proof of Principle device that will build on recent success and address many of the remaining critical issues in preparation for a Spheromak BPX.

  6. A restricted proof that the weak equivalence principle implies the Einstein equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Lee, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Schiff has conjectured that the weak equivalence principle (WEP) implies the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). A proof is presented of Schiff's conjecture, restricted to: (1) test bodies made of electromagnetically interacting point particles, that fall from rest in a static, spherically symmetric gravitational field; (2) theories of gravity within a certain broad class - a class that includes almost all complete relativistic theories that have been found in the literature, but with each theory truncated to contain only point particles plus electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The proof shows that every nonmentric theory in the class (every theory that violates EEP) must violate WEP. A formula is derived for the magnitude of the violation. It is shown that WEP is a powerful theoretical and experimental tool for constraining the manner in which gravity couples to electromagnetism in gravitation theories.

  7. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    approvals it was decided to first demonstrate the proof-of-principle of dermal decontamination for this model using swine skin samples ex vivo . When...appropriate individual protection equipment (IPE) and dosimetry . 3. All activities were monitored by the DRDC Ottawa RadSO. 4. The workstation...while working with the radionuclides, as well as the necessary dosimetry . All personnel wore standard Health Canada issued thermo- luminescent

  8. A survey of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system and its applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions.

  9. A Survey of Noninteractive Zero Knowledge Proof System and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huixin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions. PMID:24883407

  10. Proposal and proof-of-principle demonstration of non-destructive detection of photonic qubits using a Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, N.; Heshami, K.; Deshmukh, C.; Oblak, D.; Simon, C.; Tittel, W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of photonic qubits is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. For practical applications, such as quantum repeaters and networks, it is desirable to implement such detection in a way that allows some form of multiplexing as well as easy integration with other components such as solid-state quantum memories. Here, we propose an approach to non-destructive photonic qubit detection that promises to have all the mentioned features. Mediated by an impurity-doped crystal, a signal photon in an arbitrary time-bin qubit state modulates the phase of an intense probe pulse that is stored during the interaction. Using a thulium-doped waveguide in LiNbO3, we perform a proof-of-principle experiment with macroscopic signal pulses, demonstrating the expected cross-phase modulation as well as the ability to preserve the coherence between temporal modes. Our findings open the path to a new key component of quantum photonics based on rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. PMID:27853153

  11. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Christopher; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Multiple major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for research and development of a human RSV vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as HIV and influenza. PMID:24499818

  12. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  13. What is Proof of Concept Research and how does it Generate Epistemic and Ethical Categories for Future Scientific Practice?

    PubMed

    Kendig, Catherine Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    "Proof of concept" is a phrase frequently used in descriptions of research sought in program announcements, in experimental studies, and in the marketing of new technologies. It is often coupled with either a short definition or none at all, its meaning assumed to be fully understood. This is problematic. As a phrase with potential implications for research and technology, its assumed meaning requires some analysis to avoid it becoming a descriptive category that refers to all things scientifically exciting. I provide a short analysis of proof of concept research and offer an example of it within synthetic biology. I suggest that not only are there activities that circumscribe new epistemological categories but there are also associated normative ethical categories or principles linked to the research. I examine these and provide an outline for an alternative ethical account to describe these activities that I refer to as "extended agency ethics". This view is used to explain how the type of research described as proof of concept also provides an attendant proof of principle that is the result of decision-making that extends across practitioners, their tools, techniques, and the problem solving activities of other research groups.

  14. [Understanding mistake-proofing].

    PubMed

    de Saint Maurice, G; Giraud, N; Ausset, S; Auroy, Y; Lenoir, B; Amalberti, R

    2011-01-01

    The mistake-proofing concept often refers to physical devices that prevent actors from making a wrong action. In anaesthesiology, one immediately thinks to specific design of outlets for medical gases. More generally, the principle of mistake-proofing is to avoid an error, by placing knowledge in the world rather than knowledge in the head. As it often happens in risk management, healthcare has received information transfers from the industry. Computer is changing the concept of mistake-proofing, initially based on physical design, such as aerospace and automotive industry. The mistake-proofing concept may be applied to prevention, detection, and mitigation of errors. The forcing functions are a specific part of mistake-proofing: they prevent a wrong action or they force a virtuous one. Grout proposes a little shortcut to identify mistake-proofing devices: "If it is not possible to picture it in action, it is probably not a mistake-proofing device". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Lagrange Multipliers, Adjoint Equations, the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and Heuristic Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Deeper understanding of important mathematical concepts by students may be promoted through the (initial) use of heuristic proofs, especially when the concepts are also related back to previously encountered mathematical ideas or tools. The approach is illustrated by use of the Pontryagin maximum principle which is then illuminated by reference to…

  16. 77 FR 64829 - Notice of Filing of Proposed Settlement Agreement Resolving Bankruptcy Proofs of Claim Relating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Filing of Proposed Settlement Agreement Resolving Bankruptcy Proofs of Claim Relating to the Breslube-Penn Superfund Site On October 17, 2012, a proposed Settlement... in March 2012. The proposed Settlement Agreement resolves these proofs of claims by providing for an...

  17. Proof-of-principle to unfold an angle-energy dependent source from forward and adjoint calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.V. III

    For many years there has existed a discrepancy between the measured and calculated responses from the Little Boy weapon in Hiroshima. A myriad of solutions have been proposed, but to no avail. If one can rationalize to himself that it does not really matter exactly what happened with the weapon when it exploded, and if sufficient information exist about the measurements, one should be able to unfold the source. Moreover, if a source can be unfolded in a controlled environment, then it should be possible to unfold a more complicated source, for example, the Little Boy source. This report recordsmore » the findings of a proof-of-principle test to unfold a source in the controlled environment.« less

  18. Microfluidic 68Ga-labeling: a proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Sarah; Philippe, Cecile; Pichler, Verena; Hacker, Marcus; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) as a tool for molecular imaging of cancer has gained huge interest in the last few years. Gallium-68 is a popular PET nuclide due to its favorable characteristics, like advantageous half-life (68 min) and independency of a cyclotron on-site for its production. Accordingly, several 68Ga-complexes for cancer imaging via PET have been made available during the last few years. In this work, 68Ga-labeled compounds were synthesized applying a commercially available microfluidic device for the first time. Therefore, a proof of principle study using three important radiotracers, [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11, [68Ga]Ga-NODAGA-RGDyk and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC, was designed. For all three radioligands, various synthesis parameters were evaluated and the feasibility of using a continuous flow reactor was assessed. All of the precursors were successfully radiolabeled with a radiochemical yield higher than 80%, proving the principle that a microfluidic set-up is a suitable approach for the production of 68Ga-labeled tracers.

  19. Proofs without Words: A Visual Application of Reasoning and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning and Proof is one of the Process Standards set forth in National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." Thus, it is important to give students opportunities to build their reasoning skills and aid their understanding of the proof process. Teaching students how to do proofs is a…

  20. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  1. Synchrotron radiation external beam rotational radiotherapy of breast cancer: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Di Lillo, Francesca; Mettivier, Giovanni; Castriconi, Roberta; Sarno, Antonio; Stevenson, Andrew W; Hall, Chris J; Häusermann, Daniel; Russo, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    The principle of rotational summation of the absorbed dose for breast cancer treatment with orthovoltage X-ray beams was proposed by J. Boone in 2012. Here, use of X-ray synchrotron radiation for image guided external beam rotational radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer is proposed. Tumor irradiation occurs with the patient in the prone position hosted on a rotating bed, with her breast hanging from a hole in the bed, which rotates around a vertical axis passing through the tumor site. Horizontal collimation of the X-ray beam provides for whole breast or partial breast irradiation, while vertical translation of the bed and successive rotations allow for irradiation of the full tumor volume, with dose rates which permit also hypofractionated treatments. In this work, which follows a previous preliminary report, results are shown of a full series of measurements on polyethylene and acrylic cylindrical phantoms carried out at the Australian Synchrotron, confirmed by Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations, intended to demonstrate the proof of principle of the technique. Dose measurements were carried out with calibrated ion chambers, radiochromic films and thermoluminescence dosimeters. The photon energy investigated was 60 keV. Image guidance may occur with the transmitted beam for contrast-enhanced breast computed tomography. For a horizontal beam collimation of 1.5 cm and rotation around the central axis of a 14 cm-diameter polyethylene phantom, a periphery-to-center dose ratio of 14% was measured. The simulations showed that under the same conditions the dose ratio decreases with increasing photon energy down to 10% at 175 keV. These values are comparable with those achievable with conventional megavoltage radiotherapy of breast cancer with a medical linear accelerator. Dose painting was demonstrated with two off-center `cancer foci' with 1.3 Gy and 0.6 Gy target doses. The use of a radiosensitizing agent for dose enhancement is foreseen.

  2. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2018-04-01

    In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.

  3. Determining paediatric patient thickness from a single digital radiograph-a proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Mark; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Sutton, David G

    2018-04-05

    This work presents a proof of principle for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator from a single radiograph using the image, the exposure factors with which it was acquired and a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the X-ray unit and detector used for the exposure. It is intended this could be developed into a clinical tool to assist with paediatric patient dose audit, for which a measurement of patient size is required. The proof of principle used measured pixel value and effective linear attenuation coefficient to estimate the thickness of a Solid Water attenuator. The kerma at the detector was estimated using a measurement of pixel value on the image and measured detector calibrations. The initial kerma was estimated using a lookup table of measured output values. The effective linear attenuation coefficient was measured for Solid Water at varying kV p . 11 test images of known and varying thicknesses of Solid Water were acquired at 60, 70 and 81 kV p . Estimates of attenuator thickness were made using the model and the results compared to the known thickness. Estimates of attenuator thickness made using the model differed from the known thickness by 3.8 mm (3.2%) on average, with a range of 0.5-10.8 mm (0.5-9%). A proof of principle is presented for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator using a single radiograph of the attenuator. The method has been shown to be accurate using a Solid Water attenuator, with a maximum difference between estimated and known attenuator thickness of 10.8 mm (9%). The method shows promise as a clinical tool for estimating abdominal paediatric patient thickness for paediatric patient dose audit, and is only contingent on the type of data routinely collected by Medical Physics departments. Advances in knowledge: A computational model has been created that is capable of accurately estimating the thickness of a uniform attenuator using only the radiographic image, the exposure factors with which

  4. A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.

    1995-12-01

    A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogatedmore » containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.« less

  5. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Precautionary Principle, generated during the late 1980s as a unifying principle for regulating discharge of hazardous material into the North Sea, has been broadened to include a shifting of the burden of proof to the proponent of a proposed activity, adoption of a more holi...

  6. Writing a Research Proposal to The Research Council of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Writing a research proposal can be a challenging task for young researchers. This article explains how to write a strong research proposal to apply for funding, specifically, a proposal for The Research Council (TRC) of Oman. Three different research proposal application forms are currently used in TRC, including Open Research Grant (ORG), Graduate Research Support Program (GRSP), and Faculty-mentored Undergraduate Research Award Program (FURAP). The application forms are filled and submitted electronically on TRC website. Each of the proposals submitted to TRC is selected through a rigorous reviewing and screening process. Novelty and originality of the research idea is the most crucial element in writing a research proposal. Performing an in-depth review of the literature will assist you to compose a good researchable question and generate a strong hypothesis. The development of a good hypothesis will offer insight into the specific objectives of a study. Research objectives should be focused, measurable, and achievable by a specific time using the most appropriate methodology. Moreover, it is essential to select a proper study design in-line with the purpose of the study and the hypothesis. Furthermore, social/economic impact and reasonable budget of proposed research are important criteria in research proposal evaluation by TRC. Finally, ethical principles should be observed before writing a research proposal involving human or animal subjects. PMID:28584597

  7. Writing a Research Proposal to The Research Council of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    Writing a research proposal can be a challenging task for young researchers. This article explains how to write a strong research proposal to apply for funding, specifically, a proposal for The Research Council (TRC) of Oman. Three different research proposal application forms are currently used in TRC, including Open Research Grant (ORG), Graduate Research Support Program (GRSP), and Faculty-mentored Undergraduate Research Award Program (FURAP). The application forms are filled and submitted electronically on TRC website. Each of the proposals submitted to TRC is selected through a rigorous reviewing and screening process. Novelty and originality of the research idea is the most crucial element in writing a research proposal. Performing an in-depth review of the literature will assist you to compose a good researchable question and generate a strong hypothesis. The development of a good hypothesis will offer insight into the specific objectives of a study. Research objectives should be focused, measurable, and achievable by a specific time using the most appropriate methodology. Moreover, it is essential to select a proper study design in-line with the purpose of the study and the hypothesis. Furthermore, social/economic impact and reasonable budget of proposed research are important criteria in research proposal evaluation by TRC. Finally, ethical principles should be observed before writing a research proposal involving human or animal subjects.

  8. The precautionary principle is incoherent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Martin

    2006-06-01

    This article argues that no version of the precautionary principle can be reasonably applied to decisions that may lead to fatal outcomes. In support of this strong claim, a number of desiderata are proposed, which reasonable rules for rational decision making ought to satisfy. Thereafter, two impossibility theorems are proved, showing that no version of the precautionary principle can satisfy the proposed desiderata. These theorems are directly applicable to recent discussions of the precautionary principle in medicine, biotechnology, environmental management, and related fields. The impossibility theorems do not imply, however, that the precautionary principle is of no relevance at all in policy discussions. Even if it is not a reasonable rule for rational decision making, it is possible to interpret the precautionary principle in other ways, e.g., as an argumentative tool or as an epistemic principle favoring a reversed burden of proof.

  9. Action Research and Narrative Inquiry: Five Principles for Validation Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Huttunen, Rauno; Syrjala, Leena; Pesonen, Jyri

    2012-01-01

    The article continues the discussion of the five quality principles proposed by Heikkinen, Huttunen, and Syrjala, published in 2007 in "Educational Action Research". In the present article, the authors reconsider the five principles: historical continuity; reflexivity; dialectics; workability; and evocativeness. These five principles are…

  10. A proof of principle spheromak experiment: The next step on a recently opened path to economical fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas; Marklin, George; Nelson, Brian; Sutherland, Derek; HIT Team Team

    2013-10-01

    A proof of principle experiment to study closed-flux energy confinement of a spheromak sustained by imposed dynamo current drive is described. A two-fluid validated NIMROD code has simulated closed-flux sustainment on a stable spheromak using imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD), demonstrating that dynamo current drive is compatible with closed flux. (submitted for publication and see adjacent poster.(spsap)) HIT-SI, a = 0.25 m, has achieved 90 kA of toroidal current, current gains of nearly 4, and operation from 5.5 kHz to 68 kHz, demonstrating the robustness of the method.(spsap) Finally, a reactor design study using fusion technology developed for ITER and modern nuclear technology shows a design that is economically superior to coal.(spsap) The spheromak reactor and development path are about a factor of 10 less expensive than that of the tokamak/stellarator. These exciting results justify a proof of principle (PoP) confinement experiment of a spheromak sustained by IDCD. Such an experiment (R = 1.5 m, a = 1 m, Itor = 3 . 2 MA, n = 4e19/m3, T = 3 keV) is described in detail.

  11. Conceptual design and proof-of-principle testing of the real-time multispectral imaging system MANTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Andrebe, Y.; Classen, I. G. J.; Duval, B. P.; Lipschultz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Multispectral Advanced Narrowband Tokamak Imaging System (MANTIS) is proposed to resolve the steep temperature and density gradients in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks in real-time. The initial design is to deliver two-dimensional distributions of key plasma parameters of the TCV tokamak to a real-time control system in order to enable novel control strategies, while providing new insights into power exhaust physics in the full offline analysis. This paper presents the conceptual system design, the mechanical and optical design of a prototype that was built to assess the optical performance, and the results of the first proof-of-principle tests of the prototype. These demonstrate a central resolving power of 50-46 line pairs per millimeter (CTF50) in the first four channels. For the additional channels, the sharpness is a factor two worse for the odd channels (likely affected by sub-optimal alignment), while the even channels continue the trend observed for the first four channels of 3% degradation per channel. This is explained by the self-cancellation of off-axis aberrations, which is an attractive property of the chosen optical design. The results show that at least a 10-channel real-time multispectral imaging system is feasible.

  12. Preparing for Formal Proofs in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Art

    2009-01-01

    One way in which geometry teachers can help students develop their reasoning is by providing proof-readiness experiences. Blum and Kirsch (1991) suggest that "preformal proofs" can help students develop deductive reasoning. Preformal proofs, which follow the basic principles of deductive reasoning, can help prepare students for formal deduction in…

  13. Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550

  14. Identification of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated Chlamydia trachomatis serovars by fluorescence in situ hybridisation--a proof-of-principle analysis.

    PubMed

    Frickmann, Hagen; Essig, Andreas; Poppert, Sven

    2014-04-01

    We describe a proof-of-principle evaluation of a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) procedure to identify Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3, the causative agents of lymphogranuloma venereum, in cell cultures based on newly designed DNA probes. Rapid and easy-to-perform FISH could facilitate the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum without nucleic acid amplification or serotyping, but requires broader evaluation studies, for example, in tropical high-endemicity regions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Querying Proofs (Work in Progress)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and introduce the basis for a query language designed for inspecting electronic representations of proofs. We argue that there is much to learn from large proofs beyond their validity, and that a dedicated query language can provide a principled way of implementing a family of useful operations.

  16. Proof-of-principle contraband detection system for nonintrusive inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredniawski, Joseph J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, John E.; Schmor, P.; Milton, Bill; Stanford, G.; Rogers, Joel; Boyd, J.; Brondo, J.

    1997-02-01

    A proof-of-principle (POP) contraband detection system (CDS), is under construction at Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology and Development Center. We employ gamma resonance absorption to detect nitrogen or chlorine in explosives and certain forms of illegal drugs. Using tomography, 3D images of the total density and selected element density are generated. These characteristics together may be utilized with considerable confidence in determining if contraband is present in baggage or cargo. The CDS employs a high current DC electrostatic accelerator that provides a beam of proton sat either 1.75 or 1.89 MeV. These high energy particles impinge upon a target coated with 13C or 34S. The resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either 14N or 35Cl. Because of the penetrating power of the gamma rays, this approach can be utilized for inspection of fully loaded aircraft containers such as the LD3. With proper design for handling baggage and with certain CDS design features not present in the POP, throughputs approaching 2000 bags/hour are estimated. Furthermore, the technology being developed for the CDS accelerator may have other applications such as for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy or Neutron Radiography. Our current program calls for testing of the POP CDS by late 1996. This paper presents the overall design, and characteristics of the CDS POP and the status of the program.

  17. How predictive are photosensitive epilepsy models as proof of principle trials for epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Yuen, Eunice S M; Sims, John R

    2014-06-01

    Human photosensitive epilepsy models have been used as proof of principle (POP) trials for epilepsy. Photosensitive patients are exposed to intermittent photic stimulation and the reduction in sensitivity to the number of standard visual stimulation frequencies is used as an endpoint. The aim of this research was to quantify the predictive capabilities of photosensitive POP trials, through a survey of current literature. A literature search was undertaken to identify articles describing photosensitive POP trials. Minimally efficacious doses (MEDs) in epilepsy were compared to doses in the POP trials that produced 50-100% response (ED50-100). Ratios of these doses were calculated and summarised statistically. The search identified ten articles describing a total of 17 anti-epileptic drugs. Of these, data for both MED and ED50-100 were available for 13 anti-epileptic drugs. The average ratio of MED to ED50-100 was 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.30). The difference in MED to ED50-100 ratios between partial epilepsy (0.82) was not significantly different from that of generalised epilepsy (1.08) (p=0.51). Photosensitive POP trials are a useful tool to quantitatively predict efficacy in epilepsy, and can be useful as early and informative indicators in anti-epileptic drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal

  19. The balance principle in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Wang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles of balance, randomization, control and repetition, which are closely related, constitute the four principles of scientific research. The balance principle is the kernel of the four principles which runs through the other three. However, in scientific research, the balance principle is always overlooked. If the balance principle is not well performed, the research conclusion is easy to be denied, which may lead to the failure of the whole research. Therefore, it is essential to have a good command of the balance principle in scientific research. This article stresses the definition and function of the balance principle, the strategies and detailed measures to improve balance in scientific research, and the analysis of the common mistakes involving the use of the balance principle in scientific research.

  20. Research-Based Interventions in the Area of Proof: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of "proof" has attracted considerable research attention over the past decades in part due to its indisputable importance to the discipline of mathematics and to students' learning of mathematics. Yet, the teaching and learning of proof is an instructionally arduous territory, with proof being recognized as a hard-to-teach…

  1. Proof of Principle: Immobilisation of Robust CuII3 TbIII -Macrocycles on Small, Suitably Pre-functionalised Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feltham, Humphrey L C; Dumas, Christophe; Mannini, Matteo; Otero, Edwige; Sainctavit, Philippe; Sessoli, Roberta; Meledandri, Carla J; Brooker, Sally

    2017-02-21

    In a proof-of-principle study, a soluble macrocyclic single-molecule magnet (SMM) containing a Cu II 3 Tb III magnetic core was covalently grafted onto small gold nanoparticles pre-functionalised with carboxylate-terminated tethers. A modified microemulsion method allowed production of the small and monodisperse nanoparticles (approximately 3.5 nm in diameter) for the chemisorption of a large amount of intact macrocyclic complexes in the hybrid system. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ergodicity, Maximum Entropy Production, and Steepest Entropy Ascent in the Proofs of Onsager's Reciprocal Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfenati, Francesco; Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2018-04-01

    We show that to prove the Onsager relations using the microscopic time reversibility one necessarily has to make an ergodic hypothesis, or a hypothesis closely linked to that. This is true in all the proofs of the Onsager relations in the literature: from the original proof by Onsager, to more advanced proofs in the context of linear response theory and the theory of Markov processes, to the proof in the context of the kinetic theory of gases. The only three proofs that do not require any kind of ergodic hypothesis are based on additional hypotheses on the macroscopic evolution: Ziegler's maximum entropy production principle (MEPP), the principle of time reversal invariance of the entropy production, or the steepest entropy ascent principle (SEAP).

  3. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase-2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter approximately 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  4. 78 FR 53014 - Proposed Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint Intake Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Proposed Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint Intake Questionnaire) Activity; Withdrawal AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to comment on a proposed information collection titled ``Principles of Excellence Complaint Intake...

  5. Examination of Secondary School Seventh Graders' Proof Skills and Proof Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ceylan; Guler, Gursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine current proof making skills of secondary school seventh graders using proof schemes. Data of the study were collected in two phases. Initially, Proof Schemes Test, which was developed by the researchers, was administrated to 250 seventh grade students from eight secondary schools, which were chosen randomly. The…

  6. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  7. Use of eculizumab in crescentic IgA nephropathy: proof of principle and conundrum?

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Troels; Pedersen, Birgitte Bang; Salkus, Giedrius; Goodship, Timothy H.J.

    2015-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by a variable clinical course and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is substantial evidence to suggest that complement activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, complement inhibition using the humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab could be a rational treatment. We report here a 16-year-old male with the vasculitic form of IgAN who failed to respond to aggressive conventional therapy including high-dose steroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange and who was treated with four weekly doses of 900 mg eculizumab followed by a single dose of 1200 mg. He responded rapidly to this treatment and has had a stable creatinine around 150 µmol/L (1.67 mg/dL) for >6 months. However, proteinuria was unabated on maximal conventional anti-proteinuric treatment, and a repeat renal biopsy 11 months after presentation revealed severe chronic changes. We believe this case provides proof of principle that complement inhibition may be beneficial in IgAN but also that development of chronicity may be independent of complement. PMID:26413271

  8. Student Teachers’ Proof Schemes on Proof Tasks Involving Inequality: Deductive or Inductive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidi, A. H.; Kohar, A. W.

    2018-01-01

    Exploring student teachers’ proof ability is crucial as it is important for improving the quality of their learning process and help their future students learn how to construct a proof. Hence, this study aims at exploring at the proof schemes of student teachers in the beginning of their studies. Data were collected from 130 proofs resulted by 65 Indonesian student teachers on two proof tasks involving algebraic inequality. To analyse, the proofs were classified into the refined proof schemes level proposed by Lee (2016) ranging from inductive, which only provides irrelevant inferences, to deductive proofs, which consider addressing formal representation. Findings present several examples of each of Lee’s level on the student teachers’ proofs spanning from irrelevant inferences, novice use of examples or logical reasoning, strategic use examples for reasoning, deductive inferences with major and minor logical coherence, and deductive proof with informal and formal representation. Besides, it was also found that more than half of the students’ proofs coded as inductive schemes, which does not meet the requirement for doing the proof for the proof tasks examined in this study. This study suggests teacher educators in teacher colleges to reform the curriculum regarding proof learning which can accommodate the improvement of student teachers’ proving ability from inductive to deductive proof as well from informal to formal proof.

  9. Balancing access to participation in research and protection from risks: applying the principle of justice.

    PubMed

    Kiskaddon, Sarah H

    2005-04-01

    The problem for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of balancing access to participation in research with protection of research subjects has always been a difficult one. IRBs, charged with applying the "Common Rule," as well as the Belmont Principles, in their review of clinical research, are given little guidance on approaching this problem. This article argues that the third Belmont Principle, the Justice Principle, may provide a useful framework for considering this balance. The changing research environment is discussed in an historical context, and the Justice Principle is considered both in the context of individual rights, as well as the potential benefit to classes of people. The author further suggests that application of the Justice Principle be driven by findings derived from an analysis of the first 2 principles. This feedback model will enable a more formal application of the Justice Principle and less ambiguous, more transparent, decisions regarding the equitable selection of subjects. The author calls for more systematic attention to the Justice Principle by IRBs, and proposes a model that includes incorporating the deliberation of the other Belmont Principles into the Justice Principle.

  10. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J; Kent, M

    ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement, providing proof-of-principle for single-energy CT pulmonary perfusion imaging. This ongoing study will enroll more dogs and investigate the physiological significance. This study was supported by a Philips Healthcare/Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Research Seed Grant (RSD1458)« less

  11. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography.

    PubMed

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the CMOS detector for protons. The

  12. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Methods: A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissuemore » contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Results: Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Conclusion: Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution

  13. Von Neumann's impossibility proof: Mathematics in the service of rhetorics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieks, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    According to what has become a standard history of quantum mechanics, in 1932 von Neumann persuaded the physics community that hidden variables are impossible as a matter of principle, after which leading proponents of the Copenhagen interpretation put the situation to good use by arguing that the completeness of quantum mechanics was undeniable. This state of affairs lasted, so the story continues, until Bell in 1966 exposed von Neumann's proof as obviously wrong. The realization that von Neumann's proof was fallacious then rehabilitated hidden variables and made serious foundational research possible again. It is often added in recent accounts that von Neumann's error had been spotted almost immediately by Grete Hermann, but that her discovery was of no effect due to the dominant Copenhagen Zeitgeist. We shall attempt to tell a story that is more historically accurate and less ideologically charged. Most importantly, von Neumann never claimed to have shown the impossibility of hidden variables tout court, but argued that hidden-variable theories must possess a structure that deviates fundamentally from that of quantum mechanics. Both Hermann and Bell appear to have missed this point; moreover, both raised unjustified technical objections to the proof. Von Neumann's argument was basically that hidden-variables schemes must violate the ;quantum principle; that physical quantities are to be represented by operators in a Hilbert space. As a consequence, hidden-variables schemes, though possible in principle, necessarily exhibit a certain kind of contextuality. As we shall illustrate, early reactions to Bohm's theory are in agreement with this account. Leading physicists pointed out that Bohm's theory has the strange feature that pre-existing particle properties do not generally reveal themselves in measurements, in accordance with von Neumann's result. They did not conclude that the ;impossible was done; and that von Neumann had been shown wrong.

  14. Classifying breast cancer surgery: a novel, complexity-based system for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive procedures, and proof of principle by analysis of 1225 operations in 1166 patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2009-04-08

    One of the basic prerequisites for generating evidence-based data is the availability of classification systems. Attempts to date to classify breast cancer operations have focussed on specific problems, e.g. the avoidance of secondary corrective surgery for surgical defects, rather than taking a generic approach. Starting from an existing, simpler empirical scheme based on the complexity of breast surgical procedures, which was used in-house primarily in operative report-writing, a novel classification of ablative and breast-conserving procedures initially needed to be developed and elaborated systematically. To obtain proof of principle, a prospectively planned analysis of patient records for all major breast cancer-related operations performed at our breast centre in 2005 and 2006 was conducted using the new classification. Data were analysed using basic descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. A novel two-type, six-tier classification system comprising 12 main categories, 13 subcategories and 39 sub-subcategories of oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast cancer-related surgery was successfully developed. Our system permitted unequivocal classification, without exception, of all 1225 procedures performed in 1166 breast cancer patients in 2005 and 2006. Breast cancer-related surgical procedures can be generically classified according to their surgical complexity. Analysis of all major procedures performed at our breast centre during the study period provides proof of principle for this novel classification system. We envisage various applications for this classification, including uses in randomised clinical trials, guideline development, specialist surgical training, continuing professional development as well as quality of care and public health research.

  15. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraldeschi, Michela; Salvetti, Marco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients. PMID:29904574

  16. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Tacchella, Andrea; Romano, Silvia; Ferraldeschi, Michela; Salvetti, Marco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  17. Quantification of Hand Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Proof-of-Principle Study Using Inertial and Force Sensors.

    PubMed

    van den Noort, Josien C; Verhagen, Rens; van Dijk, Kees J; Veltink, Peter H; Vos, Michelle C P M; de Bie, Rob M A; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska T

    2017-10-01

    This proof-of-principle study describes the methodology and explores and demonstrates the applicability of a system, existing of miniature inertial sensors on the hand and a separate force sensor, to objectively quantify hand motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a clinical setting (off- and on-medication condition). Four PD patients were measured in off- and on- dopaminergic medication condition. Finger tapping, rapid hand opening/closing, hand pro/supination, tremor during rest, mental task and kinetic task, and wrist rigidity movements were measured with the system (called the PowerGlove). To demonstrate applicability, various outcome parameters of measured hand motor symptoms of the patients in off- vs. on-medication condition are presented. The methodology described and results presented show applicability of the PowerGlove in a clinical research setting, to objectively quantify hand bradykinesia, tremor and rigidity in PD patients, using a single system. The PowerGlove measured a difference in off- vs. on-medication condition in all tasks in the presented patients with most of its outcome parameters. Further study into the validity and reliability of the outcome parameters is required in a larger cohort of patients, to arrive at an optimal set of parameters that can assist in clinical evaluation and decision-making.

  18. Foundational principles of classical Ayurveda research

    PubMed Central

    Raha, Somik

    2013-01-01

    Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are viewed as the golden standard of drug research in Western medicine. However, RCTs are far from “golden” in many respects. They are impractical for many therapies, such as for surgeries and complex lifestyle changes. They encourage a one-size-fits-all approach to medical treatment that fails to address the huge diversity among individual patients in terms of their physical and emotional symptoms, social and cultural upbringing, and other factors. Perhaps, more importantly, they do not help doctors make the best medical decisions required to produce optimal patient outcomes. To guide a search for an alternate model of medical research, three principles based on Ayurveda, an ancient and powerful system of health care that has stood the test of time, are presented. These principles, arrived at after mining Ayurvedic epistemology, are: Inductive learning, whole systems thinking, and individually optimized therapy. In honor of the ancient sages or “Rishis,” whose voice is used to deliver Ayurvedic knowledge in the ancient texts of Ayurveda, these are referred to as the “Rishi principles.” Common research methodologies are examined for embodiment of these principles. PMID:24459385

  19. [Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salgado, Carolina

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  20. Contrast Gradient-Based Blood Velocimetry With Computed Tomography: Theory, Simulations, and Proof of Principle in a Dynamic Flow Phantom.

    PubMed

    Korporaal, Johannes G; Benz, Matthias R; Schindera, Sebastian T; Flohr, Thomas G; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a new theoretical framework describing the relationship between the blood velocity, computed tomography (CT) acquisition velocity, and iodine contrast enhancement in CT images, and give a proof of principle of contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry with CT. The time-averaged blood velocity (v(blood)) inside an artery along the axis of rotation (z axis) is described as the mathematical division of a temporal (Hounsfield unit/second) and spatial (Hounsfield unit/centimeter) iodine contrast gradient. From this new theoretical framework, multiple strategies for calculating the time-averaged blood velocity from existing clinical CT scan protocols are derived, and contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry was introduced as a new method that can calculate v(blood) directly from contrast agent gradients and the changes therein. Exemplarily, the behavior of this new method was simulated for image acquisition with an adaptive 4-dimensional spiral mode consisting of repeated spiral acquisitions with alternating scan direction. In a dynamic flow phantom with flow velocities between 5.1 and 21.2 cm/s, the same acquisition mode was used to validate the simulations and give a proof of principle of contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry in a straight cylinder of 2.5 cm diameter, representing the aorta. In general, scanning with the direction of blood flow results in decreased and scanning against the flow in increased temporal contrast agent gradients. Velocity quantification becomes better for low blood and high acquisition speeds because the deviation of the measured contrast agent gradient from the temporal gradient will increase. In the dynamic flow phantom, a modulation of the enhancement curve, and thus alternation of the contrast agent gradients, can be observed for the adaptive 4-dimensional spiral mode and is in agreement with the simulations. The measured flow velocities in the downslopes of the enhancement curves were in good

  1. Principles of Social Justice in Educational Research: The Case of Contract Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    1998-01-01

    Delineates small-scale contract-research principles predicated on an understanding of social justice and of research purposes, epistemological issues, and possibilities for ethical and political action. Principles embrace improvement, knowledge and learning, changed belief systems, collaboration and consultation, openness to other communities,…

  2. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. ECC-based grouping-proof RFID for inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiping; Zhang, Fangguo

    2012-12-01

    Several papers were proposed in which symmetric cryptography was used to design RFID grouping-proof for medication safety in the Journal of Medical Systems. However, if we want to ensure privacy, authentication and protection against the tracking of RFID-tags without losing system scalability, we must design an asymmetric cryptography-based RFID. This paper will propose a new ECC-based grouping-proof for RFID. Our ECC-based grouping-proof reduces the computation of tags and prevents timeout problems from occurring in n-party grouping-proof protocol. Based on asymmetric cryptography, the proposed scheme is practical, secure and efficient for medication applications.

  4. Design and implementation of an array of micro-electrochemical detectors for two-dimensional liquid chromatography--proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Abia, Jude A; Putnam, Joel; Mriziq, Khaled; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-03-05

    Simultaneous two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is an implementation of two-dimensional liquid chromatography which has the potential to provide very fast, yet highly efficient separations. It is based on the use of time x space and space x space separation systems. The basic principle of this instrument has been validated long ago by the success of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The construction of a pressurized wide and flat column (100 mm x 100 mm x 1 mm) operated under an inlet pressure of up to 50 bar was described previously. However, to become a modern analytical method, simultaneous 2D-LC requires the development of detectors suitable for the monitoring of the composition of the eluent of this pressurized planar, wide column. An array of five equidistant micro-electrochemical sensors was built for this purpose and tested. Each sensor is a three-electrode system, with the working electrode being a 25 microm polished platinum micro-electrode. The auxiliary electrode is a thin platinum wire and the reference electrode an Ag/AgCl (3M sat. KCl) electrode. In this first implementation, proof of principle is demonstrated, but the final instrument will require a much larger array. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  6. Proof-of-principle Experiment of a Ferroelectric Tuner for the 1.3 GHz Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Choi,E.M.; Hahn, H.; Shchelkunov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    A novel tuner has been developed by the Omega-P company to achieve fast control of the accelerator RF cavity frequency. The tuner is based on the ferroelectric property which has a variable dielectric constant as function of applied voltage. Tests using a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) 1.3 GHz electron gun cavity have been carried out for a proof-of-principle experiment of the ferroelectric tuner. Two different methods were used to determine the frequency change achieved with the ferroelectric tuner (FT). The first method is based on a S11 measurement at the tuner port to find the reactive impedance change when themore » voltage is applied. The reactive impedance change then is used to estimate the cavity frequency shift. The second method is a direct S21 measurement of the frequency shift in the cavity with the tuner connected. The estimated frequency change from the reactive impedance measurement due to 5 kV is in the range between 3.2 kHz and 14 kHz, while 9 kHz is the result from the direct measurement. The two methods are in reasonable agreement. The detail description of the experiment and the analysis are discussed in the paper.« less

  7. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... development and bid and proposal costs. 970.3102-05-18 Section 970.3102-05-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Cost Principles and Procedures 970.3102-05-18 Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. (c) Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal costs are unallowable...

  8. Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Marvin R G

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Proof of principle in vitro study of a prototype ultrasound technology to size stone fragments during ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Teichman, Joel M H; Bailey, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments evaluated a prototype ultrasound technology to size kidney stone fragments. Nineteen human stones were measured using manual calipers. A 10-MHz, 1/8'' (10F) ultrasound transducer probe pinged each stone on a kidney tissue phantom submerged in water using two methods. In Method 1, the instrument was aligned such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. In Method 2, the instrument was aligned partially over the stone such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through water. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper- and ultrasound-determined stone size was r(2) = 0.71 (P < 0.0001). All but two stone measurements were accurate and precise to within 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r(2) = 0.99 (P < 0.0001), and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. The prototype technology and either method measured stone size with good accuracy and precision. This technology may be possible to incorporate into ureteroscopy.

  10. Translating community-based participatory research principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jessica G; Hess, Sally; Hoffmann, Kamden; Guizzetti, Lisa; Loy, Ellyn; Gielen, Andrea; Bailey, Maryanne; Walnoha, Adrienne; Barbee, Genevieve; Yonas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although academics are trained in research methods, few receive formal training in strategies for implementing equitable community engaged research. Academics and their community partners can benefit from such direction and assistance as they establish and maintain community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Research partners from the University of Pittsburgh, the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, and the House of Ruth Maryland, one of the nation's leading domestic violence centers serving Baltimore and the surrounding areas, joined together to design, implement, and evaluate a series of activities to increase local CPBR capacity. This article provides an overview of process and findings from two CBPR workshops jointly held for academic and community members and explores specific suggestions from the workshop participants about how to put the CBPR principles into practice to promote community engaged research to address intimate partner violence (IPV). Twenty-four academic and community partners with experience addressing IPV participated in the two workshops. Facilitators led discussions based on the core CPBR principles. Participants were asked to interpret those principles, identify actions that could help to put the principles into practice, and discuss challenges related to CBPR approaches for IPV research. Observational notes and transcripts of the discussions and workshop evaluations are summarized. The CBPR principles were interpreted and revised through consensus into common language that reflected the group discussion of the core CBPR principles. Workshop participants provided a range of actions for putting the principles into practice and identified the need for sensitivity in relation to IPV research. A majority of participants felt that the workshop generated novel ideas about how they could use CPBR in their own work. Translating CBPR principles into common, action-oriented language is a useful first step when

  11. A review of fundamental principles for animal models of DOHaD research: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H; Moss, T J; Gatford, K L; Moritz, K M; Akison, L; Fullston, T; Hryciw, D H; Maloney, C A; Morris, M J; Wooldridge, A L; Schjenken, J E; Robertson, S A; Waddell, B J; Mark, P J; Wyrwoll, C S; Ellery, S J; Thornburg, K L; Muhlhausler, B S; Morrison, J L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiology formed the basis of 'the Barker hypothesis', the concept of 'developmental programming' and today's discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.

  12. Development of a Single-Pass Amplifier for an Optical Stochastic Cooling Proof-of-Principle Experiment at Fermilab's IOTA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Andorf, M. B.; Lebedev, V. A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling which is expected to provide cooling rates orders of magnitude larger than ordinary stochastic cooling. Light from an undulator (the pickup) is amplified and fed back onto the particle beam via another undulator (the kicker). Fermilab is currently exploring a possible proof-of-principle experiment of the OSC at the integrable-optics test accelerator (IOTA) ring. To implement effective OSC a good correction of phase distortions in the entire band of the optical amplifier is required. In this contribution we present progress in experimental characterization of phase distortions associated to a Titanium Sapphiremore » crystal laser-gain medium (a possible candidate gain medium for the OSC experiment to be performed at IOTA). We also discuss a possible option for a mid-IR amplifier« less

  13. Principles for building public-private partnerships to benefit food safety, nutrition, and health research

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Kretser, Alison; Steele, Robert; Kretsch, Molly; Applebaum, Rhona; Clydesdale, Fergus; Cummins, Deborah; Hentges, Eric; Navia, Juan; Jarvis, Ashley; Falci, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs. PMID:24117791

  14. Quantification of the Robusta fraction in a coffee blend via Raman spectroscopy: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Wermelinger, Thomas; D'Ambrosio, Lucio; Klopprogge, Babette; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2011-09-14

    Among the 100 different known Coffea species, Coffea arabica L. (Arabica) and Coffea canephora Pierre (Robusta) are the only two of commercial interest. They differ in a range of agronomic, genetic, and chemical properties. Due to the significant price difference between Arabica and Robusta, there is an economic incentive to illicitly replace Arabica with Robusta. Therefore, it is crucial to have accurate methods to determine the Robusta-to-Arabica-ratio in blends. This paper presents the proof of principle of a new and fast approach to determine the Robusta fraction in a blend based on Raman spectroscopy. The oils of two references (a pure Robusta and pure Arabica coffee) and six blends thereof consisting of different Robusta and Arabica fractions were extracted using a Soxhlet system. The solutes were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy without further workup. Using the intensity ratio between two Raman peaks, one characteristic for kahweol and one characteristic for fatty acids, allowed determinination of the Robusta content in a given mixture. The intensity ratio is linearly dependent on the Robusta content of the compound. Above a Robusta content of 75 wt %, kahweol was not detectable. The Raman data are in agreement with results obtained from the very time-consuming multistep DIN 10777 procedures based on HPLC.

  15. Principles of pharmacological research of nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc PMID:28500635

  16. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

  17. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  18. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance . It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  19. Yesterday's Extraordinary Research Yields Today's Ordinary Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mary Norris

    2005-01-01

    Ordinary performance improvement tips, techniques, and principles that are taken for granted today have their roots in extraordinary research. Today, the learning principle that states that things that occur together tend to be recalled together is widely accepted, and this principle of association as an instructional technique is often used. How…

  20. Scientific basis for the Precautionary Principle.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo

    2005-09-01

    The Precautionary Principle is based on two general criteria: (a) appropriate public action should be taken in response to limited, but plausible and credible, evidence of likely and substantial harm; (b) the burden of proof is shifted from demonstrating the presence of risk to demonstrating the absence of risk. Not much has been written about the scientific basis of the precautionary principle, apart from the uncertainty that characterizes epidemiologic research on chronic disease, and the use of surrogate evidence when human evidence cannot be provided. It is proposed in this paper that a new scientific paradigm, based on the theory of evolution, is emerging; this might offer stronger support to the need for precaution in the regulation of environmental risks. Environmental hazards do not consist only in direct attacks to the integrity of DNA or other macromolecules. They can consist in changes that take place already in utero, and that condition disease risks many years later. Also, environmental exposures can act as "stressors", inducing hypermutability (the mutator phenotype) as an adaptive response. Finally, environmental changes should be evaluated against a background of a not-so-easily modifiable genetic make-up, inherited from a period in which humans were mainly hunters-gatherers and had dietary habits very different from the current ones.

  1. Integrating Algebra and Proof in High School: Students' Work with Multiple Variables and a Single Parameter in a Proof Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Mara V.; Castro Superfine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, researchers argue that proof is largely concentrated in the domain of high school geometry, thus providing students a distorted image of what proof entails, which is at odds with the central role that proof plays in mathematics. Despite the centrality of proof, there is a lack of studies addressing how to integrate proof into…

  2. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that are relevant to a decision to impose HHS administrative actions following a research misconduct... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.516 Standard and burden of proof. (a) Standard of proof. The standard of...

  3. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that are relevant to a decision to impose HHS administrative actions following a research misconduct... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.516 Standard and burden of proof. (a) Standard of proof. The standard of...

  4. The qualitative research proposal.

    PubMed

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  5. Sex-gender differences in drug abuse: a shift in the burden of proof?

    PubMed

    Wetherington, Cora Lee

    2007-10-01

    In the early years of NIDA-supported drug abuse research, much of the research on women was treatment related and conducted out of concern for their pregnancy status. Since then, drug abuse research on women has expanded to include females of all ages, including infants, children, and adolescents, both human and animal. This expansion has also extended to the study of male-female differences. In the early years of the expansion, National Institutes of Health study sections demanded a heavy burden of proof from drug abuse researchers who proposed to study male-female differences. The need for such research appeared not to have face validity. The tide has now changed with the growing body of literature attesting to its scientific and clinical validity. This change is often reflected in concerns expressed in study sections reviewing drug abuse grant applications that an applicant does not propose to analyze the data for sex-gender differences when in fact the literature suggests that such differences would be observed. Although the change has been slow, it suggests that the burden of proof is shifting from having to defend why sex-gender differences should be studied to having to defend why they should not. (c) 2007 APA

  6. NMR-Based Serum Metabolomics Discriminates Takayasu Arteritis from Healthy Individuals: A Proof-of-Principle Study.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Anupam; Misra, Durga Prasanna; Rawat, Atul; Dubey, Durgesh; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal; Bacon, Paul; Misra, Ramnath; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-08-07

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a debilitating, systemic disease that involves the aorta and large arteries in a chronic inflammatory process that leads to vessel stenosis. Initially, the disease remains clinically silent (or remains undetected) until the patients present with vascular occlusion. Therefore, new methods for appropriate and timely diagnosis of TA cases are needed to start proper therapy on time and also to monitor the patient's response to the given treatment. In this context, NMR-based serum metabolomic profiling has been explored in this proof-of-principle study for the first time to determine characteristic metabolites that could be potentially helpful for diagnosis and prognosis of TA. Serum metabolic profiling of TA patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 30) was performed using 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and possible biomarker metabolites were identified. Using projection to least-squares discriminant analysis, we could distinguish TA patients from healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, TA patients had (a) increased serum levels of choline metabolites, LDL cholesterol, N-acetyl glycoproteins (NAGs), and glucose and (b) decreased serum levels of lactate, lipids, HDL cholesterol, and glucogenic amino acids. The results of this study are preliminary and need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  7. Color aspects of variable data proofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.

    2005-01-01

    The Internet in combination with digital presses has allowed the geographical distribution of manufacturing printed materials. An increasing number of printed pieces is customized for the recipient; when each printed piece is different, conventional proofing fails, because it is impossible to proof the entire print job. One frequent problem in automatically generated pieces is the readability of one page element on top of another element; the color combination can be unreadable or clash. I propose simple algorithms to automatically detect and correct color discriminability problems in variable data printing.

  8. Color aspects of variable data proofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.

    2004-12-01

    The Internet in combination with digital presses has allowed the geographical distribution of manufacturing printed materials. An increasing number of printed pieces is customized for the recipient; when each printed piece is different, conventional proofing fails, because it is impossible to proof the entire print job. One frequent problem in automatically generated pieces is the readability of one page element on top of another element; the color combination can be unreadable or clash. I propose simple algorithms to automatically detect and correct color discriminability problems in variable data printing.

  9. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the Teaching and Learning of Proof: First Year Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; McCrone, Sharon Soucy

    Although proof and reasoning are seen as fundamental components of learning mathematics, research shows that many students continue to struggle with geometric proofs. In order to relate pedagogical methods to students' understanding of geometric proof, this 3-year project focuses on 2 components of student understanding of proof, namely, students'…

  11. Construction of state-independent proofs for quantum contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia

    2017-12-01

    Since the enlightening proofs of quantum contextuality first established by Kochen and Specker, and also by Bell, various simplified proofs have been constructed to exclude the noncontextual hidden variable theory of our nature at the microscopic scale. The conflict between the noncontextual hidden variable theory and quantum mechanics is commonly revealed by Kochen-Specker sets of yes-no tests, represented by projectors (or rays), via either logical contradictions or noncontextuality inequalities in a state-(in)dependent manner. Here we propose a systematic and programmable construction of a state-independent proof from a given set of nonspecific rays in C3 according to their Gram matrix. This approach brings us a greater convenience in the experimental arrangements. Besides, our proofs in C3 can also be generalized to any higher-dimensional systems by a recursive method.

  12. Impact of Proof Validation on Proof Writing in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert A.; Craviotto, Cathleen; Grassl, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduate students have difficulty writing mathematical proofs even though this skill is important for the development of future teachers and those who may be involved in instruction or training as a graduate student or supervisor. In addition, research indicates that mathematics majors and secondary education mathematics majors possess…

  13. Clinical Research Environment in India: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Sharma, Pooja; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical trial sector grew by (+) 20.3% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) between 2005 and 2010 and contracted by (-) 14.6% CAGR between 2010 and 2013. Phase-1 trials grew by (+) 43.5% CAGR from 2005–2013, phase-2 trials grew by (+) 19.8% CAGR from 2005–2009 and contracted by (-) 12.6% CAGR from 2009–2013, and phase-3 trials grew by (+) 13.0% CAGR from 2005–2010 and contracted by (-) 28.8% CAGR from 2010–2013. This was associated with a slowing of the regulatory approval process, increased media coverage and activist engagement, and accelerated development of regulatory guidelines and recuperative initiatives. We propose the following as potential targets for restorative interventions: Regulatory overhaul (leadership and enforcement of regulations, resolution of ambiguity in regulations, staffing, training, guidelines, and ethical principles [e.g., compensation]).Education and training of research professionals, clinicians, and regulators.Public awareness and empowerment. After a peak in 2009-2010, the clinical research sector in India appears to be experiencing a contraction. There are indications of challenges in regulatory enforcement of guidelines; training of clinical research professionals; and awareness, participation, partnership, and the general image amongst the non-professional media and public. Preventative and corrective principles and interventions are outlined with the goal of realizing the clinical research potential in India. PMID:25590017

  14. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  15. Guiding principles of value creation through collaborative innovation in pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Liang; He, Jeff

    2018-02-01

    Open innovation has become the main trend in pharmaceutical research. Potential obstacles and pitfalls of collaborations often lead to missed opportunities and/or poorly executed partnerships. This paper aims to provide a framework that facilitates the execution of successful collaborations. We start by mapping out three checkpoints onto early-stage collaborative partnerships: inception, ignition and implementation. Different value types and value drivers are then laid out for each phase of the partnership. We proceed to propose a ratio-driven approach and a value-adjustment mechanism, enhancing the probability of successes in pharmaceutical research collaborations. These guiding principles combined should help the partners either reach agreement more quickly or move on to the next potential project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The research of statistical properties of colorimetric features of screens with a three-component color formation principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharinov, I. O.; Zharinov, O. O.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of the research is concerned with quantitative analysis of influence of technological variation of the screen color profile parameters on chromaticity coordinates of the displayed image. Some mathematical expressions which approximate the two-dimensional distribution of chromaticity coordinates of an image, which is displayed on the screen with a three-component color formation principle were proposed. Proposed mathematical expressions show the way to development of correction techniques to improve reproducibility of the colorimetric features of displays.

  17. Principles of Instruction: Research-Based Strategies That All Teachers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 10 research-based principles of instruction, along with suggestions for classroom practice. These principles come from three sources: (a) research in cognitive science, (b) research on master teachers, and (c) research on cognitive supports. Each is briefly explained in this article. Even though these are three very different…

  18. Diagnosing a Failed Proof in Fault-Tolerance: A Disproving Challenge Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a challenge problem in disproving. We describe a fault-tolerant distributed protocol designed at NASA for use in a fly-by-wire system for next-generation commercial aircraft. An early design of the protocol contains a subtle bug that is highly unlikely to be caught in fault injection testing. We describe a failed proof of the protocol's correctness in a mechanical theorem prover (PVS) with a complex unfinished proof conjecture. We use a model checking suite (SAL) to generate a concrete counterexample to the unproven conjecture to demonstrate the existence of a bug. However, we argue that the effort required in our approach is too high and propose what conditions a better solution would satisfy. We carefully describe the protocol and bug to provide a challenging but feasible case study for disproving research.

  19. The precautionary principle in environmental science.

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

  20. An Extended Proof-Carrying Code Framework for Security Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzadeh, Heidar; Dubé, Danny; Hamou-Lhadj, Abdelwahab

    The rapid growth of the Internet has resulted in increased attention to security to protect users from being victims of security threats. In this paper, we focus on security mechanisms that are based on Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) techniques. In a PCC system, a code producer sends a code along with its safety proof to the consumer. The consumer executes the code only if the proof is valid. Although PCC has been shown to be a useful security framework, it suffers from the sheer size of typical proofs -proofs of even small programs can be considerably large. In this paper, we propose an extended PCC framework (EPCC) in which, instead of the proof, a proof generator for the program in question is transmitted. This framework enables the execution of the proof generator and the recovery of the proof on the consumer's side in a secure manner using a newly created virtual machine called the VEP (Virtual Machine for Extended PCC).

  1. Milk sweetened with xylitol: a proof-of-principle caries prevention randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C.; Castillo, Jorge L.; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Cabrera Matta, Ailin R.; Mancl, Lloyd; Merino, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries preventive strategy. Methods In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, 153 Peruvian school children Peru were randomized to a milk group: 8g xylitol/200mL milk once/day, 4g xylitol/100mL milk twice/day, 8g sorbitol/200mL milk once/day, 4g sorbitol/100mL milk twice/day, or 8g sucrose/200mL milk once/day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine-months. A secondary outcome was tooth decay incidence. We hypothesized children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower tooth decay incidence. Results One-hundred-thirty-five children were included in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater reduction in MS than sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from sorbitol (P=0.07). Tooth decay incidence for xylitol once/day or twice/day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once/day, sorbitol twice/day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8,3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in tooth decay incidence between xylitol and sucrose (Rate Ratio [RR]=1.51;95% confidence interval [CI]=0.88,2.59;P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR=1.28;95% CI=0.90,1.83;P=0.16). Conclusion Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced MS levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but we were unable to detect differences in caries incidence. ISRCTN34705772. PMID:28327266

  2. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 2: Principles.

    PubMed

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    This is the third article covering core knowledge in scholarly activities for neonatal physicians. In this article, we discuss various principles of epidemiology and clinical research design. A basic knowledge of these principles is necessary for conducting clinical research and for proper interpretation of studies. This article reviews bias and confounding, causation, incidence and prevalence, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity analysis, and measurement.

  3. Protecting Privacy and Securing the Gathering of Location Proofs - The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michelle; Gray, David

    As wireless networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the demand for a method of locating a device has increased dramatically. Location Based Services are now commonplace but there are few methods of verifying or guaranteeing a location provided by a user without some specialised hardware, especially in larger scale networks. We propose a system for the verification of location claims, using proof gathered from neighbouring devices. In this paper we introduce a protocol to protect this proof gathering process, protecting the privacy of all involved parties and securing it from intruders and malicious claiming devices. We present the protocol in stages, extending the security of this protocol to allow for flexibility within its application. The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol (SLVPGP) has been designed to function within the area of Vehicular Networks, although its application could be extended to any device with wireless & cryptographic capabilities.

  4. Proof-of-principle for SERS imaging of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Martin A; Farazkhorasani, Fatemeh; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Gough, Kathleen M; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-11-07

    High spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. Whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact with appropriate metal substrates, such as nanopatterned gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Since nanoparticles can be generated by living cells, we have created conditions for AuNP formation within and on the surface of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae in order to explore their potential for SERS analysis. AuNP distribution and composition have been assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. AuNPs were often associated with hyphal walls, both in the peripheral cytoplasm and on the outer wall surface. Interpretation of SERS spectra is challenging, and will require validation for the diversity of organic molecules present. Here, we show proof-of-principle that it is possible to generate SERS spectra from nanoparticles grown in situ by living hyphae.

  5. Does brain creatine content rely on exogenous creatine in healthy youth? A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Merege-Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; de Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; de Souza Gonçalves, Lívia; Hayashi, Ana Paula Tanaka; Roschel, Hamilton; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; da Costa Leite, Claudia; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests. In a random subsample of participants, brain creatine content was also assessed in the regions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique. The scores obtained from verbal learning and executive functions tests did not significantly differ between groups at baseline or after the intervention (all p > 0.05). Creatine content was not significantly different between groups in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, a 7-day creatine supplementation protocol did not elicit improvements in brain creatine content or cognitive performance in healthy youth, suggesting that this population mainly relies on brain creatine synthesis rather than exogenous creatine intake to maintain brain creatine homeostasis.

  6. Polarized fusion, its implications, and plans for a proof-of-principle experiment at the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandorfi, A. M.; Deur, A.; Lowry, M. M.; Wei, X.; Pace, D.; Eidietis, N.; Hyatt, A.; Jackson, G. L.; Lanctot, M.; Smith, S.; St-John, H.; Miller, G. W.; Zheng, X.; Baylor, L. R.

    2015-10-01

    The cross section for the primary fusion reaction in a tokamak, D+t --> α +n, would increase by a factor of 1.5 if the fuels were spin polarized parallel to the local field, rather than randomly oriented. Simulations show further gains in reaction rate would accompany this increase in large-scale machines such as ITER, due to increased alpha heating. The potential realization of such benefits rests on the crucial question of the survival of spin polarization for periods comparable to the energy containment time. Despite encouraging calculations, technical challenges in preparing and handling polarized materials have prevented any direct tests. Advances in three areas - polarized material technologies developed for nuclear and particle physics as well as medical imaging, polymer pellets developed for Inertial Confinement, and cryogenic injection guns developed for fueling tokamaks - have matured to the point where a direct in situ measurement is possible using the mirror reaction, D+3He --> α +p. Designs and simulations of a proof-of-principle experiment at the DIII-D tokamak in San Diego will be discussed. Work carried out under US DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 supporting Jefferson Lab and General Atomics Internal R&D funding.

  7. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro, E-mail: toyamamoto@ucdavis.edu

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those twomore » CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two

  8. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 2: Principles

    PubMed Central

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    This is the third article covering core knowledge in scholarly activities for neonatal physicians. In this article, we discuss various principles of epidemiology and clinical research design. A basic knowledge of these principles is necessary for conducting clinical research and for proper interpretation of studies. This article reviews bias and confounding, causation, incidence and prevalence, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity analysis, and measurement. PMID:26236171

  9. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q0 applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 × 109. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.

  10. Social Role Valorization: A Proposed New Term for the Principle of Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    The highest goal of the principle of normalization has recently been clarified to be the establishment, enhancement, or defense of the social role(s) of a person or group, via the enhancement of people's social images and personal competencies. In consequence, it is proposed that normalization be henceforth called "social role valorization."

  11. Development of a pseudo/anonymised primary care research database: Proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    MacRury, Sandra; Finlayson, Jim; Hussey-Wilson, Susan; Holden, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    General practice records present a comprehensive source of data that could form a variety of anonymised or pseudonymised research databases to aid identification of potential research participants regardless of location. A proof-of-concept study was undertaken to extract data from general practice systems in 15 practices across the region to form pseudo and anonymised research data sets. Two feasibility studies and a disease surveillance study compared numbers of potential study participants and accuracy of disease prevalence, respectively. There was a marked reduction in screening time and increase in numbers of potential study participants identified with the research repository compared with conventional methods. Accurate disease prevalence was established and enhanced with the addition of selective text mining. This study confirms the potential for development of national anonymised research database from general practice records in addition to improving data collection for local or national audits and epidemiological projects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. An examination of the principles of influence on condom use decision making during casual sex encounters.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R

    2014-01-01

    Cialdini's (1984) principles of influence were employed to inform the decision-making process with respect to using condoms during casual sex. In the current study, focus groups (n = 9) were conducted to understand the relationship between the six principles of influence (authority, consistency, liking, reciprocity, scarcity, and social proof) and condom use in casual sex relationships. Results revealed that authority, consistency, and social proof were endorsed often as influencing condom use. Gender differences in the endorsement of the principles were also observed. The results speak to how these principles of influence aide the condom decision-making process during these often spontaneous sexual encounters and are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications for using these principles in future health campaigns.

  14. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  15. A Proof Progression for Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirode, Wayne

    2018-01-01

    Twenty years ago when the author was student teaching, he quickly learned what geometry teachers and researchers (e.g., Senk 1985) have long known: High school geometry students struggle with proof. Throughout his career, he has tried to create instructional materials to make proof more accessible to his students. From field-testing materials with…

  16. Le Chatelier Principle for Out-of-Equilibrium and Boundary-Driven Systems: Application to Dynamical Phase Transitions.

    PubMed

    Shpielberg, O; Akkermans, E

    2016-06-17

    A stability analysis is presented for boundary-driven and out-of-equilibrium systems in the framework of the hydrodynamic macroscopic fluctuation theory. A Hamiltonian description is proposed which allows us to thermodynamically interpret the additivity principle. A necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of the additivity principle is obtained as an extension of the Le Chatelier principle. These stability conditions result from a diagonal quadratic form obtained using the cumulant generating function. This approach allows us to provide a proof for the stability of the weakly asymmetric exclusion process and to reduce the search for stability to the solution of two coupled linear ordinary differential equations instead of nonlinear partial differential equations. Additional potential applications of these results are discussed in the realm of classical and quantum systems.

  17. Le Chatelier Principle for Out-of-Equilibrium and Boundary-Driven Systems: Application to Dynamical Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpielberg, O.; Akkermans, E.

    2016-06-01

    A stability analysis is presented for boundary-driven and out-of-equilibrium systems in the framework of the hydrodynamic macroscopic fluctuation theory. A Hamiltonian description is proposed which allows us to thermodynamically interpret the additivity principle. A necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of the additivity principle is obtained as an extension of the Le Chatelier principle. These stability conditions result from a diagonal quadratic form obtained using the cumulant generating function. This approach allows us to provide a proof for the stability of the weakly asymmetric exclusion process and to reduce the search for stability to the solution of two coupled linear ordinary differential equations instead of nonlinear partial differential equations. Additional potential applications of these results are discussed in the realm of classical and quantum systems.

  18. Study on hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Quanlong; Jiang, Zhongan; Han, Shuo; Fu, Enqi

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network and obtain the change rule of water consumption and water pressure, according to the similarity principle and the fluid continuity equation and energy equation, the similarity criterion of mine dust-proof water supply network is deduced, and a similar model of dust-proof water supply network is established based on the prototype of Kailuan Group, the characteristics of hydraulic parameters in water supply network are studied experimentally. The results show that water pressure at each point is a dynamic process, and there is a negative correlation between water pressure and water consumption. With the increase of water consumption, the pressure of water points show a decreasing trend. According to the structure of the pipe network and the location of the water point, the influence degree on the pressure of each point is different.

  19. Burden of Proof--The Controlling Principle in Applying the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Kelly

    This paper discusses four major Supreme Court decisions that address the issue of which party has the burden of proof in civil rights cases. Two of the 1977 cases involve the application of the First or Fourteenth Amendments, and two are pattern or practice cases brought pursuant to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The controlling issue…

  20. The ethics of promulgating principles of research ethics: the problem of diversion effects

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2015-01-01

    There is an important distinction between ethical standards for the conduct of research with human subjects and the ethics of promulgating principles of research ethics. Those who promulgate ethical standards for the conduct of research have an ethical responsibility to consider the consequences to which those promulgations give rise. In particular, they must consider whether their promulgations will give researchers incentives not to conduct research or not to conduct research in locales in which participants would benefit from participation. I first show how such ‘diversion effects’ are possible and then examine four principles of research ethics in that light. I then consider several objections to the argument that those who promulgate principles of research ethics should consider diversion effects. PMID:25937934

  1. Reporting Research for Practitioners: Proposed Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Daniel J.; Tarr, James E.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Walker, Erica N.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Rasmussen, Chris L.; King, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The NCTM Research Committee developed this article to address a distinctly important activity that links research and practice: writing research-based articles for practitioner journals. Six guiding principles are described. (Contains 6 figures.)

  2. Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.

    PubMed

    Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C

    2012-07-12

    Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.

  3. A computer-guided bone block harvesting procedure: a proof-of-principle case report and technical notes.

    PubMed

    De Stavola, Luca; Fincato, Andrea; Albiero, Alberto Maria

    2015-01-01

    During autogenous mandibular bone harvesting, there is a risk of damage to anatomical structures, as the surgeon has no three-dimensional control of the osteotomy planes. The aim of this proof-of-principle case report is to describe a procedure for harvesting a mandibular bone block that applies a computer-guided surgery concept. A partially dentate patient who presented with two vertical defects (one in the maxilla and one in the mandible) was selected for an autogenous mandibular bone block graft. The bone block was planned using a computer-aided design process, with ideal bone osteotomy planes defined beforehand to prevent damage to anatomical structures (nerves, dental roots, etc) and to generate a surgical guide, which defined the working directions in three dimensions for the bone-cutting instrument. Bone block dimensions were planned so that both defects could be repaired. The projected bone block was 37.5 mm in length, 10 mm in height, and 5.7 mm in thickness, and it was grafted in two vertical bone augmentations: an 8 × 21-mm mandibular defect and a 6.5 × 18-mm defect in the maxilla. Supraimposition of the preoperative and postoperative computed tomographic images revealed a procedure accuracy of 0.25 mm. This computer-guided bone harvesting technique enables clinicians to obtain sufficient autogenous bone to manage multiple defects safely.

  4. Information technology principles for management, reporting, and research.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Michael; Rothenhaus, Todd; Smith, Vernon; Kanhouwa, Meera

    2004-11-01

    Information technology holds the promise to enhance the ability of individuals and organizations to manage emergency departments, improve data sharing and reporting, and facilitate research. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Consensus Committee has identified nine principles to outline a path of optimal features and designs for current and future information technology systems. The principles roughly summarized include the following: utilize open database standards with clear data dictionaries, provide administrative access to necessary data, appoint and recognize individuals with emergency department informatics expertise, allow automated alert and proper identification for enrollment of cases into research, provide visual and statistical tools and training to analyze data, embed automated configurable alarm functionality for clinical and nonclinical systems, allow multiexport standard and format configurable reporting, strategically acquire mission-critical equipment that is networked and capable of automated feedback regarding functional status and location, and dedicate resources toward informatics research and development. The SAEM Consensus Committee concludes that the diligent application of these principles will enhance emergency department management, reporting, and research and ultimately improve the quality of delivered health care.

  5. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb 3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q 0 applications

    DOE PAGES

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-23

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. Our contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb 3Sn. Here, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb 3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q 0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quenchmore » field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q 0 at quench of 8 x 10 9 . In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above H c1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. Furthermore, the coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q 0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb 3Sn cavities in future applications.« less

  6. Opportunities and pitfalls in clinical proof-of-concept: principles and examples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao

    2018-04-01

    Clinical proof-of-concept trials crucially inform major resource deployment decisions. This paper discusses several mechanisms for enhancing their rigour and efficiency. The importance of careful consideration when using a surrogate endpoint is illustrated; situational effectiveness of run-in patient enrichment is explored; a versatile tool is introduced to ensure a strong pharmacological underpinning; the benefits of dose-titration are revealed by simulation; and the importance of adequately scheduled observations is shown. The general process of model-based trial design and analysis is described and several examples demonstrate the value in historical data, simulation-guided design, model-based analysis and trial adaptation informed by interim analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wireless Sensors Grouping Proofs for Medical Care and Ambient Assisted-Living Deployment.

    PubMed

    Trček, Denis

    2016-01-02

    Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly penetrating e-health and assisted living domains, and an increasing proportion among them goes on the account of computationally-weak devices, where security and privacy provisioning alone are demanding tasks, not to mention grouping proofs. This paper, therefore, gives an extensive analysis of such proofs and states lessons learnt to avoid possible pitfalls in future designs. It sticks with prudent engineering techniques in this field and deploys in a novel way the so called non-deterministic principle to provide not only grouping proofs, but (among other) also privacy. The developed solution is analyzed by means of a tangible metric and it is shown to be lightweight, and formally for security.

  8. The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions.

    PubMed

    Martyushev, Leonid M

    2010-05-12

    The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to 'prove' the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.

  9. A precautionary principle for dual use research in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Kuhlau, Frida; Höglund, Anna T; Evers, Kathinka; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle exist - for example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vague - the analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A novel in vitro metabolomics approach for neurotoxicity testing, proof of principle for methyl mercury chloride and caffeine.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Erwin; Morath, Siegfried; Eskes, Chantra; Linge, Jens; Rappsilber, Juri; Honegger, Paul; Hartung, Thomas; Coecke, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for more efficient methods giving insight into the complex mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Testing strategies including in vitro methods have been proposed to comply with this requirement. With the present study we aimed to develop a novel in vitro approach which mimics in vivo complexity, detects neurotoxicity comprehensively, and provides mechanistic insight. For this purpose we combined rat primary re-aggregating brain cell cultures with a mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach. For the proof of principle we treated developing re-aggregating brain cell cultures for 48 h with the neurotoxicant methyl mercury chloride (0.1-100 microM) and the brain stimulant caffeine (1-100 microM) and acquired cellular metabolic profiles. To detect toxicant-induced metabolic alterations the profiles were analysed using commercial software which revealed patterns in the multi-parametric dataset by principal component analyses (PCA), and recognised the most significantly altered metabolites. PCA revealed concentration-dependent cluster formations for methyl mercury chloride (0.1-1 microM), and treatment-dependent cluster formations for caffeine (1-100 microM) at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Four relevant metabolites responsible for the concentration-dependent alterations following methyl mercury chloride treatment could be identified using MS-MS fragmentation analysis. These were gamma-aminobutyric acid, choline, glutamine, creatine and spermine. Their respective mass ion intensities demonstrated metabolic alterations in line with the literature and suggest that the metabolites could be biomarkers for mechanisms of neurotoxicity or neuroprotection. In addition, we evaluated whether the approach could identify neurotoxic potential by testing eight compounds which have target organ toxicity in the liver, kidney or brain at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. PCA revealed cluster formations largely dependent on target organ toxicity indicating possible potential

  11. Frameworks for Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trials of Interventions That Target Fundamental Aging Processes

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Jamie; Miller, Jordan D.; Newman, John C.; Hashmi, Shahrukh K.; Halter, Jeffrey; Austad, Steve N.; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeted at fundamental processes of aging may hold great promise for enhancing the health of a wide population by delaying or preventing a range of age-related diseases and conditions—a concept dubbed the “geroscience hypothesis.” Early, proof-of-concept clinical trials will be a key step in the translation of therapies emerging from model organism and preclinical studies into clinical practice. This article summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting partly funded through the NIH R24 Geroscience Network, whose purpose was to generate concepts and frameworks for early, proof-of-concept clinical trials for therapeutic interventions that target fundamental processes of aging. The goals of proof-of-concept trials include generating preliminary signals of efficacy in an aging-related disease or outcome that will reduce the risk of conducting larger trials, contributing data and biological samples to support larger-scale research by strategic networks, and furthering a dialogue with regulatory agencies on appropriate registration indications. We describe three frameworks for proof-of-concept trials that target age-related chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, or resilience to stressors. We propose strategic infrastructure and shared resources that could accelerate development of therapies that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:27535966

  12. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 driver candidate genes (DCGs), altered in both species and with 27 from the whole genome and 46 from dog-human genomic rearrangement breakpoint (GRB) regions, as well as 38 passenger candidate genes (PCGs), altered in humans only and located in GRB regions. We noted that DCGs significantly differ from PCGs in every analysis conducted to assess their cancer relevance and biological functions. Importantly, while PCGs are not enriched in any specific functions, DCGs possess significantly enhanced functionality closely associated with cell proliferation and death regulation, as well as with epithelial cell apicobasal polarity establishment/maintenance. These observations support the notion that, in sporadic CRCs of both species, cell polarity genes not only contribute in preventing cancer cell invasion and spreading, but also likely serve as tumor suppressors by modulating cell growth. This pilot study validates our novel strategy and has uncovered four new potential cell polarity and colorectal tumor suppressor genes (RASA3, NUPL1, DENND5A, and AVL9). Expansion of this study would make more driver-passenger distinctions for cancers with large genomic amplifications or deletions, and address key questions regarding the relationship between cancer pathogenesis and epithelial cell polarity control in mammals. PMID:23416983

  13. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof-of-principle study with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Li, Y; Lyon, K; Camps, J; Dalton, S; Ried, T; Zhao, S

    2014-02-13

    Herein we report a proof-of-principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver-passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 driver candidate genes (DCGs), altered in both species, and with 27 from the whole genome and 46 from dog-human genomic rearrangement breakpoint (GRB) regions, as well as 38 passenger candidate genes (PCGs), altered in humans only and located in GRB regions. We noted that DCGs significantly differ from PCGs in every analysis conducted to assess their cancer relevance and biological functions. Importantly, although PCGs are not enriched in any specific functions, DCGs possess significantly enhanced functionality closely associated with cell proliferation and death regulation, as well as with epithelial cell apicobasal polarity establishment/maintenance. These observations support the notion that, in sporadic CRCs of both species, cell polarity genes not only contribute in preventing cancer cell invasion and spreading, but also likely serve as tumor suppressors by modulating cell growth. This pilot study validates our novel strategy and has uncovered four new potential cell polarity and colorectal tumor suppressor genes (RASA3, NUPL1, DENND5A and AVL9). Expansion of this study would make more driver-passenger distinctions for cancers with large genomic amplifications or deletions, and address key questions regarding the relationship between cancer pathogenesis and epithelial cell polarity control in mammals.

  14. Generalizing Landauer's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-03-01

    In a recent paper [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 355 (2005)] it is argued that to properly understand the thermodynamics of Landauer’s principle it is necessary to extend the concept of logical operations to include indeterministic operations. Here we examine the thermodynamics of such operations in more detail, extending the work of Landauer to include indeterministic operations and to include logical states with variable entropies, temperatures, and mean energies. We derive the most general statement of Landauer’s principle and prove its universality, extending considerably the validity of previous proofs. This confirms conjectures made that all logical operations may, in principle, be performed in a thermodynamically reversible fashion, although logically irreversible operations would require special, practically rather difficult, conditions to do so. We demonstrate a physical process that can perform any computation without work requirements or heat exchange with the environment. Many widespread statements of Landauer’s principle are shown to be special cases of our generalized principle.

  15. A Study in Sexual Health Applying the Principles of Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The principles of community-based participatory research were applied to an exploratory sexual health study that examined “cruising for sex” among men on a college campus. In the context of a study seeking a broad interpretation of the health implications of cruising, and when faced with methodological challenges, the researchers found these principles to provide invaluable guidance. A review of the research process is offered and the manner in which the principles of community-based participatory research were operationalized for this study is described. PMID:15129042

  16. Merging Brain Research with Educational Learning Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Allyson D.; Vawdrey, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how findings of recent neuroscience research can be combined with learning theories to derive brain-based learning principles. Suggests ways in which teachers can promote deeper learning. (SK)

  17. Wireless Sensors Grouping Proofs for Medical Care and Ambient Assisted-Living Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Trček, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly penetrating e-health and assisted living domains, and an increasing proportion among them goes on the account of computationally-weak devices, where security and privacy provisioning alone are demanding tasks, not to mention grouping proofs. This paper, therefore, gives an extensive analysis of such proofs and states lessons learnt to avoid possible pitfalls in future designs. It sticks with prudent engineering techniques in this field and deploys in a novel way the so called non-deterministic principle to provide not only grouping proofs, but (among other) also privacy. The developed solution is analyzed by means of a tangible metric and it is shown to be lightweight, and formally for security. PMID:26729131

  18. Ethical principles of informed consent: exploring nurses' dual role of care provider and researcher.

    PubMed

    Judkins-Cohn, Tanya M; Kielwasser-Withrow, Kiersten; Owen, Melissa; Ward, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice within the nurse researcher-participant relationship as these principles relate to the informed consent process for research. Within this process, the nurse is confronted with a dual role. This article describes how nurses, who are in the dual role of care provider and researcher, can apply these ethical principles to their practice in conjunction with the American Nurses Association's code of ethics for nurses. This article also describes, as an element of ethical practice, the importance of using participant-centered quality measures to aid informed decision making of participants in research. In addition, the article provides strategies for improving the informed consent process in nursing research. Finally, case scenarios are discussed, along with the application of ethical principles within the awareness of the dual role of the nurse as care provider and researcher. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Bully Proofing: What One District Learned about Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Leonard G.; Keyes, Barbara J.; Longhurst, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Collaborating with school officials, a group of concerned parents implemented a bully-proofing program throughout their school district. After two years, the results are encouraging; it was received with enthusiasm at the elementary level. Further study will be needed to determine how these principles might be applied at the secondary level. (MKA)

  20. Proposal of a Bulk HTSC Staggered Array Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kii, Toshiteru; Kinjo, Ryota; Bakr, Mahmoud A.

    We proposed a new type of undulator based on bulk high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC) which consists of a single solenoid and a stacked array of bulk HTSC. The main advantage of this configuration is that a mechanical structure is not required to produce and control the undulator field. In order to perform a proof of principle experiment, we have developed a prototype of bulk HTSC staggered array undulator using 11 pairs of DyBaCuO bulk superconductors and a normal conducting solenoid. Experimental results obtained by using the prototype undulator and numerical results obtained by a loop current model based on themore » Bean mode for a type-II superconductor were compared.« less

  1. The Development of Proofs in Analytical Mathematics for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Maselan; Sufahani, Suliadi; Hasim, Nurnazifa; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Roslan, Rozaini; Mohamad, Mahathir; Khalid, Kamil

    2018-04-01

    Proofs in analytical mathematics are essential parts of mathematics, difficult to learn because its underlying concepts are not visible. This research consists of problems involving logic and proofs. In this study, a short overview was provided on how proofs in analytical mathematics were used by university students. From the results obtained, excellent students obtained better scores compared to average and poor students. The research instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: test and interview. In this way, analysis of students’ actual performances can be obtained. The result of this study showed that the less able students have fragile conceptual and cognitive linkages but the more able students use their strong conceptual linkages to produce effective solutions

  2. Cs-doped Mo as surface converter for H{sup −}/D{sup −} generation in negative ion sources: First steps and proof of principle

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesko, L., E-mail: loic.schiesko@ipp.mpg.de; Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.

    2015-04-08

    In a proof-of-principle study, molybdenum samples were implanted with a very small dose of Cs in order to test the properties of the compound as a surface converter for negative hydrogen ion production. First results on the properties of Cs doped Mo compounds show a reduction of the work function and a stable H{sup −} yield up to four hours in low density hydrogen plasma. The implanted Cs atoms were stable in the Mo lattice over one year for samples stored in vacuum and not exposed to the plasma. The surface H{sup −} generation mechanisms were identified and a comparisonmore » of the negative ion yield with pure Mo showed that the Cs doped Mo sample’s yield was much larger.« less

  3. Multidisciplinary management of very advanced stage III and IV melanoma: Proof-of-principle.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Haim; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Shapira-Frommer, Roni; Schachter, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    study may be considered a proof-of-principle investigation, enabling long-term remissions by combining induction therapy and surgery.

  4. Proof of Principle of Ocular sparing in dogs with sinonasal tumors treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Jessica A.; Forrest, Lisa J.; Turek, Michelle M.; Miller, Paul E.; Mackie, T. Rockwell; Jaradat, Hazim A.; Vail, David M.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Chappell, Richard; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2010-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows optimization of radiation dose delivery to complex tumor volumes with rapid dose drop-off to surrounding normal tissues. A prospective study was performed to evaluate the concept of conformal avoidance using IMRT in canine sinonasal cancer. The potential of IMRT to improve clinical outcome with respect to acute and late ocular toxicity was evaluated. Thirty-one dogs with sinonasal cancer were treated definitively with IMRT using helical tomotherapy and/or dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) delivery. Ocular toxicity was evaluated prospectively and compared to a comparable group of historical controls treated with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT) techniques. Treatment plans were devised for each dog using helical tomotherapy and DMLC that achieved the target dose to the planning treatment volume and limited critical normal tissues to the prescribed dose-volume constraints. Overall acute and late toxicities were limited and minor, detectable by an experienced observer. This was in contrast to the profound ocular morbidity observed in the historical control group treated with 2D-RT. Overall median survival for IMRT treated and 2D treated dogs was 420 days and 411 days, respectively. Compared with conventional techniques, IMRT reduced dose delivered to eyes and resulted in bilateral ocular sparing in the dogs reported herein. These data provide proof-of-principle that conformal avoidance radiotherapy can be delivered through high conformity IMRT, resulting in decreased normal tissue toxicity as compared to historical controls treated with 2D-RT. PMID:20973393

  5. Comprehensive red blood cell and platelet antigen prediction from whole genome sequencing: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Connie M.; Uy, Jon Michael; Aguad, Maria; Smeland‐Wagman, Robin; Kaufman, Richard M.; Rehm, Heidi L.; Green, Robert C.; Silberstein, Leslie E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are 346 serologically defined red blood cell (RBC) antigens and 33 serologically defined platelet (PLT) antigens, most of which have known genetic changes in 45 RBC or six PLT genes that correlate with antigen expression. Polymorphic sites associated with antigen expression in the primary literature and reference databases are annotated according to nucleotide positions in cDNA. This makes antigen prediction from next‐generation sequencing data challenging, since it uses genomic coordinates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The conventional cDNA reference sequences for all known RBC and PLT genes that correlate with antigen expression were aligned to the human reference genome. The alignments allowed conversion of conventional cDNA nucleotide positions to the corresponding genomic coordinates. RBC and PLT antigen prediction was then performed using the human reference genome and whole genome sequencing (WGS) data with serologic confirmation. RESULTS Some major differences and alignment issues were found when attempting to convert the conventional cDNA to human reference genome sequences for the following genes: ABO, A4GALT, RHD, RHCE, FUT3, ACKR1 (previously DARC), ACHE, FUT2, CR1, GCNT2, and RHAG. However, it was possible to create usable alignments, which facilitated the prediction of all RBC and PLT antigens with a known molecular basis from WGS data. Traditional serologic typing for 18 RBC antigens were in agreement with the WGS‐based antigen predictions, providing proof of principle for this approach. CONCLUSION Detailed mapping of conventional cDNA annotated RBC and PLT alleles can enable accurate prediction of RBC and PLT antigens from whole genomic sequencing data. PMID:26634332

  6. Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: A proof-of-principle randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Antje; Vial, Yvan; Favrod, Céline; Harari, Mathilde Morisod; Blackwell, Simon E; Watson, Peter; Iyadurai, Lalitha; Bonsall, Michael B; Holmes, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomized controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game 'Tetris' via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS. The primary outcome was the number of intrusive traumatic memories related to the ECS recorded in a diary for the week post-ECS. As predicted, compared with controls, the intervention group reported fewer intrusive traumatic memories (M = 4.77, SD = 10.71 vs. M = 9.22, SD = 10.69, d = 0.647 [95% CI: 0.106, 1.182]) over 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome). There was a trend towards reduced acute stress re-experiencing symptoms (d = 0.503 [95% CI: -0.032, 1.033]) after 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses). Times series analysis on daily intrusions data confirmed the predicted difference between groups. 72% of women rated the intervention "rather" to "extremely" acceptable. This represents a first step in the development of an early (and potentially universal) intervention to prevent postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms that may benefit both mother and child. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02502513. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The science of research: the principles underlying the discovery of cognitive and other biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J

    2007-01-01

    Studies of cognitive function include a wide spectrum of disciplines, with very diverse theoretical and practical frameworks. For example, in Behavioral Neuroscience cognitive mechanisms are mostly inferred from loss of function (lesion) experiments while in Cognitive Neuroscience these mechanisms are commonly deduced from brain activation patterns. Although neuroscientists acknowledge the limitations of deriving conclusions using a limited scope of approaches, there are no systematically studied, objective and explicit criteria for what is required to test a given hypothesis of cognitive function. This problem plagues every discipline in science: scientific research lacks objective, systematic studies that validate the principles underlying even its most elemental practices. For example, scientists decide what experiments are best suited to test key ideas in their field, which hypotheses have sufficient supporting evidence and which require further investigation, which studies are important and which are not, based on intuitions derived from experience, implicit principles learned from mentors and colleagues, traditions in their fields, etc. Philosophers have made numerous attempts to articulate and frame the principles that guide research and innovation, but these speculative ideas have remained untested and have had a minimal impact on the work of scientists. Here, I propose the development of methods for systematically and objectively studying and improving the modus operandi of research and development. This effort (the science of scientific research or S2) will benefit all aspects of science, from education of young scientists to research, publishing and funding, since it will provide explicit and systematically tested frameworks for practices in science. To illustrate its goals, I will introduce a hypothesis (the Convergent Four) derived from experimental practices common in molecular and cellular biology. This S2 hypothesis proposes that there are at least

  8. Accounting for Proof Test Data in a Reliability Based Design Optimization Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventor, Gerharad; Scotti, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of proof (or acceptance) test data during the reliability based design optimization of structural components. It is assumed that every component will be proof tested and that the component will only enter into service if it passes the proof test. The goal is to reduce the component weight, while maintaining high reliability, by exploiting the proof test results during the design process. The proposed procedure results in the simultaneous design of the structural component and the proof test itself and provides the designer with direct control over the probability of failing the proof test. The procedure is illustrated using two analytical example problems and the results indicate that significant weight savings are possible when exploiting the proof test results during the design process.

  9. How Can the Relationship between Argumentation and Proof Be Analysed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedemonte, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a characterisation about argumentation and proof in mathematics. On the basis of contemporary linguistic theories, the hypothesis that proof is a special case of argumentation is put forward and Toulmin's model is proposed as a methodological tool to compare them. This model can be used to detect and analyse the structure of an…

  10. The maximum work principle regarded as a consequence of an optimization problem based on mechanical virtual power principle and application of constructal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrus, Adinel

    2017-10-01

    This scientific paper proposes to prove that the maximum work principle used by theory of continuum media plasticity can be regarded as a consequence of an optimization problem based on constructal theory (prof. Adrian BEJAN). It is known that the thermodynamics define the conservation of energy and the irreversibility of natural systems evolution. From mechanical point of view the first one permits to define the momentum balance equation, respectively the virtual power principle while the second one explains the tendency of all currents to flow from high to low values. According to the constructal law all finite-size system searches to evolve in such configurations that flow more and more easily over time distributing the imperfections in order to maximize entropy and to minimize the losses or dissipations. During a material forming process the application of constructal theory principles leads to the conclusion that under external loads the material flow is that which all dissipated mechanical power (deformation and friction) become minimal. On a mechanical point of view it is then possible to formulate the real state of all mechanical variables (stress, strain, strain rate) as those that minimize the total dissipated power. So between all other virtual non-equilibrium states, the real state minimizes the total dissipated power. It can be then obtained a variational minimization problem and this paper proof in a mathematical sense that starting from this formulation can be finding in a more general form the maximum work principle together with an equivalent form for the friction term. An application in the case of a plane compression of a plastic material shows the feasibility of the proposed minimization problem formulation to find analytical solution for both cases: one without friction influence and a second which take into account Tresca friction law. To valid the proposed formulation, a comparison with a classical analytical analysis based on slices, upper

  11. Improving animal research facility operations through the application of lean principles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Umrysh, Brian M

    2008-06-01

    Animal research is a vital component of US research and well-functioning animal research facilities are critical both to the research itself and to the housing and feeding of the animals. The Office of Animal Care (OAC) at Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute realized it had to improve the efficiency and safety of its animal research facility (ARF) to prepare for expansion and to advance the Institute's mission. The main areas for improvement concerned excessive turnaround time to process animal housing and feeding equipment; the movement and flow of equipment and inventory; and personnel safety. To address these problems, management held two process improvement workshops to educate employees about lean principles. In this article we discuss the application of these principles and corresponding methods to advance Children's Research Institute's mission of preventing, treating, and eliminating childhood diseases.

  12. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of research proposal. 512.12... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.12 Content of research proposal. When submitting a research proposal, the... current affiliation(s) of the researcher(s); (2) Title of the study; (3) Purpose of the project; (4...

  13. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Content of research proposal. 512.12... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.12 Content of research proposal. When submitting a research proposal, the... current affiliation(s) of the researcher(s); (2) Title of the study; (3) Purpose of the project; (4...

  14. Conflicting Selection Pressures Will Constrain Viral Escape from Interfering Particles: Principles for Designing Resistance-Proof Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Rast, Luke I; Rouzine, Igor M; Rozhnova, Ganna; Bishop, Lisa; Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    The rapid evolution of RNA-encoded viruses such as HIV presents a major barrier to infectious disease control using conventional pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Previously, it was proposed that defective interfering particles could be developed to indefinitely control the HIV/AIDS pandemic; in individual patients, these engineered molecular parasites were further predicted to be refractory to HIV's mutational escape (i.e., be 'resistance-proof'). However, an outstanding question has been whether these engineered interfering particles-termed Therapeutic Interfering Particles (TIPs)-would remain resistance-proof at the population-scale, where TIP-resistant HIV mutants may transmit more efficiently by reaching higher viral loads in the TIP-treated subpopulation. Here, we develop a multi-scale model to test whether TIPs will maintain indefinite control of HIV at the population-scale, as HIV ('unilaterally') evolves toward TIP resistance by limiting the production of viral proteins available for TIPs to parasitize. Model results capture the existence of two intrinsic evolutionary tradeoffs that collectively prevent the spread of TIP-resistant HIV mutants in a population. First, despite their increased transmission rates in TIP-treated sub-populations, unilateral TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced transmission rates in TIP-untreated sub-populations. Second, these TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced growth rates (i.e., replicative fitness) in both TIP-treated and TIP-untreated individuals. As a result of these tradeoffs, the model finds that TIP-susceptible HIV strains continually outcompete TIP-resistant HIV mutants at both patient and population scales when TIPs are engineered to express >3-fold more genomic RNA than HIV expresses. Thus, the results provide design constraints for engineering population-scale therapies that may be refractory to the acquisition of antiviral resistance.

  15. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of research proposal. 512.12... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.12 Content of research proposal. When submitting a research proposal, the...: (1) Review of related literature; (2) Detailed description of the research method; (3) Significance...

  16. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Content of research proposal. 512.12... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.12 Content of research proposal. When submitting a research proposal, the...: (1) Review of related literature; (2) Detailed description of the research method; (3) Significance...

  17. 28 CFR 512.12 - Content of research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of research proposal. 512.12... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.12 Content of research proposal. When submitting a research proposal, the...: (1) Review of related literature; (2) Detailed description of the research method; (3) Significance...

  18. Rethinking the Discovery Function of Proof within the Context of Proofs and Refutations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Kotaro; Tsujiyama, Yosuke; Sakamaki, Aruta

    2014-01-01

    Proof and proving are important components of school mathematics and have multiple functions in mathematical practice. Among these functions of proof, this paper focuses on the discovery function that refers to invention of a new statement or conjecture by reflecting on or utilizing a constructed proof. Based on two cases in which eighth and ninth…

  19. Research Progress Report. Section I: Research Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce-Jones, John; And Others

    This document consists of seven research proposals for studies undertaken by the Child Development and Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin for 1967-68. Each of the proposals includes a discussion of the rationale, objective, basic design, sample population, data to be gathered, procedure or instruments to be used, relationships of…

  20. Community-Based Research Assessments: Some Principles and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marullo, Sam; Cooke, Deanna; Willis, Jason; Rollins, Alexandra; Burke, Jacqueline; Bonilla, Paul; Waldref, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Examines benefits and challenges of undertaking assessments in community-based research (CBR). Such assessments are compared and contrasted to more traditional research processes. Further, the challenges of integrating CBR assessments into an ongoing social change initiative are analyzed. Five principles to guide CBR assessments are articulated. A…

  1. How to write a research proposal?

    PubMed Central

    Sudheesh, K; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Nethra, SS

    2016-01-01

    Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ‘blueprint’ for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal. PMID:27729688

  2. Expert and Novice Approaches to Reading Mathematical Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Matthew; Alcock, Lara

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the proof validation behavior of beginning undergraduate students and research-active mathematicians is explored. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they validated purported proofs. The main findings are that (a) contrary to previous suggestions, mathematicians sometimes appear to disagree about the validity of even short…

  3. The Notion of Proof in the Context of Elementary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite increased appreciation of the role of "proof" in students' mathematical experiences across "all" grades, little research has focused on the issue of understanding and characterizing the notion of proof at the elementary school level. This paper takes a step toward addressing this limitation, by examining the characteristics of four major…

  4. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  5. The Vice: Some Historically Inspired and Proof-Generated Steps to Limits of Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a genetic development of the concept of limit of a sequence leading to a definition, through a succession of proofs rather than through a succession of sequences or a succession of epsilons. The major ideas on which it is based are historical and depend on Euclid, Archimedes, Fermat, Wallis and Newton. Proofs of equality by…

  6. Point of a space experiment proposal.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru; Higashibata, Akira; Fujimoto, Nobuyoshi; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2003-10-01

    JAXA will solicit research proposals for space flight experiments that would be conducted for less than three years after the selection. In principle, available samples will be limited to Arabidopsis and C. elegans and flight hardware and protocol of space flight experiment will be pre-fixed. Proposals using different combinations of species and flight hardware will not be acceptable. Besides scientific issues, it is very important for proposer to write an impressive proposal. Hypothesis basis research proposal is the accepted standard. Reviewers will dislike a descriptive and unfocused research proposal without hypothesis. Ground preparation experiments, which are not related directly to space experiments, should not be included in the solicitation.

  7. Big Data Analyses for Continuous Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy: A Proof of Principle with Doxapram in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Flint, Robert B; Weteringen, Willem van; Voller, Swantje; Poppe, Jarinda A; Koch, Birgit C P; de Groot, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Reiss, Irwin K M; Simons, Sinno H P; Dino Research Group

    2017-01-01

    Drug effect evaluation is often based on subjective interpretation of a selection of patient data. Continuous analyses of high frequency patient monitor data are a valuable source to measuring drug effects. However, these have not yet been fully explored in clinical care. We aim to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of high frequency physiological data for analyses of pharmacotherapy. As a proof of principle, the effects of doxapram, a respiratory stimulant, on the oxygenation in preterm infants were studied. Second-to-second physiological data were collected from 12 hours before until 36 hours after start of doxapram loading dose plus continuous maintenance dose in seven preterm infants. Besides physiological data, plasma concentrations of doxapram and keto-doxapram were measured. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) increased after the start of doxapram treatment alongside an increase in heart rate. The respiratory rate remained unaffected. The number of saturation dips and the time below a saturation of 80%, as well as the area under the 80%-saturation-time curve (AUC), were significantly lowered after the start of doxapram. The AUC under 90% saturation also significantly improved after start of doxapram. Plasma concentrations of doxapram and keto-doxapram were measured. Using high-frequency monitoring data, we showed the detailed effects over time of pharmacotherapy. We could objectively determine the respiratory condition and the effects of doxapram treatment in preterm infants. This type of analysis might help to develop individualized drug treatments with tailored dose adjustments based on a closed-loop algorithm. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Three Styles Characterising Mathematicians' Pedagogical Perspectives on Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    The article describes mathematicians' pedagogical perspectives on proof in the teaching of first year university students at a mathematics department in Sweden. A conceptual frame that was used in the data analysis combines theories about proof from earlier mathematics education research with a social practice approach of Lave and Wenger. A…

  9. On Using Ethical Principles of Community-Engaged Research in Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of healthcare systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a re-consideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted two online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed nine ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be “grounded in trust.” While the academic panel endorsed “culturally appropriate” and “forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits,” the mixed academic-community panel endorsed “scientifically valid” and “ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination” as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. PMID:26773561

  10. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    PubMed

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature--a laboratory proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Buu, N C H; Rechmann, B M T; Finzen, F C

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air-water spray for cooling was utilized. Each all-ceramic crown was successfully laser debonded with an average debonding time of 135 ± 35 s. No crown fractured, and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated, but no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface occurred. The temperature rise in the pulp chamber averaged 5.4° ± 2.2 °C. During 8 out of the 20 crown removals, the temperature rise exceeded 5.5 °C, lasting 5 to 43 s (average 18.8 ± 11.6 s). A temperature rise of 11.5 °C occurred only once, while seven times the temperature rise was limited to 6.8 ± 0.5 °C. Temperature rises above 5.5 °C occurred only when the laser was applied from one side and additional cooling from the side opposite the irradiation. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all-ceramic crowns from natural teeth. Temperature rises exceeding 5.5 °C only occur when an additional air/water cooling from a dental syringe is inaccurately directed. To avoid possible thermal damage and to allow further heat diffusion, clinically temperature-reduced water might be applied.

  12. Ethical considerations in malaria research proposal review: empirical evidence from 114 proposals submitted to an Ethics Committee in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Adams, Pornpimon; Prakobtham, Sukanya; Limphattharacharoen, Chanthima; Vutikes, Pitchapa; Khusmith, Srisin; Pengsaa, Krisana; Wilairatana, Polrat; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2015-09-14

    Malaria research is typically conducted in developing countries in areas of endemic disease. This raises specific ethical issues, including those related to local cultural concepts of health and disease, the educational background of study subjects, and principles of justice at the community and country level. Research Ethics Committees (RECs) are responsible for regulating the ethical conduct of research, but questions have been raised whether RECs facilitate or impede research, and about the quality of REC review itself. This study examines the review process for malaria research proposals submitted to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine at Mahidol University, Thailand. Proposals for all studies submitted for review from January 2010 to December 2014 were included. Individual REC members' reviewing forms were evaluated. Ethical issues (e.g., scientific merit, risk-benefit, sample size, or informed-consent) raised in the forms were counted and analysed according to characteristics, including study classification/design, use of specimens, study site, and study population. All 114 proposals submitted during the study period were analysed, comprising biomedical studies (17 %), drug trials (13 %), laboratory studies (24 %) and epidemiological studies (46 %). They included multi-site (13 %) and international studies (4 %), and those involving minority populations (28 %), children (17 %) and pregnant women (7 %). Drug trials had the highest proportion of questions raised for most ethical issues, while issues concerning privacy and confidentiality tended to be highest for laboratory and epidemiology studies. Clarifications on ethical issues were requested by the ethics committee more for proposals involving new specimen collection. Studies involving stored data and specimens tended to attract more issues around privacy and confidentiality. Proposals involving minority populations were more likely to raise issues than those that did not

  13. Querying Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a query language PrQL designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchical nested labelled trees. The core language presented in this paper is locally structured (first-order), with queries built using recursion and patterns over proof structure and rule names. We define the syntax and semantics of locally structured queries, demonstrate their power, and sketch some implementation experiments.

  14. Principles for research on ethnicity and health: the Leeds Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ghazala; Salway, Sarah; Kai, Joe; Karlsen, Saffron; Bhopal, Raj; Ellison, George Th; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that health and health-care experiences vary along ethnic lines and the need to understand and tackle ethnic health inequalities has repeatedly been highlighted. Research into ethnicity and health raises ethical, theoretical and methodological issues and, as the volume of research in this area grows, so too do concerns regarding its scientific rigour and reporting, and its contribution to reducing inequalities. Guidance may be helpful in encouraging researchers to adopt standard practices in the design, conduct and reporting of research. However, past efforts at introducing such guidance have had limited impact on research practice, and the diversity of disciplinary perspectives on the key challenges and solutions may undermine attempts to derive and promote guiding principles. A consensus building Delphi exercise--the first of its kind in this area of research practice--was undertaken with leading academics, practitioners and policymakers from a broad range of disciplinary backgrounds to assess whether consensus on key principles could be achieved. Ten key principles for conducting research on ethnicity and health emerged, covering: the aims of research in this field; how such research should be framed and focused; key design-related considerations; and the direction of future research. Despite some areas of dispute, participants were united by a common concern that the generation and application of research evidence should contribute to better health-care experiences and health outcomes for minority ethnic people. The principles provide a strong foundation to guide future ethnicity-related research and build a broader international consensus.

  15. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L; Oksala, Niku K J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  16. Research on regularized mean-variance portfolio selection strategy with modified Roy safety-first principle.

    PubMed

    Atta Mills, Ebenezer Fiifi Emire; Yan, Dawen; Yu, Bo; Wei, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a consolidated risk measure based on variance and the safety-first principle in a mean-risk portfolio optimization framework. The safety-first principle to financial portfolio selection strategy is modified and improved. Our proposed models are subjected to norm regularization to seek near-optimal stable and sparse portfolios. We compare the cumulative wealth of our preferred proposed model to a benchmark, S&P 500 index for the same period. Our proposed portfolio strategies have better out-of-sample performance than the selected alternative portfolio rules in literature and control the downside risk of the portfolio returns.

  17. Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…

  18. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  19. Data principles for the U.S. Global Change Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.; Shaffer, Lisa R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change has developed a set of data management and access principles. The overall purpose of these statements of principle is to stimulate responsible stewardship for data and related information and to facilitate full and open access to them. These statements have been accepted by the U.S. Agencies responsible for the Global Change Research Program. The statements of principle are presented and discussed.

  20. Proof of cipher text ownership based on convergence encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage systems save disk space and bandwidth through deduplication technology, but with the use of this technology has been targeted security attacks: the attacker can get the original file just use hash value to deceive the server to obtain the file ownership. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of cloud storage system files, an efficient information theory security proof of ownership scheme is proposed. This scheme protects the data through the convergence encryption method, and uses the improved block-level proof of ownership scheme, and can carry out block-level client deduplication to achieve efficient and secure cloud storage deduplication scheme.

  1. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements...

  5. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements...

  6. Ethical principles in health research and review process.

    PubMed

    Tangwa, Godfrey B

    2009-11-01

    In this paper I want to reflect on the fundamental ethical principles and their application in different particular contexts, especially in health research and the ethics review process. Four fundamental ethical principles have been identified and widely discussed in bioethical literature. These principles namely are: autonomy or respect for others, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. These principles have cross-cultural validity, relevance and applicability. Every real-life situation and every concrete particular case in which ethical decision-making is called-for is unique and different from all others; but the same fundamental ethical principles are relevant and used in addressing all such cases and situations. Very often ethical problems will present themselves in the form of dilemmas and it is then necessary to use the same fundamental principles to analyze the situations, to argue persuasively and cogently with competence for the best options or choices in such situations. The issues I will be dealing with in this paper are necessarily more abstract and theoretical, but we will be discussing them from a very practical viewpoint and impulse, with a view to application in concrete real-life situations. The paper ends with some sample practical examples of cases that the reader can use to test his/her grasp of the principles, how to apply them, how to balance them in differing situations and contexts and how to adjudicate between them when they seem to be in conflict.

  7. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.

  8. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation...

  9. Fundamental principles of writing a successful grant proposal.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C; Shauver, Melissa J

    2008-04-01

    It is important for the field of hand surgery to develop a new generation of surgeon-scientists who can produce high-impact studies to raise the profile of this specialty. To this end, organizations such as the American Society for Surgery of the Hand have initiated programs to promote multicenter clinical research that can be competitive for fiscal support from the National Institutes of Health and other funding agencies. Crafting a well-structured grant proposal is critical to securing adequate funding to investigate the many clinical and basic science questions in hand surgery. In this article, we present the key elements of a successful grant proposal to help potential applicants to navigate the complex pathways in the grant application process.

  10. Fundamental Principles of Writing a Successful Grant Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Shauver, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    It is important for the field of hand surgery to develop a new generation of surgeon-scientists who can produce high impact studies to raise the profile of this specialty. To this end, organizations such as the American Society for Surgery of the Hand have initiated programs to promote multicenter clinical research that can be competitive for fiscal support from the National Institutes of Health and other funding agencies. Crafting a well-structured grant proposal is critical to securing adequate funding to investigate the many ambitious clinical and basic science projects in hand surgery. In this paper, we present the key elements to a successful grant proposal to help potential applicants to navigate the complex pathways in the grant application process. PMID:18406962

  11. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P < 0.04). Subjective ratings showed no difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  12. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  13. WINCS-BASED WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF SEROTONIN (5-HT) USING FAST-SCAN CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE

    PubMed Central

    Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to −0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

  14. Ethical principles in federal regulations: the case of children and research risks.

    PubMed

    Williams, P C

    1996-04-01

    Ethical principles play an important part not only in the promulgation of regulations but also in their application, i.e., enforcement and adjudication. while traditional ethical principles--promotion of welfare, freedom, and fairness--play an important role in both elements of regulation, some other kinds of ethical principles are significant as well. Principles governing the structure of decision processes should shape the structure and actions of agencies; principles of wise application should govern the work of those whose responsibility it is to apply regulatory language to particular situations. These points are demonstrated by investigating a case study: federal regulations designed to protect children involved in scientific research applied to a placebo study of the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on children of extremely short stature.

  15. Proof Problems with Diagrams: An Opportunity for Experiencing Proofs and Refutations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Kotaro; Tsujiyama, Yosuke; Sakamaki, Aruta; Koike, Norio

    2014-01-01

    It has become gradually accepted that proof and proving are essential at all grades of mathematical learning. Among the various aspects of proof and proving, this study addresses proofs and refutations described by Lakatos, in particular a part of increasing content by deductive guessing, to introduce an authentic process into mathematics…

  16. The Ability of Students’ Mathematical Proof in Determining the Validity of Argument Reviewed from Gender Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe the ability of students’ mathematical proof in determining the validity of argument reviewed from gender differences. The subjects of this research were one male and one female student of the fifth semester of Mathematic Education study program. The subjects were selected based on the highest mathematics ability which was assesed from their previous assignments and tests. In addition, the communication ability of the subjects was also considered in order to facilitate the researcher in conducting interviews. Based on the result of the test with direct and indirect proof, it could be concluded that the subjects were able to: 1) mention all facts/premises and write about what should be shown (conclusion) in direct proof and write additional premise in indirect proof; 2) connect facts/premises to concepts which must be mastered; 3) use equivalent concept to manipulate and organize the proof; 4) use the concept of syllogism and tollens mode to obtain the desired conclusion; 5) construct mathematical evidence systematically, and logically; 6) complement the reason for each step appropriately. The difference was that the male subject wrote the final conclusion, while the female subject did not write the final conclusion on the proof.

  17. Proof of the Spin Statistics Connection 2: Relativistic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamato, Enrico; De Martini, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    The traditional standard theory of quantum mechanics is unable to solve the spin-statistics problem, i.e. to justify the utterly important "Pauli Exclusion Principle" but by the adoption of the complex standard relativistic quantum field theory. In a recent paper (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015) we presented a proof of the spin-statistics problem in the nonrelativistic approximation on the basis of the "Conformal Quantum Geometrodynamics". In the present paper, by the same theory the proof of the spin-statistics theorem is extended to the relativistic domain in the general scenario of curved spacetime. The relativistic approach allows to formulate a manifestly step-by-step Weyl gauge invariant theory and to emphasize some fundamental aspects of group theory in the demonstration. No relativistic quantum field operators are used and the particle exchange properties are drawn from the conservation of the intrinsic helicity of elementary particles. It is therefore this property, not considered in the standard quantum mechanics, which determines the correct spin-statistics connection observed in Nature (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015). The present proof of the spin-statistics theorem is simpler than the one presented in Santamato and De Martini (Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015), because it is based on symmetry group considerations only, without having recourse to frames attached to the particles. Second quantization and anticommuting operators are not necessary.

  18. Standardized data sharing in a paediatric oncology research network--a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Hochedlinger, Nina; Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Welte, Stefan; Hayn, Dieter; Koumakis, Lefteris; Potamias, George; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Saraceno, Davide; Rinaldi, Eugenia; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Data that has been collected in the course of clinical trials are potentially valuable for additional scientific research questions in so called secondary use scenarios. This is of particular importance in rare disease areas like paediatric oncology. If data from several research projects need to be connected, so called Core Datasets can be used to define which information needs to be extracted from every involved source system. In this work, the utility of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM) as a format for Core Datasets was evaluated and a web tool was developed which received Source ODM XML files and--via Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT)--generated standardized Core Dataset ODM XML files. Using this tool, data from different source systems were extracted and pooled for joined analysis in a proof-of-concept study, facilitating both, basic syntactic and semantic interoperability.

  19. Proofs that Develop Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics educators have noted that mathematicians do not only read proofs to gain conviction but also to obtain insight. The goal of this article is to discuss what this insight is from mathematicians' perspective. Based on interviews with nine research-active mathematicians, two sources of insight are discussed. The first is reading a…

  20. EsPRit: ethics committee proposals for Long Term Medical Data Registries in rapidly evolving research fields - a future-proof best practice approach.

    PubMed

    Oberbichler, S; Hackl, W O; Hörbst, A

    2017-10-18

    Long-term data collection is a challenging task in the domain of medical research. Many effects in medicine require long periods of time to become traceable e.g. the development of secondary malignancies based on a given radiotherapeutic treatment of the primary disease. Nevertheless, long-term studies often suffer from an initial lack of available information, thus disallowing a standardized approach for their approval by the ethics committee. This is due to several factors, such as the lack of existing case report forms or an explorative research approach in which data elements may change over time. In connection with current medical research and the ongoing digitalization in medicine, Long Term Medical Data Registries (MDR-LT) have become an important means of collecting and analyzing study data. As with any clinical study, ethical aspects must be taken into account when setting up such registries. This work addresses the problem of creating a valid, high-quality ethics committee proposal for medical registries by suggesting groups of tasks (building blocks), information sources and appropriate methods for collecting and analyzing the information, as well as a process model to compile an ethics committee proposal (EsPRit). To derive the building blocks and associated methods software and requirements engineering approaches were utilized. Furthermore, a process-oriented approach was chosen, as information required in the creating process of ethics committee proposals remain unknown in the beginning of planning an MDR-LT. Here, we derived the needed steps from medical product certification. This was done as the medical product certification itself also communicates a process-oriented approach rather than merely focusing on content. A proposal was created for validation and inspection of applicability by using the proposed building blocks. The proposed best practice was tested and refined within SEMPER (Secondary Malignoma - Prospective Evaluation of the

  1. Efficient proof of ownership for cloud storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage system through the deduplication technology to save disk space and bandwidth, but the use of this technology has appeared targeted security attacks: the attacker can deceive the server to obtain ownership of the file by get the hash value of original file. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of the files in the cloud storage system, an efficient and information-theoretical secure proof of ownership sceme is proposed to support the file rating. Through the K-means algorithm to implement file rating, and use random seed technology and pre-calculation method to achieve safe and efficient proof of ownership scheme. Finally, the scheme is information-theoretical secure, and achieve better performance in the most sensitive areas of client-side I/O and computation.

  2. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  4. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  5. The principles of teratology: are they still true?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jan M

    2010-10-01

    James Wilson originally proposed a set of "Principles of Teratology" in 1959, the year before he helped to found the Teratology Society. By 1977, when these Principles were presented in a more definitive form in Wilson and Fraser's Handbook of Teratology, they had become a standard formulation of the basic tenets of the field. Wilson's Principles have continued to guide scientific research in teratology, and they are widely used in teaching. Recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of embryogenesis serve only to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental developmental mechanisms that underlie Wilson's Principles of Teratology. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The principle of homologous groups in regulatory affairs of allergen products--a proposal.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, A R; Lüttkopf, D; May, S; Scheurer, S; Vieths, S

    2009-01-01

    Among other legal regulations, the Note for Guidance on Allergen Products CPMP/BWP/243/96 released by the European Medicines Agency provides regulatory instructions regarding the quality of allergen extracts for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The current revision of this guideline intends to transform the so-called 'principle of taxonomic families' to the 'principle of homologous groups'. According to this concept, the data of one allergen extract demonstrating stability, efficacy and safety can, to a limited extent, be extrapolated to other allergen extracts belonging to the same homologous groups. The present work proposes the formation of homologous groups for pollen species and animal-derived materials on the basis of similar biochemical composition and homology/cross-reactivity of allergens or allergen sources. Some tree pollen species could be assigned to three different homologous groups, some weed pollen species to one homologous group and numerous grass pollen species to one homologous group on condition that data rely on single defined representative species. A homologous group for mites is limited to the Dermatophagoides species and the grouping of vertebrate-derived materials such as dander could be possible under restrictions. The criteria for the formation of the proposed homologous groups are illustrated in detail to provide an opportunity for extending existing homologous groups by further species in case of new insights in allergens and cross-reactivity of allergen sources. In this way, the concept of homologous groups could serve as a dynamic tool in the regulation of allergen products. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff review...

  8. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff review...

  9. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff review...

  10. How to prepare a Research Proposal.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Asya

    2008-04-01

    Health research, medical education and clinical practice form the three pillars of modern day medical practice. As one authority rightly put it: 'Health research is not a luxury, but an essential need that no nation can afford to ignore'. Health research can and should be pursued by a broad range of people. Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them. This review paper aims to highlight the essential concepts to the students and beginning researchers and sensitize and motivate the readers to access the vast literature available on research methodologies.

  11. How to prepare a Research Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Al-Riyami, Asya

    2008-01-01

    Health research, medical education and clinical practice form the three pillars of modern day medical practice. As one authority rightly put it: ‘Health research is not a luxury, but an essential need that no nation can afford to ignore’. Health research can and should be pursued by a broad range of people. Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them. This review paper aims to highlight the essential concepts to the students and beginning researchers and sensitize and motivate the readers to access the vast literature available on research methodologies. PMID:22379539

  12. Risk analysis under uncertainty, the precautionary principle, and the new EU chemicals strategy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael D

    2003-06-01

    Three categories of uncertainty in relation to risk assessment are defined; uncertainty in effect, uncertainty in cause, and uncertainty in the relationship between a hypothesised cause and effect. The Precautionary Principle (PP) relates to the third type of uncertainty. Three broad descriptions of the PP are set out, uncertainty justifies action, uncertainty requires action, and uncertainty requires a reversal of the burden of proof for risk assessments. The application of the PP is controversial but what matters in practise is the precautionary action (PA) that follows. The criteria by which the PAs should be judged are detailed. This framework for risk assessment and management under uncertainty is then applied to the envisaged European system for the regulation of chemicals. A new EU regulatory system has been proposed which shifts the burden of proof concerning risk assessments from the regulator to the producer, and embodies the PP in all three of its main regulatory stages. The proposals are critically discussed in relation to three chemicals, namely, atrazine (an endocrine disrupter), cadmium (toxic and possibly carcinogenic), and hydrogen fluoride (a toxic, high-production-volume chemical). Reversing the burden of proof will speed up the regulatory process but the examples demonstrate that applying the PP appropriately, and balancing the countervailing risks and the socio-economic benefits, will continue to be a difficult task for the regulator. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of precaution in the management of change and of the importance of trust in the effective regulation of uncertain risks.

  13. Preservice Teacher Beliefs about Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.; Grassl, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the study of backgrounds, beliefs, and attitudes of teachers (n=51) about proofs. Explores four issues: (1) preservice teachers' experiences/exposure to proof; (2) their beliefs about what constitutes proof; (3) the role of proof in mathematics; and (4) their beliefs about when proof should be introduced in K-12 math classes. Discusses…

  14. Confronting ethical permissibility in animal research: rejecting a common assumption and extending a principle of justice.

    PubMed

    Choe Smith, Chong Un

    2014-04-01

    A common assumption in the selection of nonhuman animal subjects for research and the approval of research is that, if the risks of a procedure are too great for humans, and if there is a so-called scientific necessity, then it is permissible to use nonhuman animal subjects. I reject the common assumption as neglecting the central ethical issue of the permissibility of using nonhuman animal subjects and as being inconsistent with the principle of justice used in human subjects research ethics. This principle requires that certain classes of individuals not be subjected to a disproportionate share of the burdens or risks of research. I argue for an extension of this principle to nonhuman animal research and show that a prima facie violation of the principle occurs because nonhuman animals bear an overwhelmingly disproportionate share of the risks of research without sufficient justification or reciprocal benefit.

  15. 76 FR 54534 - President's Advisory Council on Financial Capability Proposed Themes and Principles; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, on behalf of the President's Advisory Council on Financial Capability (``Council''), invites public comment on the Council's proposed themes and principles... Treasury on means to promote and enhance individuals' and families' financial capability. DATES: Submission...

  16. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Content of a research proposal. 3406.18 Section 3406... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.18 Content of a research proposal. (a) Proposal cover page. (1) Form CSREES-712, “Higher Education...

  17. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Content of a research proposal. 3406.18 Section 3406... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.18 Content of a research proposal. (a) Proposal cover page. (1) Form NIFA-712, “Higher Education...

  18. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Content of a research proposal. 3406.18 Section 3406... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.18 Content of a research proposal. (a) Proposal cover page. (1) Form NIFA-712, “Higher Education...

  19. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Content of a research proposal. 3406.18 Section 3406... AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.18 Content of a research proposal. (a) Proposal cover page. (1) Form NIFA-712, “Higher Education...

  20. Stakeholders' Perspectives on Stakeholder-engaged Research (SER): Strategies to Operationalize Patient-centered Outcomes Research Principles for SER.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Thomas I; Sheldrick, Radley C; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Saunders, Tully; Rojas, Erick G; Leslie, Laurel K

    2017-01-01

    US federal funding agencies increasingly incentivize stakeholder-engaged research which represents a paradigm shift toward incorporating a range of stakeholders in research design, conduct, and dissemination. We use qualitative methods to capture experience-based recommendations on how to operationalize 4 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) principles in stakeholder-engaged research, specifically: (1) reciprocal relationships; (2) colearning; (3) partnership; and (4) trust, transparency, and honesty. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of a stakeholder panel who participated in a 2-year comparative effectiveness study of cholesterol screening and treatment among young adults. Participants included 8 young adults and parent panelists and 11 professional panelists (clinicians, researchers, policy developers, and disseminators). The interview guide included questions about the 4 PCOR principles and queried preferred strategies to attain them. Interview transcripts were analyzed using an a priori and emergent coding structure. Participants provided strategies to promote the 4 PCOR principles. Although some stakeholder-identified strategies were complementary, others conflicted due to (1) competing ideologies identified among the principles, and (2) distinct stakeholder preferences. Illustrative of competing ideologies, participants simultaneously preferred receiving relevant articles before calls (to facilitate colearning) but also minimal outside reading (to achieve partnership). Illustrative of distinct stakeholder preferences, young adult and parent panelists generally preferred calls to occur on weekends/evenings, whereas professional panelists preferred mid-week work hours. Our exploratory study provides stakeholder-identified strategies to achieve the 4 PCOR principles, and demonstrates the need to identify, acknowledge, and address potentially conflicting strategies due to the potential for competing ideologies or variation in stakeholder

  1. Non Locality Proofs in Quantum Mechanics Analyzed by Ordinary Mathematical Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    The so-called non-locality theorems aim to show that Quantum Mechanics is not consistent with the Locality Principle. Their proofs require, besides the standard postulates of Quantum Theory, further conditions, as for instance the Criterion of Reality, which cannot be formulated in the language of Standard Quantum Theory; this difficulty makes the proofs not verifiable according to usual logico-mathematical methods, and therefore it is a source of the controversial debate about the real implications of these theorems. The present work addresses this difficulty for Bell-type and Stapp's arguments of non-locality. We supplement the formalism of Quantum Mechanics with formal statements inferred from the further conditions in the two different cases. Then an analysis of the two arguments is performed according to ordinary mathematical logic.

  2. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob

    2004-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  3. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  4. Bounds on the power of proofs and advice in general physical theories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ciarán M; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-06-01

    Quantum theory presents us with the tools for computational and communication advantages over classical theory. One approach to uncovering the source of these advantages is to determine how computation and communication power vary as quantum theory is replaced by other operationally defined theories from a broad framework of such theories. Such investigations may reveal some of the key physical features required for powerful computation and communication. In this paper, we investigate how simple physical principles bound the power of two different computational paradigms which combine computation and communication in a non-trivial fashion: computation with advice and interactive proof systems. We show that the existence of non-trivial dynamics in a theory implies a bound on the power of computation with advice. Moreover, we provide an explicit example of a theory with no non-trivial dynamics in which the power of computation with advice is unbounded. Finally, we show that the power of simple interactive proof systems in theories where local measurements suffice for tomography is non-trivially bounded. This result provides a proof that [Formula: see text] is contained in [Formula: see text], which does not make use of any uniquely quantum structure-such as the fact that observables correspond to self-adjoint operators-and thus may be of independent interest.

  5. Setting up an ethics of ecosystem research structure based on the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Ethical practices in ecological field research differ from those in laboratory research in more than the technical setting and the important distinction between population-level and individual-based concerns. The number of stakeholders affected by the conduct of field research is far larger; private landholders, public water utilities, public land managers, local industries, and communities large and small are only some of those who may be impacted. As research review boards move to establish specific ethical practices for field biologists, the process of identifying appropriate standards will affect the degree to which research will ultimately be disrupted. Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress is likely to be better met.

  6. Should Proof Be Minimal? Ms T's Evaluation of Secondary School Students' Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Dreyfus, Tommy; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Calls for reform in mathematics education around the world state that proofs should be part of school mathematics at all levels. Turning these calls into a reality falls on teachers' shoulders. This paper focuses on one secondary school teacher's reactions to students' suggested proofs and justifications in elementary number theory. To determine…

  7. Antiviral drug research proposal activity.

    PubMed

    Injaian, Lisa; Smith, Ann C; Shipley, Jennifer German; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Fredericksen, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an "expert" in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP) culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity.

  8. A Physical Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treeby, David

    2017-01-01

    What proof of the Pythagorean theorem might appeal to a physics teacher? A proof that involved the notion of mass would surely be of interest. While various proofs of the Pythagorean theorem employ the circumcenter and incenter of a right-angled triangle, we are not aware of any proof that uses the triangle's center of mass. This note details one…

  9. Reconciling community-based Indigenous research and academic practices: Knowing principles is not always enough.

    PubMed

    Morton Ninomiya, Melody E; Pollock, Nathaniel J

    2017-01-01

    Historically, Indigenous health research in Canada has failed to engage Indigenous peoples and communities as primary stakeholders of research evidence. Increasingly, research ethics and methodologies are being positioned as tools for Indigenous self-determination. In response, mainstream institutions have developed new ethical principles for research involving Indigenous people. While these transformations are necessary steps towards re-orienting research practices, they are not prescriptive. In this paper, we make visible three dilemmas from a case study in which Indigenous health research frameworks provided limited guidance or were unclear about how to balance community priorities with Indigenous research principles. We also discuss the strategies used to resolve each of these dilemmas. We draw examples from a project that examined the lived experiences of children and youth living with FASD and their caregivers. This project was conducted in collaboration with Sheshatshiu Innu First Nation, an Indigenous community in Labrador, Canada. In doing so, we argue that knowing the key guiding principles in Indigenous health research is not always enough, and that the 'real-world' context of practices and relationships can lead to conflicts that are not easily resolved with adherence to these principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  11. A portfolio-based approach to optimize proof-of-concept clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mallinckrodt, Craig; Molenberghs, Geert; Persinger, Charles; Ruberg, Stephen; Sashegyi, Andreas; Lindborg, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Improving proof-of-concept (PoC) studies is a primary lever for improving drug development. Since drug development is often done by institutions that work on multiple drugs simultaneously, the present work focused on optimum choices for rates of false positive (α) and false negative (β) results across a portfolio of PoC studies. Simple examples and a newly derived equation provided conceptual understanding of basic principles regarding optimum choices of α and β in PoC trials. In examples that incorporated realistic development costs and constraints, the levels of α and β that maximized the number of approved drugs and portfolio value varied by scenario. Optimum choices were sensitive to the probability the drug was effective and to the proportion of total investment cost prior to establishing PoC. Results of the present investigation agree with previous research in that it is important to assess optimum levels of α and β. However, the present work also highlighted the need to consider cost structure using realistic input parameters relevant to the question of interest.

  12. The State of Proof in Finnish and Swedish Mathematics Textbooks--Capturing Differences in Approaches to Upper-Secondary Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwall, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    Students' difficulties with proof, scholars' calls for proof to be a consistent part of K-12 mathematics, and the extensive use of textbooks in mathematics classrooms motivate investigations on how proof-related items are addressed in mathematics textbooks. We contribute to textbook research by focusing on opportunities to learn proof-related…

  13. Using colors to assess pain in toddlers: validation of "the rainbow pain scale"-a proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Paula; Holsti, Liisa; Siden, Harold; Strahlendorf, Caron; Turnham, Lucy; Giaschi, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Self-report, when available, is considered the ideal way to assess the intensity and other aspects of pain in children. However, self-report scales are often too complex cognitively for preschool-aged children (2-4 years). The Rainbow Pain Scale (RPS) was developed to provide individualized self-reported pain ratings for preschool-aged children. The psychometric properties of this scale have yet to be evaluated. To ensure validity, our first step was to compare RPS scores to a well-validated scale in older children who were able to self-report their pain. The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the RPS in children aged 5 to 10 years as proof of principle. We compared ratings of 49 children's pain using the RPS with those on the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). Participants suffering from pain related to cancer and cancer treatment were recruited to complete both scales at 3 time points, during both inpatient and outpatient clinic visits. Pearson's r and Cohen's κ were used to evaluate the level of association between the scales. The association between RPS and the FPS-R was greater than .7 at all 3 visits; r = .96 between the scales at the first clinic visit, .97 at the second visit, and .93 at the third visit. Cohen's κ between scales was 1.0 at the first clinic visit, .95 at the second visit, and .87 at the third visit. The RPS shows excellent concurrent validity with the FPS-R in school-aged children. The next step will be to examine the psychometric properties of the RPS in preschool-aged children. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  14. Proof test methodology for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Edward M.; Bell, David K.

    1992-01-01

    The special requirements for proof test of composites are identified based on the underlying failure process of composites. Two proof test methods are developed to eliminate the inevitable weak fiber sites without also causing flaw clustering which weakens the post-proof-test composite. Significant reliability enhancement by these proof test methods has been experimentally demonstrated for composite strength and composite life in tension. This basic proof test methodology is relevant to the certification and acceptance of critical composite structures. It can also be applied to the manufacturing process development to achieve zero-reject for very large composite structures.

  15. The Wording of a Proof: Hardy's Second "Elegant" Proof--The Pythagorean School's Irrationality of Square Root of 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2006-01-01

    One of the most interesting and important proofs in the history of mathematics is the Pythagorean school's proof of the "irrationality" of the square root of 2. After a brief look at G. H. Hardy (1941) thoughts regarding it, two versions of the classic Pythagorean proof are examined and discussed in this article, one written by an American…

  16. Grounded and embodied mathematical cognition: Promoting mathematical insight and proof using action and language.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Mitchell J; Walkington, Candace

    2017-01-01

    We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities. Our focus here is on pre-college geometry proof production. GEMC suggests that action alone can foster insight but is insufficient for valid proof production if action is not coordinated with language systems for propositionalizing general properties of objects and space. GEMC guides the design of a video game-based learning environment intended to promote students' mathematical insights and informal proofs by eliciting dynamic gestures through in-game directed actions. GEMC generates several hypotheses that contribute to theories of embodied cognition and to the design of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education interventions. Pilot study results with a prototype video game tentatively support theory-based predictions regarding the role of dynamic gestures for fostering insight and proof-with-insight, and for the role of action coupled with language to promote proof-with-insight. But the pilot yields mixed results for deriving in-game interventions intended to elicit dynamic gesture production. Although our central purpose is an explication of GEMC theory and the role of action-cognition transduction, the theory-based video game design reveals the potential of GEMC to improve STEM education, and highlights the complex challenges of connecting embodiment research to education practices and learning environment design.

  17. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  20. The art of writing good research proposals.

    PubMed

    van Ekelenburg, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Whilst scientists are by default motivated by intellectual challenges linked to the area of their interest rather than have an interest in the financial component related to their work, the reality of today is that funding for their work does not come automatically More and more governments provide project-related funding rather than multipurpose funding that covers the total annual costs of a research performing entity (such as a university department). So, like it or not, researchers have to present their research ideas and convince funding bodies about the usefulness and importance of their intended research work. Writing the research proposal is not simply typing words and punctuation. It requires succinctly and clearly chronicling the facts, as well as crafting a convincing line of reasoning for funding the project. For the best result, both the logical, verbal left side of the brain and the intuitive, creative right side of the brain need to work as a team. This article covers the process of writing a proposal, from research idea to submission to the funding body. The key to good writing is linking the text into a logical project flow. Therefore, in the early stage of writing an RTD proposal, developing the chain of reasoning and creating a flow chart is recommended to get a clear overview of the entire project and to visualise how the many work packages are connected.

  1. Educational Research in China: Guiding Principles and Major Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei

    This account of efforts to reconstruct educational research in China, guided by Marxist principles and reflective of a national policy of building a "socialist spiritual civilization," presents the major requirements of that endeavor. Educational sciences are to be guided by four understandings: correct theories; realistic policies;…

  2. Proposed Space Test of the New Equivalence Principle with Rotating Extended Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Feng-Tian; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel scheme for a space free-fall based test of the new equivalence principle (NEP) with two rotating extended bodies made of the same material. The measurement will be carried out by placing the two concentric spinning masses of very different momenta inside a differential electrostatic accelerometer in a drag-free compensated orbit. A difference in the forces necessary to maintain the common trajectory will be an indication of a violation of equivalence or the existence of spin-spin force between the rotating mass and the Earth. The conceptual design of the inertial sensor and its operation mode is presented. Details specific to the model and performance requirements are discussed by using up-to-date space technologies to test the NEP with an accuracy of better than 10-15.

  3. Evaluation of the Use of Home Blood Pressure Measurement Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Technology: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; Richard, Edo; Cachucho, Ricardo; de Craen, Anton Jm; Jongstra, Susan; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2016-06-13

    Mobile phone-assisted technologies provide the opportunity to optimize the feasibility of long-term blood pressure (BP) monitoring at home, with the potential of large-scale data collection. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the feasibility of home BP monitoring using mobile phone-assisted technology, by investigating (1) the association between study center and home BP measurements; (2) adherence to reminders on the mobile phone to perform home BP measurements; and (3) referrals, treatment consequences and BP reduction after a raised home BP was diagnosed. We used iVitality, a research platform that comprises a Website, a mobile phone-based app, and health sensors, to measure BP and several other health characteristics during a 6-month period. BP was measured twice at baseline at the study center. Home BP was measured on 4 days during the first week, and thereafter, at semimonthly or monthly intervals, for which participants received reminders on their mobile phone. In the monthly protocol, measurements were performed during 2 consecutive days. In the semimonthly protocol, BP was measured at 1 day. We included 151 participants (mean age [standard deviation] 57.3 [5.3] years). BP measured at the study center was systematically higher when compared with home BP measurements (mean difference systolic BP [standard error] 8.72 [1.08] and diastolic BP 5.81 [0.68] mm Hg, respectively). Correlation of study center and home measurements of BP was high (R=0.72 for systolic BP and 0.72 for diastolic BP, both P<.001). Adherence was better in participants measuring semimonthly (71.4%) compared with participants performing monthly measurements (64.3%, P=.008). During the study, 41 (27.2%) participants were referred to their general practitioner because of a high BP. Referred participants had a decrease in their BP during follow-up (mean difference final and initial [standard error] -5.29 [1.92] for systolic BP and -2.93 [1.08] for diastolic BP, both P<.05). Mobile

  4. Guidelines for Proof Test Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Kuhlman, C. J.; Russell, D. A.; Garr, K.; Donnelly, B.

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines integrate state-of-the-art elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) and proof test implementation issues into a comprehensive proof test analysis procedure in the form of a road map which identifies the types of data, fracture mechanics based parameters, and calculations needed to perform flaw screening and minimum proof load analyses of fracture critical components. Worked examples are presented to illustrate the application of the road map to proof test analysis. The state-of-the art fracture technology employed in these guidelines is based on the EPFM parameter, J, and a pictorial representation of a J fracture analysis, called the failure assessment diagram (FAD) approach. The recommended fracture technology is validated using finite element J results, and laboratory and hardware fracture test results on the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718, the aluminum alloy 2024-T3511, and ferritic pressure vessel steels. In all cases the laboratory specimens and hardware failed by ductile mechanisms. Advanced proof test analyses involving probability analysis and multiple-cycle proof testing (MCPT) are addressed. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to account for the effects of the proof test overload on subsequent service fatigue and fracture behaviors.

  5. Principles of Research Tissue Banking and Specimen Evaluation from the Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sandra A

    2010-12-01

    Human tissue biorepositories have an increasingly visible and important role within industrial enterprises in supporting biomedical research, including the rapidly advancing fields of proteomics, pharmacogenomics, and molecular epidemiology. Pathologists play a vital but often underrecognized role in the operation of these tissue banks. Besides interpreting studies that arise from banked samples, pathologists are needed to characterize tissues for research, to conduct quality assurance programs, to assist with resource allocation decisions, and to serve an educational role for investigators using the tissues. This article describes these key principles and illustrates examples where pathologist involvement is crucial to biorepository management. Of overarching importance, pathologists play a critical role in helping biorepository users understand the principles of specimen evaluation (histologic and structural composition of tissues, and their limitations) so as to optimize the scientific benefit of the tissues. In conclusion, greater involvement of pathologists in research tissue banking will enhance the scientific utility of biorepositories.

  6. Flexural strength of proof-tested and neutron-irradiated silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. J.; Hopkins, G. R.

    1982-08-01

    Proof testing before service is a valuable method for ensuring the reliability of ceramic structures. Silicon carbide has been proposed as a very low activation first-wall and blanket structural material for fusion devices, where it would experience a high flux of fast neutrons. Strips of three types of silicon carbide were loaded in four-point bending to a stress sufficient to break about a third of the specimens. Groups of 16 survivors were irradiated to 2 × 10 26n/ m2 ( E>0.05 MeV) at 740°C and bend tested to failure. The strength distribution of chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide (Texas Instruments) was virtually unchanged by irradiation. The mean strength of sintered silicon carbide (Carborundum Alpha) was reduced 34% by irradiation, while the Weibull modulus and the truncated strength distribution characteristic of proof-tested material were retained. Irradiation reduced the mean strength of reaction-bonded silicon carbide (Norton NC-430) by 58%, and the spread in strength values was increased. We conclude that for the chemically vapor-deposited and the sintered silicon carbide the benefits of proof testing to eliminate low strength material are retained after high neutron exposures.

  7. The Principle of General Tovariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  8. On mathematicians' different standards when evaluating elementary proofs.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Weber, Keith; Alcock, Lara

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we report a study in which 109 research-active mathematicians were asked to judge the validity of a purported proof in undergraduate calculus. Significant results from our study were as follows: (a) there was substantial disagreement among mathematicians regarding whether the argument was a valid proof, (b) applied mathematicians were more likely than pure mathematicians to judge the argument valid, (c) participants who judged the argument invalid were more confident in their judgments than those who judged it valid, and (d) participants who judged the argument valid usually did not change their judgment when presented with a reason raised by other mathematicians for why the proof should be judged invalid. These findings suggest that, contrary to some claims in the literature, there is not a single standard of validity among contemporary mathematicians. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Non-clinical studies required for new drug development - Part I: early in silico and in vitro studies, new target discovery and validation, proof of principles and robustness of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E L; Bento, A F; Cavalli, J; Oliveira, S K; Freitas, C S; Marcon, R; Schwanke, R C; Siqueira, J M; Calixto, J B

    2016-10-24

    This review presents a historical overview of drug discovery and the non-clinical stages of the drug development process, from initial target identification and validation, through in silico assays and high throughput screening (HTS), identification of leader molecules and their optimization, the selection of a candidate substance for clinical development, and the use of animal models during the early studies of proof-of-concept (or principle). This report also discusses the relevance of validated and predictive animal models selection, as well as the correct use of animal tests concerning the experimental design, execution and interpretation, which affect the reproducibility, quality and reliability of non-clinical studies necessary to translate to and support clinical studies. Collectively, improving these aspects will certainly contribute to the robustness of both scientific publications and the translation of new substances to clinical development.

  10. 30 CFR 778.21 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of publication. 778.21 Section 778.21....21 Proof of publication. A copy of the newspaper advertisements of the application for a permit, significant revision of a permit, or renewal of a permit, or proof of publication of the advertisements which...

  11. [The precautionary principle, research and drugs].

    PubMed

    Joly, P

    2000-01-01

    The research, in general, the medical research and the research of new drugs are following the same rules. To be fruitful, they have not to be "a priori" censured, but they have to be prudent on the means they are using and the aims they are pursuing. It's up to the researcher to explain to the public the necessity of the used means and the utility of his discovery. The public, indeed, may be not significantly informed and can be afraid by what is difficult to understand or by what is changing its customs. At the end of the pre-clinic period of research, the discovered substance has to confirm on human being its innocuity and its efficiency. At this time, the experimentation is controlled by several procedures under the control of French and European administrations. All these procedures have to be conducted according to several "Good Practices". The aims are to protect the human being, to define if the new drug is well-tolerated and efficient and what is the ratio Benefit/Risk. Even after the marketing of the new drug, the usage of the new drug is controlled (Drug Safety). So we can consider that precautionary principle is soon applied to the drug according to a very sophisticated and evolutionary mechanism. But as satisfactory it can appear, we must keep vigilant because the zero risk does not exist.

  12. Evaluation of the concept of pressure proof testing fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Orringer, Oscar

    1991-01-01

    The FAA and NASA have recently completed independent technical evaluations of the concept of pressure proof testing the fuselage of commercial transport airplanes. The results of these evaluations are summarized. The objectives of the evaluations were to establish the potential benefit of the pressure proof test, to quantify the most desirable proof test pressure, and to quantify the required proof test interval. The focus of the evaluations was on multiple-site cracks extending from adjacent rivet holes of a typical fuselage longitudinal lap splice joint. The FAA and NASA do not support pressure proof testing the fuselage of aging commercial transport aircraft. The argument against proof testing is as follows: (1) a single proof test does not insure an indefinite life; therefore, the proof test must be repeated at regular intervals; (2) for a proof factor of 1.33, the required proof test interval must be below 300 flights to account for uncertainties in the evaluation; (3) conducting the proof test at a proof factor of 1.5 would considerably exceed the fuselage design limit load; therefore, it is not consistent with accepted safe practices; and (4) better safety can be assured by implementing enhanced nondestructive inspection requirements, and adequate reliability can be achieved by an inspection interval several times longer than the proof test interval.

  13. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Millwater, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semielliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT versus SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  14. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semi-elliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT vs. SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  15. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all protocols submitted under § 26.1125 in a timely manner. With...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all protocols submitted under § 26.1125 in a timely manner. With...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all protocols submitted under § 26.1125 in a timely manner. With...

  18. Exploring Logical Reasoning and Mathematical Proof in Grade 6 Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flegas, Konstantinos; Charalampos, Lemonidis

    2013-01-01

    Research and classroom experience reveal that the construction of mathematical proofs is difficult for all students. While many contemporary mathematics curricula recognize the importance of teaching reasoning and proof, in Greece these concepts are introduced at the secondary education level. In this study, we will attempt to investigate a group…

  19. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with...

  20. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with...

  1. The precautionary principle within European Union public health policy. The implementation of the principle under conditions of supranationality and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Lila; van Meurs, Philip

    2003-11-01

    The present study examines the precautionary principle within the parameters of public health policy in the European Union, regarding both its meaning, as it has been shaped by relevant EU institutions and their counterparts within the Member States, and its implementation in practice. In the initial section I concentrate on the methodological question of "scientific uncertainty" concerning the calculation of risk and possible damage. Calculation of risk in many cases justifies the adopting of preventive measures, but, as it is argued, the principle of precaution and its implementation cannot be wholly captured by a logic of calculation; such a principle does not only contain scientific uncertainty-as the preventive principle does-but it itself is generated as a principle by this scientific uncertainty, recognising the need for a society to act. Thus, the implementation of the precautionary principle is also a simultaneous search for justification of its status as a principle. This justification would result in the adoption of precautionary measures against risk although no proof of this principle has been produced based on the "cause-effect" model. The main part of the study is occupied with an examination of three cases from which the stance of the official bodies of the European Union towards the precautionary principle and its implementation emerges: the case of the "mad cows" disease, the case of production and commercialization of genetically modified foodstuffs. The study concludes with the assessment that the effective implementation of the precautionary principle on a European level depends on the emergence of a concerned Europe-wide citizenship and its acting as a mechanism to counteract the material and social conditions that pose risks for human health.

  2. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Colombo, Lucas L; Thorp, Silvia I; Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Farías, Rubén O; Curotto, Paula; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A; Carando, Daniel G; Schwint, Amanda E

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 × 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 × 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect.

  3. Ethical evaluation of research proposals by ethics panels advising the European Commission.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2004-06-01

    Ethical principles with regard to animal experimentation are referred to in European Union (EU) legislation and other official documents. Therefore, applications for funding of research under the EU's research programme may undergo an ethical review that is carried out by so-called ethics panels, consisting of experts chosen by the European Commission. The work of these panels differs substantially from that of other ethical committees, as they exist on the institutional, local, regional or national level. Their main purpose is not to decide whether a proposed research can be regarded legal, and therefore should be endorsed or licensed; instead, it is to help the Commission in prioritising its funding. The panels may examine other ethical aspects than those of animal experimentation or animal welfare alone, such as the use of human volunteers. This is reflected by the composition of the panels. Their decisions are normally based on consensus. Even though these decisions may refer to EU legislation, the criteria applied are not restricted to those provided by this legislation. Nevertheless, the various aspects of the Commission's ethical evaluation system (e.g. formal and practical basic conditions, information content of applications, type of decisions taken, lacking of any quality control) offers opportunities for improvement.

  4. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  5. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  6. Conceptualizing strategic environmental assessment: Principles, approaches and research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Bram, E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca; Nwanekezie, Kelechi

    Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on transitioning strategic environmental assessment (SEA) away from its environmental impact assessment (EIA) roots. Scholars have argued the need to conceptualize SEA as a process designed to facilitate strategic thinking, thus enabling transitions toward sustainability. The practice of SEA, however, remains deeply rooted in the EIA tradition and scholars and practitioners often appear divided on the nature and purpose of SEA. This paper revisits the strategic principles of SEA and conceptualizes SEA as a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessment process. It is suggested that SEA can be conceptualized as series of approaches operatingmore » along a spectrum from less to more strategic – from impact assessment-based to strategy-based – with each approach to SEA differentiated by the specific objectives of SEA application and the extent to which strategic principles are reflected in its design and implementation. Advancing the effectiveness of SEA requires a continued research agenda focused on improving the traditional SEA approach, as a tool to assess the impacts of policies, plans and programs (PPPs). Realizing the full potential of SEA, however, requires a new research agenda — one focused on the development and testing of a deliberative governance approach to SEA that can facilitate strategic innovations in PPP formulation and drive transitions in short-term policy and initiatives based on longer-term thinking. - Highlights: • SEA facilitates strategic thinking, enabling transitions toward sustainability. • SEA is conceptualized as a spectrum of approaches, from IA-based to strategy-based. • Each approach variably emphasizes strategic principles in its design and practice. • There is no one conceptualization of SEA that is best, SEA is fit for PPP purpose. • Research is needed to advance SEA to facilitate strategic PPP transformations.« less

  7. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  8. Who Wants Proof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Derek

    2002-01-01

    People are inclined to desire proof of theories if they have developed a certain philosophical style when they are quite young. It is a style that questions the authority for things, so that they can hold fast to what is good. Regarding mathematical proof, this author argues that it is only those who are prepared to take their own authority for…

  9. Independent Study Workbooks for Proofs in Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Lara; Brown, Gavin; Dunning, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale research project based on workbooks designed to support independent study of proofs in a first course on abstract algebra. We discuss the lecturers' aims in designing the workbooks, and set these against a background of research on students' learning of group theory and on epistemological beliefs and study habits…

  10. 7 CFR 3406.20 - Evaluation criteria for research proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... current faculty in the natural or social sciences; provide a better research environment, state-of-the-art... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation criteria for research proposals. 3406.20... Research Proposal § 3406.20 Evaluation criteria for research proposals. The maximum score a research...

  11. Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part I: Research Principles and Common Applications

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. This article, Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field, including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. In Part II of this series, we will outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284696

  12. Antiviral Drug Research Proposal Activity †

    PubMed Central

    Injaian, Lisa; Smith, Ann C.; Shipley, Jennifer German; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Fredericksen, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an “expert” in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP) culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity. PMID:23653735

  13. 31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341... BONDS § 341.4 Proof of purchase. At the time a Retirement Plan Bond is issued, the issuing agent will... name the bond is inscribed, to the registered owner as well, proof of the purchase on Form PD 3550. The...

  14. A New Principle in Physiscs: the Principle "Finiteness", and Some Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham Sternlieb

    2010-06-25

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of "finiteness". It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of "legitimate" laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory ormore » principle in physics. I propose "finiteness" as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, "c"), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.« less

  15. An Elementary Proof of a Converse Mean-Value Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    We present a new converse mean value theorem, with a rather elementary proof. [The work was supported by Centre for Research on Optimization and Control (CEOC) from the "Fundacaopara a Ciencia e a Tecnologia" FCT, co-financed by the European Community Fund FEDER/POCTI.

  16. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  17. [Bioethics of principles].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  18. Analysis of the EPSRC Principles of Robotics in regard to key research topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, A.; Davis, D. N.; Cheng, Y.; Robinson, P.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we review the five rules published in EPSRC Principles of Robotics with a specific focus on future robotics research topics. It is demonstrated through a pictorial representation of the five rules that these rules are questionably not sufficient, overlapping and not explicitly reflecting the true challenges of robotics ethics in relation to the future of robotics research.

  19. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  20. A structured policy review of the principles of professional self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has, for many years, based its work on professional self-regulation on a set of 12 principles. These principles are research based and were identified nearly three decades ago. ICN has conducted a number of reviews of the principles; however, changes have been minimal. In the past 5-10 years, a number of authors and governments, often as part of the review of regulatory systems, have started to propose principles to guide the way regulatory frameworks are designed and implemented. These principles vary in number and content. This study examines the current policy literature on principle-based regulation and compares this with the set of principles advocated by the ICN. A systematic search of the literature on principle-based regulation is used as the basis for a qualitative thematic analysis to compare and contrast the 12 principles of self-regulation with more recently published work. A mapping of terms based on a detailed description of the principles used in the various research and policy documents was generated. This mapping forms the basis of a critique of the current ICN principles. A professional self-regulation advocated by the ICN were identified. A revised and extended set of 13 principles is needed if contemporary developments in the field of regulatory frameworks are to be accommodated. These revised principles should be considered for adoption by the ICN to underpin their advocacy work on professional self-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Multiple neural signatures of social proof and deviance during the observation of other people's preferences.

    PubMed

    Schnuerch, Robert; Richter, Jasmin; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Gibbons, Henning

    2016-06-01

    Detecting one's agreement with or deviation from other people, a key principle of social cognition, relies on neurocognitive mechanisms involved in reward processing, mismatch detection, and attentional orienting. Previous studies have focused on explicit depictions of the (in)congruency of individual and group judgments. Here, we report data from a novel experimental paradigm in which participants first rated a set of images and were later simply confronted with other individuals' ostensible preferences. Participants strongly aligned their judgments in the direction of other people's deviation from their own initial rating, which was neither an effect of regression toward the mean nor of evaluative conditioning (Experiment 1). Most importantly, we provide neurophysiological evidence of the involvement of fundamental cognitive functions related to social comparison (Experiment 2), even though our paradigm did not overly boost this process. Mismatches, as compared to matches, of preferences were associated with an amplitude increase of a broadly distributed N400-like deflection, suggesting that social deviance is represented in the human brain in a similar way as conflicts or breaches of expectation. Also, both early (P2) and late (LPC) signatures of attentional selection were significantly modulated by the social (mis)match of preferences. Our data thus strengthen and valuably extend previous findings on the neurocognitive principles of social proof. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. ShatterProof: operational detection and quantification of chromothripsis.

    PubMed

    Govind, Shaylan K; Zia, Amin; Hennings-Yeomans, Pablo H; Watson, John D; Fraser, Michael; Anghel, Catalina; Wyatt, Alexander W; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Collins, Colin C; McPherson, John D; Bristow, Robert G; Boutros, Paul C

    2014-03-19

    Chromothripsis, a newly discovered type of complex genomic rearrangement, has been implicated in the evolution of several types of cancers. To date, it has been described in bone cancer, SHH-medulloblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia, amongst others, however there are still no formal or automated methods for detecting or annotating it in high throughput sequencing data. As such, findings of chromothripsis are difficult to compare and many cases likely escape detection altogether. We introduce ShatterProof, a software tool for detecting and quantifying chromothriptic events. ShatterProof takes structural variation calls (translocations, copy-number variations, short insertions and loss of heterozygosity) produced by any algorithm and using an operational definition of chromothripsis performs robust statistical tests to accurately predict the presence and location of chromothriptic events. Validation of our tool was conducted using clinical data sets including matched normal, prostate cancer samples in addition to the colorectal cancer and SCLC data sets used in the original description of chromothripsis. ShatterProof is computationally efficient, having low memory requirements and near linear computation time. This allows it to become a standard component of sequencing analysis pipelines, enabling researchers to routinely and accurately assess samples for chromothripsis. Source code and documentation can be found at http://search.cpan.org/~sgovind/Shatterproof.

  3. Promoting the inclusion of Afghan women and men in research: reflections from research and community partners involved in implementing a 'proof of concept' project.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Elisha; Yelland, Jane; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Chesters, Donna; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-01-31

    With mounting evidence that poor maternal and child health outcomes are related to the social determinants of health, researchers need to engage with vulnerable and isolated communities to gather the evidence that is essential to determine appropriate solutions. Conventional research methods may not ensure the degree and quality of participation that is necessary for meaningful study findings. Participatory methods provide reciprocal opportunities for often excluded communities to both take part in, and guide the conduct of research. The Having a baby in a new country research project was undertaken to provide evidence about how women and men of refugee background experience health services at the time of having a baby. This two year, multifaceted proof of concept study comprised: 1) an organisational partnership to oversee the project; 2) a community engagement framework including: female and male Afghan community researchers, community and sector stakeholder advisory groups and community consultation and engagement. Inclusive research strategies that address power imbalances in research, and diversity of and within communities, are necessary to obtain the evidence required to address health inequalities in vulnerable populations. Such an approach involves mindfully adapting research processes to ensure that studies have regard for the advice of community members about the issues that affect them. Researchers have much to gain by committing time and resources to engaging communities in reciprocal ways in research processes.

  4. An implementation of the maximum-caliber principle by replica-averaged time-resolved restrained simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Riccardo; Tiana, Guido; Camilloni, Carlo

    2018-05-01

    Inferential methods can be used to integrate experimental informations and molecular simulations. The maximum entropy principle provides a framework for using equilibrium experimental data, and it has been shown that replica-averaged simulations, restrained using a static potential, are a practical and powerful implementation of such a principle. Here we show that replica-averaged simulations restrained using a time-dependent potential are equivalent to the principle of maximum caliber, the dynamic version of the principle of maximum entropy, and thus may allow us to integrate time-resolved data in molecular dynamics simulations. We provide an analytical proof of the equivalence as well as a computational validation making use of simple models and synthetic data. Some limitations and possible solutions are also discussed.

  5. An implementation of the maximum-caliber principle by replica-averaged time-resolved restrained simulations.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Riccardo; Tiana, Guido; Camilloni, Carlo

    2018-05-14

    Inferential methods can be used to integrate experimental informations and molecular simulations. The maximum entropy principle provides a framework for using equilibrium experimental data, and it has been shown that replica-averaged simulations, restrained using a static potential, are a practical and powerful implementation of such a principle. Here we show that replica-averaged simulations restrained using a time-dependent potential are equivalent to the principle of maximum caliber, the dynamic version of the principle of maximum entropy, and thus may allow us to integrate time-resolved data in molecular dynamics simulations. We provide an analytical proof of the equivalence as well as a computational validation making use of simple models and synthetic data. Some limitations and possible solutions are also discussed.

  6. Violation of ethical principles in clinical research. Influences and possible solutions for Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cornejo Moreno, Borys Alberto; Gómez Arteaga, Gress Marissell

    2012-12-16

    Even though we are now well into the 21st century and notwithstanding all the abuse to individuals involved in clinical studies that has been documented throughout History, fundamental ethical principles continue to be violated in one way or another. Here are some of the main factors that contribute to the abuse of subjects participating in clinical trials: paternalism, improper use of informed consent, lack of strict ethical supervision, pressure exerted by health institutions to increase the production of scientific material, and the absence of legislation regarding ethics in terms of health care and research. Are researchers ready to respect fundamental ethical principles in light of the ample window of information provided by individual genomes, while defending the rights of the subjects participating in clinical studies as a major priority? As one of the possible solutions to this problem, education regarding fundamental ethical principles is suggested for participants in research studies as an initial method of cognitive training in ethics, together with the promotion of ethical behavior in order to encourage the adoption of reasonable policies in the field of values, attitudes and behavior.

  7. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  8. Assurance Cases for Proofs as Evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaki, Sagar; Gurfinkel, Arie; Wallnau, Kurt; Weinstock, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Proof-carrying code (PCC) provides a 'gold standard' for establishing formal and objective confidence in program behavior. However, in order to extend the benefits of PCC - and other formal certification techniques - to realistic systems, we must establish the correspondence of a mathematical proof of a program's semantics and its actual behavior. In this paper, we argue that assurance cases are an effective means of establishing such a correspondence. To this end, we present an assurance case pattern for arguing that a proof is free from various proof hazards. We also instantiate this pattern for a proof-based mechanism to provide evidence about a generic medical device software.

  9. Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Proof Schemes in Geometry: A Case Study of Three Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oflaz, Gülcin; Bulut, Neslihan; Akcakin, Veysel

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Recent research and evaluation reports show that students are not learning geometry efficiently. One identifier of student understanding related to geometry is teachers' knowledge structures. Understanding what a proof is and writing proofs are essential for success in mathematics. Thus, school mathematics should include proving…

  10. Research-Informed Principles for (Re)Designing Teaching and Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Adam; Ferris, Jennie; Weston, Cynthia; Winer, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Designing physical learning environments that connect to indicators of effective educational practice reflects a university's pedagogical commitment to student success. This article describes an approach to teaching and learning space design based on research-informed pedagogical principles successfully implemented at our university. It then…

  11. Putting time into proof outlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Fred B.; Bloom, Bard; Marzullo, Keith

    1993-01-01

    A logic for reasoning about timing properties of concurrent programs is presented. The logic is based on Hoare-style proof outlines and can handle maximal parallelism as well as certain resource-constrained execution environments. The correctness proof for a mutual exclusion protocol that uses execution timings in a subtle way illustrates the logic in action. A soundness proof using structural operational semantics is outlined in the appendix.

  12. Proof of Concept for an Approach to a Finer Resolution Inventory

    Treesearch

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Kim Iles; Roger C. Lowe; Michal Zasada

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a proof of concept for a statistical framework to develop a timely, accurate, and unbiased fiber supply assessment in the State of Georgia, U.S.A. The proposed approach is based on using various data sources and modeling techniques to calibrate satellite image-based statewide stand lists, which provide initial estimates for a State inventory on a...

  13. Statistical Mechanical Proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics based on Volume Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campisi, Michele

    2007-10-01

    As pointed out in [M. Campisi. Stud. Hist. Phil. M. P. 36 (2005) 275-290] the volume entropy (that is the logarithm of the volume of phase space enclosed by the constant energy hyper-surface) provides a good mechanical analogue of thermodynamic entropy because it satisfies the heat theorem and it is an adiabatic invariant. This property explains the ``equal'' sign in Clausius principle (Sf>=Si) in a purely mechanical way and suggests that the volume entropy might explain the ``larger than'' sign (i.e. the Law of Entropy Increase) if non adiabatic transformations were considered. Based on the principles of quantum mechanics here we prove that, provided the initial equilibrium satisfy the natural condition of decreasing ordering of probabilities, the expectation value of the volume entropy cannot decrease for arbitrary transformations performed by some external sources of work on a insulated system. This can be regarded as a rigorous quantum mechanical proof of the Second Law.

  14. A Neuroimaging Proof of Principle Study of Down's Syndrome and Dementia: Ethical and Methodological Challenges in Intrusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Abrera, J. C.; Holland, A. J.; Landt, J.; Stocks-Gee, G.; Zaman, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into specific illnesses and the development of new treatments may only become possible as new technologies become available. When used for research, such technologies may best be described as "intrusive", in that they require a considerable willingness and commitment on the part of the participants. This has…

  15. Proponents of Creationism but not Proponents of Evolution Frame the Origins Debate in Terms of Proof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ralph M.; Church, Rebecca A.

    2013-03-01

    In Study 1, 72 internet documents containing creationism, ID (intelligent design), or evolution content were selected for analysis. All instances of proof cognates (the word "proof" and related terms such as "proven", "disproof", etc.) contained within these documents were identified and labeled in terms of the manner in which the terms were used. In Study 2, frequency counts for six terms (proof, evidence, establish, experiment, test, trial) were conducted on a sample of peer-reviewed research articles in the journal Science and the 72 internet documents included in Study 1. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that proponents of creationism were much more likely than proponents of evolution to frame the creationism/evolution issue in terms of proof (ID proponents fell partway between the other two). Proponents of creationism frequently described empirical data favoring their position as proof of their position. Even more frequently, proponents of creationism described evolutionary scientists as being engaged in failed attempts to prove the truth of the evolutionary position. Evolution documents included fewer proof cognates than creationism or ID documents and the few proof cognates found in evolution documents were rarely used to describe the status of the theory of evolution. Qualitative data analysis indicated that proof cognates were often used to indicate certainty. The asymmetry between evolution and creationism documents was limited primarily to proof cognates; there were no major asymmetries for the terms evidence, establish, experiment, test, and trial. The results may reveal differences in the epistemological commitments of the involved parties.

  16. Elucidation of covariant proofs in general relativity: example of the use of algebraic software in the shear-free conjecture in MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of a new algebraic software package in providing independent covariant proof of a conjecture in general relativity. We examine the proof of two sub-cases of the shear-free conjecture σ =0 => ω Θ =0 by Senovilla et al. (Gen. Relativ. Gravit 30:389-411, 1998): case 1: for dust; case 2: for acceleration parallel to vorticity. We use TensorPack, a software package recently released for the Maple environment. In this paper, we briefly summarise the key features of the software and then demonstrate its use by providing and discussing examples of independent proofs of the paper in question. A full set of our completed proofs is available online at http://www.bach2roq.com/science/maths/GR/ShearFreeProofs.html. We are in agreeance with the equations provided in the original paper, noting that the proofs often require many steps. Furthermore, in our proofs we provide fully worked algebraic steps in such a way that the proofs can be examined systematically, and avoiding hand calculation. It is hoped that the elucidated proofs may be of use to other researchers in verifying the algebraic consistency of the expressions in the paper in question, as well as related literature. Furthermore we suggest that the appropriate use of algebraic software in covariant formalism could be useful for developing research and teaching in GR theory.

  17. On the Analysis of Indirect Proofs: Contradiction and Contraposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Nicolas; Yevdokimov, Oleksiy

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores and clarifies the similarities and differences that exist between proof by contradiction and proof by contraposition. The paper also focuses on the concept of contradiction, and a general model for this method of proof is offered. The introduction of mathematical proof in the classroom remains a formidable challenge to students…

  18. 48 CFR 2415.605-70 - Unsolicited research proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unsolicited research... 2415.605-70 Unsolicited research proposals. FAR subpart 15.6 outlines the policies and procedures... award made as the result of an unsolicited proposal for research contain a commitment to provide actual...

  19. 16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for...

  20. 16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for...

  1. 16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for...

  2. Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part I: Research Principles and Common Applications.

    PubMed

    Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. This article, Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field, including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. In Part II of this series, we will outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in the...

  4. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in the...

  5. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in the...

  6. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in the...

  7. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in the...

  8. Constraining the generalized uncertainty principle with the atomic weak-equivalence-principle test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dongfeng; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2017-04-01

    Various models of quantum gravity imply the Planck-scale modifications of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle into a so-called generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The GUP effects on high-energy physics, cosmology, and astrophysics have been extensively studied. Here, we focus on the weak-equivalence-principle (WEP) violation induced by the GUP. Results from the WEP test with the 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer are used to set upper bounds on parameters in two GUP proposals. A 1045-level bound on the Kempf-Mangano-Mann proposal and a 1027-level bound on Maggiore's proposal, which are consistent with bounds from other experiments, are obtained. All these bounds have huge room for improvement in the future.

  9. Design and Control of a Proof-of-Concept Active Jet Engine Intake Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing; Ma, Ning; Penney, Nicholas; Barr, Todd; Lee, Ho-Jun; Arnold, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    The design and control of a novel proof-of-concept active jet engine intake using Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti or Nitinol) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators is used to demonstrate the potential of an adaptive intake to improve the fuel efficiency of a jet engine. The Nitinol SMA material is selected for this research due to the material's ability to generate large strains of up to 5 percent for repeated operations, a high power-to-weight ratio, electrical resistive actuation, and easy fabrication into a variety of shapes. The proof-of-concept engine intake employs an overlapping leaf design arranged in a concentric configuration. Each leaf is mounted on a supporting bar that rotates upon actuation by SMA wires electrical resistive heating. Feedback control is enabled through the use of a laser range sensor to detect the movement of a leaf and determine the radius of the intake area. Due to the hysteresis behavior inherent in SMAs, a nonlinear robust controller is used to direct the SMA wire actuation. The controller design utilizes the sliding-mode approach to compensate for the nonlinearities associated with the SMA actuator. Feedback control experiments conducted on a fabricated proof-of-concept model have demonstrated the capability to precisely control the intake area and achieve up to a 25 percent reduction in intake area. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of engine intake area control using the proposed design.

  10. 28 CFR 79.25 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... Specified Diseases Contracted After Exposure in an Affected Area (âDownwindersâ) § 79.25 Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease...

  11. 28 CFR 79.25 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... Specified Diseases Contracted After Exposure in an Affected Area (âDownwindersâ) § 79.25 Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease...

  12. 28 CFR 79.25 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... Specified Diseases Contracted After Exposure in an Affected Area (âDownwindersâ) § 79.25 Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease...

  13. 28 CFR 79.25 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... Specified Diseases Contracted After Exposure in an Affected Area (âDownwindersâ) § 79.25 Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease...

  14. 28 CFR 79.25 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... Specified Diseases Contracted After Exposure in an Affected Area (âDownwindersâ) § 79.25 Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease...

  15. 12 CFR 1022.123 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 1022.123 Section...) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.123 Appropriate proof of identity... information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for purposes of sections 605A, 605B, and...

  16. 12 CFR 1022.123 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 1022.123 Section...) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.123 Appropriate proof of identity... information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for purposes of sections 605A, 605B, and...

  17. 12 CFR 1022.123 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 1022.123 Section...) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.123 Appropriate proof of identity... information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for purposes of sections 605A, 605B, and...

  18. 28 CFR 79.34 - Proof of medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of medical condition. 79.34 Section... COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.34 Proof of medical condition. Proof of medical condition under this subpart will be made in the same manner and according to the same...

  19. 28 CFR 79.34 - Proof of medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of medical condition. 79.34 Section... COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.34 Proof of medical condition. Proof of medical condition under this subpart will be made in the same manner and according to the same...

  20. 39 CFR 501.5 - Burden of proof standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of proof standard. 501.5 Section 501.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.5 Burden of proof standard. The burden of proof is on the Postal Service...

  1. 28 CFR 79.34 - Proof of medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of medical condition. 79.34 Section... COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Onsite Participants § 79.34 Proof of medical condition. Proof of medical condition under this subpart will be made in the same manner and according to the same...

  2. From statistical proofs of the Kochen-Specker theorem to noise-robust noncontextuality inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunjwal, Ravi; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-05-01

    The Kochen-Specker theorem rules out models of quantum theory wherein projective measurements are assigned outcomes deterministically and independently of context. This notion of noncontextuality is not applicable to experimental measurements because these are never free of noise and thus never truly projective. For nonprojective measurements, therefore, one must drop the requirement that an outcome be assigned deterministically in the model and merely require that it be assigned a distribution over outcomes in a manner that is context-independent. By demanding context independence in the representation of preparations as well, one obtains a generalized principle of noncontextuality that also supports a quantum no-go theorem. Several recent works have shown how to derive inequalities on experimental data which, if violated, demonstrate the impossibility of finding a generalized-noncontextual model of this data. That is, these inequalities do not presume quantum theory and, in particular, they make sense without requiring an operational analog of the quantum notion of projectiveness. We here describe a technique for deriving such inequalities starting from arbitrary proofs of the Kochen-Specker theorem. It extends significantly previous techniques that worked only for logical proofs, which are based on sets of projective measurements that fail to admit of any deterministic noncontextual assignment, to the case of statistical proofs, which are based on sets of projective measurements that d o admit of some deterministic noncontextual assignments, but not enough to explain the quantum statistics.

  3. Proof Constructions and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Andreas J.; Stylianides, Gabriel J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we focus on a group of 39 prospective elementary (grades K-6) teachers who had rich experiences with proof, and we examine their ability to construct proofs and evaluate their own constructions. We claim that the combined "construction-evaluation" activity helps illuminate certain aspects of prospective teachers' and presumably…

  4. Using Participatory Action Research to Increase Learning Transfer of Recovery-Based Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barish, Diane J.

    2009-01-01

    This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…

  5. Cognitive Testing in People at Increased Risk of Dementia Using a Smartphone App: The iVitality Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijsman, Liselotte Willemijn; Cachucho, Ricardo; Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke Peternella; Mooijaart, Simon Pieter; Richard, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Background Smartphone-assisted technologies potentially provide the opportunity for large-scale, long-term, repeated monitoring of cognitive functioning at home. Objective The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of performing cognitive tests in people at increased risk of dementia using smartphone-based technology during a 6 months follow-up period. Methods We used the smartphone-based app iVitality to evaluate five cognitive tests based on conventional neuropsychological tests (Memory-Word, Trail Making, Stroop, Reaction Time, and Letter-N-Back) in healthy adults. Feasibility was tested by studying adherence of all participants to perform smartphone-based cognitive tests. Validity was studied by assessing the correlation between conventional neuropsychological tests and smartphone-based cognitive tests and by studying the effect of repeated testing. Results We included 151 participants (mean age in years=57.3, standard deviation=5.3). Mean adherence to assigned smartphone tests during 6 months was 60% (SD 24.7). There was moderate correlation between the firstly made smartphone-based test and the conventional test for the Stroop test and the Trail Making test with Spearman ρ=.3-.5 (P<.001). Correlation increased for both tests when comparing the conventional test with the mean score of all attempts a participant had made, with the highest correlation for Stroop panel 3 (ρ=.62, P<.001). Performance on the Stroop and the Trail Making tests improved over time suggesting a learning effect, but the scores on the Letter-N-back, the Memory-Word, and the Reaction Time tests remained stable. Conclusions Repeated smartphone-assisted cognitive testing is feasible with reasonable adherence and moderate relative validity for the Stroop and the Trail Making tests compared with conventional neuropsychological tests. Smartphone-based cognitive testing seems promising for large-scale data-collection in population studies. PMID

  6. Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chell, G. G.; Mcclung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.

    1994-01-01

    Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.

  7. Ensuring Food Integrity by Metrology and FAIR Data Principles

    PubMed Central

    Rychlik, Michael; Zappa, Giovanna; Añorga, Larraitz; Belc, Nastasia; Castanheira, Isabel; Donard, Olivier F. X.; Kouřimská, Lenka; Ogrinc, Nives; Ocké, Marga C.; Presser, Karl; Zoani, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Food integrity is a general term for sound, nutritive, healthy, tasty, safe, authentic, traceable, as well as ethically, safely, environment-friendly, and sustainably produced foods. In order to verify these properties, analytical methods with a higher degree of accuracy, sensitivity, standardization and harmonization and a harmonized system for their application in analytical laboratories are required. In this view, metrology offers the opportunity to achieve these goals. In this perspective article the current global challenges in food analysis and the principles of metrology to fill these gaps are presented. Therefore, the pan-European project METROFOOD-RI within the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) was developed to establish a strategy to allow reliable and comparable analytical measurements in foods along the whole process line starting from primary producers until consumers and to make all data findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable according to the FAIR data principles. The initiative currently consists of 48 partners from 18 European Countries and concluded its “Early Phase” as research infrastructure by organizing its future structure and presenting a proof of concept by preparing, distributing and comprehensively analyzing three candidate Reference Materials (rice grain, rice flour, and oyster tissue) and establishing a system how to compile, process, and store the generated data and how to exchange, compare them and make them accessible in data bases. PMID:29872651

  8. Ensuring Food Integrity by Metrology and FAIR Data Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychlik, Michael; Zappa, Giovanna; Añorga, Larraitz; Belc, Nastasia; Castanheira, Isabel; Donard, Olivier F. X.; Kouřimská, Lenka; Ogrinc, Nives; Ocké, Marga C.; Presser, Karl; Zoani, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    Food integrity is a general term for sound, nutritive, healthy, tasty, safe, authentic, traceable, as well as ethically, safely, environment-friendly and sustainably produced foods. In order to verify these properties, analytical methods with a higher degree of accuracy, sensitivity, standardization and harmonization and a harmonized system for their application in analytical laboratories are required. In this view, metrology offers the opportunity to achieve these goals. In this perspective article the current global challenges in food analysis and the principles of metrology to fill these gaps are presented. Therefore, the pan-European project METROFOOD-RI within the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) was developed to establish a strategy to allow reliable and comparable analytical measurements in foods along the whole process line starting from primary producers until consumers and to make all data findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable according to the FAIR data principles. The initiative currently consists of 48 partners from 18 European Countries and concluded its “Early Phase” as research infrastructure by organizing its future structure and presenting a proof of concept by preparing, distributing and comprehensively analyzing three candidate Reference Materials (rice grain, rice flour and oyster tissue) and establishing a system how to compile, process and store the generated data and how to exchange, compare them and make them accessible in data bases.

  9. Ensuring Food Integrity by Metrology and FAIR Data Principles.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael; Zappa, Giovanna; Añorga, Larraitz; Belc, Nastasia; Castanheira, Isabel; Donard, Olivier F X; Kouřimská, Lenka; Ogrinc, Nives; Ocké, Marga C; Presser, Karl; Zoani, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Food integrity is a general term for sound, nutritive, healthy, tasty, safe, authentic, traceable, as well as ethically, safely, environment-friendly, and sustainably produced foods. In order to verify these properties, analytical methods with a higher degree of accuracy, sensitivity, standardization and harmonization and a harmonized system for their application in analytical laboratories are required. In this view, metrology offers the opportunity to achieve these goals. In this perspective article the current global challenges in food analysis and the principles of metrology to fill these gaps are presented. Therefore, the pan-European project METROFOOD-RI within the framework of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) was developed to establish a strategy to allow reliable and comparable analytical measurements in foods along the whole process line starting from primary producers until consumers and to make all data findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable according to the FAIR data principles. The initiative currently consists of 48 partners from 18 European Countries and concluded its "Early Phase" as research infrastructure by organizing its future structure and presenting a proof of concept by preparing, distributing and comprehensively analyzing three candidate Reference Materials (rice grain, rice flour, and oyster tissue) and establishing a system how to compile, process, and store the generated data and how to exchange, compare them and make them accessible in data bases.

  10. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  11. The Failure to Construct Proof Based on Assimilation and Accommodation Framework from Piaget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netti, Syukma; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Abadyo; Anwar, Lathiful

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of a proof construction. It is more specific on the failure of the process. Piaget's frameworks, assimilation and accommodation, were used to analyze it. Method of this research was qualitative method. Data were collected by asking five students working on problems of proof using think aloud…

  12. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

  13. A Study of Biblical Sources of Management Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    to, currently identified and accepted management principles. The remaining five principles found in the Biblical source have definite United States Air Force application and are offered as proposed principles of management .

  14. Mathematical Proof. Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    The learning module described here is designed to help teachers plan and present a lesson on mathematical proof to pupils. The main topics covered are structure, hypothesis and conclusion, analysis, contrapositive, proof by contradiction, part proof worksheet, and conclusion and posttest. This descriptive report provides information on the…

  15. The promise and challenge of practice-research collaborations: Guiding principles and strategies for initiating, designing, and implementing program evaluation research.

    PubMed

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations, and building on their experiences in successfully completing a community-based research evaluation, the authors identify specific relationship-focused principles and strategies and illustrate how these approaches can guide practice-research teams through the various sequential activities of the evaluation research process. In particular, it is suggested that practice-research collaborations can be formed, strengthened, and sustained by emphasis on a spirit of discovery and shared leadership at the start of the relationship, use of a comprehensive evaluation model to clarify and frame the evaluation and program goals, beginning where the client is when selecting research methodology and measurement tools, commitment to keeping the program first and recording everything during the implementation and data-collection stages, discussion of emerging findings and presentation of findings in graphic format at the data-analysis stage, and a total team approach at the dissemination stage.

  16. 18 CFR 4.6 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.6 Burden of proof. The burden of proof to sustain each item of claimed cost shall be upon the licensee and only such items as...

  17. 18 CFR 4.6 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.6 Burden of proof. The burden of proof to sustain each item of claimed cost shall be upon the licensee and only such items as...

  18. 18 CFR 4.6 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.6 Burden of proof. The burden of proof to sustain each item of claimed cost shall be upon the licensee and only such items as...

  19. 18 CFR 4.6 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.6 Burden of proof. The burden of proof to sustain each item of claimed cost shall be upon the licensee and only such items as...

  20. 18 CFR 4.6 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Cost of Projects Constructed Under License § 4.6 Burden of proof. The burden of proof to sustain each item of claimed cost shall be upon the licensee and only such items as...

  1. 14 CFR 13.224 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.224 Burden of proof... otherwise provided by statute or rule, the proponent of a motion, request, or order has the burden of proof...

  2. 77 FR 22334 - Authority To Accept Unsolicited Research Proposals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Unsolicited Research Proposals AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice: Authority to accept unsolicited proposals for research partnerships. SUMMARY: This notice announces that HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research has the authority to accept...

  3. Applying the Seven Principles of Good Practice: Technology as a Lever--In an Online Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the seven principles of good practice with emphasis on the implementation of technology in an online healthcare research class in a southwest Georgia (United States) university. The seven principles are outlined using various elements of the online course. Historical and philosophical reasoning are applied to…

  4. Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Research on Speech Motor Control Recovery and Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Hoit, Jeannette; Kent, Raymond; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Strand, Edythe; Yorkston, Kathryn; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders. Method: A working group in speech motor control and disorders developed this report, which examines the potential relevance of basic research on the brain mechanisms involved in neural…

  5. The Promise and Challenge of Practice-Research Collaborations: Guiding Principles and Strategies for Initiating, Designing, and Implementing Program Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Berlin, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a set of guiding principles and strategies to facilitate the collaborative efforts of social work researchers and practitioners as they initiate, design, and implement outcome evaluations of human service interventions and programs. Beginning with an exploration of the interpersonal barriers to practice-research collaborations,…

  6. Using Sudoku to Introduce Proof Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we show how the Sudoku puzzle and the three simple rules determining its solution can be used as an introduction to proof-based mathematics. In the completion of the puzzle, students can construct multi-step solutions that involve sequencing of steps, use methods such as backtracking and proof by cases, and proof by contradiction…

  7. Fool-proofing design and crisis management for customized intelligent physical fitness and healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Huang, Chung-Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Man

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is quite important to develop a customized system which can enhance physical fitness and health for people. And the system reliability is more important. In the paper, a fool-proofing design and crisis management for customized physical fitness and healthcare system is proposed. It is designed to prevent the failure of the various mechanisms of customized physical fitness and healthcare system, including records, surveillance, assessments, predictions, diagnosis, prescription, and scheduling. It is separated into (1) fool-proofing design module (2) crisis management module. The fool-proofing indexes are set to prevent the failure of the various mechanisms. The states of the various mechanisms are managed by the auto-checked fool-proofing indexes. If mistakes prevention was fail, we have to execute the crisis management for stopping harmful results. The crisis management will find the error level and response the solution by using fuzzy method. By the experiments, we can find the advantages of the fool-proofing design and crisis management for customized physical fitness and healthcare system. And it is effective to prevent the failure of the various mechanisms of intelligent customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

  8. Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report of Laboratory Directed Research and Development program activities FY 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Office of The Director)

    As a national laboratory Argonne concentrates on scientific and technological challenges that can only be addressed through a sustained, interdisciplinary focus at a national scale. Argonne's eight major initiatives, as enumerated in its strategic plan, are Hard X-ray Sciences, Leadership Computing, Materials and Molecular Design and Discovery, Energy Storage, Alternative Energy and Efficiency, Nuclear Energy, Biological and Environmental Systems, and National Security. The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel technical concepts, enhance the Laboratory's research and development (R and D) capabilities, and pursue its strategic goals. projects are selectedmore » from proposals for creative and innovative R and D studies that require advance exploration before they are considered to be sufficiently developed to obtain support through normal programmatic channels. Among the aims of the projects supported by the LDRD Program are the following: establishment of engineering proof of principle, assessment of design feasibility for prospective facilities, development of instrumentation or computational methods or systems, and discoveries in fundamental science and exploratory development.« less

  9. A proof of concept phase II non-inferiority criterion.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Beat; Rouyrre, Nicolas; Hollaender, Norbert; Zuber, Emmanuel; Branson, Michael

    2011-06-15

    Traditional phase III non-inferiority trials require compelling evidence that the treatment vs control effect bfθ is better than a pre-specified non-inferiority margin θ(NI) . The standard approach compares this margin to the 95 per cent confidence interval of the effect parameter. In the phase II setting, in order to declare Proof of Concept (PoC) for non-inferiority and proceed in the development of the drug, different criteria that are specifically tailored toward company internal decision making may be more appropriate. For example, less evidence may be needed as long as the effect estimate is reasonably convincing. We propose a non-inferiority design that addresses the specifics of the phase II setting. The requirements are that (1) the effect estimate be better than a critical threshold θ(C), and (2) the type I error with regard to θ(NI) is controlled at a pre-specified level. This design is compared with the traditional design from a frequentist as well as a Bayesian perspective, where the latter relies on the Level of Proof (LoP) metric, i.e. the probability that the true effect is better than effect values of interest. Clinical input is required to establish the value θ(C), which makes the design transparent and improves interactions within clinical teams. The proposed design is illustrated for a non-inferiority trial for a time-to-event endpoint in oncology. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Proposing application of results in sport and exercise research reports.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane; Elliott, Bruce; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    The application of sport and exercise research findings to practice requires careful interpretation and integration of evidence. This paper reviews principles of evidence-based practice and the application of research in sports and exercise, in order to provide recommendations on developing appropriate application sections in research reports for sport and exercise journals. The strength of recommendations for application fall into one of four levels, with potential applications qualified as strong, limited, preliminary, or hypothesized. Specific limitations that should be discussed in framing recommendations for practice are also noted for each of these levels that should be useful for authors, and for practitioners and clinicians in interpreting these recommendations.

  11. Families of Functions and Functions of Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, Greisy Winicki

    2002-01-01

    This article describes an activity for secondary school students that may constitute an appropriate opportunity to discuss with them the idea of proof, particularly in an algebraic context. During the activity the students may experience and understand some of the roles played by proof in mathematics in addition to verification of truth:…

  12. Systems for Teaching Complex Texts: A Proof-of-Concept Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    In this article we investigate the systems that need to be in place for students to learn from increasingly complex texts. Our concept, drawn from past research, includes clear learning targets, teacher modeling, collaborative conversations, close reading, small group reading, and wide reading. Using a "proof of concept" model, we follow…

  13. One Problem, Nine Student-Produced Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birky, Geoffrey; Campbell, Connie M.; Raman, Manya; Sandefur, James; Somers, Kay

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the story of what happened when students in the authors' sophomore-level introduction-to-proof classes were given a theorem to prove with no expectation about what proof method to use. The paper discusses the nine different student-produced proofs of the statement: If "n" is an integer such that "n" is greater than or equal to 3,…

  14. 31 CFR 515.543 - Proof of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of goods of Cuban origin are generally not issued unless the applicant submits satisfactory... constitute satisfactory proof varies depending upon the facts of the particular case, it is not possible to... satisfactory proof of origin. Independent corroborating documentary evidence, such as insurance documents...

  15. A first principles study on newly proposed (Ca/Sr/Ba)Fe2Bi2 compounds with their parent compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswari, M.; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Viswanathan, E.

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding and magnetic properties of newly proposed iron-based compounds viz., CaFe2Bi2, SrFe2Bi2, BaFe2Bi2 with their Fermi surface topology are reported here for the first time by means of first principles calculation. All these properties of newly proposed compounds are compared and analysed along with their respective parent compounds namely (Ca,Sr,Ba)Fe2As2.

  16. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  17. Deriving Safety Cases from Automatically Constructed Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basir, Nurlida; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Formal proofs provide detailed justification for the validity of claims and are widely used in formal software development methods. However, they are often complex and difficult to understand, because the formalism in which they are constructed and encoded is usually machine-oriented, and they may also be based on assumptions that are not justified. This causes concerns about the trustworthiness of using formal proofs as arguments in safety-critical applications. Here, we present an approach to develop safety cases that correspond to formal proofs found by automated theorem provers and reveal the underlying argumentation structure and top-level assumptions. We concentrate on natural deduction style proofs, which are closer to human reasoning than resolution proofs, and show how to construct the safety cases by covering the natural deduction proof tree with corresponding safety case fragments. We also abstract away logical book-keeping steps, which reduces the size of the constructed safety cases. We show how the approach can be applied to the proofs found by the Muscadet prover.

  18. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear...

  19. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ...

  20. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ...

  1. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ...

  2. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ...

  3. The Great Emch Closure Theorem and a combinatorial proof of Poncelet's Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avksentyev, E. A.

    2015-11-01

    The relations between the classical closure theorems (Poncelet's, Steiner's, Emch's, and the zigzag theorems) and some of their generalizations are discussed. It is known that Emch's Theorem is the most general of these, while the others follow as special cases. A generalization of Emch's Theorem to pencils of circles is proved, which (by analogy with the Great Poncelet Theorem) can be called the Great Emch Theorem. It is shown that the Great Emch and Great Poncelet Theorems are equivalent and can be derived one from the other using elementary geometry, and also that both hold in the Lobachevsky plane as well. A new closure theorem is also obtained, in which the construction of closure is slightly more involved: closure occurs on a variable circle which is tangent to a fixed pair of circles. In conclusion, a combinatorial proof of Poncelet's Theorem is given, which deduces the closure principle for an arbitrary number of steps from the principle for three steps using combinatorics and number theory. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  4. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  5. Some principles to guide wilderness campsite management

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    1990-01-01

    Seven principles, derived from research on wilderness campsites, are proposed: (1) campsite impacts are complex; (2) impact is inevitable with repetitive use of campsites; (3) impact occurs rapidly, recovery occurs slowly; (4) the relationship between use and impact is asymptotic; (5) certain sites are more durable than others; (6) certain users cause less impact than...

  6. Proof-of-principle of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: final results of a study in Mali and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Traore, Mamadou O; Sarr, Moussa D; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H F

    2012-01-01

    Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa.

  7. Why and How Mathematicians Read Proofs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study in which nine research mathematicians were interviewed with regard to the goals guiding their reading of published proofs and the type of reasoning they use to reach these goals. Using the data from this study as well as data from a separate study (Weber, "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" 39:431-459,…

  8. Canine status epilepticus treated with fosphenytoin: A proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Edward E; Leppik, Ilo E; Coles, Lisa D; Podell, Michael; Vite, Charles H; Bush, William; Cloyd, James C

    2015-06-01

    There are a limited number of marketed intravenous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) available to treat status epilepticus (SE). All were first developed for chronic therapy of epilepsy, not specifically for SE. Epilepsy and canine SE (CSE) occur naturally in dogs, with prevalence, presentation, and percentage of refractory cases similar to human epilepsy. The objective of this study was to determine if CSE treated with fosphenytoin (FOS) results in a similar responder rate as for people. A randomized clinical trial was performed for dogs with CSE. Dogs who presented during a seizure or who had additional seizures after enrolling received intravenous (i.v.) benzodiazepine (BZD) followed immediately by intravenous infusion of 15 mg/kg phenytoin equivalent (PE) of fosphenytoin (FOS) or saline placebo (PBO). If seizures continued, additional AEDs were administered per the standard of care for veterinary patients. Total and unbound plasma phenytoin (PHT) concentrations were measured. Consent was obtained for 50 dogs with CSE. Thirty-one had additional motor seizures and were randomized to the study intervention (22 FOS and 9 PBO). There was a statistically significant difference in the 12 h responder rate, with 63% in the FOS group versus 22% in the placebo group (p = 0.043) having no further seizures. The unbound PHT concentrations at 30 and 60 min were within the therapeutic concentrations for people (1-2 μg/ml) with the exception of one dog. There was mild vomiting in 36% of the FOS group (7/22) within 20 min of FOS administration and none of the placebo group (0/9) (p = 0.064). This proof of concept study provides the first evidence that FOS is tolerated and effective in canine SE at PHT concentrations clinically relevant for human SE. Furthermore, naturally occurring CSE can be utilized as a translational platform for future studies of novel SE compounds. © 2015 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against

  9. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Mountain, Joanna; Koenig, Barbara; Altman, Russ; Brown, Melissa; Camarillo, Albert; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca; Cho, Mildred; Eberhardt, Jennifer; Feldman, Marcus; Ford, Richard; Greely, Henry; King, Roy; Markus, Hazel; Satz, Debra; Snipp, Matthew; Steele, Claude; Underhill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation. PMID:18638359

  10. Living proof and the pseudoscience of alternative cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2008-01-01

    Michael Gearin-Tosh was an English professor at Oxford University who was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 1994. He rejected conventional chemotherapeutic approaches and turned to a variety of alternative cancer treatments, particularly those involving nutritional supplements and dietary change. In 2002, Dr. Gearin-Tosh published a book, Living Proof: A Medical Mutiny, recounting his experiences. The book gained significant public and media attention. One chapter was written by Carmen Wheatley, an advocate of alternative cancer treatments. In distinction to Dr. Gearin-Tosh's personal story, Dr. Wheatley makes general claims about cancer treatment that are supposedly based on the research literature. This appears to provide scientific validation for a highly unconventional program of cancer care. However, the scientific case made for alternative cancer treatments in Living Proof does not bear serious examination. There are numerous inaccuracies, omissions, and misrepresentations. Many important claims are either entirely unsubstantiated or not supported by the literature cited. In conclusion, a highly publicized book gives the impression that alternative cancer treatments are supported by scientific research. It also suggests that little progress has been made in the conventional treatment of myeloma. This is highly misleading and may lead to cancer patients rejecting effective treatments.

  11. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  12. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  13. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  14. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  15. 5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...

  16. [Burden of proof in medical cases--presumption of fact and prima facie evidence. 1. Burden of proof].

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main rules concerning the burden of proof in polish civil trials, including medical cases. This paper also describes the subject of evidence were presented and explained. The court influence on evidence procedure was also analysed. The effect of the institution of informed consent on burden of proof in polish civil law is also described. This paper includes numerous High Court sentences on evidential and medical issues.

  17. Water Resources Council Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources. Notice of Public Review and Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Services (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of the Federal Register.

    Presented in this notice of a public review and hearing are the proposed Principles and Standards for planning water and related land resources of the United States. Developed by the Water Resources Council pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), the purpose is to achieve objectives, determined cooperatively,…

  18. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    PubMed

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  19. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.325 Burden of proof. The Assistant Secretary bears the initial...

  20. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.325 Burden of proof. The Assistant Secretary bears the initial...

  1. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.325 Burden of proof. The Assistant Secretary bears the initial...

  2. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.325 Burden of proof. The Assistant Secretary bears the initial...

  3. 6 CFR 27.325 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of proof. 27.325 Section 27.325 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.325 Burden of proof. The Assistant Secretary bears the initial...

  4. Deriving Safety Cases from Machine-Generated Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basir, Nurlida; Fischer, Bernd; Denney, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    Proofs provide detailed justification for the validity of claims and are widely used in formal software development methods. However, they are often complex and difficult to understand, because they use machine-oriented formalisms; they may also be based on assumptions that are not justified. This causes concerns about the trustworthiness of using formal proofs as arguments in safety-critical applications. Here, we present an approach to develop safety cases that correspond to formal proofs found by automated theorem provers and reveal the underlying argumentation structure and top-level assumptions. We concentrate on natural deduction proofs and show how to construct the safety cases by covering the proof tree with corresponding safety case fragments.

  5. 21 CFR 1315.58 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1315.58 Section 1315.58 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.58 Burden of proof. (a) At any hearing...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.58 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1315.58 Section 1315.58 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.58 Burden of proof. (a) At any hearing...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.58 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1315.58 Section 1315.58 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.58 Burden of proof. (a) At any hearing...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.58 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1315.58 Section 1315.58 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.58 Burden of proof. (a) At any hearing...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.58 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1315.58 Section 1315.58 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.58 Burden of proof. (a) At any hearing...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.605 - Proof of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commercial production, including any dumped production and dairy cow purchases, for each month of the... by the dairy operation. (d) Adequate proof of dairy cow additions to the milking herd during the... any other documents available to confirm the cow purchases. (e) If adequate proof of normally marketed...

  11. 14 CFR 13.223 - Standard of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard of proof. 13.223 Section 13.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... proof. The administrative law judge shall issue an initial decision or shall rule in a party's favor...

  12. 14 CFR 13.223 - Standard of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard of proof. 13.223 Section 13.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... proof. The administrative law judge shall issue an initial decision or shall rule in a party's favor...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1704 - Proof-of-performance test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proof-of-performance test data. 76.1704 Section 76.1704 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1704 Proof-of-performance test data. (a) The proof of...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1704 - Proof-of-performance test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proof-of-performance test data. 76.1704 Section 76.1704 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1704 Proof-of-performance test data. (a) The proof of...

  15. 49 CFR 8.21 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.21 Burden of proof. For the purpose of determinations to be made under §§ 8.13, 8.15, and 8.17, the burden of proof is on the originating Departmental agency to...

  16. 49 CFR 8.21 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.21 Burden of proof. For the purpose of determinations to be made under §§ 8.13, 8.15, and 8.17, the burden of proof is on the originating Departmental agency to...

  17. 14 CFR 23.641 - Proof of strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.641 Section 23.641 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....641 Proof of strength. The strength of stressed-skin wings must be proven by load tests or by combined...

  18. 14 CFR 23.641 - Proof of strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.641 Section 23.641 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....641 Proof of strength. The strength of stressed-skin wings must be proven by load tests or by combined...

  19. 21 CFR 1316.56 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burden of proof. 1316.56 Section 1316.56 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.56 Burden of proof. At any hearing, the proponent for the issuance...

  20. Proof of factorization using background field method of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2010-02-01

    Factorization theorem plays the central role at high energy colliders to study standard model and beyond standard model physics. The proof of factorization theorem is given by Collins, Soper and Sterman to all orders in perturbation theory by using diagrammatic approach. One might wonder if one can obtain the proof of factorization theorem through symmetry considerations at the lagrangian level. In this paper we provide such a proof.

  1. Proof of factorization using background field method of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    Factorization theorem plays the central role at high energy colliders to study standard model and beyond standard model physics. The proof of factorization theorem is given by Collins, Soper and Sterman to all orders in perturbation theory by using diagrammatic approach. One might wonder if one can obtain the proof of factorization theorem through symmetry considerations at the lagrangian level. In this paper we provide such a proof.

  2. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  3. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  4. Mathematicians' Perspectives on Features of a Good Pedagogical Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yvonne; Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report two studies investigating what mathematicians value in a pedagogical proof. Study 1 is a qualitative study of how eight mathematicians revised two proofs that would be presented in a course for mathematics majors. These mathematicians thought that introductory and concluding sentences should be included in the proofs,…

  5. 25 CFR 75.11 - Proof of relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proof of relationship. 75.11 Section 75.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.11 Proof of relationship. If the applicant's...

  6. 25 CFR 75.11 - Proof of relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of relationship. 75.11 Section 75.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.11 Proof of relationship. If the applicant's...

  7. 78 FR 20069 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... contribute to this outcome by emphasizing the principles of universal design in its product research and... Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers (RERCs)--Technologies To Support... priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by NIDRR...

  8. 33 CFR 20.702 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burden of proof. 20.702 Section 20.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF....702 Burden of proof. (a) Except for an affirmative defense, or as provided by paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 33 CFR 20.702 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burden of proof. 20.702 Section 20.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF....702 Burden of proof. (a) Except for an affirmative defense, or as provided by paragraph (b) of this...

  10. 33 CFR 20.702 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burden of proof. 20.702 Section 20.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF....702 Burden of proof. (a) Except for an affirmative defense, or as provided by paragraph (b) of this...

  11. 33 CFR 20.702 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burden of proof. 20.702 Section 20.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF....702 Burden of proof. (a) Except for an affirmative defense, or as provided by paragraph (b) of this...

  12. 33 CFR 20.702 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of proof. 20.702 Section 20.702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF....702 Burden of proof. (a) Except for an affirmative defense, or as provided by paragraph (b) of this...

  13. A Proof of the Occupancy Principle and the Mean-Transit-Time Theorem for Compartmental Models

    PubMed Central

    RAMAKRISHNAN, RAJASEKHAR; LEONARD, EDWARD F.; DELL, RALPH B.

    2012-01-01

    The occupancy principle and the mean-transit-time theorem are derived for the passage of a tracer through a system that can be described by a general pool model. It is proved, using matrix theory, that if (and only if) tracer entering the system labels equally all tracee fluxes into the system, then the integral of the tracer concentration is the same in all the pools. It is also proved that if, in addition, all flow out of the system is through the observation point, the first moment of the tracer concentration at the observation point can be used to calculate the total amount of trace in the system. The necessity of this condition is analyzed. Examples are given of models in which the occupancy principle and the mean-transit-time theorem hold or do not hold. PMID:22328793

  14. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  15. 44 CFR 75.3 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of proof. 75.3 Section 75.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROPERTIES UNDER SELF-INSURANCE PLAN General § 75.3 Burden of proof. In any application made by a State to...

  16. 14 CFR 23.307 - Proof of structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 23.307 Section 23.307... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.307 Proof of structure. (a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of § 23.305 must be shown for each...

  17. 44 CFR 75.3 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burden of proof. 75.3 Section 75.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROPERTIES UNDER SELF-INSURANCE PLAN General § 75.3 Burden of proof. In any application made by a State to...

  18. Shorter unentangled proofs for ground state connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caha, Libor; Nagaj, Daniel; Schwarz, Martin

    2018-07-01

    Can one considerably shorten a proof for a quantum problem by using a protocol with a constant number of unentangled provers? We consider a frustration-free variant of the sf {QCMA}-complete ground state connectivity (GSCON) problem for a system of size n with a proof of superlinear size. We show that we can shorten this proof in sf {QMA}(2): There exists a two-copy, unentangled proof with length of order n, up to logarithmic factors, while the completeness-soundness gap of the new protocol becomes a small inverse polynomial in n.

  19. Techniques to construct New Zealand elk-proof fence.

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Bryant; Jack W. Thomas; Mary M. Rowland

    1993-01-01

    An elk-proof fence was built in 1987 at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. The 25,000-acre research enclosure holds several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) year round. The fence, constructed with high...

  20. 31 CFR 346.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 346.4 Section 346.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.4 Proof of purchase. At the time an Individual Retirement Bond is issued, the issuing...

  1. An integrated experimental and computational approach to material selection for sound proof thermally insulted enclosure of a power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waheed, R.; Tarar, W.; Saeed, H. A.

    2016-08-01

    Sound proof canopies for diesel power generators are fabricated with a layer of sound absorbing material applied to all the inner walls. The physical properties of the majority of commercially available sound proofing materials reveal that a material with high sound absorption coefficient has very low thermal conductivity. Consequently a good sound absorbing material is also a good heat insulator. In this research it has been found through various experiments that ordinary sound proofing materials tend to rise the inside temperature of sound proof enclosure in certain turbo engines by capturing the heat produced by engine and not allowing it to be transferred to atmosphere. The same phenomenon is studied by creating a finite element model of the sound proof enclosure and performing a steady state and transient thermal analysis. The prospects of using aluminium foam as sound proofing material has been studied and it is found that inside temperature of sound proof enclosure can be cut down to safe working temperature of power generator engine without compromise on sound proofing.

  2. 'Relief of oppression': An organizing principle for researchers' obligations to participants in observational studies in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A central question in the debate about exploitation in international research is whether investigators and sponsors from high-income countries (HIC) have obligations to address background conditions of injustice in the communities in which they conduct their research, beyond the healthcare and other research-related needs of participants, to aspects of their basic life circumstances. Discussion In this paper, we describe the Majengo sexually transmitted disease (STD) Cohort study, a long-term prospective, observational cohort of sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Despite important scientific contributions and a wide range of benefits to the women of the cohort, most of the women have remained in the sex trade during their long-standing participation in the cohort, prompting allegations of exploitation. The Majengo STD cohort case extends the debate about justice in international research ethics beyond clinical trials into long-term observational research. We sketch the basic features of a new approach to understanding and operationalizing obligations of observational researchers, which we call 'relief of oppression'. 'Relief of oppression' is an organizing principle, analogous to the principle of harm reduction that is now widely applied in public health practice. Relief of oppression aims to help observational researchers working in conditions of injustice and deprivation to clarify their ethical obligations to participants. It aims to bridge the gap between a narrow, transaction-oriented account of avoiding exploitation and a broad account emphasizing obligations of reparation for historic injustices. We propose that relief of oppression might focus researchers' consideration of benefits on those that have some relevance to background conditions of injustice, and so elevate the priority of these benefits, in relation to others that might be considered and negotiated with participants, according to the degree to which the participating communities are

  3. 'Relief of oppression': an organizing principle for researchers' obligations to participants in observational studies in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Lavery, James V; Bandewar, Sunita V S; Kimani, Joshua; Upshur, Ross E G; Plummer, Frances A; Singer, Peter A

    2010-06-30

    A central question in the debate about exploitation in international research is whether investigators and sponsors from high-income countries (HIC) have obligations to address background conditions of injustice in the communities in which they conduct their research, beyond the healthcare and other research-related needs of participants, to aspects of their basic life circumstances. In this paper, we describe the Majengo sexually transmitted disease (STD) Cohort study, a long-term prospective, observational cohort of sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Despite important scientific contributions and a wide range of benefits to the women of the cohort, most of the women have remained in the sex trade during their long-standing participation in the cohort, prompting allegations of exploitation. The Majengo STD cohort case extends the debate about justice in international research ethics beyond clinical trials into long-term observational research. We sketch the basic features of a new approach to understanding and operationalizing obligations of observational researchers, which we call 'relief of oppression'. 'Relief of oppression' is an organizing principle, analogous to the principle of harm reduction that is now widely applied in public health practice. Relief of oppression aims to help observational researchers working in conditions of injustice and deprivation to clarify their ethical obligations to participants. It aims to bridge the gap between a narrow, transaction-oriented account of avoiding exploitation and a broad account emphasizing obligations of reparation for historic injustices. We propose that relief of oppression might focus researchers' consideration of benefits on those that have some relevance to background conditions of injustice, and so elevate the priority of these benefits, in relation to others that might be considered and negotiated with participants, according to the degree to which the participating communities are constrained in their

  4. Open Textbook Proof-of-Concept via Connexions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Judy; Thierstein, Joel; Fletcher, Kathi; Kaur, Manpreet; Emmons, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    To address the high cost of textbooks, Rice University's Connexions and the Community College Open Textbook Project (CCOTP) collaborated to develop a proof-of-concept free and open textbook. The proof-of-concept served to document a workflow process that would support adoption of open textbooks. Open textbooks provide faculty and students with a…

  5. Putting time into proof outlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Fred B.; Bloom, Bard; Marzullo, Keith

    1991-01-01

    A logic for reasoning about timing of concurrent programs is presented. The logic is based on proof outlines and can handle maximal parallelism as well as resource-constrained execution environments. The correctness proof for a mutual exclusion protocol that uses execution timings in a subtle way illustrates the logic in action.

  6. 7 CFR 3406.18 - Content of a research proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contain the pen-and-ink signatures of the principal investigator(s) and Authorized Organizational... must compete equally with newly submitted proposals. Submitting a proposal that has been revised based... natural or social sciences; providing a better research environment, state-of-the-art equipment, or...

  7. On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Partha

    2010-01-01

    By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.

  8. 38 CFR 10.38 - Proof of age of veteran's child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of age of veteran's... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.38 Proof of age of veteran's child. A child of a veteran shall be required to submit proof of age in accordance with the requirements set forth in the...

  9. 38 CFR 10.38 - Proof of age of veteran's child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of age of veteran's... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.38 Proof of age of veteran's child. A child of a veteran shall be required to submit proof of age in accordance with the requirements set forth in the...

  10. 38 CFR 10.38 - Proof of age of veteran's child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of age of veteran's... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.38 Proof of age of veteran's child. A child of a veteran shall be required to submit proof of age in accordance with the requirements set forth in the...

  11. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the... Institutes of Health (NIH) is providing guidance to Public Health Service (PHS) awardee institutions on implementation of the revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals...

  12. 21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity, or...

  13. 21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity, or...

  14. 21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity, or...

  15. 21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity, or...

  16. Proof Construction and Evaluation Practices of Prospective Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamoglu, Yesim; Togrol, Aysenur Yontar

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with 93 freshmen and 82 senior prospective mathematicians and mathematics teachers in order to investigate how they construct and evaluate proofs and whether there are any significant differences in their proof construction (with respect to department and grade) and proof evaluation (with respect to department)…

  17. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  18. On the search for design principles in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Poyatos, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    The search for basic concepts and underlying principles was at the core of the systems approach to science and technology. This approach was somehow abandoned in mainstream biology after its initial proposal, due to the rise and success of molecular biology. This situation has changed. The accumulated knowledge of decades of molecular studies in combination with new technological advances, while further highlighting the intricacies of natural systems, is also bringing back the quest-for-principles research program. Here, I present two lessons that I derived from my own quest: the importance of studying biological information processing to identify common principles in seemingly unrelated contexts and the adequacy of using known design principles at one level of biological organization as a valuable tool to help recognizing principles at an alternative one. These and additional lessons should contribute to the ultimate goal of establishing principles able to integrate the many scales of biological complexity.

  19. Proof-Related Reasoning in High School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Senk, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing that textbooks play a prominent role in fostering students' understanding of reasoning and proof, the authors conducted a study to examine the extent to which textbooks used in U.S. high schools provide opportunities for students to encounter proof-related reasoning and how the nature of proof-related reasoning in textbooks varies by…

  20. 22 CFR 51.40 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burden of proof. 51.40 Section 51.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.40 Burden of proof. The applicant has the burden of proving that he or she is a U.S. citizen...

  1. 22 CFR 51.40 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burden of proof. 51.40 Section 51.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.40 Burden of proof. The applicant has the burden of proving that he or she is a U.S. citizen...

  2. 22 CFR 51.40 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burden of proof. 51.40 Section 51.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.40 Burden of proof. The applicant has the burden of proving that he or she is a U.S. citizen...

  3. 22 CFR 51.40 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burden of proof. 51.40 Section 51.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.40 Burden of proof. The applicant has the burden of proving that he or she is a U.S. citizen...

  4. 22 CFR 51.40 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burden of proof. 51.40 Section 51.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.40 Burden of proof. The applicant has the burden of proving that he or she is a U.S. citizen...

  5. Exploration of multidimensional interactive classroom teaching for CCD principle and application course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xinghu; Tan, Ailing; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei; Bi, Weihong

    2017-08-01

    The CCD principle and application course is professional and comprehensive. It involves many subject contents. The course content includes eight aspects. In order to complete the teaching tasks within a limited time, improve the classroom teaching quality and prompt students master the course content faster and better, so the multidimensional interactive classroom teaching is proposed. In the teaching practice, the interactive relationship between the frontier science, scientific research project, living example and classroom content is researched detailedly. Finally, it has been proved practically that the proposed multidimensional interactive classroom teaching can achieved good teaching effect.

  6. Proofs and Refutations in the Undergraduate Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Sean; Zandieh, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    In his 1976 book, "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos presents a collection of case studies to illustrate methods of mathematical discovery in the history of mathematics. In this paper, we reframe these methods in ways that we have found make them more amenable for use as a framework for research on learning and teaching mathematics. We present an…

  7. 34 CFR 34.14 - Burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of proof. 34.14 Section 34.14 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.14 Burden of proof. (a... those in § 34.24. (d)(1) If you object on the ground that applicable law bars us from collecting the...

  8. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  9. A Semantic Basis for Proof Queries and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen W.; Luth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We extend the query language PrQL, designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs, to also allow transformation of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchically nested labelled trees, which we claim is a natural way of taming the complexity of huge proofs. Query-driven transformations enable manipulation of this structure, in particular, to transform proofs produced by interactive theorem provers into forms that assist their understanding, or that could be consumed by other tools. In this paper we motivate and define basic transformation operations, using an abstract denotational semantics of hiproofs and queries. This extends our previous semantics for queries based on syntactic tree representations.We define update operations that add and remove sub-proofs, and manipulate the hierarchy to group and ungroup nodes. We show that

  10. Principle research on a single mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2013-08-16

    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  11. Ten Things to Consider when Teaching Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As she sat in a high school geometry class and observed a beginning teacher, Matt (a pseudonym), teaching proof for the first time, the author was reminded of her own experiences in teaching formal proof to secondary school students. Matt seemed to struggle with some of the same challenges she encountered when she began teaching proof. For…

  12. Methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalin, Valerie L.; Geddes, Norman D.; Mikesell, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer generated information displays provide a promising technology for offsetting the increasing complexity of the National Airspace System. To realize this promise, however, we must extend and adapt the domain-dependent knowledge that informally guides the design of traditional dedicated displays. In our view, the successful exploitation of computer generated displays revolves around the idea of information management, that is, the identification, organization, and presentation of relevant and timely information in a complex task environment. The program of research that is described leads to methods and principles for information management in the domain of commercial aviation. The multi-year objective of the proposed program of research is to develop methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content.

  13. Combinatorial theory of Macdonald polynomials I: proof of Haglund's formula.

    PubMed

    Haglund, J; Haiman, M; Loehr, N

    2005-02-22

    Haglund recently proposed a combinatorial interpretation of the modified Macdonald polynomials H(mu). We give a combinatorial proof of this conjecture, which establishes the existence and integrality of H(mu). As corollaries, we obtain the cocharge formula of Lascoux and Schutzenberger for Hall-Littlewood polynomials, a formula of Sahi and Knop for Jack's symmetric functions, a generalization of this result to the integral Macdonald polynomials J(mu), a formula for H(mu) in terms of Lascoux-Leclerc-Thibon polynomials, and combinatorial expressions for the Kostka-Macdonald coefficients K(lambda,mu) when mu is a two-column shape.

  14. Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Robert

    The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

  15. Recovering from research: a no-fault proposal to compensate injured research participants.

    PubMed

    Pike, Elizabeth R

    2012-01-01

    National advisory committees have considered the obligations owed to research participants in the event of research-related injuries. These committees have repeatedly concluded that injured research participants are entitled to compensation for their injuries, that the tort system provides inadequate remedies, and that the United States should adopt no-fault compensation. But because the advisory committees have made no concrete proposals and have taken no steps toward implementing no-fault compensation, the United States continues to rely on the tort system to compensate injured research participants. This Article argues that recent legal developments and a transformation in the global research landscape make maintaining the status quo morally indefensible and practically unsustainable. Recent legal developments exacerbate the longstanding difficulties associated with the tort system as a method of compensation; nearly every injured research participant will have difficulty recovering damages, and certain classes of injured research participants--those in federal research and those abroad--are prevented from recovering altogether, resulting in substantial unfairness. In the past ten years, many of the countries substantially involved in research have mandated systematic compensation. By not mandating compensation, the United States has become a moral outlier and risks having its noncompliant research embargoed by foreign ethics committees, thereby delaying important biomedical advances. This Article examines alternative compensation mechanisms and offers a concrete no-fault compensation proposal built on systems already in place. The proposed system can be implemented in the United States and countries around the world to help harmonize various national compensation systems and to more equitably and effectively make those injured by research whole.

  16. Theoretical principles for biology: Variation.

    PubMed

    Montévil, Maël; Mossio, Matteo; Pocheville, Arnaud; Longo, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Darwin introduced the concept that random variation generates new living forms. In this paper, we elaborate on Darwin's notion of random variation to propose that biological variation should be given the status of a fundamental theoretical principle in biology. We state that biological objects such as organisms are specific objects. Specific objects are special in that they are qualitatively different from each other. They can undergo unpredictable qualitative changes, some of which are not defined before they happen. We express the principle of variation in terms of symmetry changes, where symmetries underlie the theoretical determination of the object. We contrast the biological situation with the physical situation, where objects are generic (that is, different objects can be assumed to be identical) and evolve in well-defined state spaces. We derive several implications of the principle of variation, in particular, biological objects show randomness, historicity and contextuality. We elaborate on the articulation between this principle and the two other principles proposed in this special issue: the principle of default state and the principle of organization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and proposed...

  18. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and proposed...

  19. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and proposed...

  20. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and proposed...

  1. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and proposed...

  2. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  3. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Dreyhaupt, Jens; Mayer, Benjamin; Keis, Oliver; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Muche, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention) studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called “cluster randomization”). Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly) larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies. Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies. PMID:28584874

  4. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Dreyhaupt, Jens; Mayer, Benjamin; Keis, Oliver; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Muche, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention) studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called "cluster randomization"). Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly) larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies. Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies.

  5. 10 CFR 140.15 - Proof of financial protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY.... (2) Such proof may alternatively, consist of a copy of the declarations page of a nuclear energy... nuclear energy liability insurance as proof of financial protection if it determines that the provisions...

  6. 10 CFR 140.15 - Proof of financial protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY.... (2) Such proof may alternatively, consist of a copy of the declarations page of a nuclear energy... nuclear energy liability insurance as proof of financial protection if it determines that the provisions...

  7. 10 CFR 140.15 - Proof of financial protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY.... (2) Such proof may alternatively, consist of a copy of the declarations page of a nuclear energy... nuclear energy liability insurance as proof of financial protection if it determines that the provisions...

  8. 10 CFR 140.15 - Proof of financial protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY.... (2) Such proof may alternatively, consist of a copy of the declarations page of a nuclear energy... nuclear energy liability insurance as proof of financial protection if it determines that the provisions...

  9. 10 CFR 140.15 - Proof of financial protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY.... (2) Such proof may alternatively, consist of a copy of the declarations page of a nuclear energy... nuclear energy liability insurance as proof of financial protection if it determines that the provisions...

  10. Microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator is to develop the capability to mount a small programmable device on laboratory models. This capability will allow research in the active control of flexible structures. The approach in developing the actuator will be to mount all components as a single unit. All sensors, electronic and control devices will be mounted with the actuator. The goal for the force output capability of the actuator will be one pound force. The programmable force actuator developed has approximately a one pound force capability over the usable frequency range, which is above 2 Hz.

  11. Contributions to Innovative Learning and Teaching? Effective Research-Based Pedagogy--A Response to TLRP's Principles from a European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, Filip; Berghmans, Inneke; Kyndt, Eva; Baeten, Marlies

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the contribution on the "ten principles of effective pedagogy" by James and Pollard, we critically reflect on some of the principles and assess whether these principles can be grounded in the wider European research literature that has accumulated internationally. We conclude that these principles can be supported and…

  12. Research to Assembly Scheme for Satellite Deck Based on Robot Flexibility Control Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao; Hu, Ruiqin; Xiao, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jingjing; Fang, Zhikai

    2018-03-01

    Deck assembly is critical quality control point in final satellite assembly process, and cable extrusion and structure collision problems in assembly process will affect development quality and progress of satellite directly. Aimed at problems existing in deck assembly process, assembly project scheme for satellite deck based on robot flexibility control principle is proposed in this paper. Scheme is introduced firstly; secondly, key technologies on end force perception and flexible docking control in the scheme are studied; then, implementation process of assembly scheme for satellite deck is described in detail; finally, actual application case of assembly scheme is given. Result shows that compared with traditional assembly scheme, assembly scheme for satellite deck based on robot flexibility control principle has obvious advantages in work efficiency, reliability and universality aspects etc.

  13. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements must...

  14. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements must...

  15. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements must...

  16. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements must...

  17. Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2013-01-01

    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work. PMID:23959243

  18. 28 CFR 79.35 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... a specified compensable disease more than five years after first exposure. Absent any indication to... the specified compensable disease. Proof of the onset of leukemia shall be established in accordance...

  19. 28 CFR 79.35 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... a specified compensable disease more than five years after first exposure. Absent any indication to... the specified compensable disease. Proof of the onset of leukemia shall be established in accordance...

  20. 28 CFR 79.35 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... a specified compensable disease more than five years after first exposure. Absent any indication to... the specified compensable disease. Proof of the onset of leukemia shall be established in accordance...

  1. 28 CFR 79.35 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... a specified compensable disease more than five years after first exposure. Absent any indication to... the specified compensable disease. Proof of the onset of leukemia shall be established in accordance...

  2. 28 CFR 79.35 - Proof of onset of leukemia at least two years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... years after first exposure, and proof of onset of a specified compensable disease more than five years... a specified compensable disease more than five years after first exposure. Absent any indication to... the specified compensable disease. Proof of the onset of leukemia shall be established in accordance...

  3. A novel electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer by the use of a proposed ``self-collection'' method for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Nagashima, S.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshida, M.; Ito, H.; Numakura, T.; Minami, R.; Kondoh, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-03-01

    For the purpose of end-loss-ion energy analyses in open-field plasmas, a newly developed electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer is proposed on the basis of a "self-collection" principle for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector. The ion-energy spectrometer is designed with multiple grids for analyzing incident ion energies, and a set of parallelly placed metal plates with respect to lines of ambient magnetic forces in an open-ended device. One of the most important characteristic properties of this spectrometer is the use of our proposed principle of a "self-collection" mechanism due to E×B drifts for secondary electrons emitted from the grounded metal-plate collector by the use of no further additional magnetic systems except the ambient open-ended fields B. The proof-of-principle and characterization experiments are carried out by the use of a test-ion-beam line along with an additional use of a Helmholtz coil system for the formation of open magnetic fields similar to those in the GAMMA 10 end region. The applications of the developed ion-energy spectrometer for end-loss-ion diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 plasma experiments are demonstrated under the conditions with simultaneous incidence of energetic electrons produced by electron-cyclotron heatings for end-loss-plugging potential formation, since these electrons have contributed to disturb these ion signals from conventional end-loss-ion detectors.

  4. NASA Contractor Report: Guidelines for Proof Test Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Kuhlman, C. J.; Russell, D. A.; Garr, K.; Donnelly, B.

    1997-01-01

    These Guidelines integrate state-of-the-art Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) and proof test implementation issues into a comprehensive proof test analysis procedure in the form of a Road Map which identifies the types of data, fracture mechanics based parameters, and calculations needed to perform flaw screening and minimum proof load analyses of fracture critical components. Worked examples are presented to illustrate the application of the Road Map to proof test analysis. The state-of-the-art fracture technology employed in these Guidelines is based on the EPFM parameter, J, and a pictorial representation of a J fracture analysis, called the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) approach. The recommended fracture technology is validated using finite element J results, and laboratory and hardware fracture test results on the nickel-based superalloy IN-718, the aluminum alloy 2024-T351 1, and ferritic pressure vessel steels. In all cases the laboratory specimens and hardware failed by ductile mechanisms. Advanced proof test analyses involving probability analysis and Multiple Cycle Proof Testing (MCPT) are addressed. Finally, recommendations are provided on to how to account for the effects of the proof test overload on subsequent service fatigue and fracture behaviors.

  5. Space network scheduling benchmark: A proof-of-concept process for technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Happell, Nadine; Hayden, B. J.; Barclay, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed proof-of-concept activity to evaluate flexible scheduling technology as implemented in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) and applied to Space Network (SN) scheduling. The criteria developed for an operational evaluation of a reusable scheduling system is addressed including a methodology to prove that the proposed system performs at least as well as the current system in function and performance. The improvement of the new technology must be demonstrated and evaluated against the cost of making changes. Finally, there is a need to show significant improvement in SN operational procedures. Successful completion of a proof-of-concept would eventually lead to an operational concept and implementation transition plan, which is outside the scope of this paper. However, a high-fidelity benchmark using actual SN scheduling requests has been designed to test the ROSE scheduling tool. The benchmark evaluation methodology, scheduling data, and preliminary results are described.

  6. A new electrophoretic focusing principle: focusing of nonamphoteric weak ionogenic analytes using inverse electromigration dispersion profiles.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2010-03-01

    This contribution introduces a new separation principle in CE which offers focusing of weak nonamphoteric ionogenic species and their inherent transport to the detector. The prerequisite condition for application of this principle is the existence of an inverse electromigration dispersion profile, i.e. a profile where pH is decreasing toward the anode or cathode for focusing of anionic or cationic weak analytes, respectively. The theory presented defines the principal conditions under which an analyte is focused on a profile of this type. Since electromigration dispersion profiles are migrating ones, the new principle offers inherent transport of focused analytes into the detection cell. The focusing principle described utilizes a mechanism different from both CZE (where separation is based on the difference in mobilities) and IEF (where separation is based on difference in pI), and hence, offers another separation dimension in CE. The new principle and its theory presented here are supplemented by convincing experiments as their proof.

  7. Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.

  8. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography: Principles and Potential for Pharmaceutical Research

    PubMed Central

    Stuker, Florian; Ripoll, Jorge; Rudin, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic imaging is widely used in biomedical research to study molecular and cellular processes in cell culture or tissue samples. This is motivated by the high inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, the spatial resolution that compares favorably with cellular dimensions, the stability of the fluorescent labels used and the sophisticated labeling strategies that have been developed for selectively labeling target molecules. More recently, two and three-dimensional optical imaging methods have also been applied to monitor biological processes in intact biological organisms such as animals or even humans. These whole body optical imaging approaches have to cope with the fact that biological tissue is a highly scattering and absorbing medium. As a consequence, light propagation in tissue is well described by a diffusion approximation and accurate reconstruction of spatial information is demanding. While in vivo optical imaging is a highly sensitive method, the signal is strongly surface weighted, i.e., the signal detected from the same light source will become weaker the deeper it is embedded in tissue, and strongly depends on the optical properties of the surrounding tissue. Derivation of quantitative information, therefore, requires tomographic techniques such as fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), which maps the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescent probe or protein concentration. The combination of FMT with a structural imaging method such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will allow mapping molecular information on a high definition anatomical reference and enable the use of prior information on tissue's optical properties to enhance both resolution and sensitivity. Today many of the fluorescent assays originally developed for studies in cellular systems have been successfully translated for experimental studies in animals. The opportunity of monitoring molecular processes non

  9. 7 CFR 1.657 - What is the standard of proof?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the standard of proof? 1.657 Section 1.657 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.657 What is the standard of proof? The standard of proof is a...

  10. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in the...

  11. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Power of Proofs-of-Possession: Securing Multiparty Signatures against Rogue-Key Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristenpart, Thomas; Yilek, Scott

    Multiparty signature protocols need protection against rogue-key attacks, made possible whenever an adversary can choose its public key(s) arbitrarily. For many schemes, provable security has only been established under the knowledge of secret key (KOSK) assumption where the adversary is required to reveal the secret keys it utilizes. In practice, certifying authorities rarely require the strong proofs of knowledge of secret keys required to substantiate the KOSK assumption. Instead, proofs of possession (POPs) are required and can be as simple as just a signature over the certificate request message. We propose a general registered key model, within which we can model both the KOSK assumption and in-use POP protocols. We show that simple POP protocols yield provable security of Boldyreva's multisignature scheme [11], the LOSSW multisignature scheme [28], and a 2-user ring signature scheme due to Bender, Katz, and Morselli [10]. Our results are the first to provide formal evidence that POPs can stop rogue-key attacks.

  13. 40 CFR 26.1125 - Prior submission of proposed human research for EPA review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research for EPA review. 26.1125 Section 26.1125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... of: (1) The potential risks to human subjects; (2) The measures proposed to minimize risks to the... through the proposed research; and (5) The balance of risks and benefits of the proposed research. (b) All...

  14. Developing Knowledge through Practical Experience: The Principles of Financial Sustainability for Online Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Bruwelheide, Janis; Poulin, Russell

    2007-01-01

    Following the theory of situated cognition as proposed by Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1998), this research project tapped into the contextual knowledge of experienced administrators of online programs. Draft principles of financial sustainability for online programs were developed by an initial team of experienced online educators and then…

  15. Mathematically Gifted High School Students' Approaches to Developing Visual Proofs (VP) and Preliminary Ideas about VP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurel, Isikhan; Morali, H. Sevgi; Karahan, Ozge; Boz, Burcak

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the procedure and examples of visual proofs (VP-or proof without words) developed by gifted mathematics secondary school students after their experiences. The participants of this study are three male 9th grade students enrolled in a private science high school. In the first stage of the research a briefing…

  16. A proof for Rhiel's range estimator of the coefficient of variation for skewed distributions.

    PubMed

    Rhiel, G Steven

    2007-02-01

    In this research study is proof that the coefficient of variation (CV(high-low)) calculated from the highest and lowest values in a set of data is applicable to specific skewed distributions with varying means and standard deviations. Earlier Rhiel provided values for d(n), the standardized mean range, and a(n), an adjustment for bias in the range estimator of micro. These values are used in estimating the coefficient of variation from the range for skewed distributions. The d(n) and an values were specified for specific skewed distributions with a fixed mean and standard deviation. In this proof it is shown that the d(n) and an values are applicable for the specific skewed distributions when the mean and standard deviation can take on differing values. This will give the researcher confidence in using this statistic for skewed distributions regardless of the mean and standard deviation.

  17. Dynamic principle for ensemble control tools.

    PubMed

    Samoletov, A; Vasiev, B

    2017-11-28

    Dynamical equations describing physical systems in contact with a thermal bath are commonly extended by mathematical tools called "thermostats." These tools are designed for sampling ensembles in statistical mechanics. Here we propose a dynamic principle underlying a range of thermostats which is derived using fundamental laws of statistical physics and ensures invariance of the canonical measure. The principle covers both stochastic and deterministic thermostat schemes. Our method has a clear advantage over a range of proposed and widely used thermostat schemes that are based on formal mathematical reasoning. Following the derivation of the proposed principle, we show its generality and illustrate its applications including design of temperature control tools that differ from the Nosé-Hoover-Langevin scheme.

  18. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proof of publication. 3742.3-4 Section... DEVELOPMENT Procedures Under the Act § 3742.3-4 Proof of publication. After the period of newspaper publication has expired, the person requesting publication shall obtain from the office of the newspaper of...

  19. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proof of publication. 3742.3-4 Section... DEVELOPMENT Procedures Under the Act § 3742.3-4 Proof of publication. After the period of newspaper publication has expired, the person requesting publication shall obtain from the office of the newspaper of...

  20. 37 CFR 2.96 - Issue; burden of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue; burden of proof. 2.96... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Interferences and Concurrent Use Proceedings § 2.96 Issue; burden of proof. The issue in an interference between applications is normally priority of use, but the...