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Sample records for proovisit seat leon

  1. Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    In this discussion of Sierra Leone, attention is directed to the people, geography, history, government and political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Sierra Leone. The population of Sierra Leone was estimated to be 3.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate estimated at 2.3%. Life expectancy is 46 years. 18 ethnic groups make up the country's indigenous population; the Temne in the north and the Mende in the south are the largest. Sierra Leone is located in the western part of the great bulge of West Africa. Most of the 20th century history of the colony was peaceful, and independence was accomplished without violence. The 1951 constitution provided the framework for decolonization. Independence came in 1961, and Sierra Leone became a parliamentary system within the British Commonwealth. In April 1971, it adopted a republican constituion, cutting the link to the British monarchy but remaining within the Commonwealth. Sierra Leone is rich in minerals and has relied upon the mining sector, in general, and diamonds, in particular, for its economic base. In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rates slowed due to a decline in the mining sector that had eroded the export base. About 75% of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, and, although most of the population derives their livelihood from agriculture, it accounts for only 30% of the national income. Government development plans have focused increasingly on agriculture, with efforts directed toward increasing food and cash crop production and upgrading small farmer skills. Sierra Leone has followed a foreign policy of nonalignments, although historically it has maintained cordial relations with the West, particularly with the UK and the US. The country's military force is well-trained and well-disciplined but is hampered by a small budget and insufficient materiel. At this time, relations between the US and Sierra Leone are cordial, although

  2. Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    In this discussion of Sierra Leone, attention is directed to the people, geography, history, government and political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Sierra Leone. The population of Sierra Leone was estimated to be 3.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate estimated at 2.3%. Life expectancy is 46 years. 18 ethnic groups make up the country's indigenous population; the Temne in the north and the Mende in the south are the largest. Sierra Leone is located in the western part of the great bulge of West Africa. Most of the 20th century history of the colony was peaceful, and independence was accomplished without violence. The 1951 constitution provided the framework for decolonization. Independence came in 1961, and Sierra Leone became a parliamentary system within the British Commonwealth. In April 1971, it adopted a republican constituion, cutting the link to the British monarchy but remaining within the Commonwealth. Sierra Leone is rich in minerals and has relied upon the mining sector, in general, and diamonds, in particular, for its economic base. In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rates slowed due to a decline in the mining sector that had eroded the export base. About 75% of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, and, although most of the population derives their livelihood from agriculture, it accounts for only 30% of the national income. Government development plans have focused increasingly on agriculture, with efforts directed toward increasing food and cash crop production and upgrading small farmer skills. Sierra Leone has followed a foreign policy of nonalignments, although historically it has maintained cordial relations with the West, particularly with the UK and the US. The country's military force is well-trained and well-disciplined but is hampered by a small budget and insufficient materiel. At this time, relations between the US and Sierra Leone are cordial, although

  3. Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    This discussion of Sierra Leone covers the following: the history of the demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural resources; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. In the past few decades, Sierra Leone has continued to be characterized by a relatively small population size and low rate of growth. According to UN estimates, the population totaled 2.2 million in 1950 and increased to 2.5 and 2.8 million in 1960 and 1970, respectively. The rate of growth increased from 1.1% per annum during 1950-55 to 1.4% during 1970-75. The mortality rate declined only slightly, from 36.3 deaths per 1000 population during 1950-55 to a rate of around 35 in the following decades. The government of Sierra Leone does not have an explicit policy to modify population growth, even though in recent years the government has become more supportive of family planning activities, a major departure from its previous pronatalist policy. In 1978, improvements were made in data collection and data processing. The government first noted the relationship between a high rate of population growth and its negative effect on economic and social development in the 1973-74/1978-79 National Development Plan. Despite this recognition, no population policy was proposed. The total population size of Sierra Leone according to UN estimates was reported to be 3.3 million in 1980, an increase from 3 million in 1975. The population is projected to increase to 4.9 million by 2000, and the government considers the present rate of population growth to be too high. Sierra Leone continues to have high levels of morbidity and mortality. Latest UN estimates indicate

  4. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  5. Initiatives: Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W E

    1996-04-01

    Following field reports that men were resistant to family planning and prevented their wives from using any form of contraception, the Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL) launched a project in 1992 to motivate men. The project disseminated the messages that family planning practice can help to improve socioeconomic status and prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. A broad array of approaches was used to sensitize and educate men, including publicity campaigns, group meetings, home visits, the distribution of print media, radio and television, and the formation of men's clubs. Two community based agents were trained and deployed in Tombo to sell and distribute contraceptives. Monthly back-up clinic services were also provided. It was learned from the evaluation conducted at the end of 1995 that male family planning acceptor figures were markedly higher in 1993 and 1994 relative to 1992. However, rebel warfare in 1995 made the entire country unsafe for full project implementation.

  6. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across your child's upper thighs. The ... seats. The vests are used with the vehicle's lap and seat belts. As with car seats, children should be sitting ...

  7. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  8. Stable Ejection Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Drogue chute for ejection seat slows down seat in more stable fashion than conventional parachutes and thus improves chances for survival. Square drogue linked to seat from its corners suppresses tendency of seat to rotate in pitch and yaw. New parachute expected to reduce dynamic forces on ejected person and extend maximum possible ejection altitude by 50 percent. Used at high or low speeds.

  9. Take a Seat, Please.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Offers decision-making tips when choosing auditorium seating for both indoor and outdoor use. Tips for outdoor seating include deciding on weather-resistant options, permanent or temporary bleachers, seating materials, colors, and ease maintenance. Indoor seating selection tips include overall comfort and quietness, their adaptive features to…

  10. Susu Language Manual: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    A teacher's guide for Susu is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Sierra Leone. It contains a section on Susu phonology and 28 lessons on these topics: situation-specific greetings, basic greetings, introducing a friend, the market, travel and getting directions, visiting…

  11. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  12. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  13. My Great Migration from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal narrative as an immigrant from Sierra Leone who has undergone so many challenges in life and ended up turning all these obstacles into opportunities. In this article, the author describes his life growing up in Sierra Leone, his first experience of the horrors of war, his life as a student, and his dream…

  14. Seated postural hypotension.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  15. Seat test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The test program has the objectives to: (1) evaluate severity of newspaper ignition source with contemporary seats (determine weight loss, visual damage, and if ignition source is severe enough to show improvement with new material configurations); (2) compare damage with jet A-1 ignition source; and (3) determine if materials for seat tests pass FAR 25 and obtain L01. Test configurations, data acquired, material test results, seat test results, and conclusions are presented.

  16. Lap seat belt injuries.

    PubMed

    Hingston, G R

    1996-08-01

    Over a 4 month period, three patients presented acutely to Whangarei Area Hospital after receiving severe abdominal injuries caused directly by lap seat belts. They were involved in road traffic crashes and were all seated in the middle rear seat of the car. The aim of this paper is to alert people to the injuries that can occur from two point lap belts. To this end, the patients and injuries sustained are described and a review of the literature is presented.

  17. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  18. The death of Leon Trotsky.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    Leon Trotsky was one of the founders of the Soviet Union and an obvious candidate to replace Lenin after his death. Unfortunately for him, it was Joseph Stalin who came to power, and Trotsky went into a long forced exile that eventually took him to Mexico, where he found asylum. On August 20, 1940, a Stalinist agent wounded Trotsky in the head with an ice axe in his house in Coyoacán, Mexico. Just a few hours later, Mexican neurosurgeons operated on him at the Cruz Verde Hospital in Mexico City. The axe had broken Trotsky's parietal bone and, after tearing the meninges, had damaged the encephalon. Despite the care provided by physicians and nurses, Trotsky passed away 25 hours after he was attacked, a victim of bleeding and shock. This article presents a review of Trotsky's last day, with special emphasis on the doctors who performed the surgery and who took care of the Russian revolutionary in his final moments. The results of Trotsky's autopsy are also discussed. The assassination of Leon Trotsky is one of the most dramatic events of the first half of the 20th century to have taken place on Mexican soil, and those final hours are an important moment in the history of Mexican neurosurgery and in the history of the world.

  19. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  20. Narrowing Your Seating Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Offers guidance on selecting appropriate seating furniture for outdoor facilities, arenas, auditoriums, and lecture rooms. Considerations such as beam mounting systems to facilitate laptop computer and campuswide networking use by students and chair durability and ergonomics are discussed as are tips for choosing a seating remanufacturing company.…

  1. Tackling population in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    In this interview (April 21) with Yoshio Koike, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country director, the population situation in Sierra Leone is described. 4.5 million persons inhabit an area of 74,000 sq. km. Independence was achieved in 1961, but the country was under the patronage of the United Kingdom until April 1992 when a military coup occurred. The new leaders are young (22-29 years) and enthusiastic; a democratic general election will be held in 1996 and the municipal assembly election will occur in 1995. Sierra Leone was the ninth African country receiving aid from UNFPA to establish a population policy (1989). A National Population Commission, which has remained dormant, was also established. The population growth rate is 2.4% annually (average for west African countries); the total fertility rate is 6.8. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be 1400-1700/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about 180; for those under 5 years of age, it is 275. Although the country has 470 clinics available on paper, only 25% are operational according to UNFPA. This is the third year of the MCH/FP project, but only 76 clinics provide family planning information and services. Through coordination of nongovernmental and governmental efforts, 20,000 newcomers and acceptors are being recruited for family planning annually. If expansion continues at this rate and repeaters are maintained for 5 years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) should reach 20%. Currently, it is 2% in rural areas and 9% in cities. The national average is about 4-6%. The CPR should approach the goal of 60% in 10 years. There is no serious objection to family planning on the basis of religion; however, people are not informed about the importance of birth spacing and about where they can obtain services. Information, education, and communication (IEC) activities are being improved.

  2. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  3. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  4. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  5. Seat belt restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.

    1972-01-01

    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  6. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  7. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis.

    PubMed

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  8. Leon Foucault: His Life, Times and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aczel, Amir D.

    2004-01-01

    Leon Foucault's dramatic demonstration of the rotation of the Earth using a freely-rotating pendulum in 1850 shocked the world of science. Scientists were stunned that such a simple proof of our planet's rotation had to wait so long to be developed. Foucault's public demonstration, which was repeated at many locations around the world, put an end…

  9. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses manufactured on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. After June 30, 1972, every bus manufactured... Safety Administration. 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (2) Buses manufactured on...

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses manufactured on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. After June 30, 1972, every bus manufactured... Safety Administration. 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (2) Buses manufactured on...

  11. The Prediciton of Seat Transmissibility from Measures of Seat Impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Griffin, J.

    1998-07-01

    A method of predicting seat transmissibility from mathematical models of the seat and the human body is described. The complex dynamic stiffness of a seat is determined by measurement using an indenter rig, and its stiffness and damping subsequently determined by curve-fitting. By using the fitted stiffness and damping of the seat model, and a previously determined dynamic model of the human body, the seat transmissibility is predicted mathematically. The method is illustrated with data obtained with a car seat and also a rectangular sample of foam. The seat and foam transmissibilities were predicted over the frequency range 1·25-25 Hz using two alternative models of the human body (a one-degree-of-freedom model and a two-degree-of-freedom model). The predicted seat transmissibilities were close to those measured in a group of eight subjects over the entire frequency range. The two-degree-of-freedom model of the human body provided better predictions where the seat and foam showed a second resonance around 8 Hz. The need for a non-linear mathematical model of the human body and a non-linear seat model is discussed.

  12. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  13. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  14. Leon X-1, the First Chandra Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Tom; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; ODell, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Here we present an analysis of the first photons detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and an identification of the brightest source in the field which we named Leon X-1 to honor the momentous contributions of the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. The observation took place immediately following the opening of the last door protecting the X-ray telescope. We discuss the unusual operational conditions as the first extra-terrestrial X-ray photons reflected from the telescope onto the ACIS camera. One bright source was a p parent to the team at the control center and the small collection of photons that appeared on the monitor were sufficient to indicate that the telescope had survived the launch and was approximately in focus, even prior to any checks and subsequent adjustments.

  15. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  17. A Flying Ejection Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollrock, R. H.; Barzda, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    To increase aircrewmen's chances for safe rescue in combat zones, the armed forces are investigating advanced escape and rescue concepts that will provide independent flight after ejection and thus reduce the risk of capture. One of the candidate concepts is discussed; namely, a stowable autogyro that serves as the crewman's seat during normal operations and automatically converts to a flight vehicle after ejection. Discussed are (1) the mechanism subsystems that the concept embodies to meet the weight and cockpit-packaging constraints and (2) tests that demonstrated the technical feasibility of the stowage, deployment, and flight operation of the rotor lift system.

  18. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Schrag, Stephanie J; Carter, Rosalind J; Carr, Wendy; Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Gibson, Laura; Lisk, Durodami R; Jalloh, Mohamed I; Bash-Taqi, Donald A; Kargbo, Samuel A Sheku; Idriss, Ayesha; Deen, Gibrilla F; Russell, James B W; McDonald, Wendi; Albert, Alison P; Basket, Michelle; Callis, Amy; Carter, Victoria M; Ogunsanya, Kelli R Clifton; Gee, Julianne; Pinner, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E; Goldstein, Susan T; Seward, Jane F; Samai, Mohamed; Schuchat, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV). The study population was health care and frontline workers in select chiefdoms of the five most affected districts in Sierra Leone. Participants were randomized to receive a single intramuscular dose of rVSV-ZEBOV at enrollment or to receive a single intramuscular dose 18-24 weeks after enrollment. All participants were followed up monthly until 6 months after vaccination. Two substudies separately assessed detailed reactogenicity over 1 month and immunogenicity over 12 months. During the 5 months before the trial, STRIVE and partners built a research platform in Sierra Leone comprising participant follow-up sites, cold chain, reliable power supply, and vaccination clinics and hired and trained at least 350 national staff. Wide-ranging community outreach, informational sessions, and messaging were conducted before and during the trial to ensure full communication to the population of the study area regarding procedures and current knowledge about the trial vaccine. During April 9-August 15, 2015, STRIVE enrolled 8,673 participants, of whom 453 and 539 were also enrolled in the safety and immunogenicity substudies, respectively. As of April 28, 2016, no Ebola cases and no vaccine-related serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability, were reported in the study population. Although STRIVE will not produce an

  19. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Schrag, Stephanie J; Carter, Rosalind J; Carr, Wendy; Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Gibson, Laura; Lisk, Durodami R; Jalloh, Mohamed I; Bash-Taqi, Donald A; Kargbo, Samuel A Sheku; Idriss, Ayesha; Deen, Gibrilla F; Russell, James B W; McDonald, Wendi; Albert, Alison P; Basket, Michelle; Callis, Amy; Carter, Victoria M; Ogunsanya, Kelli R Clifton; Gee, Julianne; Pinner, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E; Goldstein, Susan T; Seward, Jane F; Samai, Mohamed; Schuchat, Anne

    2016-07-08

    In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV). The study population was health care and frontline workers in select chiefdoms of the five most affected districts in Sierra Leone. Participants were randomized to receive a single intramuscular dose of rVSV-ZEBOV at enrollment or to receive a single intramuscular dose 18-24 weeks after enrollment. All participants were followed up monthly until 6 months after vaccination. Two substudies separately assessed detailed reactogenicity over 1 month and immunogenicity over 12 months. During the 5 months before the trial, STRIVE and partners built a research platform in Sierra Leone comprising participant follow-up sites, cold chain, reliable power supply, and vaccination clinics and hired and trained at least 350 national staff. Wide-ranging community outreach, informational sessions, and messaging were conducted before and during the trial to ensure full communication to the population of the study area regarding procedures and current knowledge about the trial vaccine. During April 9-August 15, 2015, STRIVE enrolled 8,673 participants, of whom 453 and 539 were also enrolled in the safety and immunogenicity substudies, respectively. As of April 28, 2016, no Ebola cases and no vaccine-related serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability, were reported in the study population. Although STRIVE will not produce an

  20. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  1. Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

  2. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. PMID:26347639

  3. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24... than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) and the seats must be secured to a deck...

  4. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24... than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) and the seats must be secured to a deck...

  5. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24... than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) and the seats must be secured to a deck...

  6. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24... than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) and the seats must be secured to a deck...

  7. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24... than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) and the seats must be secured to a deck...

  8. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  9. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  10. Ceramic valve guide and seat

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, D.H.; Schmidt, H.

    1987-08-25

    For molded inclusion in a cast metal cylinder head of a internal combustion engine, an integral ceramic valve seat and valve stem guide assembly are described for operative engagement with and support of a conventional poppet-type valve with its enlarged head portion with a sealing surface thereon and an elongated cylindrical stem portion. The guide and seat consist of: valve seat forming means cast in ceramic material having an annular configuration operatively conforming to the configuration of the sealing surface of the valve and defining an annular seating surface for sealing engagement with the enlarged valve head when the valve is in a closed position; valve stem support means cast in ceramic having a generally tubular configuration with an internal bore and defining a support for reciprocation of the cylindrical stem portion of the valve as the valve moves between open and closed operative position; connecting means cast in ceramic and integral with both the valve set forming means and the valve stem supporting guide means for aligning the means so that a plane through the annular seating surface is normal to the axis of the tubular guide means and coaxially supporting the annular valve set forming means and the tubular guide portion whereas the integral valve seat forming means.

  11. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  12. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings.

  13. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. PMID:24793821

  14. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  15. [What pediatricians should know about car seats?: car safety seats].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Lucas David

    2013-06-01

    In Argentina more than 7,000 people die each year due to traffic injuries. It is an endemic disease, a serious public health problem. There are evidence-based recommendations about how children should ride safety in cars; children through 8 years or 4 feet 9 inches cannot be fastened by the seat belt so they should ride in a child restraint system. These devices significantly reduce the chances of suffering serious injuries and fatalities. Although in our country the use of car safety seats is not yet legislated nor compulsory, pediatricians should recommend parents how and why to use them. PMID:23732352

  16. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  17. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  18. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 3.8 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters...

  19. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 3.8 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters...

  20. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 3.8 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters...

  1. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 3.8 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters...

  2. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 3.8 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 760 millimeters (30 inches) in width. (3) Where seats are in rows, the distance from seat front to seat front must be not less than 760 millimeters...

  3. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  4. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  5. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  6. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  7. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  8. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  9. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  10. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Scott, Janet T; Sesay, Foday R; Massaquoi, Thomas A; Idriss, Baimba R; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8-70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (p<0.03). This complete survivor cohort from 1 ETU enables analysis of the proportion of symptoms of post-Ebola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain. PMID:26983037

  11. Integrated seat frame and back support

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  12. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  13. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  14. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological...

  15. Life in Sierra Leone, West Africa. A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Richard A.

    This unit is designed for students in grades 6-12. The unit provides an introduction to Sierra Leone and the continent of Africa through basic concepts and a conceptual framework for learning. The unit is divided into 17 activities. Activities include: (1) "Stereotypes and Myths about African and Africans"; (2) "The Manding Name Game"; (3) "Common…

  16. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  17. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  18. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  19. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A.; Covington, Andrea L.; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H.; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Lamin, Joseph M.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Stenger, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012–January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  20. Why High School Must Go: An Interview with Leon Botstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Leon Botstein, longtime president of Bard College, as well as music director and conductor of the American and Jerusalem symphony orchestras. Botstein talks about his book entitled "Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture" and his views about teens and high schools in America.…

  1. School Libraries in Sierra Leone's Educational System: Quo Vadis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of school libraries in Sierra Leone's (Africa) educational system and the problems affecting their development. Discusses the need for materials to support teaching activities; sociological factors; teachers' and students' information needs; current trends and changes; rural areas with no school libraries; and lack of standards,…

  2. Land Lab Experiences in Sierra Leone and Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Burton E.; Tucker, Sonny W.

    1978-01-01

    The agricultural education curriculum at Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone, is stressing practical farm experience programs on school land for students preparing to teach agriculture. In Illinois also the "land laboratories" concept appears to be effective in providing practical agricultural training. (MF)

  3. Home Alone: Children as Caretakers in Leon, Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Herrara, Andres Rodriguez; Pena, Rodolfo; Dahlgren, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explore and understand the life situations of sibling caretakers in poor areas in Leon, Nicaragua. The every day lives for caretakers were studied through observations and interviews with children, informants and parents. The children themselves were satisfied and proud to be trusted as caretakers and felt useful in…

  4. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  5. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  6. NASA general aviation crashworthiness seat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three load limiting seat concepts for general aviation aircraft designed to lower the deceleration of the occupant in the event of a crash were sled tested and evaluated with reference to a standard seat. Dummy pelvis accelerations were reduced up to 50 percent with one of the concepts. Computer program MSOMLA (Modified Seat Occupant Model for Light Aircraft) was used to simulate the behavior of a dummy passenger in a NASA full-scale crash test of a twin engine light aircraft. A computer graphics package MANPLOT was developed to pictorially represent the occupant and seat motion.

  7. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  8. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M.; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J.; Jones, Abigail B.; Illick, Megan M.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Haislip, Allyson M.; Bishop, Christopher M.; Elliot, Deborah H.; Brown, Bethany L.; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Gire, Stephen K.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B.; Spence, Jennifer S.; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Happi, Christian T.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geske, F. Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E.; Wilson, Russell B.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Henderson, Lee A.; Khan, S. Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to

  9. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785; Legal... 121, part 91 did not require that each person have a separate seat and/or seat belt. See 36 FR 12511... Belt and Seating Requirements for General Aviation Flights AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  10. Research priorities: seating and positioning.

    PubMed

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The Mobility Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology held its State of the Science Conference to address challenges in studying the health, activity and participation of wheelchair users. This article summarizes the discussions of four seating and positioning research topics. Attendees were divided into Breakout Groups and assigned specific research topics that were deemed priorities by the attendees. Breakout Groups were charged with configuring the research topic into a research project and were asked to identify research questions, specific aims or hypotheses, significance, study design possibilities, recruitment considerations, measurement variables and tools, analysis considerations, and anticipated challenges. The four research topics selected for discussion were: Impact of a seating and mobility intervention, Defining a systematic clinical approach to cushion selection, Functional impact of wheelchair cushions, and Long term impact of sitting. Group synopses presented in this paper were compiled from Group notes and presentation. They are presented in sequence and reflect variability in discussion, presentation and content. Some research topics were more amenable to the suggested guidelines than others.

  11. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  12. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  17. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  18. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  19. Seat belt use and stress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schichor, A; Beck, A; Bernstein, B; Crabtree, B

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the association of adolescent seat belt use with psychosocial risk factors in an urban minority population after the enactment of a mandatory seat belt law. Data on seat belt use, family support, feelings of being down, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual activity, school troubles, and problems with the law were obtained from 541 self-report intake forms administered to an adolescent medicine clinic population from 1986 to 1987. Respondents were almost exclusively black and Hispanic; 315 (59%) were females and 222 (41%) males, with a mean age of 15.4. Seat belt use was reported by 249 (46%) and no or intermittent use by 292 (54%). Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sums tests were used to examine associations between seat belt use and risk factors. Results showed that the group comprised of those reporting no and intermittent seat belt use was significantly more likely to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, have been on probation, and feel that life in general was not going very well. No association was found between seat belt use and cigarette, drug, or alcohol use or sexual activity without contraceptives. Taking into account the lack of observed behavioral information to validate such self-report questionnaires, these data nevertheless point to the nonuse or intermittent use of seat belts as a possible manifestation of a lack of self-care due to feeling down and/or preoccupation with family, school, or societal problems. PMID:2275431

  20. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  1. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car. How should I wear my seat belt? The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  2. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  3. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  4. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  5. Seat-belt syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N S; Date, R; Charlwood, A P; Adair, I V; Clements, W D

    2001-10-01

    This report describes a complex syndrome of injuries occurring in a young female who was a back seat passenger wearing a lap-belt restraint in a high-speed road traffic accident. As a consequence of the forced flexion distraction injury of her lumbar spine, she sustained a fracture-subluxation of the first lumbar vertebra in association with a jejunal perforation and extensive small intestinal mesenteric laceration. She also had a large traumatic hernia of the anterior abdominal wall, which was overlooked at primary laparotomy. This report highlights collectively the classical combination of injuries associated with the lap-belt syndrome and demonstrates the importance of carefully inspecting the anterior abdominal wall for deficiencies, because traumatic herniation may be easily overlooked.

  6. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  7. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  8. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Stockelman, Michael G.; Moses, Lina M.; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone. PMID:25811712

  9. Response to the Ebola crisis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Beauty Chiedza; Bowley, Douglas; Roper, Katrina

    2015-02-27

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014 marked the first time that an epidemic of this viral haemorrhagic fever had occurred in West Africa. From its origin in Guinea, the outbreak rapidly increased to become a humanitarian crisis affecting all aspects of life in the three countries worst affected: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Improving understanding of Ebola virus disease among the general population and instigating the behavioural changes required to help break the epidemic were central to the public health response. This article explores some of the misconceptions about Ebola as it spread into Sierra Leonean communities, and the social mobilisation response of the government of Sierra Leone. It is a reflective account of conversations with Sierra Leonean nationals during a military deployment at the International Security Advisory Team headquarters medical treatment facility in Freetown. PMID:25711592

  10. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Bangura, Laurel; Leigh, Bailah; Berggren, Vanja; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice. Purpose To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors. Patients and methods A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258) attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open- ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel. Results All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%), the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8%) sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser), and 16 a health professional. Conclusion The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who undergo FGM before 10 years of age seem to be more vulnerable to serious complications than those who are older at the time of FGM. It is important that health care personnel are aware of, and look for possible complications from FGM, and encourage girls and women to seek medical care for their problems. PMID:22870046

  11. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating.

    PubMed

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P

    2012-03-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar.

  12. Seat height in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, D J; Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, T J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of seat height on the cardiorespiratory system and kinematics in handrim wheelchair ambulation, nine non-wheelchair users participated in a wheelchair exercise experiment on a motor-driven treadmill. The subjects conducted five progressive exercise tests. After an initial try-out test, four tests were performed at different standardized seat heights of 100, 120, 140, and 160 degrees elbow extension (subject sitting erect, hands on the rim in top-dead-center = 12.00 hrs; full extension = 180 degrees). Each test consisted of four 3-minute exercise blocks at speeds of respectively 0.55, 0.83, 1.11, and 1.39 m.s-1 (2-5 km.hr-1). Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of seat height (P less than 0.05) on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), oxygen cost, push range, and push duration, and on the ranges of motion in the different arm segments and trunk. Mean ME appeared higher at the lower seat heights of 100 and 120 degrees elbow extension. This is reflected in an enhanced oxygen consumption at seat heights of 140 and 160 degrees elbow extension. Simultaneously, the push range showed a 15 to 20 degree decrease with increasing seat height, which is reflected in a decreased push duration. In the push phase, decreases in retroflexion and abduction/adduction of the upper arm were seen. The trunk shifted further forward, and the motion range in the elbow joint shifted to extension with increasing seat height. No shifts in minimum and maximum angular velocities were seen with increasing seat height. The results showed an interrelationship between wheelchair seat height and both cardiorespiratory and kinematic parameters. With respect to the cardiorespiratory system, the optimization of the wheelchair geometry, based on functional characteristics of the user, appears beneficial.

  13. The inaccessibility of seat belts in taxicabs.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R M

    1989-01-01

    The accessibility of seat belts was determined in a total sample of 200 taxicabs waiting to pick up passengers at eight city airports. A rear seat belt was "accessible" (able to be fastened within 10 seconds) in 111 (55.5 per cent) taxicabs. The proportion varied by city from 16.0 per cent (New York City) to 96.0 per cent (Minneapolis-St. Paul) and was higher for taxicabs in cities covered by mandatory state seat belt legislation. PMID:2916721

  14. RTEMS SMP and MTAPI for Efficient Multi-Core Space Applications on LEON3/LEON4 Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel; Sherrill, Joel; Bloom, Gedare; Patte, Mathieu; Zulianello, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the final result of an European Space Agency (ESA) activity aimed at improving the software support for LEON processors used in SMP configurations. One of the benefits of using a multicore system in a SMP configuration is that in many instances it is possible to better utilize the available processing resources by load balancing between cores. This however comes with the cost of having to synchronize operations between cores, leading to increased complexity. While in an AMP system one can use multiple instances of operating systems that are only uni-processor capable, a SMP system requires the operating system to be written to support multicore systems. In this activity we have improved and extended the SMP support of the RTEMS real-time operating system and ensured that it fully supports the multicore capable LEON processors. The targeted hardware in the activity has been the GR712RC, a dual-core core LEON3FT processor, and the functional prototype of ESA's Next Generation Multiprocessor (NGMP), a quad core LEON4 processor. The final version of the NGMP is now available as a product under the name GR740. An implementation of the Multicore Task Management API (MTAPI) has been developed as part of this activity to aid in the parallelization of applications for RTEMS SMP. It allows for simplified development of parallel applications using the task-based programming model. An existing space application, the Gaia Video Processing Unit, has been ported to RTEMS SMP using the MTAPI implementation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of multicore processors for space payload software. The activity is funded by ESA under contract 4000108560/13/NL/JK. Gedare Bloom is supported in part by NSF CNS-0934725.

  15. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of gravity of that portion of the seat. (b) Once engaged, the restraining device for a rearward... through the center of gravity of that portion of the seat. S4.3.2.2Acceleration. Once engaged, the... seat whose center of gravity is in a horizontal plane that is above the seat adjuster or that...

  16. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of gravity of that portion of the seat. (b) Once engaged, the restraining device for a rearward... through the center of gravity of that portion of the seat. S4.3.2.2Acceleration. Once engaged, the... seat whose center of gravity is in a horizontal plane that is above the seat adjuster or that...

  17. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  18. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  19. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  20. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  1. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  2. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  3. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  4. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  5. Effectiveness of Booster Seats Compared With No Restraint or Seat Belt Alone for Crash Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster seats, compared with no restraint use and with seat belt use only, during motor vehicle crashes among U.S. children. Methods This was a retrospective matched cohort study with data from the 1998 through 2009 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The study sample consisted of children aged 0 to 10 years who were not seated in the front seat of the vehicle. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of overall, fatal, and regional body injury. Results Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats experienced less overall injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 0, adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.96; Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or higher, adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58; ISS > 8, adjusted RR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56), and less injury in most body regions except the neck (adjusted RR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.43 to 16.00) than did children with no restraint use. Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats had an equal risk of injury but higher risks of neck (adjusted RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.40) and thorax (adjusted RR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.33 to 6.15) injury than did children restrained by seat belts only. Conclusions Children using belt-positioning booster seats appear to experience a higher risk of AIS > 0 injury to the neck and thorax than do children using seat belts only. Future research should examine whether the observed increase in neck and thorax injuries can be attributed to improper use of booster seats. PMID:24050794

  6. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly.” While the rate of deaths in motor vehicle crashes in children under age 16 has decreased ... seat. Then a booster will make sure the vehicle’s lap-and-shoulder belt fit properly. The shoulder ...

  7. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  8. Pump-through pressure seat for use in a wellbore

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a valve seat, it comprises: an anchor section; a sealing lip coupled to the anchor section wherein a pressure differential is developed across the valve seat when the valve plug sealingly engages the seating surface, applying force to the sealing lip; wherein after passage of the valve plug, the seating surface of the seating lip is disposed in a second position relative to the anchor section defining a third clearance intermediate the first and second clearances.

  9. Ebola Virus Diagnostics: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Laboratory in Sierra Leone, August 2014 to March 2015.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mike; Goodman, Christin H; Bearden, Scott; Blau, Dianna M; Amman, Brian R; Basile, Alison J; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Éric; Bowen, Michael D; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Dodd, Kimberly A; Erickson, Bobbie R; Freeman, Molly M; Gibbons, Aridth; Guerrero, Lisa W; Klena, John D; Lash, R Ryan; Lo, Michael K; McMullan, Laura K; Momoh, Gbetuwa; Massally, James L; Goba, Augustine; Paddock, Christopher D; Priestley, Rachael A; Pyle, Meredith; Rayfield, Mark; Russell, Brandy J; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela J; Schuh, Amy J; Sealy, Tara K; Steinau, Martin; Stoddard, Robyn A; Taboy, Céline; Turnsek, Maryann; Wang, David; Zemtsova, Galina E; Zivcec, Marko; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Bird, Brian H

    2015-10-01

    In August 2014, the Viral Special Pathogens Branch of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established a field laboratory in Sierra Leone in response to the ongoing Ebola virus outbreak. Through March 2015, this laboratory tested >12 000 specimens from throughout Sierra Leone. We describe the organization and procedures of the laboratory located in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  10. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  11. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  12. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of America... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24751). At the request of the state... ``Intier Automotive Seatings of America, Inc.'' Accordingly, the Department is amending this...

  13. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... compared to the static strength criteria. These new criteria were intended to achieve the type of... cushion/ upholstery system on the affected Koito seats and seating systems may not meet the Bunsen burner... described previously is likely to exist or develop in other products of the same type design. This...

  14. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  15. Fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone: a view from the frontline.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen; Leyland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The largest and most complex Ebola epidemic in history is believed to have started with the infection of a 2-year-old boy in South-eastern Guinea in late 2013. Within a year, thousands of children and their families had contracted the virus, many had died and many more were orphaned. We reflect on our experiences of volunteering at the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre in Sierra Leone between January and February 2015, where we were deployed to care for just a few of these children as part of the Save The Children team. PMID:26507816

  16. Discomfort during lateral acceleration: influence of seat cushion and backrest.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Lateral acceleration causes discomfort but how the discomfort depends on the frequency of acceleration or characteristics of seating is poorly understood. Using magnitude estimation, twelve male subjects rated the discomfort caused by lateral oscillation at eight frequencies (0.2-1.0 Hz) across four seating conditions (a rigid seat and a train seat, both with and without backrests). Discomfort increased with increasing frequency of lateral acceleration in a similar manner for all four seating conditions. However, at all frequencies and with both seats there was less discomfort when sitting with backrest support than without. Least discomfort occurred on the train seat with backrest and greatest discomfort on the rigid seat without backrest. Current standards predict an additive effect of backrest on vibration discomfort, but the findings show that low frequency lateral acceleration can cause less discomfort when sitting with a backrest than when sitting on the same seat without a backrest.

  17. Effect of Booster Seat Design on Children's Choice of Seating Positions During Naturalistic Riding.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marianne; Bohman, Katarina; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this naturalistic study was to investigate the effect of booster seat design on the choice of children's seating positions during naturalistic riding. Data was collected through observations of children during in-vehicle riding by means of a film camera. The children were positioned in high back boosters in the rear seat while a parent drove the car. The study included two different booster designs: one with large head and torso side supports, and one with small head side supports and no torso side supports. Six children between three and six years of age participated in the study. Each child was observed in both boosters. The duration of the seating positions that each child assumed was quantified. The design with large side head supports resulted more often in seating positions without head and shoulder contact with the booster's back. There was shoulder-to-booster back contact during an average of 45% of riding time in the seat with the large head side supports compared to 75% in the seat with the small head supports. The children in the study were seated with the head in front of the front edge of the head side supports more than half the time, in both boosters. Laterally, the children were almost constantly positioned between the side supports of the booster in both seats. The observed seating positions probably reduce the desired protective effect by the side supports in side impact, and may increase the probability of head impact with the vehicle interior in frontal impact. PMID:21050601

  18. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  19. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  20. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  1. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  2. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed. PMID:25189755

  3. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  4. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

  5. NASA seat experiment and occupant responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the crash test of a remotely piloted transport aircraft instrumented to measure a NASA energy-absorbing transport seat are given. Human tolerance limits to acceleration and a dynamic response index model are discussed. It was found that the acceleration levels at the rear of the airplane were quite low and were below the stroking threshold of the NASA EA-seat. Therefore, dummies in the standard and EA-seat responded approximately the same. All longitudinal accelerations were quite low for the primary impact with very low forces measured in the lap belts. The vertical (spineward) acceleration levels measured in the dummies were also relatively low and very survivable from an impact tolerance standpoint. The pilot with an 18 G peak acceleration received by far the highest vertical acceleration and could have possibly received slight spinal injury.

  6. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  7. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  8. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle...

  10. 12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV Center booth and reserved seating areas. Stairway above booth leads to turret on roof. Camera pointed SW. (May 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  11. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  12. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  13. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  15. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last... estimated State seat belt use rate for the unknown calendar year. The estimated State seat belt use...

  16. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  17. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the size and weight of over-wing window exit doors; (v) To remove obstructions of size and weight... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... commuter operations with aircraft having 9 or fewer passenger seats. (2) Duty to make determination...

  18. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  19. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  20. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  1. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  2. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... measurement. (1) As used in this section, “seating surface” only includes the seat cushion and soft trim...

  3. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  4. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  5. Results from tests of three prototype general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of energy absorbing general aviation seats were dynamically tested and evaluated for crash load attenuation. On the basis of the static and dynamic test results, it was recommended that the tubular frame seats be redesigned to initiate stroking at approximately 12 G's rather than the 20 to 25 G range. Lower density foam was recommended for the foam wedge passenger seat.

  6. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in assembly areas shall— (i) Provide a reasonable number of wheelchair seating spaces and seats with removable aisle-side arm rests; and (ii) Locate the wheelchair seating spaces so that they— (A) Are... means of egress in case of emergency; and (D) Permit individuals who use wheelchairs to sit with...

  7. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  8. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  9. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  10. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  11. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  12. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  13. Relationship of Assigned Classroom Seating Area to Achievement Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship of seating choice to the number of verbal classroom responses, grade point average, and course grade was examined. When college students chose their seats, the highest achievers preferred the front row, center section, and more responses emanated from this area. When seats were assigned, there were no significant differences in…

  14. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  15. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J C G; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A; Gibb, Diana M; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014-2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus-positive children 2 days-12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  16. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  17. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required.

  18. Notes from The Field: Ebola Virus Disease Cluster - Northern Sierra Leone, January 2016.

    PubMed

    Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T

    2016-07-08

    On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection.

  19. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  20. Development of crashworthy passenger seats for general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, M. J.; Tanner, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and floor supported seat concept designs were developed. A restraint system suitable for both concepts was designed. Energy absorbing hardware for both concepts was fabricated and tension and compression tests were conducted to demonstrate the stroking capability and the force deflection characteristics. Crash impact analysis was made and seat loads developed. The basic seat structures were analyzed to determine the adequacy of their strength under impact loading.

  1. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  2. Fatal childhood vascular injuries associated with seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Riches, K J; James, R A; Gilbert, J D; Byard, R W

    2002-03-01

    The deaths of two children who were passengers in motor vehicles involved in accidents were directly attributable to vascular injuries derived from seat belts. In the first case, a 10-year-old boy died as a result of abdominal aortic transection by a lap seat belt, and in the second case a 15-year-old boy died as a result of transection of his common carotid artery by a lap-shoulder seat belt. Although these cases demonstrate rare fatalities associated with seat belt use, there is no doubt that seat belts have significantly reduced mortality and morbidity from traffic accidents. Although it is possible that a fatal outcome might have occurred in each of these cases from other injuries that might have been sustained had seat belts not been worn, appropriate positioning and size of seat belt harnesses might have avoided the lethal injuries.

  3. A Combinatorial Auction Based Algorithm for Flexible Seat Reservation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otomura, Kazutoshi; Tomii, Norio

    We present algorithms for flexible seat distribution problems, which is defined as a problem to give an appropriate travel plan to each passenger after receiving their requests concerning their travel demands. Seat distribution problems occur when a flexible seat reservation system is implemented in which passengers are allowed to reserve seats by submitting their demands instead of specifying trains. To solve the seat distribution problem, we have formalized it as a winner determination problem of the combinatorial auction mechanism. It should be noted that difficulty of the seat distribution problem varies depending on instances of the problem, because the number of demands often varies and users' requests sometimes converge on particular trains. This suggests that in order to get solutions with high quality, algorithms that appropriately control the search space are indispensable. In this paper, we present three kinds of such algorithms for the seat distribution problem together with the results of several experiments.

  4. Sudden unexpected infant deaths associated with car seats.

    PubMed

    Bamber, Andrew R; Pryce, Jeremy; Ashworth, Michael T; Sebire, Neil J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, circumstances, demographics, and causes of death of infants dying while seated in car safety seats. A retrospective review of a pediatric autopsy database at a specialist center over a 16-year period was undertaken to identify any infant deaths (aged <1 year), in whom death occurred while seated in a car safety seat. Fourteen car seat-associated deaths were identified from a total of 1,465 coronial infant autopsies (0.96 %). Four involved infants were being appropriately transported in the car seat, all of whom had a medical underlying cause of death (one infection and three congenital heart disease). The majority (10 cases; 70 %) occurred while car seats were being inappropriately used, outside of the car, including as an alternative to a cot or high-chair. Five of these infants died of explained causes, but four deaths remained unexplained after autopsy, and in one no cause of death was available. There were no cases of previously healthy infants dying unexpectedly in a car seat when it was being used appropriately, and in this series there were no cases of traumatic death associated with car seats, either during road traffic accidents, or from falling or being suspended from a car seat. Infant deaths in car seats are rare. These data support the recommendation that car seats be used only for transport and not as alternatives for cots or high-chairs. More research is required to investigate the effect of travel in car seats on infants with underlying conditions. There appears to be no increased risk of unexpected deaths of healthy infants transported appropriately in car seats. PMID:24435952

  5. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  6. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  7. Distributed wireless sensor for smart car seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Smoker, Jason

    2009-03-01

    A distributed wireless sensor network is embedded inside car seats to enable the measurements of the weight of the occupants, location of their center of gravity, and spatial orientation of their bodies. Based on these measurements, intelligent decisions can be made to ensure their comfort and safety particularly in case of accidents. Appropriate activation of the inflatable bags according to the weight and position of the occupants will be critical to avoiding unnecessary and undesirable injuries.

  8. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  9. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  10. Establishing special needs car seat loan program.

    PubMed

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Stout, J; Doll, J P; Jones, J; Feller, N

    1990-04-01

    Car seat loan and rental programs have provided many families with low-cost access to child restraints. When an infant or child is unable to be accommodated in a standard car seat or seat belt owing to physical or medical problems, parents of these children have few, if any available resources. The establishment and operation of a loan program at the Indiana University School of Medicine for children who are medically fragile is reviewed in this article. This program was developed by the Automotive Safety for Children Program at the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Medical Center, to meet the special transportation needs of children with respiratory, orthopaedic, and other medical and physical difficulties. A summary table is included to highlight restraints that have performed satisfactorily during dynamic crash tests and are used to meet patient transportation needs at Riley Hospital. Guidelines for establishing and maintaining a child restraint loan program for children with special needs are outlined to encourage replication of this effort.

  11. Management of seat-belt syndrome in children. Gravity of 2-point seat-belt.

    PubMed

    Griffet, J; Bastiani-Griffet, F; El-Hayek, T; Dageville, C; Pebeyre, B

    2002-02-01

    We present our experience with a management of seat-belt syndrome in three children and draw particular attention to the severity of two-point fixation seat-belt injuries after a motor vehicle accident with 5 passengers whose vehicle was struck head-on by an oncoming vehicle. The parents were sitting in front, Adeline had a 2-point lap seat-belt, the 2 other children had 3-point seat-belts. The parents both had humerus fractures. The 4-year-old brother suffered a cervical and abdominal trauma with renal and splenic contusions and intestinal perforations. Adeline suffered multiple injuries, notably to the head, spine and abdominal viscera with erosions at the site of lap-seat-belt contact. The spinal injury was an L2 angular Chance fracture associated with paraplegia on the 7th day. Operative findings included a transverse tear of the left rectus abdominus muscle, an incomplete transection of the stomach and perforation of the ileum. The injuries were ultimately fatal. Given associated abdominal pain, skin erosions at the site of seatbelt contact, spinal fracture, and rectal muscle disruption apparent on emergency laparotomy, early diagnosis is important for better prognosis.

  12. Driver discomfort in vehicle seats - Effect of changing road conditions and seat foam composition.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Neil; Sammonds, George; Nguyen, Linh

    2015-09-01

    Discomfort in vehicle seats is a multi-factorial problem with contributions occurring from effects of sitting duration, seat design, and the dynamic environment to which the occupant is exposed. This paper reports laboratory studies investigating the extent to which reports of discomfort are affected by vibration commencing or ceasing, and whether methods of assessment are sensitive enough to detect small changes in foam composition. Study 1 measured discomfort ratings for two conditions of 60 min each, comprising 30 min of vibration exposure followed by 30 min of static sitting in a car seat, and vice-versa. Study 2 measured discomfort ratings for three conditions over a period of 40 min each, whilst participants were sitting in one of two car seat compositions, and either exposed to vibration or not. In both studies participants operated a driving simulator. It is shown that exposure to vibration increases the rate of discomfort onset in comparison to periods of static sitting. When vibration stopped, there was an acute improvement in comfort but discomfort did not drop to the levels reported by those who had been unexposed. When vibration started after 30 min of static sitting, there was an acute increase in discomfort but not to the levels reported by those who had been exposed to 30 min of vibration. After 40 min of continuous exposure it was possible to detect significant differences in overall discomfort between the two seat compositions, although trends could be observed in less time.

  13. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  14. The economic benefits of child safety seat misuse reduction programs and design improvements for children in rear seats.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, E; Miller, T R

    2007-01-01

    This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is dollars 121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is dollars 6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost dollars 13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0-4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984-1986 vs. 1999-2005. Both injury frequency and severity were compared and entered into the calculation of mean injury costs. To analyze the economic benefits of child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements for children sitting in rear seats of passenger vehicles, we compared outcomes of tow-away crashes for children ages 0-4 traveling in a child safety seat in two different multi-year time periods: 1984-1986 and 1999-2005. We chose 1984-1986 as a baseline as those years featured large, high-quality samples of crash data during the time period before the ongoing misuse of child seats was recognized as a public policy problem. By the early 1990s, misuse was a policy issue and misuse reduction programs were springing up.

  15. AAS Publishing News: An Interview with Leon Golub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    In the lead-up to next weeks 2016 Solar Physics Division (SPD) meeting, we wanted to introduce you to Leon Golub, our new Lead Editor for the Sun and the Heliosphere corridor.Leon is a Senior Astrophysicist in the High Energy Division at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He specializes in studies of solar and stellar magnetic activity, and he has built numerous rocket and satellite instruments to study the Sun and its dynamic behavior.* * * * *Tell me about your field of research and some of your current projects.Ive been working primarily on understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, especially using new types of instrumentation that can provide challenges to our theoretical understanding.Image of the Apollo Telescope Mount on Skylab. [NASA]Why did you choose this field?Shortly after graduating from MIT in experimental high energy physics I found a position with a group that was preparing to launch an X-ray telescope on Skylab as part of the cluster of solar instruments called the Apollo Telescope Mount. I have stayed with that field and related ones ever since.What do you consider to be some of the biggest open questions in solar and heliospheric research today?There are so many major questions that its difficult to just settle on a few. The heliosphere is defined by the extent of the influence of the Sun on the interstellar medium. It is an exciting time in that area of study, because we now have the ability to make impressive new observations that allow us to test our understanding of that outer boundary.Within those limits, the Sun has a major influence on solar system objects via its gravitational pull, its light and heat, and the magnetized plasma and high energy particles that it emits in all directions. We are making major discoveries related to how the Sun has influenced the formation and evolution of the planets, including our own planet.The source of all this influence is, of course, the Sun itself, and we are working to understand

  16. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  17. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  18. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  19. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  20. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  1. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  2. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  3. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: effect of seat cushion.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation has been investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz when sitting on a rigid seat and when sitting on a compliant cushion, both without a backrest. Judgements of vibration discomfort and the transmission of lateral and roll oscillation through the seat cushion were obtained with 20 subjects. Relative to the rigid seat, the cushion increased lateral acceleration and roll oscillation at the lower frequencies and also increased discomfort during lateral oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz), roll oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz), and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation (at frequencies between 0.315 and 0.5 Hz). The root-sums-of-squares of the frequency-weighted lateral and roll acceleration at the seat surface predicted the greater vibration discomfort when sitting on the cushion. The frequency-dependence of the predicted discomfort may be improved by adjusting the frequency weighting for roll acceleration at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. PMID:24947003

  4. Seating Location in Large Lectures: Are Seating Preferences or Location Related to Course Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Mary Ellen; Hoag, John

    2004-01-01

    Using data on individuals taking principles of economics courses in large lecture rooms, the authors investigate whether a student's seating preference is related to success in the classroom. They find that individuals who prefer to sit near the front of the room have a higher probability of receiving As, whereas those who prefer the back have a…

  5. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  6. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  7. Coupled head neck torso and seat model for car seat optimization under rear-end impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Willinger, Rémy

    2008-06-01

    The development of new protective systems must be performed on tools reliable and representative of alive human. In an earlier study, a simplified but realistic modelling of the head-neck system under moderate rear impact was performed. In order to address this issue, an original lumped model of the human torso was developed and coupled to a car seat-head rest complex. The experimental modal analysis of the human torso in a seating position performed by Kitazaki in 1992 [Paper presented at the United Kingdom Meeting on Human Response to Vibration held at I.S.V.R. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 28-30 September 1992.] was used in the present study for the identification of the mechanical parameters of a lumped human torso model. Despite its low complexity, this model was able to reproduce the five first experimental vibration modes and it was possible to validate it in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratio and mode shapes. In addition to the lumped approach, an external geometry of the human torso was implemented in order to provide a realistic coupling of the human body model to a finite element model of the car seat also developed in the present study. A parametric study was finally carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the torso behaviour and of the different parts of a car seat on the mechanical neck response under rear-end impact. The results of this study allow concluding that the torso behaviour has an important influence on the neck loading and therefore that the quality of a car seat depends on the human body substitute used. For instance, with the proposed torso model, a low-neck injury criterion (NIC) rearward value was obtained with low rigidity of the backrest foam and a stiff backrest net.

  8. [Serological and entomological study on yellow fever in Sierra Leone].

    PubMed

    Robin, Y; Mouchet, J

    1975-01-01

    In a serological and entomological survey on yellow fever carried out in Sierra-Leone in 1972, altogether 899 sera from children 0 to 14 years were tested with 12 antigens by haemagglutination-inhibition and complement fixation tests. Mouse neutralization test with yellow fever, West-Nile and Zika viruses were also performed on selected sera. Generally speaking, the incidence of arboviruses is low but the prevalence of antibodies for some viruses was found to vary considerably between different areas. As regards yellow fever, the virus has recently been in circulation in only two areas: Bafodia and Lalehun-Labour Camp and there is no risk for a yellow fever outbreak to occur in the near future. Due to the shortness of the survey, entomological prospections were confined to a search for Ae. aegypti larvae in and around dwellings: no breeding places are found in houses and Breteau indices are usually low, especially in forest villages. On the other hand, in urban settlements in the mining areas, breeding places around houses are numerous and are bound to increase in number. All the conditions necessary for the outbreak of an epidemic would be present within few years: such a situation would appear in Labour Camp where yellow fever virus has been circulating, where most of the population has no immunity and where Breteau indice goes as high as 34.4. As regards the other arboviruses, Zika virus is active in most areas and Chikungunya virus is particularly active in the plateau and savanna zones, in the North-East.

  9. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  10. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  11. Objective classification of vehicle seat discomfort.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Rose, Joseph; Knapik, Gregory; Marras, William S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify how physiological measures relate to self-reported vehicle seating discomfort. Twelve subjects of varied anthropometric characteristics were enrolled in the study. Subjects sat in two seats over a 2-h period and were evaluated via three physiological measures (near-infrared spectroscopy, electromyography and pressure mapping) yielding six testing sessions. Subjective discomfort surveys were recorded before and after each session for nine regions of the body. Conditional classification discomfort models were developed through dichotomised physiological responses and anthropometry to predict subjective discomfort in specific body locations. Models revealed that subjects taller than 171 cm with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or constant, low-level muscle activity in the trapezius tended to report discomfort in the lower extremities or neck, respectively. Subjects weighing less than 58 kg with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or unevenly distributed pressure patterns tended to report discomfort in the buttocks. The sensitivities and specificities of cross-validated models ranged between 0.69 and 1.00.

  12. Objective classification of vehicle seat discomfort.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Rose, Joseph; Knapik, Gregory; Marras, William S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify how physiological measures relate to self-reported vehicle seating discomfort. Twelve subjects of varied anthropometric characteristics were enrolled in the study. Subjects sat in two seats over a 2-h period and were evaluated via three physiological measures (near-infrared spectroscopy, electromyography and pressure mapping) yielding six testing sessions. Subjective discomfort surveys were recorded before and after each session for nine regions of the body. Conditional classification discomfort models were developed through dichotomised physiological responses and anthropometry to predict subjective discomfort in specific body locations. Models revealed that subjects taller than 171 cm with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or constant, low-level muscle activity in the trapezius tended to report discomfort in the lower extremities or neck, respectively. Subjects weighing less than 58 kg with reduced blood oxygenation in the biceps femoris or unevenly distributed pressure patterns tended to report discomfort in the buttocks. The sensitivities and specificities of cross-validated models ranged between 0.69 and 1.00. PMID:24606493

  13. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  14. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  15. 14 CFR 121.581 - Observer's seat: En route inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.581 Observer's... holder shall make available a seat on the flight deck of each airplane, used by it in air commerce, for... for the crew complement for which the airplane was certificated, the forward observer's seat or...

  16. 14 CFR 121.581 - Observer's seat: En route inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.581 Observer's... holder shall make available a seat on the flight deck of each airplane, used by it in air commerce, for... for the crew complement for which the airplane was certificated, the forward observer's seat or...

  17. 14 CFR 121.581 - Observer's seat: En route inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.581 Observer's... holder shall make available a seat on the flight deck of each airplane, used by it in air commerce, for... for the crew complement for which the airplane was certificated, the forward observer's seat or...

  18. 14 CFR 121.581 - Observer's seat: En route inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.581 Observer's... holder shall make available a seat on the flight deck of each airplane, used by it in air commerce, for... for the crew complement for which the airplane was certificated, the forward observer's seat or...

  19. 14 CFR 121.581 - Observer's seat: En route inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.581 Observer's... holder shall make available a seat on the flight deck of each airplane, used by it in air commerce, for... for the crew complement for which the airplane was certificated, the forward observer's seat or...

  20. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  1. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  5. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  6. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  7. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  8. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  9. An approach to aircraft seat comfort using interface pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Ciaccia, Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a method to dynamically evaluate discomfort of a passenger seat by measuring the interface pressure between the occupant and the seat during the performance of the most common activities of a typical flight. This article reports the results of resting and reading studies performed in a simulator that represents the interior of a commercial aircraft.

  10. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  11. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass...

  12. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass...

  13. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass...

  14. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  16. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  17. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  18. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  3. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  4. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  5. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  6. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  7. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  8. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  9. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  10. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  11. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  12. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  14. Classroom Seating Preference as a Function of Student Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totusek, Patsy F.; Staton-Spicer, Ann Q.

    1982-01-01

    Previous research has revealed front and center seating positions are characterized by high student-teacher interaction. In this study it was suggested that one explanation for the high interaction is that students with similar personality characteristics prefer to sit in the central seats. The research hypotheses were partially supported.…

  15. Relationship of Assigned Classroom Seating Area to Achievement Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Kathleen M.

    Using two university classroom groups taught by the same instructor, this study investigated the relationship of seating choice to number of verbal classroom responses, cumulative grade point average (GPA), and grade in class for both rows and "action zones" to identify classroom areas. Class 1 (where students chose seats) showed a significant…

  16. The Symphonic Wind Ensemble: Seating for Sound Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Whaley, Garwood

    1976-01-01

    Inherent in the basic principles of the symphonic wind ensemble concept are several important concepts about seating--concepts that are intended to apply only to the seating of a full symphonic wind ensemble and not to small or large chamber ensembles. (Author/RK)

  17. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber's insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  18. The car seat: a challenge too far for preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Pilley, E; McGuire, W

    2005-11-01

    Physiological monitoring studies have shown that some preterm infants who are otherwise ready for hospital discharge experience episodes of oxygen desaturation, apnoea, or bradycardia when seated in standard car safety seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all preterm infants are assessed for cardiorespiratory stability in their car seat before discharge: the "car seat challenge". This screening test has been incorporated into discharge assessments in most neonatal units in North America and is being increasingly used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The evidence base for the use of the car seat challenge in discharge assessment, the possible implications for infants, their families, and health services of adopting the practice, and the issues that may be resolved with further research are discussed. PMID:16244205

  19. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  20. Factors in students' seat selection: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Losonczy-Marshall, Marta; Marshall, P Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for students' seat selection. Participants were 346 college students (14% freshmen, 47% sophomores, 24% juniors, and 14% seniors) from 12 classes (six sections of two courses). A 20-item questionnaire was used to ask students why they chose their seats in class. An exploratory factor analysis reduced the items to five seat-selection factors: Performance, Social, Asocial, Noticeability, and Environment. Seat selection factors were analyzed in terms of seating location: by row, by front/middle/back of the room, by center versus perimeter of the room, and by mid-room versus sides of the room. Performance and Noticeability ratings decreased by row from the front toward the back of the room. The Asocial factor was rated higher by those who sat in the back of the room, while the Environment factor was rated higher by those who sat in the center of the room.

  1. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'.

  2. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'. PMID:25892386

  3. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  4. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National... seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary... August 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower...

  5. The effects of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (p<0.05), negative attitude of classmates (p<0.001), and

  6. On the seat of the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, D.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of some of the issues raised in connection with the seat of the solar cycle are presented. Is the cycle controlled by a strictly periodic oscillator that operates in the core, or is it a turbulent dynamo confined to the convection zone and possibly a thin boundary layer beneath it? Sunspot statistics are discussed, with a view to ascertaining the length of the memory of the cycle, without drawing a definitive conclusion. Also discussed are some of the processes that might bring about variations delta L and delta R in the luminosity and the radius of the photosphere. It appears that the ratio W = delta lnR/delta lnL increases with the depth of the disturbance that produces the variations, so that imminent observations might determine whether or not the principal dynamical processes are confined to only the outer layers of the Sun.

  7. Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Sierra Leone, 2000-2001. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Gloria; Daniels, Bonnie

    Management Systems International (MSI), with funding from United States Agency for International Development Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) and in coordination with other partners, is implementing a program in Sierra Leone entitled "Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace" (YRTEP). The object is to provide non-formal…

  8. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  9. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  10. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  11. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  12. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  13. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  14. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  15. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively…

  16. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  17. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools…

  18. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  19. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  20. Seat belt usage rates: a test of Peltzman's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, P S

    1986-10-01

    Despite the universally accepted belief that the use of seat belts would have a significant impact upon the number of vehicular fatalities, current evidence indicates that relatively few drivers employ their seat belts. Various hypotheses have been offered to explain this phenomenon, many of which conclude that a driver's decision to use a seat belt is independent of the risk experienced in his trip making. This paper develops an economic model which focuses upon the relationship between driver use of seat belts and the travel conditions under which trips are made. Using data obtained from a national survey of households, a binary logit model is developed to test the hypothesis that seat belt usage is influenced by the level of risk experienced in one's trip making. The estimation results were consistent with the underlying hypothesis that individuals travelling in more risky environments are more likely to use their seat belts. The econometric results are then employed to examine various policy issues, including the predicted use of seat belts for population sub-groups, driver response to the introduction of a small urban car, and the impact upon the probability of a fatality resulting from vehicle fleet downsizing. PMID:3768132

  1. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  2. Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraske, Martin; May, Rich

    2003-01-01

    A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft-seat-track mounting clamps. A SAM (see figure) is easily installed by inserting it in a seat track, then actuating a locking lever to clamp the SAM to the track. The SAM includes an over-center locking feature that prevents premature disengagement that could be caused by some inadvertent movements of persons or objects in the vicinity. A SAM can be installed in, or removed from, any position along a seat track, without regard for the locations of the circular access holes. Hence, one or more SAM(s) can be used to mount an object or objects on a track or a pair of tracks in an infinite number of preferred configurations. A SAM can be incorporated into a dual swivel device, so that two of the SAMs can be made to lock onto two side-by-side seat tracks simultaneously, as would be the case in a standard ISS rack bay where two side-by-side racks reside. The main benefit to using two SAMs in a side-by-side arrangement is to provide a coupled load. By picking up load points on two seat tracks, a coupled loading is created, improving the stability and strength since the load is spread to two seat tracks at a short distance.

  3. An essential guide to managing seated patients in the community.

    PubMed

    Collins, Fiona

    2008-03-01

    More and more clinicians working in the community are faced with the difficult task of advising and solving patients' seating problems. Frequently, important education on the relationship between sitting and pressure damage is unavailable, which results in people often making inadvisable choices on seating solutions and as a consequence, spending large sums of money which is then wasted. This article aims to provide clinicians with basic information on the relationship between sitting and pressure damage, how to conduct a simple seating assessment and what different types of armchairs are available for purchase. PMID:18557573

  4. Semi-active control of seat suspension with MR damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. J.; Fu, J.; Yu, M.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    The vibration control of a seat suspension system with magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated in this study. Firstly, a dynamical model of the seat suspension system with parameter uncertainties (such as mass, stiffness, damping) and actuator saturation is established. Secondly, based on Lyapunov functional theory and considering constraint conditions for damping force, the semi-active controller is designed, and the controller parameters are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which guarantees performance index. Finally, compared control strategy and the passive, skyhook control strategy, the simulation results in time and frequency domains demonstrate the proposed approach can achieve better vertical acceleration attenuation for the seat suspension system and improve ride comfort.

  5. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  6. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national average seat belt use rate. The national average seat belt use rate for a calendar year shall be the sum of...

  7. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Analysis of differences between seating positions in simulators and orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    Crew comments indicate that Space Shuttle simulator seats place crewmembers in a position different from that of the actual Orbiter seats. The crew feel that they launch in a different position, and with a different reach and visibility, from that in which they had trained. This study examined three factors in differences between training and flight positions. Key dimensions, which were considered important to spatial orientation, were compared in the Orbiters and simulators. These were dimensions such as seat back to glare shield and seat pan to overhead. The differences between flight and training crew equipment, and how these differences may contribute to the problem were discussed with engineers and technicians responsible for the equipment. Eye position measurements were taken on subjects to assess any differences that could be attributed to different ingress methods in the Orbiters and the simulators. This report presents the data, analysis, and recommendations.

  10. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H

    2015-08-01

    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.

  11. Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from the American Bungalow - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  13. Infant car seat usage. Effectiveness of a postpartum educational program.

    PubMed

    Goebel, J B; Copps, T J; Sulayman, R F

    1984-01-01

    A study, based on the social learning theory model and designed to assess the effect of a postpartum educational program on mothers' use of infant car seats at the time of discharge was conducted. The control group consisted of data for 92 mothers obtained by recording their behavior at the time of discharge regarding their use of infant car seats and eight other related measures. The postpartum study group (90) was shown an educational slide/audio tape presentation followed by a question-and-answer period and demonstration of car seats. They were also given a shoppers' guide and a pamphlet of facts and pictures of car seats. Statistical significance was obtained on several measures.

  14. Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  17. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  19. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  20. Infant car seat usage. Effectiveness of a postpartum educational program.

    PubMed

    Goebel, J B; Copps, T J; Sulayman, R F

    1984-01-01

    A study, based on the social learning theory model and designed to assess the effect of a postpartum educational program on mothers' use of infant car seats at the time of discharge was conducted. The control group consisted of data for 92 mothers obtained by recording their behavior at the time of discharge regarding their use of infant car seats and eight other related measures. The postpartum study group (90) was shown an educational slide/audio tape presentation followed by a question-and-answer period and demonstration of car seats. They were also given a shoppers' guide and a pamphlet of facts and pictures of car seats. Statistical significance was obtained on several measures. PMID:6560047

  1. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  2. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  3. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  4. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  6. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  7. 15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON NORTHERN PIER; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  8. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections HIV / AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... enforcement seat belt laws achieved 88% use.* Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for ...

  10. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  11. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  12. Abdominal injuries in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Jermakian, Jessica S; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30-53 mm and 41-89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0-13.3 mm and 1.2-2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants.

  13. Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.

  14. High-Pressure Valve With Controlled Seating Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Poppet and seat less likely to be damaged by faulty operation. Improvements in widely-used high-pressure valve increase accuracy of preloading of poppet. Redesigned valve prevents metal shavings and other debris from developing during operation, installation, or removal. New features include secondary seal in cap. Belleville washers create precise value of seating force. If installer attempts to exceed force, torque limiter gives tactile and aural warning and makes further force increases difficult.

  15. Mathematical modeling and simulation of seated stability.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Martin L; Ross, Shane D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2010-03-22

    Various methods have been used to quantify the kinematic variability or stability of the human spine. However, each of these methods evaluates dynamic behavior within the stable region of state space. In contrast, our goal was to determine the extent of the stable region. A 2D mathematical model was developed for a human sitting on an unstable seat apparatus (i.e., the "wobble chair"). Forward dynamic simulations were used to compute trajectories based on the initial state. From these trajectories, a scalar field of trajectory divergence was calculated, specifically a finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. Theoretically, ridges of local maxima within this field are expected to partition the state space into regions of qualitatively different behavior. We found that ridges formed at the boundary between regions of stability and failure (i.e., falling). The location of the basin of stability found using the FTLE field matched well with the basin of stability determined by an alternative method. In addition, an equilibrium manifold was found, which describes a set of equilibrium configurations that act as a low dimensional attractor in the controlled system. These simulations are a first step in developing a method to locate state space boundaries for torso stability. Identifying these boundaries may provide a framework for assessing factors that contribute to health risks associated with spinal injury and poor balance recovery (e.g., age, fatigue, load/weight, and distribution). Furthermore, an approach is presented that can be adapted to find state space boundaries in other biomechanical applications.

  16. Repeal of the Massachusetts seat belt law.

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Levenson, S M; Heeren, T; Mangione, T; Rodgers, C; Schiavone, T; Hertz, R P; Schiavonnet, T

    1988-01-01

    In November 1986, the Massachusetts mandatory seat belt use law repealed in a referendum by a 53 per cent to 47 per cent vote. In an anonymous random digit telephone survey of 1,046 adults in Massachusetts in summer 1986, while the law was in effect, 61 per cent of respondents had said they would vote in favor of the law. A post-repeal follow-up of 80 per cent of these persons revealed initial supporters and opponents of the law were equally likely to vote, but 15 per cent of the summer supporters switched their opinions and voted for repeal, compared to only 4 per cent of summer opponents who switched. In addition, a separate survey of 167 households that had refused to answer the summer survey indicated that survey nonrespondents were more likely to vote against the law than for it. Those opposing the law saw it as an infringement on personal liberty and believed it was not effective in reducing injury and death. PMID:3354739

  17. Seat belt misuse by a child transported in belt-positioning booster seat with deadly consequences.

    PubMed

    OʼNeil, Joseph; Rouse, Thomas M; Hackworth, Jodi; Howard, Matthew; Daniels, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Child passenger safety has been a major public health victory, but there is still work to be done. This case presentation is about a 5-year-old boy who placed the shoulder portion of the lap-shoulder seat belt behind his back who was recently killed in a motor vehicle crash. This article reviews what trauma nurses need to know about the latest improvements in child passenger safety practices. Also presented are important resources for trauma nurses to share with families to improve travel safety.

  18. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  19. Study of forward sloping seats for VDT workstations.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S A

    1994-06-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify and evaluate various forward seat inclinations (5, 10, 15 degrees) for Video Display Terminal workstation type seating by constructing a fixture to be fitted to a test chair to achieve various seat angles. The discomfort in critical areas i.e. neck and lower back were evaluated by 25 male university students (avg. age 22 years) with no history of musculoskeletal disorders on a subjective scale for comfort. The comfortable or uncomfortable seat inclinations were identified after a statistical analysis. The heart rate and blood pressure were observed every 5 min for validation purposes. It was recommended that, to avoid neck problems, a chair with a forward incline greater than 5 degrees should not be used and to avoid lower back problems a chair with a seat angle of approximately 10 degrees be used. On the overall comfort criteria it is recommended to use a chair with a seat pan which inclines to approximately 15 degrees (forward). The findings and recommendations from this study can enhance the safety and productivity of the people whose jobs require continuous forward bending in a sitting task involving VDT workstations.

  20. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  1. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    PubMed

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field. PMID:16962599

  2. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  3. Porting LEON3FT/GRLIB to 4th Generation Flash-Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jan; Habinc, Sandi; Prinetto, Paolo; Trotta, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Cobham Gaisler develops the LEON3FT SPARC V8 fault-tolerant microprocessor that is available both as IP cores part of an IP library (GRLIB) that allows users to design their own custom system-on-chip (SoC) designs, and also as part of ready-made designs and devices. Cobham Gaisler has recently added support for Microsemi IGLOO2, and experimental support for Microsemi radiation-tolerant RTG4, devices to GRLIB.

  4. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-04-19

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission.

  5. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E.; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014−2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission. PMID:27035948

  6. The University of Guanajuato Institute of Physics (IFUG). Leon Lederman, the big boss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix, J.; Moreno, G.

    2000-08-01

    This paper is to honor Leon Lederman trajectory in experimental high energy physics and, in particular and most, his invaluable help to start experimental high energy physics in Mexico and in Latin America in general. That began around 1982. Now, in 1999, there are many active groups in Latin America that devote their best efforts to experimental high energy physics. In Mexico there are six groups. .

  7. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Seated Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Martin L.; Ross, Shane D.; Nussbaum, Maury A.

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been used to quantify the kinematic variability or stability of the human spine. However, each of these methods evaluates dynamic behavior within the stable region of state space. In contrast, our goal was to determine the extent of the stable region. A 2D mathematical model was developed for a human sitting on an unstable seat apparatus (i.e., the “wobble chair”). Forward dynamic simulations were used to compute trajectories based on the initial state. From these trajectories, a scalar field of trajectory divergence was calculated, specifically a finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. Theoretically, ridges of local maxima within this field are expected to partition the state space into regions of qualitatively different behavior. We found that ridges formed at the boundary between regions of stability and failure (i.e., falling). The location of the basin of stability found using the FTLE field matched well with the basin of stability determined by an alternative method. In addition, an equilibrium manifold was found, which describes a set of equilibrium configurations that act as a low dimensional attractor in the controlled system. These simulations are a first step in developing a method to locate state space boundaries for torso stability. Identifying these boundaries may provide a framework for assessing factors that contribute to health risks associated with spinal injury and poor balance recovery (e.g., age, fatigue, load/weight and distribution). Furthermore, an approach is presented that can be adapted to find state space boundaries in other biomechanical applications. PMID:20018288

  8. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  9. Analysis of water-surface profiles in Leon County and the city of Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, M.A.; Orr, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water surface profiles for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-yr recurrence interval floods for most of the streams that drain developing areas of Leon County and the city of Tallahassee are presented. The principal streams studied are in the Lake Munson, Lake Lafayette, and Lake Jackson basins Peak discharges were computed from regression equations based on information gained from 15 streamflow stations in the area. Standard step-backwater procedures were used to determine the water-surface elevations for the streams. The flood elevations were generally higher than those in the Flood Insurance Studies for Tallahassee (1976) and Leon County (1982). The primary reason for the higher profiles is that peak discharges used in this report are larger than those used previously, largely due to changes in land use. The flood profiles for Bradford Brook, North Branch Gum Creek, and West Branch Gum Creek generally match those in the Leon County Flood Insurance Studies. Channel improvements in some areas would lower the flood elevation in that area, but would probably increase flooding downstream. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  11. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-06-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management.

  12. Lift performance and lumbar loading in standing and seated lifts.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of posture on lifting performance. Twenty-three male soldiers lifted a loaded box onto a platform in standing and seated postures to determine their maximum lift capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Lift performance, trunk kinematics, lumbar loads, anthropometric and strength data were recorded. There was a significant main effect for lift effort but not for posture or the interaction. Effect sizes showed that lumbar compression forces did not differ between postures at lift initiation (Standing 5566.2 ± 627.8 N; Seated 5584.0 ± 16.0) but were higher in the standing posture (4045.7 ± 408.3 N) when compared with the seated posture (3655.8 ± 225.7 N) at lift completion. Anterior shear forces were higher in the standing posture at both lift initiation (Standing 519.4 ± 104.4 N; Seated 224.2 ± 9.4 N) and completion (Standing 183.3 ± 62.5 N; Seated 71.0 ± 24.2 N) and may have been a result of increased trunk flexion and a larger horizontal distance of the mass from the L5-S1 joint. Practitioner Summary: Differences between lift performance and lumbar forces in standing and seated lifts are unclear. Using a with-in subjects repeated measures design, we found no difference in lifted mass or lumbar compression force at lift initiation between standing and seated lifts.

  13. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  14. A finite element model of the human buttocks for prediction of seat pressure distributions.

    PubMed

    Verver, M M; van Hoof, J; Oomens, C W J; Wismans, J S H M; Baaijens, F P T

    2004-08-01

    Seating comfort is becoming increasingly important for the automotive industry. Car manufacturers use seating comfort to distinguish their products from those of competitors. However, the development and design of a new, more comfortable seat is time consuming and costly. The introduction of computer models of human and seat will accelerate this process. The contact interaction between human and seat is an important factor in the comfort sensation of subjects. This paper presents a finite element (FE) model of the human buttocks, able to predict the pressure distribution between human and seating surface by its detailed and realistic geometric description. A validation study based on volunteer experiments shows reasonable correlation in pressure distributions between the buttocks model and the volunteers. Both for simulations on a rigid and a soft cushion, the model predicts realistic seat pressure distributions. A parameter study shows that a pressure distribution at the interface between human and seat strongly depends on variations in human flesh and seat cushion properties.

  15. Statistical Signature of Deep-seated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Belmont, P.; Mackey, B. H.; Fuller, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the statistical signature of deep-seated landslides using basin wide topographic data and flowpath arrangement and explore the extent to which these globally derived signatures can be used to locally map landslides. We used directed distance from the divide, which accounts for the distance traveled along flowpaths starting from significant ridgelines, as a scale parameter and demonstrate that local slope vs. directed distance and curvature vs. local slope offer powerful means for identifying the presence of landslides in a landscape. By exploring a threshold on the probability distribution of local slopes conditional on directed distance we show that mapping of landslide features is possible. We apply the methodology to three 0.5 to 2.5 km2 watersheds in northern California and document three regions of distinct geomorphic signatures [Gangodagamage et al., 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009252]. In region A, hillslope gradient increases with distance from the divide and flowpaths are divergent or parallel. Region B corresponds to the zone with highly convergent flowpaths and exhibits the strongest signal of landslide related features. Region C is a moderately convergent zone that transitions into the fluvial channel network. Next, we use specific quantiles of the probability density function of local slopes conditioned on directed distance from the divide to map individual landslide features. This analysis allows us to explore the 3D morphometry of the landslide affected basins and to develop a supervised set of ensemble templates for landslides as a function of local slope vs. directed distance (DD) relationship. Then we use this template and demonstrate that the landslide affected basins can be identified by iterative matching the landslide signature template with the basin wide signatures of the tributary basins in the South Fork Eel River, CA. Finally, we perform a multiscale analysis of the contributing area parameterized by directed

  16. Shoulder-lap seat belts and thoracic transection.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W

    2002-06-01

    While seat belt usage significantly decreases mortality and morbidity from traffic accidents, specific injuries may also occur. Two cases are described in adults where the wearing of three point restraints (shoulder-lap belts) in a serious high-speed vehicle accident resulted in fatal injuries to both a driver and a passenger. 'Mirror image' fractures of the sternum, rib cage and clavicles, with separation of the two halves of the rib cages and underlying trauma to the hearts and thoracic aortae resulted in death in both victims. Profound life-threatening internal injuries may be caused by seat belts in the absence of significant cutaneous injury. The pattern of internal trauma can also be useful in determining whether a seat belt was worn at the time of the accident, and on which side of the vehicle the deceased was sitting.

  17. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors].

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M

    1989-03-01

    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  18. 75 FR 2852 - Availability of Seats for the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...): Conservation Primary (1 seat) and Alternate (2 seats); Education Primary and Alternate; Community-at-Large San... to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations;...

  19. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  20. Effects of sex and seating arrangement on selection of leader.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Danielle; Engstrom, Erika; Hassenzahl, David M

    2005-06-01

    Effects of a person's sex and seating arrangement were tested with 310 participants (151 men and 159 women; M age=20.0, SD=3.3) from a large southwestern U.S. university who were asked to select a leader from among five persons depicted around a rectangular table. Participants chose a person shown seated at the head of the table as the leader of a group, regardless of that person's sex. This conflicts with prior research indicating gender bias against women as leaders. PMID:16060448

  1. Catalytic Layer Makes Aircraft Seats More Fire Retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1987-01-01

    Specially constructed cushion retards fires in aircraft seats through action of catalytic matrix that cracks flammable gaseous decomposition products to less flammable species. Improved cushion contributes substantially to fire safety without adding significantly to weight or to manufacturing cost. In this fire-blocking covering for an aircraft seat cushion, flammable pyrolysis products cracked to less flammable species by catalytic layer covering foam core of cushion. Aluminum foil holds in pyrolysis vapors to promote catalysis and prevent spread of fire by ignition of released vapors.

  2. Effects of sex and seating arrangement on selection of leader.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Danielle; Engstrom, Erika; Hassenzahl, David M

    2005-06-01

    Effects of a person's sex and seating arrangement were tested with 310 participants (151 men and 159 women; M age=20.0, SD=3.3) from a large southwestern U.S. university who were asked to select a leader from among five persons depicted around a rectangular table. Participants chose a person shown seated at the head of the table as the leader of a group, regardless of that person's sex. This conflicts with prior research indicating gender bias against women as leaders.

  3. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  4. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  5. Human factors in design of passenger seats for commercial aircraft: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaedel, S. F.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Seat comfort and safety research since the early part of the century is reviewed. The approach blends empirical and theoretical human factors and technical knowledge of seated humans under static and dynamic conditions experienced on commercial aircraft.

  6. The effect of rear-seat overloading in a car crash: pathological and kinematics evidences.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Duccio; Sammicheli, Michele; Cortucci, Cristiano

    2013-09-01

    Seat belts have been shown to decrease the incidence of lethal lesions to the head, chest, and abdomen. Since the introduction of seat belts, it is reported that the incidence of traumatic lesions in these body parts is reduced. In the meantime, the characteristic lesions to the chest and abdomen caused by the use of seat belts are described (J Trauma. 2007;62(6):1473-1480).Reported is a peculiar case of an oblique front-to-rear car collision, in which overloading of the rear seat with packages pushed forward the passenger front seat in an abnormal way, causing fatal thoracic and abdominal lesions.The authors underline that the seat belt protection device is defeated if front seats are damaged by heavy unanchored bags on the rear seat or on the rear parcel shelf of a motor vehicle.

  7. Seat adjustment--capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-02-01

    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  8. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers.Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just 'business as normal'. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis.

  9. Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Cepek, P.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the Tertiary section on Sierra Leone Rise off northwest Africa consists of chalk, marl, and limestone that show cyclic alterations of clay-rich and clay-poor beds about 20-60 cm thick. On the basis of biostratigraphic accumulation rates, the cycles in Oligocene and Miocene chalk have periods which average about 44,000 years, and those in Eocene siliceous limestone have periods of 4000-27,000 years. Several sections were sampled in detail to further define the cycles in terms of content of CaCO3, clay minerals, and relative abundances of calcareous nannofossils. Extending information gained by analyses of Pleistocene cores from the continental margin of northwest Africa to the Tertiary cycles on Sierra Leone Rise, both dilution by noncarbonate material and dissolution of CaCO3 could have contributed to the observed relative variations in clay and CaCO3. However, dissolution of CaCO3 as the main cause of the carbonate-clay cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, rather than dilution by clay, is suggested by the large amount of change (several thousand percent) in terrigenous influx required to produce the observed variations in amount of clay and by the marked increase in abundance of dissolution-resistant discoasters relative to more easily dissolved coccoliths in low-carbonate parts of cycles. The main cause of dissolution of CaCO3 was shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the early Neogene and climatically induced fluctuations in the thickness of Antarctic Bottom Water. ?? 1981.

  10. Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi-Gang; Shi, Wei-Feng; Liu, Di; Qian, Jun; Liang, Long; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hong-Guang; Fan, Hang; Ni, Ming; Sun, Yang; Jin, Yuan; Teng, Yue; Li, Zhen; Kargbo, David; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Chen, Cheng-Chao; Lan, Zhi-Heng; Jiang, Hui; Luo, Yang; Lu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Fan; Hu, Yi; Cao, Yu-Xi; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Su, Hao-Xiang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Wen-Sen; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Bu, Zhao-Yang; Guo, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, Liu-Bo; Nie, Wei-Min; Bai, Chang-Qing; Sun, Chun-Hua; An, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Pei-Song; Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan; Huang, Yong; Mi, Zhi-Qiang; Yu, Dong; Yao, Hong-Wu; Feng, Yong; Xia, Zhi-Ping; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Yang, Song-Tao; Lu, Bing; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Kargbo, Brima; He, Fu-Chu; Gao, George F; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-08-01

    A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 × 10(-3) to 1.41 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics.

  11. Support services for survivors of ebola virus disease - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; DeLuca, Nickolas; Adams, Monica; Dalling, Matthew; Drevlow, Elizabeth; Gassama, Gladys; Davies, Tina

    2014-12-19

    As of December 6, 2014, Sierra Leone reported 6,317 laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola), the highest number of reported cases in the current West Africa epidemic. The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation reported that as of December 6, 2014, there were 1,181 persons who had survived and were discharged. Survivors from previous Ebola outbreaks have reported major barriers to resuming normal lives after release from treatment, such as emotional distress, health issues, loss of possessions, and difficulty regaining their livelihoods. In August 2014, a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey regarding the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, administered by a consortium of partners that included the Ministry of Health and Sanitation, UNICEF, CDC, and a local nongovernmental organization, Focus 1000, found that 96% of the general population respondents reported some discriminatory attitude towards persons with suspected or known Ebola. Access to increased psychosocial support, provision of goods, and family and community reunification programs might reduce these barriers. Survivors also have unique potential to contribute to the Ebola response, particularly because survivors might have some immunity to the same virus strain. In previous outbreaks, survivors served as burial team members, contact tracers, and community educators promoting messages that seeking treatment improves the chances for survival and that persons who survived Ebola can help their communities. As caregivers in Ebola treatment units, survivors have encouraged patients to stay hydrated and eat and inspired them to believe that they, too, can survive. Survivors regaining livelihood through participation in the response might offset the stigma associated with Ebola. PMID:25522090

  12. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Brolin Ribacke, Kim J.; van Duinen, Alex J.; Nordenstedt, Helena; Höijer, Jonas; Molnes, Ragnhild; Froseth, Torunn Wigum; Koroma, AP; Darj, Elisabeth; Bolkan, Håkon Angel; Ekström, AnnaMia

    2016-01-01

    Background As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone. Methods and Findings Community health officers collected weekly data between January 2014—May 2015 on in-hospital deliveries and caesarean sections (C-sections) from all open facilities (public, private for-profit and private non-profit sectors) offering emergency obstetrics in Sierra Leone. This was compared to official data of EVD cases per district. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to compute risk and rate estimates. Nationwide, the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections decreased by over 20% during the EVD outbreak. The decline occurred early on in the EVD outbreak and was mainly attributable to the closing of private not-for-profit hospitals rather than government facilities. Due to difficulties in collecting data in the midst of an epidemic, limitations of this study include some missing data points. Conclusions Both the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections substantially declined shortly after the onset of the EVD outbreak. Since access to emergency obstetric care, like C-sections, is associated with decreased maternal mortality, many women are likely to have died due to the reduced access to appropriate care during childbirth. Future research on indirect health effects of health system breakdown should ideally be nationwide and continue also into the recovery phase. It is also important to understand the mechanisms behind the deterioration so that important health services can be reestablished. PMID:26910462

  13. Technical efficiency of peripheral health units in Pujehun district of Sierra Leone: a DEA application

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ade; Kirigia, Joses M; Zere, Eyob A; Barry, Saidou P; Kirigia, Doris G; Kamara, Clifford; Muthuri, Lenity HK

    2005-01-01

    Background The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been fruitfully used in many countries in Asia, Europe and North America to shed light on the efficiency of health facilities and programmes. There is, however, a dearth of such studies in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since hospitals and health centres are important instruments in the efforts to scale up pro-poor cost-effective interventions aimed at achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, decision-makers need to ensure that these health facilities provide efficient services. The objective of this study was to measure the technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. Methods This study applied the Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the TE and SE among a sample of 37 PHUs in Sierra Leone. Results Twenty-two (59%) of the 37 health units analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average score of 63% (standard deviation = 18%). On the other hand, 24 (65%) health units were found to be scale inefficient, with an average scale efficiency score of 72% (standard deviation = 17%). Conclusion It is concluded that with the existing high levels of pure technical and scale inefficiency, scaling up of interventions to achieve both global and regional targets such as the MDG and Abuja health targets becomes far-fetched. In a country with per capita expenditure on health of about US$7, and with only 30% of its population having access to health services, it is demonstrated that efficiency savings can significantly augment the government's initiatives to cater for the unmet health care needs of the population. Therefore, we strongly recommend that Sierra Leone and all other countries in the Region should institutionalise health facility efficiency monitoring at the Ministry of Health headquarter (MoH/HQ) and at each health district headquarter. PMID:16354299

  14. Gross Hematuria and Urinary Retention among Men from a Nationally Representative Survey in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Kamara, Thaim B; Kushner, Adam L; Groen, Reinou S; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of gross hematuria and urinary retention among men in Sierra Leone and report on barriers to care and associated disability. Gross hematuria and urinary retention are classic urologic complaints that require medical attention for significant underlying pathology, but their burden has not been quantified in a developing country. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey was administered in Sierra Leone using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical need tool as a verbal head-to-toe examination. A total of 2 respondents in each of 25 households in 75 clusters were surveyed to assess surgical needs. Data on questions related to blood from the penis and the inability to urinate for men >12 years of age were included in the present analysis to determine the period and point prevalence of hematuria and urinary retention. Results From 3645 total respondents, 1054 (28.9%) were men >12 years old included in the analysis. Period and point prevalence of gross hematuria were 21.8 per 1,000 (95%CI 13.0-30.7) and 12.3 per 1,000 (95%CI 5.7-19.0), respectively, and for urinary retention they were 19.9 per 1,000 (95%CI 11.5-28.4) and 4.7 per 1,000 (95%CI 0.5-8.9), respectively. Lack of financial resources was the major barrier to care. Disability assessment showed 19.1% were not able to work as a result of urinary retention and 34.8% felt ashamed of their gross hematuria. Conclusions The results provide a prevalence estimate of gross hematuria and urinary retention for men in Sierra Leone. Accessible medical and surgical care will be critical for early intervention and management. PMID:24726148

  15. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  16. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  18. Child safety seats for the prevention of traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Collar, M

    2001-05-01

    It's an old joke among new parents in Labor and Delivery: How many people did it take to install your car seat? Although the remark elicits chuckles from new moms and dads, using a child safety seat--and using it correctly--is no laughing matter. More children between the ages of one and ten die in automobile crashes than from any other type of injury or disease. In the under-one-year age group, this health risk is second only to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Some physicians, knowing how complicated child safety seats can be to use, may be reluctant to give advice to parents on their use. In addition, the potential liability of dispensing incorrect information may be enough to make some doctors reluctant to do so. However, there are some basic tips that physicians can and should be passing on to parents. Most parents place great trust in their child's physician; asking about the child's transportation and advocating proper child safety seat use is an effective prevention technique. PMID:11424724

  19. Territoriality: Seat Preferences in Different Types of Classroom Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Naz; Burgess, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Students' degree of territoriality based on gender and seat preferences in different types of classroom arrangements was studied. The types of classroom arrangements included rows of tablet-arm chairs, U-shaped, clusters, and rows of tables with individual chairs. The study was carried out through a survey at a large public institution in the…

  20. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, school buses, police vehicles as defined in S7 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222)....

  1. How Far up Am I? The Mathematics of Stadium Seating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Rebecca; Romero, David; Krueger, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The mathematics students are given a task to understand the fundamentals of liner functions by analyzing the height of the football stadium bleachers, as studying mathematical relationships in real-world contexts can enhance a student's knowledge of mathematics. The study of the stadium seating problem helps students to understand quadratic,…

  2. Seating tool for preparing molded-plug terminations on FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, C. M.; Corum, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Hand-operated tool positions and seats window piece and conductor spacer onto conductors of two stripped cables during process of terminating cables with molded plug. Tool accommodates cables up to 3 in. wide and is used in conjunction with folding tools.

  3. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale.

    PubMed

    Barks, Lelia; Luther, Stephen L; Brown, Lisa M; Schulz, Brian; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking) are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study's purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS), Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI), Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI) of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = -0.44, p = 0.001), supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha). Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research. PMID:26230339

  4. 9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north addition of Clubhouse (roof of Chinook Pass Room). TV Center is partially visible on far left. Camera pointed N. (July 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  5. Wheelchair seating: a state of the science report.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Mary Jo; Brienza, David M; Bertocci, Gina E; Crane, Barbara; Hobson, Douglas; Karg, Patricia; Schmeler, Mark; Trefler, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Regardless of the field, agenda-setting processes are integral to establishing research and development priorities. Beginning in 1998, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research mandated that each newly funded Rehabilitation Engineering and Research Center (RERC) hold a state-of-the-science consensus forum during the third year of its 5-year funding cycle. NIDRR's aim in formalizing this agenda-setting process was to facilitate the formulation of future research and development priorities for each respective RERC. In February 2001, the RERC on Wheeled Mobility, University of Pittsburgh, conducted one of the first such forums. The scope encompassed both current scientific knowledge and clinical issues. In preparation, expert interviews were carried out to establish the focus for the forum. Because a stakeholder forum on wheelchair technology had recently been held, opinion favored wheelchair seating as the focus and included the following core areas: seating for use in wheelchair transportation, seated postural control, seating discomfort, and tissue integrity management. The aim of this report is to present a summary of the workshop outcomes, describe the process, and increase awareness of this agenda-setting process in order to enhance future participation in a process that critically influences the field of wheeled mobility.

  6. Classroom Management: Seating Solutions [and] Hooray for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Joan; Edgar, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Two articles present suggestions for enhancing classroom management in creative ways. The first article describes how to use flexible seating arrangements to encourage cooperation, friendship, and community. The second article discusses how to encourage and work with classroom volunteers from the community. (SM)

  7. Getting a Seat at the Table--An Ongoing Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing effort in the Massachusetts School Library Association (MSLA). Library media specialists who are members of the MSLA have utilized key components to successfully advocate for library media centers in the state of Massachusetts. These key components have resulted in their acquiring seats at important decision…

  8. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, school buses, police vehicles as defined in S7 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222)....

  9. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, school buses, police vehicles as defined in S7 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222)....

  10. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  11. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  12. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  13. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  14. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.75 Inspectors credentials: Admission to...

  15. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.75 Inspectors credentials: Admission to...

  16. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.75 Inspectors credentials: Admission to...

  17. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission...

  18. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flight and ground load conditions, as defined in the approved operating envelope of the airplane. In... to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in normal... forward-facing or aft-facing seat with a safety belt and a shoulder harness, and must provide...

  19. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission...

  20. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission...

  1. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.75 Inspectors credentials: Admission to...

  2. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.75 Inspectors credentials: Admission to...

  3. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission...

  4. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.317 Inspector's credentials: Admission...

  5. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  6. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated height rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated Height measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).

  7. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  8. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  9. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  10. Seat Belts in School Buses: Analyzing the Literature and Using the Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    This literature review addresses three specific safety issues: installing seat belts in new buses, retrofitting existing buses with seat belts, and comparing seat belts with other safety features. While inconclusive evidence is provided concerning the first issue, studies do suggest retiring older buses and possibly equipping buses that meet PL…

  11. Effects of Seating Position on Student Performance in High School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Paul Eric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of seating position on mathematics course performance with relationship to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The study was conducted using three seating arrangements: alphabetic, student self-select and rotation. The data collected included the students' seating position,…

  12. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  13. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  14. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  15. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  16. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  17. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  18. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  19. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  20. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  1. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  2. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?...

  3. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating...

  4. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  5. Patterns of Seated Activity in Sensory Gardens among Children Educated in Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hazreena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the seated activity among children educated in special schools and their adult carers in two sensory gardens in the United Kingdom. Seated activity was established whether the seating was used as intended or whether users preferred to sit on other attributes during their learning session. The objectives of this study are to…

  6. 78 FR 20297 - Availability of Seats for the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the National Marine Sanctuary of... vacant seats on the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council: Community-at-Large... expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and...

  7. The Effect of Seat Location and Movement or Permanence on Student-Initiated Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tory; Hoopes, Olivia; Eggett, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the effect of seat location on student performance and participation in the classroom. The two major hypotheses are (1) that seat location influences student behavior and (2) that seat preference and selection is associated with personality traits of students. This study evaluated both hypotheses within a 55…

  8. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  9. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  10. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard J826 MAY87 (incorporated by reference... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  11. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in Society of... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  12. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in Society of... structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4. Requirements. S4.1Type. S4.1... seating position for which a Type 1 or a Type 2 seat belt assembly is required by Standard No. 208 (49...

  13. Exponential prototype structures for (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli systems in mathematical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskonus, Haci Mehmet; Bulut, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a new method called improved Bernoulli sub-equation function method has been proposed. This method is based on the Bernoulli sub-ODE method. After we mention the general properties of proposed method, we apply this algorithm to the (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation system. This gives us some new prototype solutions such as exponential and rational function solutions. Then, we have plotted two- and three-dimensional surfaces of analytical solutions. Finally, we have submitted a comprehensive conclusion.

  14. Characterization of the dengue outbreak in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico, 2010.

    PubMed

    Leduc-Galindo, D; Gloria-Herrera, U; Rincón-Herrera, U; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garcia-Luna, S; Arellanos-Soto, D; Mendoza-Tavera, N; Tavitas-Aguilar, I; Garcia-Garcia, E; Galindo-Galindo, E; Villarreal-Perez, J; Fernandez-Salas, I; Santiago, G A; Muñoz-Jordan, J; Rivas-Estilla, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied serotypes circulating dengue virus (DENV) cases, entomological Breteau index, rain-fall index and epidemiology of groups affected during the 2010 outbreak in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. From 2,271 positive cases, 94% were dengue classic and 6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; DENV1 was mainly isolated (99%) (Central-American lineage of American-African-genotype). We found correlation between two environmental phenomena (Increment of rainfall and vector-indexes) (p ≤ 0.05) with epidemiological, clinical and risk of DENV-1 ongoing transmission.

  15. Life extension and the burden of mortality: Leon Kass versus John Harris.

    PubMed

    Sauchelli, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Some bioethicists have questioned the desirability of a line of biomedical research aimed at extending the length of our lives over what some think to be its natural limit. In particular, Leon Kass has argued that living longer is not such a great advantage, and that mortality is not a burden after all. In this essay, I evaluate his arguments in favour of such a counterintuitive view by elaborating upon some critical remarks advanced by John Harris. Ultimately, I argue that nothing substantial has been said by Kass to undermine the desirability of life-extending technologies.

  16. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness? PMID:27358665

  17. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the uncertainty surrounding the status of mineral projects in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the National Minerals Information Center compiled information on the distribution of mines, mineral facilities, and mineral projects under development in the three countries. This fact sheet provides information on the role that the mineral sector plays in their respective economies, on the operating status of mining projects through yearend 2014, and on the coordinated actions by mining companies to support governments and international relief organizations in their efforts to contain the EVD outbreak.

  18. Maternal health, war, and religious tradition: authoritative knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jambai, A; MacCormack, C

    1996-06-01

    In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.

  19. Review: Leon N. Cooper’s Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research—specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness? PMID:27358665

  20. Biomechanical analysis of padding in child seats and head injury.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Head injury is a common finding for infants and young children involved in automobile accidents. Although the child restraint seats have increased the level of safety for the pediatric population, skull fracture and/or brain injury occur during the interaction between the child's head and interior of the car seats with no padding. The introduction of effective and sufficient padding may significantly reduce the head injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the biomechanical effects of padding in child seats to reduce the potential for head injury. A head drop test of a six-month old anthropomorphic dummy was conducted. The side of the dummy head impacted the interior wing of child car seats of relatively soft and stiff materials, and a rigid metal plate at velocities of 2.2, 4.5 and 6.7 m/s. In all tests, three types of padding environments were used (no padding, comfort foam, 16 to 19 mm polypropylene padding). All data were collected at 10 kHz and filtered. A total of 39 tests were conducted. The head injury criteria (HIC), and head acceleration, and head angular acceleration were obtained. The HIC was calculated over a 36 ms interval from the resultant tri-axial acceleration. The angular accelerations were derived from the angular velocity data. The head injury biomechanical parameters decreased with the addition of padding. The HIC, peak acceleration, and angular acceleration were reduced up to 91%, 80%, and 61% respectively. The present results emphasize the importance of energy absorbing padding to provide an improved safety environment in child car seats.

  1. Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Castillo, L. R. M.; Kubota, T.; Cantu Silva, I.; Hasnawir, H.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of rainfall on the occurrence of landslides depends on many factors such as landslide dimensions, kinematics or material involved. It is widely recognized that shallow landslides are usually triggered by short intense storms. Nuevo Leon state located in northeast Mexico is highly prone to the occurrence of this kind of slope failures due to its geologic, geomorphologic, climatic attributes and location, being targeted by tropical cyclones during the Atlantic hurricane season. A database of rainfall events that have resulted in shallow landslides on the region was compiled; the data indicated that there is a coincidence between the occurrence of shallow landslides and extreme rainfall events. A threshold curve in the form of I= αD-β was established to describe the threshold in where I is the rainfall intensity by rainfall event in mm/day and D is the duration of rainfall event in days. Duration of the rainfall events that triggered shallow landslides ranged from 2 to 5 days, with maximum intensity of 236 mm/day and a minimum intensity of 57.7 mm/day. From the data analyzed we could obtain a regression value of I = 109.77D-1.76 and established a new minimum rainfall intensity-duration threshold for the initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides that can be used for the development of a early warning system in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

  2. Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daniel J.; Dudas, Gytis; Wohl, Shirlee; Goba, Augustine; Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Sealfon, Rachel S.; Ladner, Jason T.; Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Matranga, Christian B.; Winnicki, Sarah M.; Qu, James; Gire, Stephen K.; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Jalloh, Simbirie; Nosamiefan, Dolo; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Moses, Lina M.; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Lin, Aaron E.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Bird, Brian; Towner, Jonathan; Mamoh, Mambu; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Kargbo, David; Massally, James L.B.; Kamara, Fatima K.; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul A.; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Sealy, Tara; Blau, Dianna; Paddock, Christopher; Brault, Aaron; Amman, Brian; Basile, Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica; Bergeron, Eric; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan; Dodd, Kimberly; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; Klena, John; McMullan, Laura; Morgan, Laura; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna; Sanchez, Angela; Wang, David; Jungreis, Irwin; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Kislyuk, Andrey; Lin, Michael F.; Chapman, Sinead; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Matthews, Ashley; Bochicchio, James; Hensley, Lisa E.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Nusbaum, Chad; Schieffelin, John S.; Birren, Bruce W.; Forget, Marc; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M.; Vandi, Mohamed A.; Kargbo, Brima; Holmes, Edward C.; Bedford, Trevor; Gnirke, Andreas; Ströher, Ute; Rambaut, Andrew; Garry, Robert F.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The 2013–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is caused by the Makona variant of Ebola virus (EBOV). Early in the epidemic, genome sequencing provided insights into virus evolution and transmission and offered important information for outbreak response. Here, we analyze sequences from 232 patients sampled over 7 months in Sierra Leone, along with 86 previously released genomes from earlier in the epidemic. We confirm sustained human-to-human transmission within Sierra Leone and find no evidence for import or export of EBOV across national borders after its initial introduction. Using high-depth replicate sequencing, we observe both host-to-host transmission and recurrent emergence of intrahost genetic variants. We trace the increasing impact of purifying selection in suppressing the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations over time. Finally, we note changes in the mucin-like domain of EBOV glycoprotein that merit further investigation. These findings clarify the movement of EBOV within the region and describe viral evolution during prolonged human-to-human transmission. PMID:26091036

  3. Sierra Leone. Secret societies leaders are engaged in the fight against FGM.

    PubMed

    Koso-thomas, O

    1995-04-01

    Both the Sierra Leone Association on the Welfare of Women and the Inter-African Committee (IAC) on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children have targeted the Sowies--leaders of the Secret Societies of Women--for education on the dangers of female genital mutilation. The Sowies, believed to have power to invoke ancestral spirits and knowledgeable in the art of using medicinal herbs, are also traditional birth attendants who perform female circumcision. Initially, Sowies were resistant to participate in any program organized by a group whose members were not initiated into the Secret Societies. However, contact with the head of Western Sierra Leone Sowies facilitated presentation of an educational program on the health hazards of female genital mutilation. This head subsequently attended the 1990 IAC Regional Conference where she heard testimonies from former circumcisers who had found new occupations. On her return, she designed a project to provide skills acquisition to 20 Sowies who would agree to "lay down the knife" and educate 6000 Secret Societies initiates on the dangers of female circumcision. Interest was so great that 38 Sowies were enrolled in a two-week training in soap making, bread making, cloth dying, organization and management of petty trading business, marketing and sales, simple business management, accounting, and savings.

  4. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  5. Habitat preferences of butterflies in the Bumbuna Forest, Northern Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sundufu, Abu James; Dumbuya, Rashida

    2008-01-01

    The habitat preferences of the butterfly fauna were studied in the Bumbuna Forest Reserve in northern Sierra Leone. The intact forest reserve and a secondary forest regrowth, disturbed as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, were compared to savanna habitats. Of the 290 specimens collected, 195 butterfly species were included, of which significant proportion were Nymphalidae. Of the 147 forest species, 111 (75.5%) showed preferences for the forest habitats, while 70 (47.6%) and 34 (23.1%) preferred disturbed and savannah habitats, respectively. Numerically, a comparable proportion of savannah species were recorded in the 18 disturbed (73.9%) and 16 savannah habitats (63.2%). Accumulated species richness and diversity indices were lower in the disturbed habitats compared to the forest reserve, but lowest in the savanna habitats. However, a large proportion of forest species, especially those with either a more restricted geographic range or species for which no information on geographic distribution was available, were exclusively captured in the forest patches. The survey indicated the presence of a rich butterfly fauna, which should be systematically collected for further research and study in order to build a good taxonomic database for Sierra Leone. PMID:20302525

  6. Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel J; Dudas, Gytis; Wohl, Shirlee; Goba, Augustine; Whitmer, Shannon L M; Andersen, Kristian G; Sealfon, Rachel S; Ladner, Jason T; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Matranga, Christian B; Winnicki, Sarah M; Qu, James; Gire, Stephen K; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Jalloh, Simbirie; Nosamiefan, Dolo; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Moses, Lina M; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Lin, Aaron E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Bird, Brian; Towner, Jonathan; Mamoh, Mambu; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Kargbo, David; Massally, James L B; Kamara, Fatima K; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul A; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Erickson, Bobbie R; Sealy, Tara; Blau, Dianna; Paddock, Christopher; Brault, Aaron; Amman, Brian; Basile, Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica; Bergeron, Eric; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan; Dodd, Kimberly; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; Klena, John; McMullan, Laura; Morgan, Laura; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna; Sanchez, Angela; Wang, David; Jungreis, Irwin; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Kislyuk, Andrey; Lin, Michael F; Chapman, Sinead; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Matthews, Ashley; Bochicchio, James; Hensley, Lisa E; Kuhn, Jens H; Nusbaum, Chad; Schieffelin, John S; Birren, Bruce W; Forget, Marc; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo F; Ndiaye, Daouda; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Kargbo, Brima; Holmes, Edward C; Bedford, Trevor; Gnirke, Andreas; Ströher, Ute; Rambaut, Andrew; Garry, Robert F; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2015-06-18

    The 2013-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is caused by the Makona variant of Ebola virus (EBOV). Early in the epidemic, genome sequencing provided insights into virus evolution and transmission and offered important information for outbreak response. Here, we analyze sequences from 232 patients sampled over 7 months in Sierra Leone, along with 86 previously released genomes from earlier in the epidemic. We confirm sustained human-to-human transmission within Sierra Leone and find no evidence for import or export of EBOV across national borders after its initial introduction. Using high-depth replicate sequencing, we observe both host-to-host transmission and recurrent emergence of intrahost genetic variants. We trace the increasing impact of purifying selection in suppressing the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations over time. Finally, we note changes in the mucin-like domain of EBOV glycoprotein that merit further investigation. These findings clarify the movement of EBOV within the region and describe viral evolution during prolonged human-to-human transmission. PMID:26091036

  7. Factors Underlying Ebola Virus Infection Among Health Workers, Kenema, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Senga, Mikiko; Pringle, Kimberly; Ramsay, Andrew; Brett-Major, David M.; Fowler, Robert A.; French, Issa; Vandi, Mohamed; Sellu, Josephine; Pratt, Christian; Saidu, Josephine; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus disease (EVD) in health workers (HWs) has been a major challenge during the 2014–2015 outbreak. We examined factors associated with Ebola virus exposure and mortality in HWs in Kenema District, Sierra Leone. Methods. We analyzed data from the Sierra Leone National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Database, contact tracing records, Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) staff and Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) rosters, and burial logs. Results. From May 2014 through January 2015, 600 cases of EVD originated in Kenema District, including 92 (15%) HWs, 66 (72%) of whom worked at KGH. Among KGH medical staff and international volunteers, 18 of 62 (29%) who worked in the ETU developed EVD, compared with 48 of 83 (58%) who worked elsewhere in the hospital. Thirteen percent of HWs with EVD reported contact with EVD patients, while 27% reported contact with other infected HWs. The number of HW EVD cases at KGH declined roughly 1 month after implementation of a new triage system at KGH and the opening of a second ETU within the district. The case fatality ratio for HWs and non-HWs with EVD was 69% and 74%, respectively. Conclusions. The cluster of HW EVD cases in Kenema District is one of the largest ever reported. Most HWs with EVD had potential virus exposure both inside and outside of hospitals. Prevention measures for HWs must address a spectrum of infection risks in both formal and informal care settings as well as in the community. PMID:27193749

  8. Technical efficiency of primary health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study reported in this paper were to (i) estimate the technical efficiency of samples of community health centres (CHCs), community health posts (CHPs) and maternal and child health posts (MCHPs) in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone, (ii) estimate the output increases needed to make inefficient MCHPs, CHCs and CHPs efficient, and (iii) explore strategies for increasing technical efficiency of these institutions. Methods This study applies the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to analyse technical efficiency of random samples of 36 MCHPs, 22 CHCs and 21 CHPs using input and output data for 2008. Results The findings indicate that 77.8% of the MCHPs, 59.1% of the CHCs and 66.7% of the CHPs were variable returns to scale technically inefficient. The average variable returns to scale technical efficiency was 68.2% (SD = 27.2) among the MCHPs, 69.2% (SD = 33.2) among the CHCs and 59% (SD = 34.7) among the CHPs. Conclusion This study reveals significant technical inefficiencies in the use of health system resources among peripheral health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone. There is need to strengthen national and district health information systems to routinely track the quantities and prices of resources injected into the health care systems and health service outcomes (indicators of coverage, quality and health status) to facilitate regular efficiency analyses. PMID:21569339

  9. Habitat Preferences of Butterflies in the Bumbuna Forest, Northern Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Sundufu, Abu James; Dumbuya, Rashida

    2008-01-01

    The habitat preferences of the butterfly fauna were studied in the Bumbuna Forest Reserve in northern Sierra Leone. The intact forest reserve and a secondary forest regrowth, disturbed as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, were compared to savanna habitats. Of the 290 specimens collected, 195 butterfly species were included, of which significant proportion were Nymphalidae. Of the 147 forest species, 111 (75.5%) showed preferences for the forest habitats, while 70 (47.6%) and 34 (23.1%) preferred disturbed and savannah habitats, respectively. Numerically, a comparable proportion of savannah species were recorded in the 18 disturbed (73.9%) and 16 savannah habitats (63.2%). Accumulated species richness and diversity indices were lower in the disturbed habitats compared to the forest reserve, but lowest in the savanna habitats. However, a large proportion of forest species, especially those with either a more restricted geographic range or species for which no information on geographic distribution was available, were exclusively captured in the forest patches. The survey indicated the presence of a rich butterfly fauna, which should be systematically collected for further research and study in order to build a good taxonomic database for Sierra Leone. PMID:20302525

  10. Transmission network of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Zhang, Wenyi; Kargbo, David; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Yong; Chen, Zeliang; Kamara, Abdul; Kargbo, Brima; Kandula, Sasikiran; Karspeck, Alicia; Liu, Chao; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the growth and spatial expansion of (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola and avian influenza, is critical for the effective planning of control measures; however, such efforts are often compromised by data insufficiencies and observational errors. Here, we develop a spatial-temporal inference methodology using a modified network model in conjunction with the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, a Bayesian inference method equipped to handle observational errors. The combined method is capable of revealing the spatial-temporal progression of infectious disease, while requiring only limited, readily compiled data. We use this method to reconstruct the transmission network of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone and identify source and sink regions. Our inference suggests that, in Sierra Leone, transmission within the network introduced Ebola to neighbouring districts and initiated self-sustaining local epidemics; two of the more populous and connected districts, Kenema and Port Loko, facilitated two independent transmission pathways. Epidemic intensity differed by district, was highly correlated with population size (r = 0.76, p = 0.0015) and a critical window of opportunity for containing local Ebola epidemics at the source (ca one month) existed. This novel methodology can be used to help identify and contain the spatial expansion of future (re)emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

  11. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Bedewi, Paul G; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Zwolinski, Joseph J; Meduvsky, Alex G; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that "crisscrossed" the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts. The V4 belt appeared to shift load to the clavicles and pelvis and to reduce traction of the shoulder belt across the chest, resulting in a reduction in chest deflection by a factor of two. This is associated with a 5 to 500-fold reduction in thoracic injury risk, depending on whether one assumes 4-point belts apply concentrated or distributed load. In four of six post mortem human subjects restrained by V4 belts during 40 km/h sled tests, chest compression was zero or negative and rib fractures were nearly eliminated. Submarining was not observed in any test with post mortem human subjects. Though lumbar, sacral and pelvic injuries were noted, they are believed to be due to the artificial restraint environment (no knee bolsters, instrument panels, steering systems or airbags). While they show significant potential to reduce thoracic injury risk, there are still many issues to be resolved before 4-point belts can be considered for production vehicles. These issues include, among others, potential effects on hard and soft neck tissues, of interaction with inboard shoulder belts in farside impacts and potential

  12. Heat generated during seating of dental implant fixtures.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2014-04-01

    Frictional heat can be generated during seating of dental implants into a drill-prepared osteotomy. This in vitro study tested the heat generated by implant seating in dense bovine mandible ramus. A thermocouple was placed approximately 0.5 mm from the rim of the osteotomy during seating of each dental implant. Four diameters of implants were tested. The average temperature increases were 0.075°C for the 5.7-mm-diameter implant, 0.97°C for the 4.7-mm-diameter implant, 1.4°C for the 3.7-mm-diameter implant, and 8.6°C for the 2.5-mm-diameter implant. The results showed that heat was indeed generated and a small temperature rise occurred, apparently by the friction of the implant surface against the fresh-cut bone surface. Bone is a poor thermal conductor. The titanium of the implant and the steel of the handpiece are much better heat conductors. Titanium may be 70 times more heat conductive than bone. The larger diameter and displacement implant may act as a heat sink to draw away any heat produced from the friction of seating the implant at the bone-implant interface. The peak temperature duration was momentary, and not measured, but this was approximately less than 1 second. Except for the 2.5-mm-diameter implants, the temperature rises and durations were found to be below those previously deemed to be detrimental, so no clinically significant osseous damage would be expected during dental implant fixture seating of standard and large-diameter-sized implants. A 2.5-mm implant may generate detrimental heat during seating in nonvital bone, but this may be clinically insignificant in vital bone. The surface area and thermal conductivity are important factors in removing generated heat transfer at the bone-implant interface. The F value as determined by analysis of variance was 69.22, and the P value was less than .0001, demonstrating significant differences between the groups considered as a whole.

  13. Determination of crash test pulses and their application to aircraft seat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Deceleration time histories (crash pulses) from a series of twelve light aircraft crash tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) were analyzed to provide data for seat and airframe design for crashworthiness. Two vertical drop tests at 12.8 m/s (42 ft/s) and 36 G peak deceleration (simulating one of the vertical light aircraft crash pulses) were made using an energy absorbing light aircraft seat prototype. Vertical pelvis acceleration measured in a 50 percentile dummy in the energy absorbing seat were found to be 45% lower than those obtained from the same dummy in a typical light aircraft seat. A hybrid mathematical seat-occupant model was developed using the DYCAST nonlinear finite element computer code and was used to analyze a vertical drop test of the energy absorbing seat. Seat and occupant accelerations predicted by the DYCAST model compared quite favorably with experimental values.

  14. The prevalence of seat belt use in Jamaica. An observational study.

    PubMed

    Crandon, I W; Branday, J M; Simeon, D T; Rhoden, A; Thompson, H; Carpenter, R

    1996-03-01

    An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1% of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5% of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined, 10.1% were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented.

  15. a Vibrational Model of Open Celled Polyurethane Foam Automotive Seat Cushions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, W. N.; Sha, S.; Mo, C.

    1998-10-01

    A mechanistic model of a seat cushion is developed. The work relates the kinematic motion of the seat to the geometric and constitutive properties of the cellular foam used in the seat. The model includes the influence of pneumatic damping caused by friction between the gas within the open-celled foam and matrix polymer. A continuous shape function is introduced to characterize the piecewise continuous stress-strain characteristic of flexible open-celled foam. After some simplification, a non-linear dynamic automotive seat cushion model is derived, which relies explicitly on the constitutive properties of polyurethane foams and on the geometry of the seat cushion. Experimental and analytical models of the two automotive seats are compared to verify the model. The comparisons indicate that the new model is able to predict the dynamic performance of an automotive seat cushion with fidelity.

  16. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles.

  17. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  18. The Fear of Poisoning and the Management of Urban Social Relations among the Professional Group in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell-Bond, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    Social relationships among professionals in Sierra Leone are marked by competition and tension. An examination of food symbolism, patterns of food sharing, and attitudes toward the safety of accepted proffered food and drink provides a means of looking at how the professionals structure and manage their social relations. (Author/EB)

  19. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  20. Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone: Determinants and Policy Implications. African Rural Economy Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerlee, Derek; And Others

    Study objectives were to: increase the understanding of rural to urban migration processes in Africa and Sierra Leone; develop and test a theoretical schema and survey methodology for migration research; and evaluate the effects of policy on migration. The migration survey was conducted in rural areas, urban areas, and again in the rural areas…

  1. Examining Internet Usage Demographic Differences and the Relationship between Internet Usage and Business Outcomes in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamara, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to determine Internet users' perceptions and behavioral intentions to accept Wi-Fi technology deployment in Sierra Leone. The study sought to investigate (a) the Internet usage rates before and after Wi-Fi adaption in Freetown; (b) differences in Internet usage…

  2. Use of the FilmArray System for Detection of Zaire ebolavirus in a Small Hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Ansumana, Rashid; Taitt, Chris R.; Lamin, Joseph M.; Bangura, Umaru; Lahai, Joseph; Mbayo, George; Kanneh, Mohamed B.; Bawo, Ben; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Scullion, Matt; Phillips, Cynthia L.; Horner, Cynthia P.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Stenger, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratories associated with small hospitals often have limited expertise, personnel, and equipment to rapidly identify rare and emerging infectious diseases. We describe the successful use of the FilmArray system for rapid detection of Ebola virus directly from clinical samples in 6 out of 83 tested subjects in a small health care center in Sierra Leone. PMID:25972415

  3. Use of the FilmArray System for Detection of Zaire ebolavirus in a Small Hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz A; Ansumana, Rashid; Taitt, Chris R; Lamin, Joseph M; Bangura, Umaru; Lahai, Joseph; Mbayo, George; Kanneh, Mohamed B; Bawo, Ben; Bockarie, Alfred S; Scullion, Matt; Phillips, Cynthia L; Horner, Cynthia P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Stenger, David A

    2015-07-01

    Laboratories associated with small hospitals often have limited expertise, personnel, and equipment to rapidly identify rare and emerging infectious diseases. We describe the successful use of the FilmArray system for rapid detection of Ebola virus directly from clinical samples in 6 out of 83 tested subjects in a small health care center in Sierra Leone. PMID:25972415

  4. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  5. Talent Developed: Conversations with Masters in the Arts and Sciences. Leon Botstein: Driven To Lead in Music and Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botstein, Leon; Subotnik, Rena F.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interview with Leon Botstein, the president of Bard College and music director and conductor of the American Symphony Orchestra. His history as an exceptional child, the development of his drive to succeed in a musical career and in academia, and his love for music are discussed. (CR)

  6. Molecular Signature of the Ebola Virus Associated with the Fishermen Community Outbreak in Aberdeen, Sierra Leone, in February 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Concetta; Vairo, Francesco; Biava, Mirella; Minosse, Claudia; Strada, Gino; Portella, Gina; Miccio, Rossella; Minardi, Valeria; Rolla, Luca; Kamara, Abdul; Chillemi, Giovanni; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Ebola virus from a health worker linked to a cluster of cases occurring in the fishing community of Aberdeen, Sierra Leone (February 2015), which were characterized by unusually severe presentation. The sequence, clustering in the SL subclade 3.2.4, harbors mutations potentially relevant for pathogenesis. PMID:26404609

  7. A Collection Development Plan for the Leon E. Bloch Law Library, University of Missouri-Kansas City. [Draft].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Charles R.

    This policy statement is designed to provide guidelines that will ensure the maintenance and improvement of the collection and services of the Leon E. Bloch Law Library at the University of Missouri-Kansas City in the period 1985 to 2000. The policy sets appropriate quality goals while simultaneously providing for flexibility in alternative…

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of an Ebola Virus Isolate Imported from Sierra Leone to Germany Determined by Circle Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mengel, Jan Philipp; Lissin, Artur; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Schultze, Tilman; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Schudt, Gordian; Kann, Gerrit; Wolf, Timo; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We report here a complete genome sequence of Ebola virus Makona from a nonfatal patient sample that originated in Sierra Leone during the last Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa (species Zaire ebolavirus) using a highly accurate circle sequencing (Cir-seq) method. PMID:27795234

  9. An Examination of Primary School Attendance and Completion among Secondary School Age Adolescents in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Leone was ravaged by a civil war between 1991 and 2002. Since the end of the war, it has witnessed an unprecedented increase in school enrollments. Although school enrollment has increased, the number of school age children who are out of school remains high. The focus of international agencies is on children of primary school age, yet a…

  10. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  11. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Spieth, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials (foam cushion, decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire-blocking layer, and cushion-reinforcement layer) were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers (decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire blocking, and cushion reinforcement) with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. Top layers exhibiting desirable burning profiles were combined with foam cushion materials. The smoke and heat-release rate of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/sq cm. Choices of contact and silicon adhesives for bonding multilayered assemblies were based on flammability, burn and smoke generation, animal toxicity tests, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  12. Lil HAL: digital kneeboard for ejection seat aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Vince

    2004-09-01

    In the last few years, airlines, commercial air carriers and the military have begun to introduce electronic tools into the cockpit to replace paper versions of flight publications, flight plans, departure and approach plates, maps, etc. These devices have varied from the common laptop to the smaller pen-tablet type computers. In some instances these devices have been connected to aircraft data buses to collect maintenance data, fault codes and other useful information. None of these devices, however, have been found satisfactory in ejection seat aircraft due to their size, weight, and dynamic characteristics when subjected to the inertial and aerodynamic forces that occur during an ejection. This paper describes an electronic digital kneeboard suitable for use in an ejection seat aircraft. The kneeboard consists of a look at helmet-mounted display, a small streamlined kneeboard input device, a carry-on/carry-off computer and its associated support interfaces.

  13. Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. Toward the right of the view and in front of te seat is the commander's Rotational Hand Controller. The pilot station has an identical controller. These control the acceleration in the roll pitch and yaw directions via the reaction control system and/or the orbiter maneuvering system while outside of Earth's atmosphere or via the orbiter's aerosurfaces wile in Earth's atmosphere when the atmospheric density permits the surfaces to be effective. There are a number of switches on the controller, most notably a trigger switch which is a push-to-talk switch for voice communication and a large button on top of the controller which is a switch to engage the backup flight system. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  15. A quantitative measurement method for comparison of seated postures.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Hollington, James

    2016-05-01

    This technical note proposes a method to measure and compare seated postures. The three-dimensional locations of palpable anatomical landmarks corresponding to the anterior superior iliac spines, clavicular notch, head, shoulders and knees are measured in terms of x, y and z co-ordinates in the reference system of the measuring apparatus. These co-ordinates are then transformed onto a body-based axis system which allows comparison within-subject. The method was tested on eleven unimpaired adult participants and the resulting data used to calculate a Least Significant Difference (LSD) for the measure, which is used to determine whether two postures are significantly different from one another. The method was found to be sensitive to the four following standardised static postural perturbations: posterior pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity, pelvic rotation, and abduction of the thighs. The resulting data could be used as an outcome measure for the postural alignment aspect of seating interventions in wheelchairs. PMID:26920073

  16. The influence of vibration on seated human drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    AZIZAN, Amzar; FARD, Mohammad; AZARI, Michael F.; BENEDIKTSDÓTTIR, Bryndís; ARNARDÓTTIR, Erna Sif; JAZAR, Reza; MAEDA, Setsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about human body vibration discomfort, there is little research data on the effects of vibration on vehicle occupant drowsiness. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed. Vibration was applied to the volunteers sitting on the vehicle seat mounted on the vibration platform. Seated volunteers were exposed to a Gaussian random vibration, with 1–15 Hz frequency bandwidth at 0.2 ms−2 r.m.s., for 20-minutes. Two drowsiness measurement methods were used, Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Significant changes in PVT (p<0.05) and KSS (p<0.05) were detected in all eighteen volunteers. Furthermore, a moderate correlation (r>0.4) was observed between objective measurement (PVT) and subjective measurement (KSS). The results suggest that exposure to vibration even for 20-minutes can cause significant drowsiness impairing psychomotor performance. This finding has important implications for road safety. PMID:26829971

  17. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  18. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  19. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  20. Effect of Cognitive Load on Seating Posture in Children.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although children are frequently required to sit upright, it is often difficult to maintain this posture when performing cognitive tasks. Information about the relationship between a cognitive tasks and postural seating control is important for children to complete tasks more effectively. To determine the muscle activity and body sway of children in a seated posture while performing a cognitive task, changes in muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) were recorded while 4(th) grade children performed arithmetic tasks. Electromyography was recorded from the internal oblique and lumbar multifidus muscles, and the COP was recorded using a baropodometer placed on the stool. These variables were measured during easy (EA) and difficult (DA) arithmetic tasks. EMG activity decreased during the EA and DA tasks, while the COP was displaced in the DA task. The results of the arithmetic tasks were not related to the EMG or COP changes. Attention to maintain a seated posture may be reduced when children perform cognitive tasks. Therefore, it may be better to allow children to alter their posture especially when they are performing difficult tasks. In this research, we only used arithmetic tasks as the cognitive exercise, and therefore, other types of tasks should be examined. PMID:26317316

  1. Magnetorheological impact seat suspensions for ground vehicle crash mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-04-01

    Semi-active magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) are one type of the most promising actuator for both the vibration and shock control. This paper investigates the frontal crash mitigation performance of semi-active MR impact seat suspensions for ground vehicles. The characteristics of two MREAs, a conventional MREA and an MREA with an internal bypass, with an identical volume, are theoretically evaluated and compared. To explore the control effectiveness of MREAs in the shock control systems, the mechanical model of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) sliding seat suspension system with MREAs is constructed. An optimal Bingham number control, which is to minimize the crash pulse loads transmitted to occupants by utilizing maximum stroke of the MREAs based on initial velocity of crash pulse, mass, and damping, is proposed and developed to improve the crash mitigation performance of the 4DOF MR sliding seat suspension control systems. The simulated control performances of the mitigation systems based on the MREAs with different functional structures are evaluated, compared, and analyzed. The research results indicate that (1) the constant stroking load velocity range of the MREAs is of significance to evaluate the controllability of the MREAs (i.e., the effectiveness of the semi-active shock control systems), and (2) suboptimal Bingham number control cannot realize "soft landing" (i.e., either an end-stop impact or incomplete utilization of the MREA stroke happens).

  2. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  3. Schistosoma mansoni infection after three years of mass drug administration in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma mansoni was moderately-highly endemic in the northeast of Sierra Leone. The national neglected tropical disease control program started mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel (PZQ) in six districts in 2009 targeting primary school children only. The effort was scaled-up to seven districts in 2010 targeting school aged children (SAC) and at-risk adults. A cross-sectional sentinel site survey was conducted in 2012 after three rounds of MDA to evaluate the impact of the national program. Methods Twenty-six (26) sentinel sites were randomly selected from the baseline mapping survey sites stratified according to the baseline prevalence into high, moderate or low endemic category. Fifty (50) school children (25 males and 25 females) were randomly selected per site. Fresh stool samples were examined in the field using the Kato Katz technique. The results were compared with the baseline data. Results Program coverage of 94.8%, 77.1% and 81.7% was reported in 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Independent monitoring in 2011 showed program coverage of 83.9%, not significantly different from the reported result in the same year. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 16.3% (95% CI: 14.4-18.4%) and mean intensity was 18.98 epg (95% CI: 11.46-26.50 epg) in 2012, representing 67.2% and 85.9% reduction from the baseline respectively. The proportion of moderately and heavily infected children was 3.3% and 1.2%, a significant reduction from 18.2% and 8.8% at baseline respectively. Conclusions Sierra Leone has maintained effective MDA coverage with PZQ since 2009. Three rounds of MDA led to a significant reduction of S. mansoni infection in the country. In line with the significant progress made in controlling schistosomiasis, the national treatment strategy has been reviewed and MDA will be expanded to include school age children in low endemicity districts with the new national objective for the elimination of schistosomiasis. Sierra Leone is well

  4. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NISHIYAMA, S.; UESUGI, N.; TAKESHIMA, T.; KANO, Y.; TOGII, H.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  5. Biomechanical considerations for assessing interactions of children and small occupants with inflatable seat belts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Board, Derek; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2013-11-01

    NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents. Tests simulating a 6-year-old child asleep in a booster seat, with its head lying directly on its shoulder on top of the inflatable seat belt, were considered by engineering judgment, to represent a worst case scenario for interaction of an inflating seat belt with the head and neck of a child and/or small occupant. All evaluations resulted in ATD responses below Injury Assessment Reference Values reported by Mertz et al. (2003). In addition, the tests of the PMHS subjects resulted in no injuries from interaction of the inflating seat belt with the heads, necks, and chests of the subjects. Given the results from the ATD and PMHS tests, it was concluded that the injury risk to children and small occupants from deployment of inflatable seat belt systems is low. PMID:24435728

  6. Mechanism of sound absorption by seated audience in halls.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, N; Hidaka, T; Beranek, L L

    2001-11-01

    Four methods are explored for predicting the reverberation times in fully occupied halls for music as related to the sound absorption by their audiences. The methods for providing audience absorptions include two that use reverberation chambers, namely, the ISO 354 method (and other similar standards) (ISO) and Kath and Kuhl's method (K & K) [Acustica 15, 127-131 (1965)], and two that use average data from halls, i.e., Beranek's method (COH) [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY, 1996)], and the average audience power-per-seat absorption which in practice is multiplied by the number of seats (AA). These methods are applied to the calculation of reverberation times in six existing halls, fully occupied, and the results were compared with actual measurements. The COH method was best for predictions over the entire frequency range. The K & K method showed the highest accuracy at mid-frequencies. Both the ISO and the K & K methods yielded wide differences for the measurements in the 125- and 250-Hz bands. The AA method was as good as the COH method when the measurements for the six halls were averaged, but showed a wide spread in the predictions around the average because it does not consider the degree of upholstering of the seats. It was hypothecated by the authors that the principal reasons for the ISO and K & K discrepancies at low frequencies were (a) differences between the degree of sound diffusion in actual halls and that in reverberation chambers, and (b) lack of information on the mechanisms of absorption of sound by people seated side-by-side in rows, particularly for near-grazing incidence sound fields. First, this article explores the sound diffusivity in a reverberation chamber and in the halls using CAD models. A probability density function of the incident angles of the sound rays that impinge on the audiences is defined and was measured for each case. Using a unique method, the sound absorption

  7. Towards Making a LEON3 Multicore Compatible with Probabilistic Timing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Carles; Abella, Jaume; Cazorla, Francisco J.; Andersson, Jan; Gianarro, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Timing analysis must be performed for safetycritical real-time tasks to estimate their Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET). The advent of multicores and cache hierarchies challenges the use of traditional measurement-based timing analysis (MBTA), which is current practice in industry. To tackle this issue a new family of timing analysis techniques based on probabilistic analysis has recently arised. Among those, Measurement-Based Probabilistic Timing Analysis (MBPTA) is the most promising approach, but imposes some constraints on the hardware design. In this paper we analyze the case of a LEON3 multicore processor, identify those features that need to be modified to attain MBPTA compliance and show the first steps towards achieving it. Our preliminary results show that (i) low WCET estimates can be derived, (ii) industrial practice based on measurements can be kept, and (iii) average performance is only slightly harmed w.r.t. non-MBPTA-compliant hardware designs.

  8. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M.; Stenger, David A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  9. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Stenger, David A

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  10. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon survey.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools (GSS; N = 11,684). GSS children were screened with the SRS and those with the highest scores were invited to a diagnostic evaluation. The final sample comprised 36 children (80.6 % male) who had confirmed ASD. A third had intellectual disability, 25 % were non-verbal, 69 % had co-occurring behavioral problems. The prevalence overall was 0.87 % (95 % CI 0.62, 1.1 %). This survey provides an estimate for ASD prevalence in Mexico that is consistent with recent studies.

  11. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T; Whitfield, Theodore H; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape not only had higher levels of anxiety and hostility but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow-up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow-up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes.

  12. Global health business: the production and performativity of statistics in Sierra Leone and Germany.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    The global push for health statistics and electronic digital health information systems is about more than tracking health incidence and prevalence. It is also experienced on the ground as means to develop and maintain particular norms of health business, knowledge, and decision- and profit-making that are not innocent. Statistics make possible audit and accountability logics that undergird the management of health at a distance and that are increasingly necessary to the business of health. Health statistics are inextricable from their social milieus, yet as business artifacts they operate as if they are freely formed, objectively originated, and accurate. This article explicates health statistics as cultural forms and shows how they have been produced and performed in two very different countries: Sierra Leone and Germany. In both familiar and surprising ways, this article shows how statistics and their pursuit organize and discipline human behavior, constitute subject positions, and reify existing relations of power.

  13. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon survey.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools (GSS; N = 11,684). GSS children were screened with the SRS and those with the highest scores were invited to a diagnostic evaluation. The final sample comprised 36 children (80.6 % male) who had confirmed ASD. A third had intellectual disability, 25 % were non-verbal, 69 % had co-occurring behavioral problems. The prevalence overall was 0.87 % (95 % CI 0.62, 1.1 %). This survey provides an estimate for ASD prevalence in Mexico that is consistent with recent studies. PMID:26797939

  14. Strategic environmental assessment of hydrological and irrigation plans in Castilla y Leon, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedo, D.; Bina, O. )

    1999-05-01

    The study illustrates how strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can promote sustainable development plans. It defines and applies an SEA methodology to two draft plans: the hydrological plan for the Duero basin in Spain and the irrigation plan for the region of Castilla y Leon. Although prepared by national and regional authorities, respectively, both draft plans refer to the management and use of water as a resource for economic development and refer roughly to the same area. The SEA addresses the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the combined draft plans, using relevant indicators and objectives. The analysis shows that the proposals would lead to high financial costs and significant negative impacts on the environment for each job created; it develops and assesses a number of alternatives that would address these impacts. The results are used to define SEA procedures for the new Structural Funds period (2000--2006) and will provide a useful lesson for plans at all levels of government within Spain.

  15. Gender differences in support for the discontinuation of female genital cutting in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Marguerite L

    2014-06-01

    Despite decades of policies, interventions and legislation, many girls and women are being subjected to female genital cutting (FGC) across the African continent. Because FGC has profound implications for women's wellbeing and reproductive health rights, an examination of behavioural changes toward the practice is imperative to reinforce strategies directed at eradicating it. Using a nationally representative survey, this study examines support for discontinuation of FGC and its associated predictors among both women and men in Sierra Leone. Findings reveal gender differences in attitudes toward the elimination of the practice across most of the socioeconomic predictors. Interestingly, beliefs about and perceived benefits of FGC emerge as important determinants of the support for the elimination of FGC, both genders considered. The findings highlight the importance of achieving gender equality and women's empowerment, and the necessity for a more contextualised approach to FGC eradication. PMID:24735172

  16. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Stenger, David A

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations.

  17. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  18. Ebola Virus Disease Complications as Experienced by Survivors in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Tiffany, Amanda; Vetter, Pauline; Mattia, John; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Bartsch, Maria; Kasztura, Miriam; Sterk, Esther; Tijerino, Ana Maria; Kaiser, Laurent; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thousands of people have survived Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the ongoing outbreak. However, data about the frequency and risk factors of long-term post-EVD complications remain scarce. We describe the clinical characteristics of EVD survivors followed in a survivor clinic in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods. A survivor clinic opened within an Ebola treatment center compound in Freetown, Sierra Leone. At each visit, clinical and psychological assessments were conducted and free treatment was offered. Survivors were referred to a partner's hospitals if their condition could not be managed in the clinic. We used routinely collected data from the clinic to describe long-term complications of EVD and their risk factors. Results. A total of 1001 medical consultations for 166 patients were performed between 3 February and 21 June 2015. The most frequent complaints and diagnoses were arthralgia (n = 129 [77.7%]), fatigue (n = 116 [69.8%]), abdominal pain (n = 90 [54.2%]), headache (n = 87 [52.4%]), anemia (n = 83 [50%]), skin disorders (n = 81 [48.8%]), back pain (n = 54 [32.5%]), and alopecia (n = 53 [31.9%]). Ocular complications were diagnosed in 94 survivors (56.7%); uveitis was the most common (n = 57 [34%]). Survivors were 10 times more likely to develop uveitis post-EVD if they presented with red/injected eyes during the acute phase of their illness. Conclusions. Post-EVD complications among our patients were similar to those described previously and were detected early following the acute phase of disease. Follow-up of survivors should begin immediately after discharge to address sequelae as they arise and reduce the potential for development of long-term disabilities such as blindness. PMID:27001797

  19. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA {yields} L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. {sup 3}He was exceptionally abundant, {sup 4}He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R{sub a} value of 246 {plus minus} 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess {sup 3}He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R{sub a} value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of {sup 40*}Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire.

  20. A descriptive study of urban rabies during the civil war in Sierra Leone: 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Hatch, C; Sneddon, J; Jalloh, G

    2004-05-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of the breakdown in internal infrastructure on the incidence of canine-transmitted human rabies in urban areas of Sierra Leone during the course of the civil war between 1995 and 2001. Data from provincial hospitals in the Western Area and Southern Province indicated that there was a significant increase in the incidence of canine-transmitted urban human rabies chi2 = 39.63, p < 0.0001, particularly among children chi2 = 23.73, p < 0.0001, over the course of the war. In the Western Area in 2001, towards the end of the war, there was a significant increase in adult cases, which was reflected in the observed versus the expected chi2 ratio (70 versus 53). Interview-based questionnaire surveys in Freetown administered between 2001 and 2002 indicated that dogs were commonly kept for security reasons, and were largely unrestrained and unlicensed, regardless of the socioeconomic status of the owner. Virtually all dogs were unvaccinated and were mainly living in close proximity with humans. This study indicated that there is an urgent requirement for appropriate mass rabies vaccination campaigns for pet dogs and for campaigns to manipulate the urban habitat to control free-roaming and wandering but owned dog populations in Freetown and other urban areas in the provinces of Sierra Leone. Interview-based questionnaires administered in three districts of Freetown indicated a relatively high degree of uniformity in dog husbandry and veterinary care habits across a wide range of socioeconomic status categories in dog owners.

  1. Context matters: Community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics—social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth—in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Methods 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Results Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively co-varied with youths’ externalizing and internalizing scores—indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p<0.05). The relationship between collective efficacy and mental health outcomes was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the post-conflict social context plays in shaping mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a four-year period of follow up. These results underscore the importance of the post-conflict social environment and the need to develop post

  2. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  3. Screening for cardiopulmonary events in neonates: a review of the infant car seat challenge.

    PubMed

    Davis, N L

    2015-04-01

    The infant car seat challenge (ICSC), or period of observation in a car safety seat before discharge to monitor for episodes of apnea, bradycardia and desaturation, is one of the most common tests performed on preterm neonates in the United States. However, the utility of the ICSC to identify infants at risk for adverse cardiopulmonary events in the car seat remains unclear. Minimal evidence exists to guide clinicians in performance of this test including appropriate inclusion criteria and failure criteria. In this article, the origins of the ICSC are discussed as well as potential etiologies of desaturations and bradycardia in the car seat position. Current literature on implementation, inclusion and failure criteria, incidence of failure and data on the meaning of a 'passed' vs 'failed' ICSC are discussed. Emphasis is made on minimizing time in car seats and seated devices given concern over the risk of desaturations. PMID:25675050

  4. Variations in occupant response with seat belt slack and anchor location during moderate frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Chimich, Dennis D; Heinrichs, Bradley E; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Brault, John R

    2005-03-01

    Both seat belt slack and anchor location are known to affect occupant excursion during high-speed frontal collisions, but their effects have not been studied at moderate collision severities. The goal of this study was to quantify how seat belt slack and anchor location affect occupant kinematics and kinetics in moderate severity frontal collisions. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy was seated on a programmable sled and exposed to frontal collisions with a speed change of 17.5 km/h. The seat belt was adjusted either snugly or with 10 cm slack (distributed 60/40 between the shoulder and lap portions) and the anchor location was varied by adjusting the seat position either fully forward or rearward (seat travel = 13 cm). Accelerations and displacements of the head, T1 and pelvis were measured in the sagittal plane. Upper neck loads and knee displacements were also measured. Five trials were performed for each of the four combinations of belt adjustment (snug, slack) and anchor location (seat forward, seat rearward). For each trial, kinematic and kinetic response peaks were determined and then compared across conditions using ANOVAs. Peak displacements, accelerations and loads varied significantly with both seat belt slack and anchor location. Seat belt slack affected more parameters and had a larger effect than anchor location on most peak response parameters. Head displacements increased a similar amount between the snug/slack belt conditions and the rearward/forward anchor locations. Overall, horizontal head displacements increased from 23.8 cm in the snug-belt, rearward-anchor configuration to 33.9 cm in the slack-belt, forward-anchor configuration. These results demonstrated that analyses of occupant displacements, accelerations and loads during moderate frontal impacts should consider potential sources of seat belt slack and account for differences in seat belt anchor locations.

  5. Active control of an innovative seat suspension system with acceleration measurement based friction estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Hongyi; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an innovative active seat suspension system for vehicles is presented. This seat suspension prototype is built with two low cost actuators each of which has one rotary motor and one gear reducer. A H∞ controller with friction compensation is designed for the seat suspension control system where the friction is estimated and compensated based on the measurement of seat acceleration. This principal aim of this research was to control the low frequency vibration transferred or amplified by the vehicle (chassis) suspension, and to maintain the passivity of the seat suspension at high frequency (isolation vibration) while taking into consideration the trade-off between the active seat suspension cost and its high frequency performance. Sinusoidal excitations of 1-4.5 Hz were applied to test the active seat suspension both when controlled and when uncontrolled and this is compared with a well-tuned passive heavy duty vehicle seat suspension. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm within the tested frequencies. Further tests were conducted using the excitations generated from a quarter-car model under bump and random road profiles. The bump road tests indicate the controlled active seat suspension has good transient response performance. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) method and ISO 2631-1 standards were applied to analyse the seat suspension's acceleration under random road conditions. Although some low magnitude and high frequency noise will inevitably be introduced by the active system, the weighted-frequency Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration shows that this may not have a large effect on ride comfort. In fact, the ride comfort is improved from being an 'a little uncomfortable' to a 'not uncomfortable' level when compared with the well-tuned passive seat suspension. This low cost active seat suspension design and the proposed controller with the easily measured feedback signals are very practical for real

  6. Application of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing for sharp corner and tangent contact lens seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, C. L.; Burge, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper outlines methods for dimensioning and tolerancing lens seats that mate with spherical lens surfaces. The two types of seats investigated are sharp corner and tangent contact. The goal is to be able to identify which seat dimensions influence lens tilt and displacement and develop a quantifiable way to assign tolerances to those dimensions to meet tilt and displacement requirements. After looking at individual seats, methods are then applied to multiple lenses with examples. All geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is according to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.

  7. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  8. 75 FR 44215 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Conservation; alternate seats for Education, Mobile Gear Commercial Fishing, Whalewatching, and At-Large... they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection...

  9. 76 FR 41763 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding... Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council was established in 1986 pursuant to Federal law to ensure...

  10. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  11. Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. It appears the Orbiter is in the roll out / launch pad configuration. A protective cover is over the Rotational Hand Controller to protect it during the commander's ingress. Most notable in this view are the Speed Brake/Thrust Controller in the center right in this view and the Translational Hand Controller in the center top of the view. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Breaking/cracking and seating concrete pavements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.R.

    1989-03-01

    This synthesis will be of interest to pavement designers, maintenance engineers, and others interested in reducing reflection cracking of asphalt overlays on portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement. Information is presented on the technique of breaking or cracking of the concrete pavement into small segments before overlaying with asphalt concrete. Asphalt concrete overlays on existing PCC pavements are subject to reflection cracking induced by thermal movements of PCC pavement. The report of the Transportation Research Board discusses the technique of breaking/cracking and seating of the existing PCC before an overlay as a means to reduce or eliminate reflection cracking.

  13. Facilitators and barriers related to voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among young adults in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bhoobun, Shalinee; Jetty, Anuradha; Koroma, Mohamed A; Kamara, Mohamed J; Kabia, Mohamed; Coulson, Reginald; Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, we interviewed a population-based sample of 285 young adult residents (age 18-35 years) of the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, about their attitudes toward and experience with voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) for HIV. In total, 33% of the participants (44% of women and 25% of men) reported having been tested for HIV at least once. More than 85% of those not previously tested indicated a willingness to be tested in the near future, but untested participants were nearly twice as likely as tested participants to report fears about family/partner rejection, job loss, and other potential consequences of testing. More than 90% of participants expressed a high desire for testing privacy, and the majority reported a preference for VCT at a facility far from home where no one would know them. Social barriers to HIV testing remain a challenge for HIV prevention in Sierra Leone. PMID:24203408

  14. Influence of seat properties on occupant dynamics in severe rear crashes.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C

    2003-12-01

    Seat performance in retaining an occupant, transferring energy, and controlling neck responses is often questioned after severe rear crashes when fatal or disabling injury occur. It is argued that a stiffer seat would have improved occupant kinematics. However, there are many factors in occupant interactions with the seat. This study evaluates four different seat types in 26 and 32 mph (42 and 51 km/h), rear crash delta Vs. Two seats were yielding with k = 20 kN/m occupant load per displacement. One represented a 1970s yielding seat with j = 3.4 degrees /kN frame rotation per occupant load, and 3 kN maximum load (660 Nm moment), and the other a high retention seat phased into production since 1997 with j = 1.4 degrees /kN, and 10 kN maximum load (2200 Nm). Two seats were stiff with k = 40 kN/m. One represented a 1990s foreign benchmark with j = 1.8 degrees /kN and a 7.7 kN maximum load (1700 Nm), and the other an all belts to seat (ABTS) with j = 1.0 degrees /kN and 20 kN maximum load (4400 Nm). The crash was a constant acceleration of 11.8 g, or 14.5 g for 100 ms. Occupant interactions with the seat were modeled using a torso mass, flexible neck and head mass. By analysis of the equations of motion, the initial change in seatback angle (Deltatheta) is proportional to jk(y - x), the product jk and the differential motion between the vehicle (seat cushion) and occupant. The transition from 1970s-80s yielding seats to stronger seats of the 1990s involved an increase in k stiffness; however, the jk property did not change as frame structures became stronger. The yielding seats of the 1970s had jk = 68 degrees /m, while the stiff foreign benchmark seat had jk = 72 degrees /m. The foreign benchmark rotated about the same as the 1970s seat up to 50 ms in the severe rear crashes. While it was substantially stronger, it produced higher loads on the occupant, and the higher loads increased seatback rotations and neck responses. The ABTS seat had the lowest rotations but

  15. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  16. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  17. Temporal Changes in Ebola Transmission in Sierra Leone and Implications for Control Requirements: a Real-time Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Anton; Kucharski, Adam; Aki-Sawyerr, Yvonne; White, Mark A.; Flasche, Stefan; Baguelin, Marc; Pollington, Timothy; Carney, Julia R.; Glover, Rebecca; Smout, Elizabeth; Tiffany, Amanda; Edmunds, W. John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between August and November 2014, the incidence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) rose dramatically in several districts of Sierra Leone. As a result, the number of cases exceeded the capacity of Ebola holding and treatment centres. During December, additional beds were introduced, and incidence declined in many areas. We aimed to measure patterns of transmission in different regions, and evaluate whether bed capacity is now sufficient to meet future demand. Methods: We used a mathematical model of EVD infection to estimate how the extent of transmission in the nine worst affected districts of Sierra Leone changed between 10th August 2014 and 18th January 2015. Using the model, we forecast the number of cases that could occur until the end of March 2015, and compared bed requirements with expected future capacity. Results: We found that the reproduction number, R, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a typical infectious individual, declined between August and December in all districts. We estimated that R was near the crucial control threshold value of 1 in December. We further estimated that bed capacity has lagged behind demand between August and December for most districts, but as a consequence of the decline in transmission, control measures caught up with the epidemic in early 2015. Conclusions: EVD incidence has exhibited substantial temporal and geographical variation in Sierra Leone, but our results suggest that the epidemic may have now peaked in Sierra Leone, and that current bed capacity appears to be sufficient to keep the epidemic under-control in most districts. PMID:25737806

  18. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  19. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide information pertaining to changes in seated height due to spinal elongation in a microgravity environment. The proposed experiment aims to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, provide information relating to seated height rate of change over time, and feed new information regarding the elongation of the spine forward into the design of Constellation systems. Historical data indicates that spinal elongation occurs when crewmembers are subjected to microgravity. In as little as two days, the typical crewmember will exhibit increases in stature of up to 3 percent. However, data has been collected only for crewmembers in standing postures, and a limited pool of subjects was available. Due to the criticality of seated height in the design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Small changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the CEV. The proposed study will directly measure changes in seated height for crewmembers in the Shuttle cockpit. An anthropometer will be used to record measurements to the top of the head of a seated subject, and an orthogonal photograph will be taken in order to measure seated height based on scaling references of known sizes as well as verify the posture and positioning remained consistent throughout the study. Data gained from this study will provide better information to CEV designers. Accurate measurements of crew seated height will be valuable for vehicle and habitation designers for future programs as well.

  20. High resolution biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene Leon and Chama Formations: An integrated approach for sequence stratigraphy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelli, R.; Rull, V. )

    1993-02-01

    Based on foraminiferal and palynological high resolution studies, a set of Sequence Boundaries (SB) and Maximum Flooding Surfaces (MSF) were identified for the Venezuelan Northwestern Andean Foothills Leon and Chama formations. Changes in abundance patterns of forminifera palynomorphs, in faunal/floral composition and distribution, together with quantitative studies of particulate organic matter allowed picking SB 30, 21 and 15.5 (very low values of fossil abundance and faunal discontinuities, recognized by a rapid stratigraphic change in biofacies and faunal assemblage and the associated mineralogical contents) and MFS 18.5, 16, and 15 (abundant fossils). The Leon Formation represents coastal plain and swamp deposits with some minor fluctuations in the seawater level. The top of the Leon Formation shaly unit is bounded by SB 30, according to Hag B.U. et al (version 1992), marked by a decrease in fossil abundance. An increase in faunal/floral content close to the top of the section coincides with the MFS 18.5. The upper part of the formation is marked by a sandy unit with SB 16.5, characterized again by a decrease in fossil abundance at its top. The Chama Formation was deposited in a transitional environment, with minor seawater level fluctuations. Climate type was tropical humid, with seasonal precipitations, except at the Early Miocene arid or semiarid phase. Mangrove and rain forest vegetation dominated throughout the Early to Middle Miocene. MFS 16 was picked on the basis of a high abundance of microforams and glauconite.