Science.gov

Sample records for proovisit seat leon

  1. "Stepping-sticks" and "seat-sticks": new types of tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Alp, R

    1997-01-01

    In Tenkere, Sierra Leone, a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) spent long hours eating the fruits and flowers of the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) tree. The branches of this species are covered in sharp thorns which make movement in their high canopies problematic for the chimpanzees. In an apparent attempt to increase their mobility and to ease the discomfort of lengthy bouts of eating in these trees, some of the Tenkere chimpanzees have been observed using stick tools as foot ("stepping-sticks") and body ("seat-sticks") protection against the painful thorns. This form of tool-using is culturally unique to the Tenkere chimpanzees, as at other sites where these apes have been observed eating parts of kapok trees, there are no published records of this tool technology. In three of the stepping-stick tool use incidents, the chimpanzee used the tool(s), held between their greater and lesser toes, in locomotion. This form of tool use is the first recorded case of habitually used tools that can be justifiably categorized as being "worn" by any known wild population of Pan troglodytes.

  2. Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    In this discussion of Sierra Leone, attention is directed to the people, geography, history, government and political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Sierra Leone. The population of Sierra Leone was estimated to be 3.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate estimated at 2.3%. Life expectancy is 46 years. 18 ethnic groups make up the country's indigenous population; the Temne in the north and the Mende in the south are the largest. Sierra Leone is located in the western part of the great bulge of West Africa. Most of the 20th century history of the colony was peaceful, and independence was accomplished without violence. The 1951 constitution provided the framework for decolonization. Independence came in 1961, and Sierra Leone became a parliamentary system within the British Commonwealth. In April 1971, it adopted a republican constituion, cutting the link to the British monarchy but remaining within the Commonwealth. Sierra Leone is rich in minerals and has relied upon the mining sector, in general, and diamonds, in particular, for its economic base. In the 1970s and early 1980s, economic growth rates slowed due to a decline in the mining sector that had eroded the export base. About 75% of the population engages in subsistence agriculture, and, although most of the population derives their livelihood from agriculture, it accounts for only 30% of the national income. Government development plans have focused increasingly on agriculture, with efforts directed toward increasing food and cash crop production and upgrading small farmer skills. Sierra Leone has followed a foreign policy of nonalignments, although historically it has maintained cordial relations with the West, particularly with the UK and the US. The country's military force is well-trained and well-disciplined but is hampered by a small budget and insufficient materiel. At this time, relations between the US and Sierra Leone are cordial, although

  3. Multiposition Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.

    1994-01-01

    Back of seat pivots about either of two axes: one axis for folding back to form bed and second, higher axis for folding forward to form compact ottoman, even when seat thickly padded. Long and short links used to adjust back of seat to variety of positions. Multiposition seat designed for use in spacecraft also adapted to airplanes and land vehicles.

  4. Sierra Leone Estuary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    This image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Sierra Leone estuary, which became a focal point for trade and interaction between Africans and Europeans because of its exceptional harbor, starting in the mid-15th century.

  5. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  7. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  8. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sierra Leone provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education). Topics covered are: the…

  9. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Sierra Leone are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system, (2) teachers of English, (3) materials support; (4) educational administration for English teaching, (5) development and planning, (6) British support for the teaching of English, and (7) commercial opportunities.…

  10. Susu Language Manual: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    A teacher's guide for Susu is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Sierra Leone. It contains a section on Susu phonology and 28 lessons on these topics: situation-specific greetings, basic greetings, introducing a friend, the market, travel and getting directions, visiting…

  11. Susu Language Manual: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    A teacher's guide for Susu is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Sierra Leone. It contains a section on Susu phonology and 28 lessons on these topics: situation-specific greetings, basic greetings, introducing a friend, the market, travel and getting directions, visiting…

  12. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure to ask for a certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose ... killed if they are riding in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags ...

  13. CEV Seat Layout Evaluation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-15

    Photographic documentation of the CEV Seat Layout Evaluation taken in the Orion mockup located in bldg 9NW, Johnson Space Center (JSC). Test subjects in orange Launch and Entry Suit (LES) is visible in the seat.

  14. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  15. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  16. My Great Migration from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal narrative as an immigrant from Sierra Leone who has undergone so many challenges in life and ended up turning all these obstacles into opportunities. In this article, the author describes his life growing up in Sierra Leone, his first experience of the horrors of war, his life as a student, and his dream…

  17. My Great Migration from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal narrative as an immigrant from Sierra Leone who has undergone so many challenges in life and ended up turning all these obstacles into opportunities. In this article, the author describes his life growing up in Sierra Leone, his first experience of the horrors of war, his life as a student, and his dream…

  18. Seat test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The test program has the objectives to: (1) evaluate severity of newspaper ignition source with contemporary seats (determine weight loss, visual damage, and if ignition source is severe enough to show improvement with new material configurations); (2) compare damage with jet A-1 ignition source; and (3) determine if materials for seat tests pass FAR 25 and obtain L01. Test configurations, data acquired, material test results, seat test results, and conclusions are presented.

  19. The death of Leon Trotsky.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    Leon Trotsky was one of the founders of the Soviet Union and an obvious candidate to replace Lenin after his death. Unfortunately for him, it was Joseph Stalin who came to power, and Trotsky went into a long forced exile that eventually took him to Mexico, where he found asylum. On August 20, 1940, a Stalinist agent wounded Trotsky in the head with an ice axe in his house in Coyoacán, Mexico. Just a few hours later, Mexican neurosurgeons operated on him at the Cruz Verde Hospital in Mexico City. The axe had broken Trotsky's parietal bone and, after tearing the meninges, had damaged the encephalon. Despite the care provided by physicians and nurses, Trotsky passed away 25 hours after he was attacked, a victim of bleeding and shock. This article presents a review of Trotsky's last day, with special emphasis on the doctors who performed the surgery and who took care of the Russian revolutionary in his final moments. The results of Trotsky's autopsy are also discussed. The assassination of Leon Trotsky is one of the most dramatic events of the first half of the 20th century to have taken place on Mexican soil, and those final hours are an important moment in the history of Mexican neurosurgery and in the history of the world.

  20. Seat restraint contamination and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Paulson, J A

    1986-07-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate that seat restraints are unlikely vehicles for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from infant to infant in seat restraint loaner programs. Simple surface cleaning with antibacterial solutions is sufficient to prepare seats for reloaning.

  1. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  2. Narrowing Your Seating Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Offers guidance on selecting appropriate seating furniture for outdoor facilities, arenas, auditoriums, and lecture rooms. Considerations such as beam mounting systems to facilitate laptop computer and campuswide networking use by students and chair durability and ergonomics are discussed as are tips for choosing a seating remanufacturing company.…

  3. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  4. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  5. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  6. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  7. An LLVM Backend for LEON Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Trescastro, Jorge; Vassev, Emil; Hellstrom, Daniel; Cederman, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The development of embedded application is nowadays facing major challenges with the emergence of new computing platforms, such as multi-core systems. To overcome these challenges, existing compilers need to evolve to efficiently exploit the new hardware resources. With the next generation of LEON processors being released for industrial applications, ESA/ESTEC has initiated and granted to Lero and Cobham Gaisler a study for the development of an LLVM backend for LEON processors. Lero leads the effort focusing on backend analysis and development and Cobham Gaisler is responsible for final testing and performance measurement of LLVM. This paper will present the key aspects of the LEON backend, its design, validation and potential future developments. The study is currently on-going.

  8. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  9. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  10. TARDEC Occupant Protection Seat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-28

    Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment DoD Executive Agent TARDEC Occupant Protection Seat...design worked exactly as intended. No issues were observed with the roller or EA wire. • The ability for this design to provide protection for two

  11. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  12. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  13. Leon Foucault: His Life, Times and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aczel, Amir D.

    2004-01-01

    Leon Foucault's dramatic demonstration of the rotation of the Earth using a freely-rotating pendulum in 1850 shocked the world of science. Scientists were stunned that such a simple proof of our planet's rotation had to wait so long to be developed. Foucault's public demonstration, which was repeated at many locations around the world, put an end…

  14. Leon Foucault: His Life, Times and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aczel, Amir D.

    2004-01-01

    Leon Foucault's dramatic demonstration of the rotation of the Earth using a freely-rotating pendulum in 1850 shocked the world of science. Scientists were stunned that such a simple proof of our planet's rotation had to wait so long to be developed. Foucault's public demonstration, which was repeated at many locations around the world, put an end…

  15. Particularizing Universal Education in Postcolonial Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Grace

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a vertical case study of the history of universalizing education in postcolonial Sierra Leone from the early 1950s to 1990 to highlight how there has never been a universal conception of universal education. In order to unite a nation behind a universal ideal of schooling, education needed to be adapted to different…

  16. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis.

    PubMed

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  17. Factors Affecting Booster Seat Use.

    PubMed

    Aita-Levy, Jerussa; Henderson, Lauren

    2016-10-01

    Objective To identify general awareness of booster seats as well as reasons for use and nonuse in an urban pediatric emergency room. Methods A total of 100 questionnaires were completed consisting of 24 questions each. Questions included knowledge of booster seat guidelines, source of knowledge, awareness of risks, and confidence in booster seats. Afterward, participants were provided an educational handout. Results Majority of parents reported currently using or having used a booster seat. The most popular reason was to protect from injury (78%), and reason for nonuse was size (44%). Majority of parents agreed that motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death in children. However, 56% of parents prematurely transitioned child out of a booster seat. Only 20% reported learning about booster seats from their pediatrician. Conclusion Parents continue to transition their children prematurely from booster seats. Current state laws need revision as well as further education using simplified illustrated guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  19. The safest seat: effect of seating position on occupant mortality.

    PubMed

    Mayrose, James; Priya, Aruna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the survival rates of occupants of passenger cars involved in a fatal crash between 2000 and 2003. The information from every fatal crash in the United States between 2000 and 2003 was analyzed. Variables such as seat position, point of impact, rollover, restraint use, vehicle type, vehicle weight, occupant age, and injury severity were extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Univariate and a full logistic multivariate model analyses were performed. The data show that the rear middle seat is safer than any other occupant position when involved in a fatal crash. Overall, the rear (2(nd) row) seating positions have a 29.1% (Univariate Analysis, p<.0001, OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.22 - 1.37) increased odds of survival over the first row seating positions and the rear middle seat has a 25% (Univariate Analysis, p<.0001, OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17 - 1.34) increased odds of survival over the other rear seat positions. After correcting for potential confounders, occupants of the rear middle seat have a 13% (Logistic Regression, p<.001, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.26) increased chance of survival when involved in a crash with a fatality than occupants in other rear seats. This study has shown that the safest position for any occupant involved in a motor-vehicle crash is the rear middle seat. The results of this research may impact how automobile manufacturers look at future rear middle seat designs. If the rear seat was to be designed exactly like its outboard counterparts (headrest, armrests, lap and shoulder belt, etc.) people may choose to sit on it more often rather than waiting to use it out of necessity due to multiple rear seat occupants.

  20. Leon X-1, the First Chandra Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Tom; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; ODell, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Here we present an analysis of the first photons detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and an identification of the brightest source in the field which we named Leon X-1 to honor the momentous contributions of the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. The observation took place immediately following the opening of the last door protecting the X-ray telescope. We discuss the unusual operational conditions as the first extra-terrestrial X-ray photons reflected from the telescope onto the ACIS camera. One bright source was a p parent to the team at the control center and the small collection of photons that appeared on the monitor were sufficient to indicate that the telescope had survived the launch and was approximately in focus, even prior to any checks and subsequent adjustments.

  1. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  2. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  4. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Schrag, Stephanie J; Carter, Rosalind J; Carr, Wendy; Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Gibson, Laura; Lisk, Durodami R; Jalloh, Mohamed I; Bash-Taqi, Donald A; Kargbo, Samuel A Sheku; Idriss, Ayesha; Deen, Gibrilla F; Russell, James B W; McDonald, Wendi; Albert, Alison P; Basket, Michelle; Callis, Amy; Carter, Victoria M; Ogunsanya, Kelli R Clifton; Gee, Julianne; Pinner, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E; Goldstein, Susan T; Seward, Jane F; Samai, Mohamed; Schuchat, Anne

    2016-07-08

    In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV). The study population was health care and frontline workers in select chiefdoms of the five most affected districts in Sierra Leone. Participants were randomized to receive a single intramuscular dose of rVSV-ZEBOV at enrollment or to receive a single intramuscular dose 18-24 weeks after enrollment. All participants were followed up monthly until 6 months after vaccination. Two substudies separately assessed detailed reactogenicity over 1 month and immunogenicity over 12 months. During the 5 months before the trial, STRIVE and partners built a research platform in Sierra Leone comprising participant follow-up sites, cold chain, reliable power supply, and vaccination clinics and hired and trained at least 350 national staff. Wide-ranging community outreach, informational sessions, and messaging were conducted before and during the trial to ensure full communication to the population of the study area regarding procedures and current knowledge about the trial vaccine. During April 9-August 15, 2015, STRIVE enrolled 8,673 participants, of whom 453 and 539 were also enrolled in the safety and immunogenicity substudies, respectively. As of April 28, 2016, no Ebola cases and no vaccine-related serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability, were reported in the study population. Although STRIVE will not produce an

  5. A Flying Ejection Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollrock, R. H.; Barzda, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    To increase aircrewmen's chances for safe rescue in combat zones, the armed forces are investigating advanced escape and rescue concepts that will provide independent flight after ejection and thus reduce the risk of capture. One of the candidate concepts is discussed; namely, a stowable autogyro that serves as the crewman's seat during normal operations and automatically converts to a flight vehicle after ejection. Discussed are (1) the mechanism subsystems that the concept embodies to meet the weight and cockpit-packaging constraints and (2) tests that demonstrated the technical feasibility of the stowage, deployment, and flight operation of the rotor lift system.

  6. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under Technical Standard Order (TSO) TSO-C39b, TSO-C39c, or... affected seats and seating systems and their components are compliant with certain FAA regulations, and removing those seats, seating systems, and their components that are shown to be unsafe from the affected...

  7. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  8. Valve designed with elastic seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Absolute valve closure is accomplished by a machined valve with an axially annular channel which changes the outlet passage into a thin tubular elastic seat member with a retainer backup ring. The elasticity of the seat provides tight conformity to ball irregularity.

  9. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  10. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  11. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  12. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  13. VxWorks 6.9 for LEON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The VxWorks operating system together with the Cobham Grislier LEON architectural port provides an efficient platform for the development of software for space applications. It supports both uni-and multiprocessor mode (SMP or AMP) and comes with an integrated development environment with several debugging and analysis tools. The LEON architectural port from Cobham Grislier supports LEON2/3/4 systems and includes drivers for all standard on-chip peripherals, as well as support for RASTA boards. In this paper we will highlight some the many features of VxWorks and the LEON architectural port. The latest version of the architectural port now supports VxWorks 6.9 (the previous version was for VxWorks 6.7) and has the support for the GR740, the commercially available quad-core LEON system, designed as the European Space Agency's Next Generation Microprocessor (NGMP).

  14. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 7, July 2014 Author affiliations: US Army Medical Research Institute of Infec- tious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA...SUBTITLE Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d... Hantavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology. 1994;198:196– 204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1022 17. Duermeyer W, Wielaard F, van der Veen J

  15. [Leon Daraszkiewicz and his monograph on hebephrenia].

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Leon Daraszkiewicz (1866-1931) was a Polish psychiatrist, a pupil and co-worker of E. Kraepelin and V. Tsiz on the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), the author of highly regarded monograph on hebephrenia (1891). In his work on the basis of over 20 case histories, he described a natural history of hebephrenia and his own views on its aetiology and prognosis. Hebephrenia as described by Daraszkiewicz, served as a clinical model for the Kraepelinian concept of dementia praecox. In the article, the life and career of Daraszkiewicz is covered, with particular emphasis on the role of his doctoral dissertation on hebephrenia in the history of the concept of schizophrenia.

  16. Lateral bias in theatre-seat choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria; Reese, Miriam; Elias, Lorin J

    2014-01-01

    Examples of behavioural asymmetries are common in the range of human behaviour; even when faced with a symmetrical environment people demonstrate reliable asymmetries in behaviours like gesturing, cradling, and even seating. One such asymmetry is the observation that participants tend to choose seats to the right of the screen when asked to select their preferred seating location in a movie theatre. However, these results are based on seat selection using a seating chart rather than examining real seat choice behaviour in the theatre context. This study investigated the real-world seating patterns of theatre patrons during actual film screenings. Analysis of bias scores calculated using photographs of theatre patrons revealed a significant bias to choose seats on the right side of the theatre. These findings are consistent with the prior research in the area and confirm that the seating bias observed when seats are selected from a chart accurately reflects real-world seating behaviour.

  17. Undiagnosed acute viral febrile illnesses, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Schoepp, Randal J; Rossi, Cynthia A; Khan, Sheik H; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N

    2014-07-01

    Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever-hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500-700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%-40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%-70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  18. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Cynthia A.; Khan, Sheik H.; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever–hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500–700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%–40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%–70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:24959946

  19. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  20. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  1. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  2. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  3. Glatz Prototype Seat Impact Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-03

    from design drawings. A Pure Horizontal test was also conducted to determine structural strength of the Glatz prototype seat. Biodynamic response...Aerospace Biodynamics and Performance Research Team of the Applied Neuroscience Branch of the Human Effectiveness Directorate (711HPW/RHCP), under Workunit...test methodology. This testing focuses solely on the survivability of the seat and occupant biodynamics during primary aircraft impact. Secondary

  4. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  5. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  6. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings.

  7. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N lbf/in2 poundforce per square 6.89 kilopascals kPa ! 4! inch LENGTH mm millimeters...T TEMPERATURE (exact degrees) oC Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit oF FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS N Newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf kPa kilopascals...articulation points at the hip, knee and ankle. When the manikin is installed in a seat, body segment weights are applied to provide seat penetration

  8. Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1.8 Celsius oC FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N 2 | P a g e DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for Public Release lbf/in2...lb Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T TEMPERATURE (exact degrees) oC Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit oF FORCE and...articulation points at the hip, knee and ankle. When the manikin is installed in a seat, body segment weights are applied to provide seat penetration

  9. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  10. The safety implications of vehicle seat adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hill, John D; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to gather information on the preferred front seat position of vehicle occupants and to determine the impact of variation in seat position on safety during crashes. The study evaluated the relationship between seat position and occupant size using the chi-square test and compared the risk of severe injury for small females and large males with regard to forward and rearward seat position using logistic regression. While smaller drivers sat closer to the steering wheel than larger drivers, front passengers of all sizes used similar seat positions. Additionally, the risk of injury was higher for small, unbelted females in rearward seat positions and large males (belted and unbelted) in forward seat positions. Occupants who adjust their seats to positions that are not consistent with required federal tests are at a greater risk for severe injury in a crash.

  11. Seat belt and child seat use in Lipetskaya Oblast, Russia: frequencies, attitudes, and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Tran, Nhan; Klyavin, Vladimir E; Zambon, Francesco; Hatcher, Kristin W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding seat belt use patterns among drivers and passengers for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring improvements, no study has described wearing rates for all seat positions in Russia. This study describes observed seat belt use and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast, Russia. An observational study on the use of seat belts and child restraints in the Lipetskaya region conducted during October 2010 collected data in 6 districts and on 3 different road types. A roadside survey gathered information on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions toward the use of seat belts from randomly selected drivers. Frequencies of seat belt use by seat position, gender, and road type were calculated. A multivariable logit model disclosed the associations between seat belt use and sociodemographic factors. The study design permitted comparison of observed seat belt use to self-reported seat belt use. A total of 25,795 vehicles and 39,833 drivers and passengers contributed observations. Overall, 55 percent of drivers were observed to be using seat belts. More than half (58%) of front seat passengers wore seat belts and only 9 percent of back seat passengers were observed to be wearing seat belts; 11 percent of cars with children had any type of child safety measure. Drivers on urban roads were less likely to wear seat belts compared to those on main highways and rural roads. Nearly 60 percent of survey respondents mentioned "seat belts save lives," and more than half mentioned law requirements and fines. Although the observed seat belt use in Lipetskaya Oblast is much higher than previous estimates in Russia, overall wearing rates remain far from universal. Rear seat passengers and children are particularly at risk. Because combined education and enforcement has proven to be effective elsewhere, such interventions are needed to improve seat belt use.

  12. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Scott, Janet T; Sesay, Foday R; Massaquoi, Thomas A; Idriss, Baimba R; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8-70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (p<0.03). This complete survivor cohort from 1 ETU enables analysis of the proportion of symptoms of post-Ebola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain.

  13. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...: The seat belt is approved and rated for such use; the structural strength requirements for the seat..., this allowance was permissible because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some... approved and rated for such use; (2) the structural strength requirements for the seat were not...

  14. Anticipatory guidance about child safety seat misuse: lessons from safety seat "checkups".

    PubMed

    Kohn, M; Chausmer, K; Flood, M H

    2000-06-01

    To quantify the frequency of improper child safety seat use and to identify the most common mistakes in safety seat use, so that priorities for anticipatory guidance about misuse can be identified. Descriptive survey of types and frequency of safety seat misuse. Eleven safety seat "checkups" sponsored by the Louisiana SAFE KIDS Coalition in southeastern Louisiana in 1998. Convenience sample of parents recruited for checkups through local media and sponsoring businesses. Three hundred seventeen child safety seats were checked. Of the 266 forward- and rear-facing seats checked, 250 (94%) were installed incorrectly. Sixty-one (23%) of the seats had minor misuse or were correctly used, 107 (40%) were partially misused, and 98 (37%) were extensively misused. The 3 most frequently found problems were seat not belted into vehicle tightly (142 [88%] of forward-facing seats and 84 [81%] of rear-facing seats), safety seat harness straps not snug (70 [43%] of forward-facing seats and 49 [47%] of rear-facing seats), and harness retainer clip not at armpit level (55 [34%] of forward-facing seats and 38 [37%] of rear-facing seats). As part of the routine anticipatory guidance offered during well-child visits, health care providers (ie, physician, nurse, or nurse practitioner) should counsel parents specifically about these 3 frequent errors in child safety seat use.

  15. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Joseph; Daniels, Dawn M; Talty, Judith L; Bull, Marilyn J

    2009-05-01

    Observe and report seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey of children transported in motor vehicles between 2006 and 2007. While drivers completed a survey reporting the child's age, weight and gender, and the driver's age, gender, race, income, education, and relationship to the child; a child passenger safety technician recorded vehicle seating location, restraint type, and use of the car safety seat harness or seat belt as appropriate for the child. Twenty-five fast food restaurants and discount department stores throughout Indiana. A convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than 16 years. Seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Seat belt misuse. Overall, 1446 drivers participated, 2287 children were observed with 564 children in belt-positioning booster seats. At least one seat belt misuse was observed for 64.8% of the children transported. Common misuses were the shoulder belt being placed over the booster seat armrest (35.8%); shoulder belt not at mid-shoulder position (28.5%), seat belt was too loose (24.5%), and the shoulder belt was either behind the child's back (9.1%) or under their arm (10.0%). There is a high frequency of seat belt misuses among children transported in booster seats. Advice to parents on appropriate car seat selection, and encouragement to parents to supervise seat belt use may decrease misuse.

  16. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  17. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  18. Seating Aggregation as an Index of Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, David; And Others

    1970-01-01

    In a situation where cheating increases, the students most apt to become cheaters are those seated adjacent to identified cheaters. In all cases, cheaters tend to voluntarily seat themselves adjacent to one another rather than seating themselves adjacent to noncheaters. The voluntary isolation appears to persist even as cheating increases or…

  19. Stadium seating--a market analysis.

    Treesearch

    Jerry A. Sesco; Edwin Kallio

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of stadiums and seating in six North Central States; summarizes the purchasing methods for stadium seats; presents estimates of the present and future market; and points out the increasing competition to wood stadium seating form substitute materials.

  20. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations, written procedures established for making determinations in regard to exit row seating. (g) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each...

  1. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease--Sierra Leone and Guinea, August 2015.

    PubMed

    Hersey, Sara; Martel, Lise D; Jambai, Amara; Keita, Sakoba; Yoti, Zabulon; Meyer, Erika; Seeman, Sara; Bennett, Sarah; Ratto, Jeffrey; Morgan, Oliver; Akyeampong, Mame Afua; Sainvil, Schabbethai; Worrell, Mary Claire; Fitter, David; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2015-09-11

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa began in late 2013 in Guinea (1) and spread unchecked during early 2014. By mid-2014, it had become the first Ebola epidemic ever documented. Transmission was occurring in multiple districts of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, and for the first time, in capital cities (2). On August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (3). Ministries of Health, with assistance from multinational collaborators, have reduced Ebola transmission, and the number of cases is now declining. While Liberia has not reported a case since July 12, 2015, transmission has continued in Guinea and Sierra Leone, although the numbers of cases reported are at the lowest point in a year. In August 2015, Guinea and Sierra Leone reported 10 and four confirmed cases, respectively, compared with a peak of 526 (Guinea) and 1,997 (Sierra Leone) in November 2014. This report details the current situation in Guinea and Sierra Leone, outlines strategies to interrupt transmission, and highlights the need to maintain public health response capacity and vigilance for new cases at this critical time to end the outbreak.

  3. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed at... requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 1 (§ 571.210) for that seat belt assembly. 1...

  4. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  5. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  6. Conical seat shut off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A valve includes a housing defining a bore having an inlet and extending along a longitudinal axis. A head is attached to the housing and defines a head passage having an outlet. A piston is disposed within the bore and includes a piston passage extending through the piston along the longitudinal axis. The piston is moveable between a closed position in which a sealing end of the piston abuts a seat of the head to close fluid communication through the piston passage and an open position in which the sealing end of the piston is axially spaced along the longitudinal axis from the seat of the head to permit fluid communication through the piston passage between the inlet and the outlet. The housing defines an equalizing chamber in fluid communication with the head passage for damping movement of the piston.

  7. Crashworthy Troop Seat Testing Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    73 3 . .... .... Page CRASHWORTHY TROOP SEAT TESTING--TASK III ........ .. 74 Task III Requirements. .. . ............ 74 Fabrication and...required, as a result of component testing 81 "Singley, G. T. III , "Full Scale Crash Testing of a CH-47C Helicopter", AHS Paper No. 1084, presented at... Figura 42. Stroked vertical. attenuatorg.j F i-uro 43.* Strokeid di~acqollI ittonuators. ......... 4.J r) -44 fie,~ ww 544 t- 0) S.. ........ , V i c l

  8. Porting of MicroPython to LEON Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Damien; Sanchez de la Llana, David; Jorge, Tiago

    2016-08-01

    MicroPython is "a lean and fast implementation of the Python 3 programming language that is optimized to run on a microcontroller (ARM)". It was developed from scratch by Damien George (using crowd-funding) and it is available under the MIT Open Source license. This paper refers to the porting of MicroPython to LEON hardware for use in space applications.

  9. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  10. School-Based Peace Building in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Diane; Weston, Jane; Zbar, Vic

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of a peace education project, including the Peace Education Kit, in schools in Sierra Leone. The program, initiated by the World Bank, has involved working partnerships between local and international agencies and provides a case study of how schools can work with the community to contribute to a national…

  11. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  12. Why High School Must Go: An Interview with Leon Botstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Leon Botstein, longtime president of Bard College, as well as music director and conductor of the American and Jerusalem symphony orchestras. Botstein talks about his book entitled "Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture" and his views about teens and high schools in America.…

  13. GT-10 - EARTH SKY - COAHUILA & NUEVO LEON, MEXICO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-45763 (18-21 July 1966) --- Don Martin Reservoir and Sabinas River Valley area of the States of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, Mexico, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J. A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Why High School Must Go: An Interview with Leon Botstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Leon Botstein, longtime president of Bard College, as well as music director and conductor of the American and Jerusalem symphony orchestras. Botstein talks about his book entitled "Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture" and his views about teens and high schools in America.…

  15. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  16. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  17. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat...-Large, Conservation, Economic Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological...

  18. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M.; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J.; Jones, Abigail B.; Illick, Megan M.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Haislip, Allyson M.; Bishop, Christopher M.; Elliot, Deborah H.; Brown, Bethany L.; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Gire, Stephen K.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B.; Spence, Jennifer S.; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Happi, Christian T.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geske, F. Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E.; Wilson, Russell B.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Henderson, Lee A.; Khan, S. Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to

  19. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  20. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  1. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  2. Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

    2013-01-01

    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries. PMID:24479100

  3. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  4. Boeing CST-100 Starliner Seat Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-21

    Engineers working with Boeing's CST-100 Starliner test the spacecraft's seat design in Mesa, Arizona, focusing on how the spacecraft seats would protect an astronaut's head, neck and spine during the 240-mile descent from the International Space Station. The company incorporated test dummies for a detailed analysis of impacts on a crew returning to earth. The human-sized dummies were equipped with sensitive instrumentation and secured in the seats for 30 drop tests at varying heights, angles, velocities and seat orientations in order to mimic actual landing conditions. High-speed cameras captured the footage for further analysis. The Starliner spacecraft is being developed in partnership with NASA's Commercial Crew Program.

  5. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... seat cushion of one seat and any point on the seat cushion of the other seat is not less than 140 mm (5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS General... intersects the lowest point on the portion of the top profile of the seating surfaces that lie within that...

  6. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... measurement. (1) As used in this section, “seating surface” only includes the seat cushion and soft trim and... surface of the seat cushion, establish another vertical plane parallel to the direction the seat faces... the seat cushion. (iii) For measurement within the zone, measure horizontally between and...

  7. 16 CFR § 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... no less than two seat-post diameters from the lowest point on the post shaft, and the post strength...

  8. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... no less than two seat-post diameters from the lowest point on the post shaft, and the post strength...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... no less than two seat-post diameters from the lowest point on the post shaft, and the post strength...

  10. Footrests on Upward Ejection Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-09-01

    consisted of a curved pipe suspended below the seat pan which supplied support to the arch . The feet were placed in this stirrup just prior to ejection...support is applied to the heel as well as the arch , this is shown in Figure lb. This design offered adequate support but it has the disadvantage that the...in a41 cases resembled a catenary . Even though a different catapult vas used on the vs subject in three successive tests, the path of the toes was

  11. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    recent, large-scale Army anthropometry study UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 8 Driver Mockup • Steering wheel, pedals, adjustable seat(fore-aft, up...all configurations at all garb conditions) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 9 Squad Mockup • Fixed seat (no sitter adjustments) • Range of seat

  12. The deubiquitinase Leon/USP5 regulates ubiquitin homeostasis during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Guang-Chao; Chien, Cheng-Ting

    2014-09-26

    Ubiquitination and the reverse process deubiquitination regulate protein stability and function during animal development. The Drosophila USP5 homolog Leon functions as other family members of unconventional deubiquitinases, disassembling free, substrate-unconjugated polyubiquitin chains to replenish the pool of mono-ubiquitin, and maintaining cellular ubiquitin homeostasis. However, the significance of Leon/USP5 in animal development is still unexplored. In this study, we generated leon mutants to show that Leon is essential for animal viability and tissue integrity during development. Both free and substrate-conjugated polyubiquitin chains accumulate in leon mutants, suggesting that abnormal ubiquitin homeostasis caused tissue disorder and lethality in leon mutants. Further analysis of protein expression profiles in leon mutants shows that the levels of all proteasomal subunits were elevated. Also, proteasomal enzymatic activities were elevated in leon mutants. However, proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates was impaired. Thus, aberrant ubiquitin homeostasis in leon mutants disrupts normal proteasomal degradation, which is compensated by elevating the levels of proteasomal subunits and activities. Ultimately, the failure to fully compensate the dysfunctional proteasome in leon mutants leads to animal lethality and tissue disorder.

  13. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  14. Intelligent seat belt reminders-do they change driver seat belt use in Europe?

    PubMed

    Lie, Anders; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    Many modern cars have seat belt reminders (SBRs) using loud and clear sound and light signals. These systems have developed over the last few years. This study investigates how these modern systems influence the seat belt use in real-life traffic in built-up areas in some European cities. The data were collected by field observations in major cities in six European countries and in five cities around Sweden. A selection of car models having seat belt reminders (SBR) were compared to a fleet of similar car models without such reminders. A significant difference in seat belt wearing rate was found in the cars with seat belt reminders. For all observations, the total seat belt wearing rate was 97.5% +/- 0.5% in cars with SBR, while it was 85.8% +/- 0.8% in cars without. There were differences in seat belt use in the different observation locations. The lowest seat belt use was found in Brussels/Belgium with a use rate of 92.6 +/- 2.2% in cars with seat belt reminders and 69.6 +/- 3.1% in cars not fitted with reminders. The highest seat belt use was found in Paris/France where 99.8 +/- 0.4% of the drivers used the seat belt in cars with reminders and 96.9 +/-1.1% were belted in cars without reminders. Seat belt reminders fulfilling Euro NCAP's seat belt reminder protocol are increasing the seat belt use in daily traffic significantly. Around 80% (82.2% +/- 8.6%) of the drivers not putting the belt on without a seat belt reminder do so in cars equipped with an SBR that has a light signal and an associated loud and clear sound signal.

  15. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established. PMID:9807718

  16. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  17. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  18. Self-alining valve poppet and seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, U. P.

    1978-01-01

    Poppet-and-seat combination is useful in fluid-control system that has to operate at high temperatures with low leak rates. Contaminants in flow stream are removed before they reach sealing surfaces by altering direction of flow several times before it enters poppet-and-seat flow passage. Particles are separated and deposited on surfaces not affecting sealing performance.

  19. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., or otherwise open emergency exits; (iv) To lift out, hold, deposit on nearby seats, or maneuver...

  20. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  1. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  2. Aircraft seating comfort: the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Florian; Guenzkofer, Fabian; Sedlmeier, Claudia; Sabbah, Olaf; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing aircraft seating comfort in economy class, is legroom. In an airline interior mock up, with the ability to adjust the seat pitch in a range of 28 inches to 43 inches, a study to investigate the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being was conducted. In a pre-study, aspects of subjective postural sensations and spatial perception were identified, and a questionnaire was developed. In the main study, 30 subjects rated at different seat pitch settings the spatial perception and the ability of adopting and changing sitting postures. As a result a functional relationship between overall well-being, the subjects' anthropometry and seat pitch was developed. Furthermore it was identified, that there is a maximum overall well-being at a seat pitch of 34 inches to 40 inches, depending on the passengers' anthropometry. A further enlargement of seat pitch, led to a reduction of well-being.

  3. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  4. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  5. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  6. Identity with Jesus Christ: the case of Leon Gabor.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    From July 1, 1959 to August 15, 1961, Milton Rokeach studied three male patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital who believed that they were Jesus Christ. They met regularly together with Rokeach and his research staff, a procedure designed to challenge their delusional systems. He believed that Leon Gabor, the youngest of the three, would be the most likely to abandon his delusional beliefs. Instead, Leon met the challenges that the procedure posed by creative elaborations of his delusional system, especially through the adoption of a new name that gave the initial appearance of the abandonment of his Christ identity but in fact drew on aspects of the real Jesus Christ's identity that were missing from his earlier self-representation.

  7. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  8. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Stockelman, Michael G.; Moses, Lina M.; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone. PMID:25811712

  9. RTEMS SMP and MTAPI for Efficient Multi-Core Space Applications on LEON3/LEON4 Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel; Sherrill, Joel; Bloom, Gedare; Patte, Mathieu; Zulianello, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the final result of an European Space Agency (ESA) activity aimed at improving the software support for LEON processors used in SMP configurations. One of the benefits of using a multicore system in a SMP configuration is that in many instances it is possible to better utilize the available processing resources by load balancing between cores. This however comes with the cost of having to synchronize operations between cores, leading to increased complexity. While in an AMP system one can use multiple instances of operating systems that are only uni-processor capable, a SMP system requires the operating system to be written to support multicore systems. In this activity we have improved and extended the SMP support of the RTEMS real-time operating system and ensured that it fully supports the multicore capable LEON processors. The targeted hardware in the activity has been the GR712RC, a dual-core core LEON3FT processor, and the functional prototype of ESA's Next Generation Multiprocessor (NGMP), a quad core LEON4 processor. The final version of the NGMP is now available as a product under the name GR740. An implementation of the Multicore Task Management API (MTAPI) has been developed as part of this activity to aid in the parallelization of applications for RTEMS SMP. It allows for simplified development of parallel applications using the task-based programming model. An existing space application, the Gaia Video Processing Unit, has been ported to RTEMS SMP using the MTAPI implementation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of multicore processors for space payload software. The activity is funded by ESA under contract 4000108560/13/NL/JK. Gedare Bloom is supported in part by NSF CNS-0934725.

  10. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    PubMed

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age (< 30 years, 30-50 years, > 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  11. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating.

    PubMed

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P

    2012-03-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A hydraulic seat-rise wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Purves, W K

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic seat-rise wheelchair constructed for a patient experiencing severe difficulty getting into and out of a wheelchair is described. The seat-rise mechanism, activated by a hydraulic cylinder, is constructed to locate within a wheelchair frame replacing the seat and back of a normal manual wheelchair. Patient control of the lifting and lowering feature is maintained by controls fitted to the arm of the wheelchair. A wheelchair of this design is most suitable for use by patients who, by virtue of their disability, require it to achieve greater independence.

  13. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  14. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Alexandre Siqueira Franco; Goldenberg, Dov; Alonso, Nivaldo; Bastos, Endrigo; Stocchero, Guilherme; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2007-06-01

    Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08%) were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I) was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient), followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient), the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient), the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient) and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient). None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial fractures, not being effectively protected by the seat

  15. Comparison of Contact Stress Distribution for Foam Seat and Seat of Auxetic Spring Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus-Michalska, M.; Jasińska, D.; Smardzewski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and compare the results of numerical solutions of contact problem for two types of seats subjected to typical sitting loadings. The first seat is made of a typical hyperelastic foam, the other is designed with an auxetic polyamid spring skeleton. Computer simulations of the seat structure under a typical static loading exerted by a human body are performed by means of ABAQUS FEA. The model provides an insight into deformation modes and stress field in relation to geometric and material parameters of the seat structure.The other type of seat, due to the fact of global auxecity and progressive springs characteristics reduces contact stress concentrations, giving an advantegous distribution of pressure and provides the sensation of physical comfort. The proper seat skeleton shape leads to an improvement of ergonomic quality.

  16. Effectiveness of Booster Seats Compared With No Restraint or Seat Belt Alone for Crash Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster seats, compared with no restraint use and with seat belt use only, during motor vehicle crashes among U.S. children. Methods This was a retrospective matched cohort study with data from the 1998 through 2009 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The study sample consisted of children aged 0 to 10 years who were not seated in the front seat of the vehicle. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of overall, fatal, and regional body injury. Results Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats experienced less overall injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 0, adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.96; Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or higher, adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58; ISS > 8, adjusted RR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56), and less injury in most body regions except the neck (adjusted RR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.43 to 16.00) than did children with no restraint use. Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats had an equal risk of injury but higher risks of neck (adjusted RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.40) and thorax (adjusted RR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.33 to 6.15) injury than did children restrained by seat belts only. Conclusions Children using belt-positioning booster seats appear to experience a higher risk of AIS > 0 injury to the neck and thorax than do children using seat belts only. Future research should examine whether the observed increase in neck and thorax injuries can be attributed to improper use of booster seats. PMID:24050794

  17. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  18. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  1. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  2. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  3. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  4. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  5. 49 CFR 393.91 - Buses, aisle seats prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, aisle seats prohibited. 393.91 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.91 Buses, aisle seats prohibited. No bus shall be equipped with aisle seats unless such seats are so designed and installed as...

  6. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back... kilograms multiplied by 9.8 applied in a forward longitudinal direction; (b) In any position to which it can...), if it is a forward facing seat, or paragraph (b), if it is a rearward facing seat, in each case...

  7. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back... kilograms multiplied by 9.8 applied in a forward longitudinal direction; (b) In any position to which it can...), if it is a forward facing seat, or paragraph (b), if it is a rearward facing seat, in each case...

  8. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  9. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  10. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  11. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas. A public accommodation shall ensure that wheelchair spaces and companion seats are provided in... place wheelchair spaces and companion seats in each such specialty seating area, it shall provide those... locations at no additional cost. The number of wheelchair spaces and companion seats provided in...

  12. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons...

  13. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats in the front of the vehicle are priority seats for...

  14. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats in the front of the vehicle are priority seats for...

  15. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons...

  16. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons...

  17. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats in the front of the vehicle are priority seats for...

  18. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons...

  19. 36 CFR § 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. Â... VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities, and that...

  20. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons...

  1. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Between the upper ends of the struts attach a rigid cross-member, in front of the seat back frame for... the upper ends of the struts attach a rigid cross-member, in front of the seat back frame for rearward... means the part of the seat that provides forward and rearward positioning of the seat bench and back...

  2. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  3. 14 CFR 398.6 - Seat guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.6 Seat guarantees.... (b) Only under unusual circumstances will an eligible place's essential air service level be set at a...

  4. T-34C back seat instrument panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-15

    The back seat instrument panel on the NASA T-34C chase plane. In its role as a military trainer, the instructor pilot would ride in the back seat, while the student would be in the front seat. As a chase plane, the back seat would be occupied by a photographer. The aircraft was previously used at the Lewis Research Center in propulsion experiments involving turboprop engines, and was used as a chase aircraft at Dryden for smaller and slower research projects. Chase aircraft accompany research flights for photography and video purposes, and also as support for safety and research. At Dryden, the T-34 is used mainly for smaller remotely piloted vehicles which fly slower than NASA's F-18's, used for larger scale projects. This aircraft was returned to the U.S. Navy in May of 2002. The T-34C, built by Beech, carries a crew of 2 and is nicknamed the Mentor.

  5. Operational Effects on Crashworthy Seat Attenuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    absorbers not meeting the manufacturer’s specified load-deflection characteristics were modeled by computer simulation to determine the change In injury...21 TABLE S. TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SUIMMARY (3) pek Meet $ Energy Energy(I) Average Peak Manufacturer Absorber Aircraft Test T=2...deflection requirmansts may have been violated. 22 TABLE 5 (CONTO). TROOP SEAT ENERGY ABSORBER TEST RESULTS SU4ARY Meet $ Energy Energy") Average Peak

  6. Seat-belt message and the law?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  7. The Minicomputer System for Seat Reservations (MSRM),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-13

    MSRM minicomputer seat reservation system, which will be presented in this article . This conception is based on a completely dif- * ferent principle...results of an analysis of work carried out by the POLRES reservation office are presented in this article ; the analysis was carried out on the basis...at the end of the article . The Concept of the MSRM System As has already been mentioned, one of the characteristic features of the traditional seat

  8. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  9. Ebola Virus Diagnostics: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Laboratory in Sierra Leone, August 2014 to March 2015.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mike; Goodman, Christin H; Bearden, Scott; Blau, Dianna M; Amman, Brian R; Basile, Alison J; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Éric; Bowen, Michael D; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Dodd, Kimberly A; Erickson, Bobbie R; Freeman, Molly M; Gibbons, Aridth; Guerrero, Lisa W; Klena, John D; Lash, R Ryan; Lo, Michael K; McMullan, Laura K; Momoh, Gbetuwa; Massally, James L; Goba, Augustine; Paddock, Christopher D; Priestley, Rachael A; Pyle, Meredith; Rayfield, Mark; Russell, Brandy J; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela J; Schuh, Amy J; Sealy, Tara K; Steinau, Martin; Stoddard, Robyn A; Taboy, Céline; Turnsek, Maryann; Wang, David; Zemtsova, Galina E; Zivcec, Marko; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Bird, Brian H

    2015-10-01

    In August 2014, the Viral Special Pathogens Branch of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established a field laboratory in Sierra Leone in response to the ongoing Ebola virus outbreak. Through March 2015, this laboratory tested >12 000 specimens from throughout Sierra Leone. We describe the organization and procedures of the laboratory located in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  10. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  11. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  12. [Did Leon Wyczókowski suffer from solar maculopathy?].

    PubMed

    Kałuiny, Józef; Markowski, Dariusz; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej J; Sikorski, Bartosz

    2006-01-01

    Noted Polish painter, Leon Wyczółkowski, during his long-standing in Ukraine used to paint pictures gazing directly at the sun in order to intensify visual sensations. Damage to the eyes caused by sunlight induced him to become a patient of a famous ophthalmologist in Kiev. Past disease led to blue color vision impairment just like it happens to people who previously suffered from solar maculopathy. We suppose, it could gradually force the artist to resign from color painting and to take up drawing.

  13. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.

    2004-09-01

    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  14. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... and seating systems may not meet certain flammability and strength criteria. Failure to meet strength... of static, dynamic, and flammability testing on delivered seats. Failure to meet strength criteria... strength requirements in certain load cases. Section 25.562, which was created by Amendment 25-64,...

  15. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... structural strength requirements for the seat are not exceeded. This clarification also emphasizes that... appropriate if: (1) The belt is approved and rated for this type of use; (2) the structural strength... because seat belts were generally rated in terms of strength and some were rated for more than...

  16. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  17. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  18. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  19. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  20. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  1. Europa Propulsion Valve Seat Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Europa mission and spacecraft design presented unique challenges for selection of valve seat materials that met the fluid compatibility requirements, and combined fluid compatibility and high radiation exposure level requirements. The Europa spacecraft pressurization system valves will be exposed to fully saturated propellant vapor for the duration of the mission. The effects of Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapors on heritage valve seat materials, such as Vespel SP-1 and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), were evaluated to determine if an alternate material is required. In liquid system applications, Teflon is the only available compatible valve seat material. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an air or vacuum environment has been previously documented. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an oxidizer environment such as NTO, was not available, and it was unknown whether the effects would be similar to those on air-exposed samples. Material testing was conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to determine the effects of propellant vapor on heritage seat materials for pressurization valve applications, and the effects of combined radiation and NTO propellant exposure on Teflon. The results indicated that changes in heritage pressurization valve seat materials' properties rendered them unsuitable for the Europa application. The combined radiation and NTO exposure testing of Teflon produced results equivalent to combined radiation and air exposure results.

  2. A LEON2&3 Emulation Board Qualified for Space Programs Based on Reusable Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleno, Mauro; Quere, Gregory; Chenu, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    ESA/ESTEC has granted Airbus Defense and Space a study for the development of a versatile LEON2 and LEON3 emulation board hosted on a COTS FPGA board.The LEON Emulation Board (LEB) is a component for System Simulators used as Software Validation Facilities and Operational Simulators. It is an alternative to the full software simulation of the LEON processor; additionally, because it embeds the actual VHDL of the LEON processor, it is fully representative and delivers a performance higher than the instruction-set software simulators.The LEB enables simulating in software the functions of Systems on Chip not already embedded in the LEB. It is available in 3 configurations for the LEON2 FT and the LEON3. Moreover, as it is built around a set of reusable simulation building blocks (VHDL + software driver), it can easily be reassembled to emulate more accurately different Systems on Chips (SoC).This paper presents the key functions of the LEB, its performance, applications and potential future developments.

  3. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  4. NASA seat experiment and occupant responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the crash test of a remotely piloted transport aircraft instrumented to measure a NASA energy-absorbing transport seat are given. Human tolerance limits to acceleration and a dynamic response index model are discussed. It was found that the acceleration levels at the rear of the airplane were quite low and were below the stroking threshold of the NASA EA-seat. Therefore, dummies in the standard and EA-seat responded approximately the same. All longitudinal accelerations were quite low for the primary impact with very low forces measured in the lap belts. The vertical (spineward) acceleration levels measured in the dummies were also relatively low and very survivable from an impact tolerance standpoint. The pilot with an 18 G peak acceleration received by far the highest vertical acceleration and could have possibly received slight spinal injury.

  5. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  6. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  7. CEV Seat Attenuation System System Design Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; McMichael, James H.

    2007-01-01

    The Apollo crew / couch restraint system was designed to support and restrain three crew members during all phases of the mission from launch to landing. The crew couch used supported the crew for launch, landing and in-flight operations, and was foldable and removable for EVA ingress/egress through side hatch access and for in-flight access under the seat and in other areas of the crew compartment. The couch and the seat attenuation system was designed to control the impact loads imposed on the crew during landing and to remain non-functional during all other flight phases.

  8. Experimental injury study of children seated behind collapsing front seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth J; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Burton, Joseph L; Lewis, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    In the mid 1990's the U.S. Department of Transportation made recommendations to place children and infants into the rear seating areas of motor vehicles to avoid front seat airbag induced injuries and fatalities. In most rear-impacts, however, the adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear occupant area and pose another potentially serious injury hazard to the rear-seated children. Since rear-impacts involve a wide range of speeds, impact severity, and various sizes of adults in collapsing front seats, a multi-variable experimental method was employed in conjunction with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study injury potential of rear-seated children. Various sizes of Hybrid III adult surrogates, seated in a "typical" average strength collapsing type of front seat, and a three-year-old Hybrid III child surrogate, seated on a built-in booster seat located directly behind the front adult occupant, were tested at various impact severity levels in a popular "minivan" sled-buck test set up. A total of five test configurations were utilized in this study. Three levels of velocity changes ranging from 22.5 to 42.5 kph were used. The average of peak accelerations on the sled-buck tests ranged from approximately 8.2 G's up to about 11.1 G's, with absolute peak values of just over 14 G's at the higher velocity change. The parameters of the test configuration enabled the experimental data to be combined into a polynomial "injury" function of the two primary independent variables (i.e. front seat adult occupant weight and velocity change) so that the "likelihood" of rear child "injury potential" could be determined over a wide range of the key parameters. The experimentally derived head injury data was used to obtain a preliminary HIC (Head Injury Criteria) polynomial fit at the 900 level for the rear-seated child. Several actual accident cases were compared with the preliminary polynomial fit. This study provides a test efficient, multi

  9. 12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV Center booth and reserved seating areas. Stairway above booth leads to turret on roof. Camera pointed SW. (May 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  10. 76 FR 66274 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Education, Primary and Alternate seats; Fishing, Primary and Alternate seats; Research, Alternate seat; Community-at-Large Mann County, Alternate seat... occupied by members representing research, conservation, maritime activity, fishing, education, Mann...

  11. Ebola response in Sierra Leone: The impact on children.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Awonuga, Waheed; Shah, Tejshri; Youkee, Daniel

    2016-07-05

    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest ever seen, with over 28,000 cases and 11,300 deaths since early 2014. The magnitude of the outbreak has tested fragile governmental health systems and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to their limit. Here we discuss the outbreak in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, the shape of the local response and the impact the response had on caring for children suspected of having contracted EVD. Challenges encountered in providing clinical care to children whilst working in the "Red Zone" where risk of EVD is considered to be highest, wearing full personal protective equipment are detailed. Suggestions and recommendations both for further research and for operational improvement in the future are made, with particular reference as to how a response could be more child-focused. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  13. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  14. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  15. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  16. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  17. Notes from The Field: Ebola Virus Disease Cluster - Northern Sierra Leone, January 2016.

    PubMed

    Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T

    2016-07-08

    On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection.

  18. The Case for School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for seat belt installation on school buses and forced retirement of vehicles manufactured prior to 1977, when federal safety standards were upgraded to include compartmentalization features. Discredits a Transport Canada study for improper design and methodology used. Advises communities to examine research, consult experts, and visit…

  19. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... possibility of injury and avoid trapping occupants. (c) Installation of seats must provide for ready escape... of not more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not less than 610 millimeters (24 inches) in width. (2) An aisle of more than 4.572 meters (15 feet) in overall length must be not...

  20. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  1. Injuries to Seat Occupants of Light Airplanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    PI-M *20 IBJIMIES TO SEAT OCCUPMuTS OF LiiUiTNZEflziE(U) ’ IFEE. IVIATION MNINISTRATION WASNINGTON OC OFFICE OF WICLSSIFED VISTIOU MEDCINE E J...Parametric Statistics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY 1956. 27. Snyder R, Crashworthiness Investigation of General Aviation Accidents, Society

  2. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  3. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  4. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  5. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard.

    PubMed

    van Enk, A; van Zwam, W

    1994-05-01

    A case is described of a uterine rupture resulting from a car accident occurring in a woman who was wearing a seat belt as generally recommended. The rupture was initially not recognised and only became apparent after attempts to induce labor which led to expulsion of the fetus into the abdominal cavity.

  6. Seat Interfaces for Aircrew Performance and Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    extremities was measured with either an INVOS® Near Infrared Spectroscopy Oximeter (Somanetics Corporation, Troy , MI) or a Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis...Cardi M. (1992a), “Pressure Mapping Systems for Seating and Positioning Applications: Technical and Clinical Performance.” Helen Hayes Hospital, Center

  7. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  8. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  9. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  10. Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    ARL-TR-7743 ● AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology...AUG 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology Demonstration by Muthuvel...COVERED (From - To) 10 January 2012–29 February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptive Seat Energy Absorbers for Enhanced Crash Safety: Technology

  11. Classroom Seating Choice and Teacher Perceptions of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John A.; Suite, Amy

    1981-01-01

    The impact of seat position on teachers' initial judgments of students was investigated. Students sitting forward in the classroom were regarded more favorably than those at the rear. Results indicated a significant effect for seating and a three-way interaction between chosen seat, sex, and grade. (Author/GK)

  12. Vibration testing of off-road vehicle seats

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, J.C.; Utt, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with Carter Mining Co., conducted vibration tests of four off-road vehicle seats. The purpose of the tests was to determine which seat provides the best vibration attenuation under laboratory conditions. Laboratory tests were constructed to simulate the mining vibration environment within the limitations of the test equipment. The acceleration test levels and corresponding response of the seats were low compared to ISO 2631's fatigue-decreased-proficiency time limits. Two of the seats employed mechanical suspensions and two seat employed air suspensions. The seats were tested using a 22,241-N (5,000-IBF) electrodynamic shaker. Mechanical suspension seats were tested with various preload-to-mass ratios (PMR's) and cushion densities. Air suspension seats were tested with various air pressure levels and seat cushion densities. Air suspension seats provides good vibration attenuation if pressurized greater than 552 kPa psi. Mechanical suspension seats attenuation performance decreases if the PMR exceeded 9.8. Seat cushions of lower density provides less vibration damping.

  13. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  14. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  15. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  16. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  17. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  18. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  19. 36 CFR § 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. Â... VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Characters on signs required...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Characters on signs required...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which... should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Characters on signs required by...

  2. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in assembly areas shall— (i) Provide a reasonable number of wheelchair seating spaces and seats with removable aisle-side arm rests; and (ii) Locate the wheelchair seating spaces so that they— (A) Are... means of egress in case of emergency; and (D) Permit individuals who use wheelchairs to sit with family...

  3. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  4. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  5. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  6. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  7. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain seats are priority seats for persons with... of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-light....

  8. Multivariate head injury threshold measures for various sized children seated behind vehicle seats in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Saczalski, Kenneth; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Pozzi, Mark; Saczalski, Todd; Burton, J L; Lewis, P

    2004-01-01

    Government recommendations to place children into the rear areas of motor vehicles to avoid airbag induced injuries have been complicated by the fact that most adult occupied front seats will collapse into the rear area during rear-impacts, and thus pose another potentially serious injury hazard to rear-seated children. Many variables affect whether or not a front seat occupant will collapse into the rear child, and whether that interaction could be injurious to the child. For instance, the severity of rear impact, coupled with front and rear occupant sizes (mass and stature), and the level of front seat strength, all interrelate to influence whether or not a rear seated child is likely to be impacted and possibly injured. The most common types of child injuries in these instances are head and chest injuries. In this study, a "high-low" experimental method was employed with a multi-level "factorial analysis" technique to study "multivariate" biomechanics of child head injury potential determined from rear-seated 3 and 6 year-old child surrogates in different types of vehicle bodies mounted to a sled system. The sled-buck systems were towed rearward into crushable barriers that matched the crash pulses of the vehicle types being tested. Various sizes of adult surrogates (i.e. 50 kg up to 110 kg), seated in both the "typical" low strength "single recliner" collapsing type front seat (i.e. 3.2 kN) and a much stronger "belt-integrated" seat design (i.e. up to 14.5 kN), were tested in the two different "sled body-buck" set-ups at various impact levels (i.e. 22.5 to 50 kph). One set-up used a popular minivan vehicle body with "built-in booster" seats for the 3 year-old. The other used a 4-door family sedan vehicle body with the 6 year-old in a standard rear bench seat. The parameters of the tests enabled the experimental data to be combined into polynomial "head injury" functions of the independent variables so the "likelihood" of rear child head-injury potential could

  9. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-31

    tirelessly to process and extract data from the laser scans, including Alexis Baker, Christian Calyore, Olivia DeTroyer, Tiffany Fredrick, David Hayashi...passengers in vehicle seats. A total of 257 male and 53 female soldiers were measured at three Army posts while minimally clad , wearing the Advanced...experimenters varied the seat height and back angle, and conditions included a simulated protective footrest. A whole-body laser scanner was used to

  10. Association between attributes of a cyclist and bicycle seat pressure.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Nash, Dustin; Dolny, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Bicycle seat pressure is thought to be the principal risk factor for bicycle seat injuries such as erectile dysfunction; however there is a lack of understanding regarding the characteristics of a cyclist that predict bicycle seat pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine if select attributes of a cyclist are associated with seat pressure during stationary bicycling. A secondary purpose was to determine which of the associated attributes were the best predictors of seat pressure and if they were consistent between two different seats. There were two data collection phases to this correlational study in which 40 males between the ages 20 and 50 years volunteered. For the first phase, select attributes of the cyclist (age, weight, flexibility, experience level, and ischial tuberosity width) were measured. The second phase required participants to ride a stationary cycle ergometer while pelvic tilt angles and seat pressures were measured on two different traditional seats. The main outcome is the mean and peak bicycle seat interface pressure over the anterior and total seat. Body weight explained up to 50% of the variance in mean total seat pressure (P=0.001). Regarding peak total pressure, pelvic tilt angle and flexibility explained 43% and 17% of the variance, respectively, for the two seats tested (P=0.01). These results indicate that predictors of mean seat pressure are not the same for peak pressure. Body weight alone accounted for the most variance in mean pressure whereas pelvic tilt and flexibility accounted for the most variance in peak pressure. These variables related to seat pressure may give some guidance to cyclists and clinicians who intend to prevent or alleviate the symptoms associated with bicycle seat injuries that include erectile dysfunction. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew.

    PubMed

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A

    1994-10-01

    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks.

  12. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  13. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    PubMed

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  14. Kinematics of pediatric crash dummies seated on vehicle seats with realistic belt geometry.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    A series of sled tests was performed using vehicle seats and Hybrid-III 6-year-old (6YO) and 10YO anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to explore possibilities for improving occupant protection for children who are not using belt-positioning booster seats. Cushion length was varied from production length of 450 mm to a shorter length of 350 mm. Lap belt geometry was set to rear, mid, and forward anchorage locations that span the range of lap belt angles found in vehicles. Six tests each were performed with the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid III ATDs. One additional test was performed using a booster seat with the 6YO. The ATDs were positioned using an updated version of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) seating procedure that positions the ATD hips further forward with longer seat cushions to reflect the effect of cushion length on posture that has been measured with child volunteers. ATD kinematics were evaluated using peak head excursion, peak knee excursion, the difference between peak head and peak knee excursion, and the maximum torso angle. Shortening the seat cushion improved kinematic outcomes, particularly for the 10YO. Lap belt geometry had a greater effect on kinematics with the longer cushion length, with mid or forward belt geometries producing better kinematics than the rearward belt geometry. The worst kinematics for both ATDs occurred with the long cushion length and rearward lap belt geometry. The improvements in kinematics from shorter cushion length or more forward belt geometry are smaller than those provided by a booster seat. The results show potential benefits in occupant protection from shortening cushion length and increasing lap belt angles, particularly for children the size of the 10YO ATD.

  15. Thermal comfort of aeroplane seats: influence of different seat materials and the use of laboratory test methods.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2003-07-01

    This study determined the influence of different cover and cushion materials on the thermal comfort of aeroplane seats. Different materials as well as ready made seats were investigated by the physiological laboratory test methods Skin Model and seat comfort tester. Additionally, seat trials with human test subjects were performed in a climatic chamber. Results show that a fabric cover produces a considerably higher sweat transport than leather. A three-dimensional knitted spacer fabric turns out to be the better cushion alternative in comparison to a moulded foam pad. Results from the physiological laboratory test methods nicely correspond to the seat trials with human test subjects.

  16. Sudden unexpected infant deaths associated with car seats.

    PubMed

    Bamber, Andrew R; Pryce, Jeremy; Ashworth, Michael T; Sebire, Neil J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, circumstances, demographics, and causes of death of infants dying while seated in car safety seats. A retrospective review of a pediatric autopsy database at a specialist center over a 16-year period was undertaken to identify any infant deaths (aged <1 year), in whom death occurred while seated in a car safety seat. Fourteen car seat-associated deaths were identified from a total of 1,465 coronial infant autopsies (0.96 %). Four involved infants were being appropriately transported in the car seat, all of whom had a medical underlying cause of death (one infection and three congenital heart disease). The majority (10 cases; 70 %) occurred while car seats were being inappropriately used, outside of the car, including as an alternative to a cot or high-chair. Five of these infants died of explained causes, but four deaths remained unexplained after autopsy, and in one no cause of death was available. There were no cases of previously healthy infants dying unexpectedly in a car seat when it was being used appropriately, and in this series there were no cases of traumatic death associated with car seats, either during road traffic accidents, or from falling or being suspended from a car seat. Infant deaths in car seats are rare. These data support the recommendation that car seats be used only for transport and not as alternatives for cots or high-chairs. More research is required to investigate the effect of travel in car seats on infants with underlying conditions. There appears to be no increased risk of unexpected deaths of healthy infants transported appropriately in car seats.

  17. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  18. The effects of nighttime seat belt enforcement on seat belt use by tavern patrons: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Malenfant, J E; Van Houten, R

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters in promoting seat belt use by nighttime tavern patrons. Ten taverns in two cities served as sites. Data were collected on the nighttime seat belt use of tavern patrons and daytime citywide seat belt use. Results indicated that the intervention increased nighttime seat belt use by tavern patrons. Daytime seat belt use increased in one city and remained at a high level in the other following the intervention. Because previous research has shown that tavern patrons are overrepresented in the impaired driving population, and that seat belt use decreases the likelihood of serious injury or death, results of this study suggest that enforcement of seat belt use could reduce casualties resulting from impaired driving. PMID:3198547

  19. Distributed wireless sensor for smart car seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Smoker, Jason

    2009-03-01

    A distributed wireless sensor network is embedded inside car seats to enable the measurements of the weight of the occupants, location of their center of gravity, and spatial orientation of their bodies. Based on these measurements, intelligent decisions can be made to ensure their comfort and safety particularly in case of accidents. Appropriate activation of the inflatable bags according to the weight and position of the occupants will be critical to avoiding unnecessary and undesirable injuries.

  20. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  1. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  2. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    PubMed

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  3. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  4. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  5. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  6. Hospital-based rental programs to increase car seat usage.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1983-05-01

    The ability of hospital-based car seat rental programs to provide car seats inexpensively throughout an entire state and the effect of these rental programs on car seat usage by newborns were evaluated. In July 1979 individuals and groups committed to child passenger safety formed a coalition called Vermont SEAT (Seatbelts Eliminate Automobile Tragedies). During the next 3 years SEAT asked the major hospitals in the state to allow volunteers to operate car seat rental programs on their premises. The number of rental programs increased from 0 to 13; the percentage of newborns born in a hospital with a rental program increased from 0% to 99%. The estimated statewide rate of car seat usage by newborns, based on observations at discharge at five hospitals, increased from 15% to 70%. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car seat rental programs operated by volunteers can make car seats readily available throughout a state or region, and can significantly increase car seat usage by newborns. It is recommended that such programs be a part of comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety.

  7. Energy-absorbing car seat designs for reducing whiplash.

    PubMed

    Himmetoglu, S; Acar, M; Bouazza-Marouf, K; Taylor, A J

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an investigation of anti-whiplash features that can be implemented in a car seat to reduce whiplash injuries in the case of a rear impact. The main emphasis is on achieving a seat design with good energy absorption properties. A biofidelic 50th percentile male multi-body human model for rear impact is developed to evaluate the performance of car seat design concepts. The model is validated using the responses of 7 volunteers from the Japanese Automobile Research Institute (JARI) sled tests, which were performed at an impact speed of 8 kph with a rigid seat and without head restraint and seatbelt. A generic multi-body car seat model is also developed to implement various seatback and recliner properties, anti-whiplash devices, and head restraints. Using the same driving posture and the rigid seat in the JARI sled tests as the basic configuration, several anti-whiplash seats are designed to allow different types of motion for the seatback and seat-pan. The anti-whiplash car seat design concepts limit neck internal motion successfully until the head-to-head restraint contact occurs and they exhibit low NIC(max) values (7 m(2)/s(2) on average). They are also effective in reducing neck compression forces and T1 forward accelerations. In principle, these car seat design concepts employ controlled recliner rotation and seat-pan displacement to limit the formation of S-shape. This is accomplished by using anti-whiplash devices that absorb the crash energy in such a way that an optimum protection is provided at different severities. The results indicate that the energy absorbing car seat design concepts all demonstrate good whiplash-reducing performances at the IIWPG standard pulse. Especially in higher severity rear impacts, two of the car seat design concepts reduce the ramping of the occupant considerably.

  8. Pattern of seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Routley, V; Ozanne‐Smith, J; Li, D; Hu, X; Wang, P; Qin, Y

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China for drivers, front seat passengers, and rear occupants of motor vehicles. Design Roadside observational study. Setting Four sites in central and northern Nanjing during daylight hours over 1 week in April 2005. Subjects Drivers and passengers of 17 147 cars, taxis, goods vans, and pickups, which traveled in the inside traffic lane. Main outcome measures Percentage seat belt wearing for each of seating position, age/sex, time of day, vehicle type, day of week. Results The rate of seat belt wearing was significantly higher in drivers (67.3%, 95% CI 66.6 to 68.0) than front seat passengers (18.9%, 95% CI, 18.0 to 19.8). It was negligible for second front seat passengers (2.6%, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.9) and rear seat passengers (0.5%, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7). Belt tampering, such that protection would be reduced in the event of a crash, was observed for 18.5% of taxi drivers. Drivers were most likely to wear seat belts in cars and vans and at a city roundabout; front seat passengers were most likely to wear seat belts in non‐taxi vehicles, during the evening rush hour, if the driver was wearing a belt, and on the local north road. Drivers were least likely to wear a belt in the early morning, in pickups and taxis, on Tuesday (or the following week), and on the local north road; front seat passengers were least likely to wear a belt in taxis and if the driver was not wearing a belt. Conclusions Rates of seat belt wearing by passengers were low despite national legislation and provincial regulations coming into effect several months before the survey. Combined education and enforcement are necessary accompaniments to legislation. PMID:18056315

  9. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  10. Leon Marchlewski: one of the precursors of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Muszytowski, Marek; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic progress in the basic sciences such as clinical chemistry exerted a great influence on the development of clinical science in medicine in the 19th century. We should rate Prof. Leon Marchlewski among the group of prominent foreign and Polish scientists working in that period. Marchlewski was born in 1869 in Wloclawek, Poland. He began his chemical studies in Warsaw and then continued at the Zurich Technical University. After having graduated, he began working in the famous Edward Schunk's laboratory in Kersal near Manchester in England. At that time he achieved recognition for his research on the chemical affinity of dyes of the animal and plant world. Later he cooperated in this field with another great scholar Marceli Nencki. In 1900 he returned to Poland, and in 1906 he took charge of the Department of Medical Chemistry at Jagiellonian University. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize twice in 1913 and 1914 for his numerous achievements in the field of clinical chemistry. He took many positions at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, including dean and rector. In 1930-1935 he was a senator of the Republic of Poland. He died in 1946 in Krakow.

  11. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  12. AAS Publishing News: An Interview with Leon Golub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    In the lead-up to next weeks 2016 Solar Physics Division (SPD) meeting, we wanted to introduce you to Leon Golub, our new Lead Editor for the Sun and the Heliosphere corridor.Leon is a Senior Astrophysicist in the High Energy Division at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He specializes in studies of solar and stellar magnetic activity, and he has built numerous rocket and satellite instruments to study the Sun and its dynamic behavior.* * * * *Tell me about your field of research and some of your current projects.Ive been working primarily on understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, especially using new types of instrumentation that can provide challenges to our theoretical understanding.Image of the Apollo Telescope Mount on Skylab. [NASA]Why did you choose this field?Shortly after graduating from MIT in experimental high energy physics I found a position with a group that was preparing to launch an X-ray telescope on Skylab as part of the cluster of solar instruments called the Apollo Telescope Mount. I have stayed with that field and related ones ever since.What do you consider to be some of the biggest open questions in solar and heliospheric research today?There are so many major questions that its difficult to just settle on a few. The heliosphere is defined by the extent of the influence of the Sun on the interstellar medium. It is an exciting time in that area of study, because we now have the ability to make impressive new observations that allow us to test our understanding of that outer boundary.Within those limits, the Sun has a major influence on solar system objects via its gravitational pull, its light and heat, and the magnetized plasma and high energy particles that it emits in all directions. We are making major discoveries related to how the Sun has influenced the formation and evolution of the planets, including our own planet.The source of all this influence is, of course, the Sun itself, and we are working to understand

  13. Striving for excellence: nurturing midwives' skills in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ngongo, Carrie; Christie, Kate; Holden, Jude; Ford, Carolyn; Pett, Celia

    2013-10-01

    Midwives provide critical, life-saving care to women and babies. Effective midwives must be clinically competent, with the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide quality care. Their success depends on an environment of supportive supervision, continuing education, enabling policies, and access to equipment and referral facilities. In Freetown, Sierra Leone, the Aberdeen Women's Centre launched a maternity unit with an emphasis on striving for excellence and providing ongoing professional development to its staff midwives. Its success was built upon fostering a sense of responsibility and teamwork, providing necessary resources, conforming to evidence-based standards, and building partnerships. An explicit philosophy of care was crucial for guiding clinical decision making. In its first two years of operation, the Aberdeen Women's Centre assisted 2076 births with two maternal deaths and 92 perinatal deaths. In-service education and supportive supervision facilitated the midwives' professional growth, leading to capable future leaders who are providing exemplary care to delivering mothers and their newborns in Freetown.

  14. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on the gathered data and the subsequent interpretation of it, the authors identified several educational implications and drew the following conclusions: (a) science should be taught within an historical perspective; (b) textbook authors generally have an empiricist epistemology which makes their presentation of science difficult to understand; (c) an historical perspective inevitably involves comparing, contrasting, and scrutinizing different historical accounts of the same events; (d) varying interpretations of observations do not undermine the objective nature of science; (e) new ideas in physics comprise an imposed vision of the world, and these ideas are then slowly accepted by the scientific community; (f) the current view in any science is almost always a mixture of data, hypotheses, theoretical ideas, and conjectures; (g) since experiments are difficult to perform and understand, scientists rely on their presuppositions to guide the integration of data, theory, and conjectures; (h) inconsistencies in the construction of theories can facilitate new theoretical ideas; and (i) case studies based on various experiments show that scientists use intuition which is guided by facts, conjectures, and speculations.

  16. Utilization of Rainwater in the City of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, A. S.; Perez-Quezadas, J. P.; Lozano, E. E.; Salas, R. O.; Martinez, J. R.; Hernandez, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    Leon Valley is supplied by deep wells, extracting water from an unconfined aquifer, composed of Tertiary sedimentary rocks of lacustrine origin. It features hydraulic conductivity with different stratifications where water is stored with characteristics of different origins. It features hydraulic conductivity with different stratifications where water is stored with characteristics of different origins. Given the problems of intensive exploitation, have proposed some measures aimed at trying to use as much water as possible. We present a hydrogeological analysis has allowed to make some proposals for potential sites for water infiltration of meteoric origin, based on the construction of trenches 4x4x5m. Considering some infiltration rates in some of the sites and the detailed geological characterization was performed the simulation of balance. The 19 injection wells proposed by the model produce a recovery calculated from simulation scenarios of 13 cm after 20 years. The results show that to achieve works that provide a perceptible recovery requires a significant investment. The study provided important hydrogeological knowledge of the system.

  17. Should a standing or seated reference posture be used when normalizing seated spine kinematics?

    PubMed

    Cotter, Brendan D; Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M

    2014-07-18

    Currently in the literature there is no consensus on which procedure for normalizing seated spine kinematics is most effective. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in the range of motion (ROM) of seated posture trials when expressed as a percent of maximum standing and seated ROM. A secondary purpose was to determine whether the typical maximum planar calibration movements (flexion, lateral-bend, and axial twist) elicited the respective maximum ROM values for each spine region versus postures with specific movement instruction. Thirteen male participants completed seven different movement trials. These consisted of the maximum planar movement trials, with the remaining four postures being combinations of specific lumbar and thoracic movements. Global and relative angles for the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, lower-thoracic, and lumbar regions were calculated and normalized to both a seated and standing reference posture. When normalizing both global and relative angles the standing reference appears optimal for flexion, twisting and lateral bend angles in all spine regions, with the exception of relative flexion angle in the mid-thoracic region. The maximum planar movement trials captured the greatest ROM for each global angle, relative lower-thoracic angle and relative lumbar flexion angle, but did not for all other relative angles in the upper-thoracic, mid-thoracic, and lumbar regions. If future researchers can only collect one reference posture these results recommend that a standing reference posture be collected for normalizing seated spine kinematics, although a seated reference posture should be collected if examining relative flexion angles at the mid-thoracic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  19. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  20. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  1. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  2. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  3. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  4. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  5. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... belt bears upon the seat frame, the seat belt anchorage, if not on the seat structure, shall be aft...

  6. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, seat frames, seat pedestals, the vehicle structure itself, and any part of the vehicle whose failure causes separation of the belt... the seat structure, shall be aft of the rearmost belt contact point on the seat frame with the seat...

  7. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  8. 49 CFR 571.222 - Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... device described in S6.6, except any surface on the front of a seat back or restraining barrier 76 mm or more below the top of the seat back or restraining barrier. Fixed occupancy seat means a bench seat....1.2Seat back height, position, and surface area. (a) For school buses manufactured before October 21...

  9. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  10. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  11. Aircraft Seat Cushion Fire-Blocking Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, Kenneth J.; Duskin, Fred E.; Trabold, Edward L.

    1987-01-01

    229-page report describes work done to determine burning characteristics of present and proposed seat-cushion materials and types of construction. Tested cushions classified in four groups: standard cushion construction, standard cushion construction with protective covering enveloping urethane-foam core, standard cushion construction with protective covering enveloping non-fire-retarded urethane-foam core, and standard cushion construction with urethane-foam core replaced by advanced fire-resistant foam. Report includes still photographs and presents quantitative data from each test in graphs and tables.

  12. Seat belt use on interstate highways.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J K; Williams, A F; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    More than 5,000 miles of limited-access highways in the eastern United States and Canada were traveled to observe seat belt use. Overall belt use was 58 percent in the United States and 79 percent in Canada. The data indicate that belt use in the United States follows a different pattern on interstate highways than on other streets and roads, with relatively high belt use rates (over 50 percent) appearing to be somewhat independent of belt use law provisions. PMID:2343969

  13. Overcoming Operational Challenges to Ebola Case Investigation in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    T Boland, Samuel; Polich, Erin; Connolly, Allison; Hoar, Adam; Sesay, Tom; Tran, Anh-Minh A

    2017-09-27

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone. We present here GOAL Global's understanding of the fundamental challenges to case investigation operations during the EVD response, including environmental and infrastructural, sociocultural, and political and organizational challenges, with insight complemented by a survey of 42 case investigators. Major challenges included deficiencies in transportation and communication resources, low morale and fatigue among case investigators, mismanagement of data, mistrust among communities, and leadership challenges. Without addressing these operational challenges, technical surveillance solutions are difficult to implement and hold limited relevance, due to the poor quality and quantity of data being collected. The low prioritization of operational needs came at a high cost. To mediate this, GOAL addressed these operational challenges by acquiring critical transportation and communication resources to facilitate case investigation, including vehicles, boats, fuel, drivers, phones, and closed user groups; addressing fatigue and low morale by hiring more case investigators, making timely payments, arranging for time off, and providing meals and personal protective equipment; improving data tracking efforts through standard operating procedures, training, and mentorship to build higher-quality case histories and make it easier to access information; strengthening trust in communities by ensuring familiarity and consistency of case

  14. Overcoming Operational Challenges to Ebola Case Investigation in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    T Boland, Samuel; Polich, Erin; Connolly, Allison; Hoar, Adam; Sesay, Tom; Tran, Anh-Minh A

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone. We present here GOAL Global's understanding of the fundamental challenges to case investigation operations during the EVD response, including environmental and infrastructural, sociocultural, and political and organizational challenges, with insight complemented by a survey of 42 case investigators. Major challenges included deficiencies in transportation and communication resources, low morale and fatigue among case investigators, mismanagement of data, mistrust among communities, and leadership challenges. Without addressing these operational challenges, technical surveillance solutions are difficult to implement and hold limited relevance, due to the poor quality and quantity of data being collected. The low prioritization of operational needs came at a high cost. To mediate this, GOAL addressed these operational challenges by acquiring critical transportation and communication resources to facilitate case investigation, including vehicles, boats, fuel, drivers, phones, and closed user groups; addressing fatigue and low morale by hiring more case investigators, making timely payments, arranging for time off, and providing meals and personal protective equipment; improving data tracking efforts through standard operating procedures, training, and mentorship to build higher-quality case histories and make it easier to access information; strengthening trust in communities by ensuring familiarity and consistency

  15. 77 FR 24360 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ..., in accordance with paragraphs 2/A through D2. of the Accomplishment Instructions of Sicma Aero Seat... flight, replace the affected spreader, in accordance with paragraphs 2/A through D2. of the... (modifying to ``Amendment B'' standard), in accordance with paragraphs 2/A through D2. of the Accomplishment...

  16. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of America... for automobiles. New information shows that some workers separated from employment at the subject firm had their wages reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the...

  17. Seating Location in Large Lectures: Are Seating Preferences or Location Related to Course Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Mary Ellen; Hoag, John

    2004-01-01

    Using data on individuals taking principles of economics courses in large lecture rooms, the authors investigate whether a student's seating preference is related to success in the classroom. They find that individuals who prefer to sit near the front of the room have a higher probability of receiving As, whereas those who prefer the back have a…

  18. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: effect of seat cushion.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation has been investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz when sitting on a rigid seat and when sitting on a compliant cushion, both without a backrest. Judgements of vibration discomfort and the transmission of lateral and roll oscillation through the seat cushion were obtained with 20 subjects. Relative to the rigid seat, the cushion increased lateral acceleration and roll oscillation at the lower frequencies and also increased discomfort during lateral oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz), roll oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz), and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation (at frequencies between 0.315 and 0.5 Hz). The root-sums-of-squares of the frequency-weighted lateral and roll acceleration at the seat surface predicted the greater vibration discomfort when sitting on the cushion. The frequency-dependence of the predicted discomfort may be improved by adjusting the frequency weighting for roll acceleration at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 68304 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... unsafe condition as: Several occurrences of cracked central and lateral spreaders on passenger seats... spreaders, causing injury to passengers or crew members during heavy turbulence in flight or in the event of... specified products. The MCAI states: Several occurrences of cracked central and lateral spreaders...

  20. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  1. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H.; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S.; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K.; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D.; Scott, Terence P.; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L.; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2017-01-01

    Background In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. Methods and findings The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a “hotspot” of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Conclusions The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens. PMID:28628619

  2. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  3. Influence of seat geometry and seating posture on NIC(max) long-term AIS 1 neck injury predictability.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Linda; Kullgren, Anders

    2006-03-01

    Validated injury criteria are essential when developing restraints for AIS 1 neck injuries, which should protect occupants in a variety of crash situations. Such criteria have been proposed and attempts have been made to validate or disprove these. However, no criterion has yet been fully validated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of seat geometry and seating posture on the NIC(max) long-term AIS 1 neck injury predictability by making parameter analyses on reconstructed real-life rear-end crashes with known injury outcomes. Mathematical models of the BioRID II and three car seats were used to reconstruct 79 rear-end crashes involving 110 occupants with known injury outcomes. Correlations between the NIC(max) values and the duration of AIS 1 neck injuries were evaluated for variations in seat geometry and seating posture. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were also calculated to evaluate the NIC(max) predictability. Correlations between the NIC(max) values and the duration of AIS 1 neck injuries were found and these relations were used to establish injury risk curves for variations in seat geometry and seating posture. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values showed that the NIC(max) predicts long-term AIS 1 neck injuries also for variations in seat geometry and seating postures. The NIC(max) can be used to predict long-term AIS 1 neck injuries.

  4. Coupled head neck torso and seat model for car seat optimization under rear-end impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Willinger, Rémy

    2008-06-01

    The development of new protective systems must be performed on tools reliable and representative of alive human. In an earlier study, a simplified but realistic modelling of the head-neck system under moderate rear impact was performed. In order to address this issue, an original lumped model of the human torso was developed and coupled to a car seat-head rest complex. The experimental modal analysis of the human torso in a seating position performed by Kitazaki in 1992 [Paper presented at the United Kingdom Meeting on Human Response to Vibration held at I.S.V.R. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 28-30 September 1992.] was used in the present study for the identification of the mechanical parameters of a lumped human torso model. Despite its low complexity, this model was able to reproduce the five first experimental vibration modes and it was possible to validate it in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratio and mode shapes. In addition to the lumped approach, an external geometry of the human torso was implemented in order to provide a realistic coupling of the human body model to a finite element model of the car seat also developed in the present study. A parametric study was finally carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the torso behaviour and of the different parts of a car seat on the mechanical neck response under rear-end impact. The results of this study allow concluding that the torso behaviour has an important influence on the neck loading and therefore that the quality of a car seat depends on the human body substitute used. For instance, with the proposed torso model, a low-neck injury criterion (NIC) rearward value was obtained with low rigidity of the backrest foam and a stiff backrest net.

  5. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  6. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of booster seat use in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Richard P; Dobbs, Bonnie M; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Don

    2016-08-15

    To determine the prevalence of booster seat misuse in a Canadian province and identify determinants of non-use. A cross-sectional study using parking lot interviews and in-vehicle restraint inspections by trained staff was conducted at 67 randomly selected childcare centres across Alberta. Only booster-eligible children were included in this analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Overall, 23% of children were not in a booster seat, and in 31.8% of cases there was evidence of at least one misuse. Non-use increased significantly by age, from 22.2% for children 2 years of age to 47.8% for children 7 years of age (p = 0.02). Children who were at significantly increased risk of booster seat non-use were those in vehicles with drivers who could not recall the booster seat to seatbelt transition point (OR: 4.54; 95% CI: 2.05-10.06) or drivers who were under the age of 30 (OR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.45-8.62). A front row seating position was also associated with significantly higher risk of nonuse (OR: 18.00; 95% CI: 2.78-116.56). Children in vehicles with grandparent drivers exhibited significantly decreased risk of booster seat non-use (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.85). Messaging should continue to stress that the front seat is not a safe place for any child under the age of 9 as well as remind drivers of the booster seat to seatbelt transition point, with additional emphasis placed on appealing to parents under the age of 30. Future research should focus on the most effective means of communicating booster seat information to this group. Enacting mandatory booster seat legislation would be an important step to increase both awareness and proper use of booster seats in Alberta.

  8. Simulation of the interaction between driver and seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoming; Ren, Jindong; Sang, Chunlei; Li, Lemeng

    2013-11-01

    Test is one of methods to acquire human-seat pressure distribution in driving, with the deficiency of being uneasy to obtain the stress information of soft tissue inside human body and the sheer force of interface between human and seat, which can be obtained by simulation. But current simulation method focuses mainly on calculation itself other than combining it with posture prediction and cab packaging parameters, which cause it difficult to acquire accurate pressure calculation results without accurate posture of human body, and make it almost meaningless to design optimization. Therefore, a human body geometric model with posture change capability is built and linked up with Cascade Prediction Model(CPM), which takes cab packaging parameters as inputs. A detailed finite element model of driver human body is constructed and used to conduct the driver-seat interaction simulation between human body and seat. Good accordance of pressure distribution is observed between simulation and test, which validates the simulation. In addition to the distribution pattern, curves on key sections are used to analyze the pressure and shear stress on the seat surface, as well as soft tissue stress inside human body. The simulation shows that the maximum stress of buttocks locates under the ischial tuberosity, and the maximum stress of trunk occurs near the scapula posterior and the lower waist. These are the places where fatigue usually occurs. The maximum pressure of seat appears at the driver-seat contact area corresponding to the driver's maximum skin tissue stress. In order to guide the seat design and cab packaging and study the influence of posture to pressure distribution, finite element models for different levels of cab packaging parameters are created by using CPM. The pressure distributions are calculated and their tendencies varying with cab packaging parameters are obtained. The method presented provides a new way to accurately simulate the interaction between driver

  9. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  10. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  11. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  12. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  13. Persistent allergic contact dermatitis to plastic toilet seats.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Sara; Adams, David R; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to various components of toilet seats is being recognized and reported with increasing frequency. This report details the case of an young girl who was found to be allergic to plastic found in both a toilet seat and a school chair. It highlights particular problems with patch testing young children and the difficulty in confirming allergy to plastics.

  14. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  15. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  16. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  18. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  19. Classroom Seating Preference and Level of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sara; And Others

    A study was done to examine the relation between classroom seating preference and level of self-esteem, in particular the influence of gender on self-esteem and seating preferences among community college students. The study administered a 16-item questionnaire to 231 students (104 women and 127 men) enrolled in sections of an Introductory…

  20. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  1. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  2. An approach to aircraft seat comfort using interface pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Ciaccia, Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a method to dynamically evaluate discomfort of a passenger seat by measuring the interface pressure between the occupant and the seat during the performance of the most common activities of a typical flight. This article reports the results of resting and reading studies performed in a simulator that represents the interior of a commercial aircraft.

  3. Hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinjie; Guo, Konghui; Lv, Jiming; Yang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Scissor seat suspension has been applied widely to attenuate the cab vibrations of commercial vehicles, while its design generally needs a trade-off between the seat acceleration and suspension travel, which creates a typical optimisation issue. A complexity for this issue is that the optimal dynamics parameters are not easy to approach solutions fast and unequivocally. Hence, the hierarchical optimisation on scissor seat suspension characteristic and structure is proposed, providing a top-down methodology with the globally optimal and fast convergent solutions to compromise these design contradictions. In details, a characteristic-oriented non-parametric dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension is formulated firstly via databases, describing its vertical dynamics accurately. Then, the ideal vertical stiffness-damping characteristic is cascaded via the characteristic-oriented model, and the structure parameters are optimised in accordance with a structure-oriented multi-body dynamics model of the scissor seat suspension. Eventually, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility factor, suspension travel and the CPU time for solving are evaluated. The results show the seat suspension performance and convergent speed of the globally optimal solutions are improved well. Hence, the proposed hierarchical optimisation methodology regarding characteristic and structure of the scissor seat suspension is promising for its virtual development.

  4. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  6. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  7. 36 CFR § 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. § 1192.27 Section § 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... point on the post shaft, and the post strength shall be maintained for at least a length of one shaft... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle proof...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... point on the post shaft, and the post strength shall be maintained for at least a length of one shaft... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle proof...

  11. Adjustment of the seated workplace--with special reference to heights and inclinations of seat and table.

    PubMed

    Bendix, T

    1987-06-01

    The influence of varying workplace adjustment on posture, muscular load, and subjective acceptability has been investigated in eight studies. Workplace variables were: seat height, seat inclination, backrest position, table height, and desk inclination. Moreover, some of the adjustments were investigated in relation to the tasks: desk-work, typing, large-scale drawing, and simulated assembly work. Concerning posture, the static aspect was investigated by statometry, while the dynamic aspect was estimated by analysing the movements transferred to a tiltable seat. Muscular load was assessed by means of amplitude distribution functions derived from electromyography. A five-point scale was used for subjective rating. It is recommended that the seat should be height adjusted approximately 3-5 cm above popliteal level, and the table top 3-5 cm above elbow level. A slanted desk, placed on a horizontal table, is recommended, as it had greater positive influence on the posture than varying seat adjustments. These recommendations are in accordance to subjective preferences, and to a compromise between optimizing the posture and using the backrest. In addition, the recommended seat adjustment seemed to induce more body movements than the traditionally recommended height just below popliteal level. With the high chair adjustment, the seat should be able to incline forward. A tiltable seat seemed preferable, but it is still a question whether or not such equipment facilitates movements. The backrest has been demonstrated to be a much lesser determinator for shifting the lumbar spine towards lordosis, than a slanting desk or an increased seat height. The backrest should be pushed against the back after the subject's selection of the position on the seat. This usually corresponds to an ischial-tuberosity position 6-7 cm behind the axis for seat-tilting. During touch-typing the keyboard should be at the level of the elbows, whereas the significance of a forearm/wrist support is

  12. Differential effects of seating arrangements on disruptive behavior of fifth grade students during independent seatwork.

    PubMed

    Bicard, David F; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students chose their seats. The results are discussed in relation to choice and the matching law.

  13. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber's insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  14. Seated occupant interactions with seat backrest and pan, and biodynamic responses under vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakheja, S.; Stiharu, I.; Zhang, H.; Boileau, P.-É.

    2006-12-01

    The relative interactions of the seated occupants with an inclined backrest were investigated in terms of apparent mass (APMS) responses at the two driving-points formed by the buttock-seat pan and the upper body-backrest under exposure to broad-band and road-measured vertical vibration. The measurements were performed using 24 adult subjects seated with full contact with the back support and two different positions of the hands (in lap and on steering wheel), while exposed to three different levels of broad band (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s 2 rms acceleration) vibration in the 0.5-40 Hz frequency range, and a track-measured vibration spectrum (1.07 m/s 2 rms acceleration). The forces developed on the seat pan and the backrest in directions normal to the supporting surfaces were measured to derive the APMS responses at both the driving-points. The results showed significant interactions of the upper body with the back support in a direction normal to the backrest, even though the vibration is applied along the vertical axis. At low frequencies, the backrest APMS magnitude was smaller than that measured at the seat pan, but it either exceeded or approached that of the seat pan APMS in the vicinity of the primary resonant frequencies. The results also suggested considerable effect of the hands position on the APMS magnitudes measured at both the driving-points. The effects of variations in the excitation type and magnitude, considered in this study, were observed to be small compared to those caused by the hands position and individual body masses. Owing to the strong effects of the body mass on the measured APMS responses at both driving-points, a total of 8 target data sets were identified corresponding to four mass groups (<60, 60.6-70, 70.5-80 and >80 kg) and two hands positions for formulating mechanical equivalent models. The model parameters identified for the target functions suggested that the models mass, stiffness and damping parameters increase with increasing

  15. The use of seat belts on British motorways.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; Richardson, J M

    1994-01-01

    Evidence demonstrating the advantages of seat belts in improving safety of road travel is overwhelming and has resulted in government legislation. This study was performed to investigate compliance with this legislation by fast-moving traffic on British motorways, for which no previous data exists. Analysis of seat belt use by 2564 travellers in 1526 cars in October 1992 revealed the following rates of use: drivers 98%; front passengers 96%; rear seat passengers with available belts 53%. The overall low rate of rear seat restraint use was seen in all age groups except babies. When the study was repeated 8 months later, the rates of restraint amongst 3910 travellers in 1881 cars had not increased. In view of the continuing heavy death toll on British motorways and roads, there is an obvious need for measures to improve rear seat belt use. This would be most appropriately achieved by both enforcing and publicizing the current legislation. PMID:8182674

  16. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  17. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    PubMed

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  18. Car seat heaters: a potential hazard for burns.

    PubMed

    Maguiña, Pirko; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2003-01-01

    Car seat heaters have gained popularity in America and worldwide. They offer comfort by heating the sitting surface to a soothing temperature. Several cases of heating-element malfunction resulted in burn injuries and have triggered recalls of thousands of cars by the manufacturers. We present a case of a 48-year-old patient with long-standing paraplegia who sustained third-degree burns on his buttock during the initial drive of a new car with seat heaters. Car seat heaters can cause severe burns. Patients with decreased sensation or immobility are at increased risk and should not use car seat heaters. This case illustrates the need for design modifications and consumer education regarding the risks associated with car seat heaters.

  19. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  20. Promoting the use of seat belts. Wessex Positive Health Team.

    PubMed

    1980-11-29

    A six-month study into the effect of a substantial programme of integrated health education promoting the use of seat belts showed no major change in the rates for occupants of front seats, which remained around 35%. Though there were increases of up to 5% in the rates for wearing seat belts immediately after the multimedia campaigns which achieved high penetration, only those among women drivers were sustained. Of the methods used to disseminate information, television had the greatest impact on the community, followed by press reports and radio broadcasts. It is concluded that health education alone is insufficient to increase significantly the use of car seat belts. Britain should follow its European partners and pass legislation requiring front seat occupants to wear belts. As the recent experience in Australia shows, the benefits will be considerable in terms of reducing mortality, morbidity, and consequential expenditure.

  1. Pediatric injury prevention: methods of booster seat education.

    PubMed

    Philbrook, Julie K; Kiragu, Andrew W; Geppert, Joni S; Graham, Patricia R; Richardson, Laura M; Kriel, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Sixty elementary schools in Minneapolis were asked to participate in a study to evaluate the most effective education method to increase booster seat knowledge and use in kindergarten-age children. School personnel selected one of the following interventions: (1) written information, (2) parent education class and a free booster seat, or (3) student education and a free booster seat. Twenty schools participated, with 132 parents completing the telephone interview 3 to 6 months post-survey. Providing instructions to parent groups and teaching children in the classroom, along with providing an incentive booster seat, was shown to increase booster seat use. Providing information only was found to be ineffective. Pediatric and school nurses should focus their injury prevention efforts beyond written materials. Results indicate that presentations for children and their parents, along with incentives, can result in changes in behavior.

  2. The car seat: a challenge too far for preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Pilley, E; McGuire, W

    2005-11-01

    Physiological monitoring studies have shown that some preterm infants who are otherwise ready for hospital discharge experience episodes of oxygen desaturation, apnoea, or bradycardia when seated in standard car safety seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all preterm infants are assessed for cardiorespiratory stability in their car seat before discharge: the "car seat challenge". This screening test has been incorporated into discharge assessments in most neonatal units in North America and is being increasingly used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The evidence base for the use of the car seat challenge in discharge assessment, the possible implications for infants, their families, and health services of adopting the practice, and the issues that may be resolved with further research are discussed.

  3. The use of seat belts on British motorways.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J P; Richardson, J M

    1994-04-01

    Evidence demonstrating the advantages of seat belts in improving safety of road travel is overwhelming and has resulted in government legislation. This study was performed to investigate compliance with this legislation by fast-moving traffic on British motorways, for which no previous data exists. Analysis of seat belt use by 2564 travellers in 1526 cars in October 1992 revealed the following rates of use: drivers 98%; front passengers 96%; rear seat passengers with available belts 53%. The overall low rate of rear seat restraint use was seen in all age groups except babies. When the study was repeated 8 months later, the rates of restraint amongst 3910 travellers in 1881 cars had not increased. In view of the continuing heavy death toll on British motorways and roads, there is an obvious need for measures to improve rear seat belt use. This would be most appropriately achieved by both enforcing and publicizing the current legislation.

  4. A novelty universal adaptive seating system for dragon boating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helen W-M; Kwan, Hung-Hei; Cheng, Bill F-C; Hung, Joanna P-Y; Ng, Colm K-L

    2012-09-01

    Dragon boating is a non-weight-bearing sport that requires strenuous and repetitive upper body movements. Athletes with lower limb and trunk weakness are unable to participate due to insufficient seating balance and are at an increased risk of injury. This technical note presents an innovative and successful design of an adaptive seating system for dragon boating. The adaptive seating system provided an optimal trunk support and required stability through an adjustable upholder and angled seat. It also facilitated the athletes to maximize their upper limb function. Specific design for safety measures and quick installation were also highlighted. The adaptive seating system is functional, safe, and a universal design for physically disabled athletes with lower limb and trunk weakness in dragon boating.

  5. Fertility differentials in rural Sierra Leone: demographic and socioeconomic effects.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M; Serow, W J

    1991-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis with an ordinary least squares model was used to examine the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of fertility in rural Sierra Leone among a sample of 2000 women aged 15-49 years and 680 husbands in 1979. Size of place of current residence was of particular interest. The primary sampling unit (PSU) was proportionately sampled and systematically included chiefdoms for the Dasse, Kamajei, Kori, and Kowa in Moyamba District. Villages and towns were also sampled in the 3-stage probability sample. A wide selection of variables were collected; 11 variables were used in the analysis: children ever born as the dependent variable; husband's tribal affiliation, his religion, and size of place of current residence as background variables; educational levels of the respondent and her husband, reported annual household income, and wife's occupation; and age at marriage, infant and child mortality, and desired family size. The age structure was similar and small sample sizes for place limit the use of age grouping. Specification of each variable is given. The results reveal that in the full equation with all 11 variables, only size of place of residence is statistically significant (p = .10) and positively affecting fertility. Only opportunity cost to the wife (women working in nonagricultural jobs and educational attainment) negatively influences fertility as expected. Income effects are insignificant and in the wrong direction. Demographic influences are in the expected direction. In the analysis by size of place (small, 0-499; intermediate, 500-1999; and large, 2000), variance is demonstrated in the importance of explanatory variables. Background variables have coefficients hovering around 0. Opportunity cost (nonagricultural employment) is strong,and significantly negative only in large places. Household's infant and child mortality is significant and positive in all places. Desired family size is similar (positive and significant), but a

  6. The effects of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (p<0.05), negative attitude of classmates (p<0.001), and

  7. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations...

  8. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'.

  9. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  10. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  11. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  12. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  13. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  14. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools…

  15. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  16. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  17. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  18. An Introduction to Isaac Leon Kandel: Who He Was and Why He Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Few professors of education in the 21st century know the name Isaac Leon Kandel. A Kappa Delta Pi Laureate and author of more than 20 books, Kandel may be known to scholars who specialize in comparative education or educational history; however, Kandel is known to very few beyond these two fields. This article is a testament to Kandel, his…

  19. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  20. Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Sierra Leone, 2000-2001. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Gloria; Daniels, Bonnie

    Management Systems International (MSI), with funding from United States Agency for International Development Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) and in coordination with other partners, is implementing a program in Sierra Leone entitled "Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace" (YRTEP). The object is to provide…

  1. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  2. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  3. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  4. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  5. Sierra Leone--investing in nutrition to reduce poverty: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Victor M; Scott, Sylvetta; Ross, Jay

    2003-10-01

    Malnutrition rates in Sierra Leone are among the highest in the world. However, policy-makers do not always recognise the fight against malnutrition as a policy priority to ensure the healthy human capital needed to fight poverty and achieve sustained positive economic growth. The analysis presented here was conducted by an intersectoral and inter-agency group of Sierra Leonean senior policy advisors to quantify some of the potential human and economic benefits of improved policies and programmes to reduce malnutrition. The analysis revealed that 46% of child deaths in Sierra Leone are attributable to malnutrition, the single greatest cause of child mortality in the country. In the absence of adequate policy and programme action, malnutrition will be the underlying cause of an estimated 74000 child deaths over the next five years. The analysis also revealed that if current levels of iodine deficiency remain unchanged over the next five years, 252000 children could be born with varying degrees of mental retardation as a result of intrauterine iodine deficiency. Finally, the analysis showed that, in the absence of adequate policy and programme action to reduce the unacceptable rates of anaemia in women, the monetary value of agricultural productivity losses associated with anaemia in the female labour force over the next five years will exceed dollars 94.5 million. Sustained investment in nutrition in Sierra Leone could bring about enormous human and economic benefits to develop the social sector, revitalise the economy, and attain the poverty reduction goals that Sierra Leone has set forth.

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools…

  7. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  8. An Introduction to Isaac Leon Kandel: Who He Was and Why He Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2007-01-01

    Few professors of education in the 21st century know the name Isaac Leon Kandel. A Kappa Delta Pi Laureate and author of more than 20 books, Kandel may be known to scholars who specialize in comparative education or educational history; however, Kandel is known to very few beyond these two fields. This article is a testament to Kandel, his…

  9. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  10. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  11. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  12. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  13. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  14. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  15. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  16. The Effects of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement on Seat Belt Use by Tavern Patrons: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Van Houten, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Nighttime seat belt use by patrons of 10 taverns in two Canadian cities increased following an intervention consisting of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters. Separate observations of daytime seat belt use noted an increase in one city and maintenance at a high level in the other. (JW)

  17. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National... seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary... August 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden...

  18. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-08-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  19. On the seat of the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, D.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of some of the issues raised in connection with the seat of the solar cycle are presented. Is the cycle controlled by a strictly periodic oscillator that operates in the core, or is it a turbulent dynamo confined to the convection zone and possibly a thin boundary layer beneath it? Sunspot statistics are discussed, with a view to ascertaining the length of the memory of the cycle, without drawing a definitive conclusion. Also discussed are some of the processes that might bring about variations delta L and delta R in the luminosity and the radius of the photosphere. It appears that the ratio W = delta lnR/delta lnL increases with the depth of the disturbance that produces the variations, so that imminent observations might determine whether or not the principal dynamical processes are confined to only the outer layers of the Sun.

  20. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  1. Effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Charles M; Wells, Joann K

    2010-02-01

    Enhanced seat belt reminders in automobiles have been shown to increase belt use rates by approximately 3 percentage points. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk. Data included all passenger vehicle driver deaths and vehicle registration counts in the United States for calendar years 2000-2007. Driver fatality rates per vehicle registration per year were compared for otherwise identical vehicle models with and without enhanced seat belt reminders. Driver fatality rates were 6% lower for vehicles with enhanced seat belt reminders compared with vehicles without enhanced belt reminders. After adjusting for vehicle age differences, the estimated effect of enhanced belt reminders on driver fatality risk ranged from a 9% reduction for General Motors vehicles to a 2% increase for Honda vehicles. Combining all manufacturers, enhanced belt reminders reduced fatality risk by approximately 2%. Although not statistically significant, the 2% reduction in fatality risk agrees with what should be expected from a 3 percentage point increase in seat belt use rates. Enhanced seat belt reminders have raised driver belt use rates and reduced fatality rates, but more aggressive systems may be needed for some drivers. It can be inferred that nonfatal injury rates also have been reduced. Manufacturers should be encouraged to put enhanced seat belt reminders on all vehicles as soon as possible. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological responses to kayaking with a swivel seat.

    PubMed

    Michael, J S; Smith, R; Rooney, K

    2010-08-01

    The present study compared the physiological characteristics of flat-water kayaking utilising two seat conditions, the traditional fixed seat and novel swivel seat on an air-braked kayak simulator. The testing protocol included a submaximal warm up and one maximal ergometer paddling test. Ten elite kayakers (age 25+/-6 years, body mass 84.9+/-5.8 kg) were randomised to perform the testing protocol twice, once on each seat. During the testing protocol, expired air, heart rate (HR) and power output (PO) were continuously measured and gross efficiency (GE (kayak)) was calculated. Lactate (La) was recorded at the conclusion of each test. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that paddling with the swivel seat generated significantly greater mean PO over the two-minute race duration compared to the fixed seat (299.1+/-24.9W and 279.8+/-19.2W respectively; p<0.05). This equated to a 6.5% increase in PO. A similar (6.9%) but non-significant difference in efficiency was generated as there was no significant difference recorded in the metabolic load over the two-minute ergometer test. No significant differences were present in any other variable measured. This greater PO generated with a swivel seat may be a significant advantage during on-water competition if the results from present ergometer test transfer.

  3. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  4. Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraske, Martin; May, Rich

    2003-01-01

    A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft-seat-track mounting clamps. A SAM (see figure) is easily installed by inserting it in a seat track, then actuating a locking lever to clamp the SAM to the track. The SAM includes an over-center locking feature that prevents premature disengagement that could be caused by some inadvertent movements of persons or objects in the vicinity. A SAM can be installed in, or removed from, any position along a seat track, without regard for the locations of the circular access holes. Hence, one or more SAM(s) can be used to mount an object or objects on a track or a pair of tracks in an infinite number of preferred configurations. A SAM can be incorporated into a dual swivel device, so that two of the SAMs can be made to lock onto two side-by-side seat tracks simultaneously, as would be the case in a standard ISS rack bay where two side-by-side racks reside. The main benefit to using two SAMs in a side-by-side arrangement is to provide a coupled load. By picking up load points on two seat tracks, a coupled loading is created, improving the stability and strength since the load is spread to two seat tracks at a short distance.

  5. [Pressure ulcer prevention with pressure-reducing seat cushions].

    PubMed

    Reijnen, Guido; Heule, Freerk

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the effectiveness of pressure-reducing seat cushions. Literature review. Investigation of the literature yielded 8 relevant studies. These studies encompassed three clinical trials with a total of 296 patients, and five laboratory experiments with a total of 107 subjects, including patients. The publications were written at level A (RCT and meta-analysis) and level B (other study forms) according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. Both the pressure parameters of the pressure-reducing seat cushion and the development of pressure ulcers were used as measures for outcome. A 7.6 cm foam cushion was used as reference; it was not considered as one of the pressure-reducing systems. Two studies compared different types of air seat cushions with a foam/gel seat cushion. The best distribution of pressure was found for the air compartment seat cushion. This type of seat cushion provided the smallest contact surface with high pressures. Three studies compared the pressure-reducing systems with a 7.6 cm foam cushion. The methodologically most solid one of these three studies found a lower incidence of sitting-related pressure ulcers for users of a pressure-reducing system (0.9 vs. 6.7%; p = 0.04). The two other studies had too low a power to show significant differences. These two compared different types of foam/gel seat cushions and a low profile air seat cushion and found no significant differences in distribution of pressures. One study compared various foam cushions of differing thickness and found that foam cushions most optimally distributed pressure at a thickness of 8 centimetres. Pressure-reducing systems are effective in preventing pressure ulcers. Within the group of pressure-reducing systems, the air compartment seat cushion has the best pressure-distributing properties.

  6. Seat design principles to reduce neck injuries in rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C

    2008-12-01

    In the 1990s, research was conducted at General Motors R&D Center on seat safety in rear impacts. It led to the development of high retention seats and an active head restraint to improve occupant safety. This article provides an overview of the design principles found from that research and focuses on seat characteristics that lower whiplash risks. Sled and quasistatic seat testing showed how occupants interact with the seat in rear impacts and what seat characteristics improve occupant retention, energy management, and support of the head-neck, lowering injury risks. Neck displacements, moments, and forces were used to assess whiplash and more severe injury risks. A QST test was developed to quasi-statically push a dummy rearward into the seat to determine seat stiffness (k), frame strength (j), and peak bending moment (M(Hpt)). These parameters were related to neck displacements associated with whiplash. Sled tests were run with in-position and out-of-position male and female Hybrid III dummies to assess performance. A high retention seat and active head restraint were developed and put into production in 1997. High retention seats have 2.3 times greater moment, develop 2.2 times greater load, but have the same stiffness as earlier yielding seats. Seat stiffness was found to be a principle characteristic related to neck displacements associated with whiplash. The combination of a stronger frame, yielding seatback, and high-forward head restraint in the high retention seat provides early head support and low neck displacements in rear impacts. Larger reductions in neck displacement were obtained by adding an active head restraint that moves the head restraint forward and upward by occupant penetration into the seatback. This substantially reduces head contact time, neck displacements, and loads. Whiplash risks are related to seat stiffness, the position of the head restraint, and frame strength. Low seat stiffness allows the occupant to move into the seatback

  7. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  8. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  9. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  11. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  12. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  13. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  14. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: (a) Each seat/restraint system and the supporting structure must be designed to support occupants... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder harness to the seat or structure. (b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing seat/restraint system in...

  15. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset...

  16. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset...

  17. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...

  18. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...

  19. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...

  20. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...

  1. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or speaker...

  2. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset...

  3. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset...

  4. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... desirable seat choice within the coach-class cabin. These airline upgrade or preferred seat choices are...

  6. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  7. Should Seat Belts Be Required on All School Buses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the limited case law involving seat belts for school buses and explores emerging legal issues surrounding use of common law causes of action to challenge school bus safety. (51 footnotes) (MLF)

  8. 16 CFR 1215.2 - Requirements for infant bath seats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specification for Infant Bath Seats, approved September 1, 2011. The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference listed in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...

  9. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from the American Bungalow - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  12. Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. 39. INTERIOR, WITH WORKERS SEATED IN FRONT OF CONTROL PANEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. INTERIOR, WITH WORKERS SEATED IN FRONT OF CONTROL PANEL. EEC print no. G-C-01-00191, no date. Photograph by Benjamin F. Pearson. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. 15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON NORTHERN PIER; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  16. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  18. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  2. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or... of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to occupy them. (c) Characters on...

  4. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  5. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  7. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Low leak rate poppet-and-seat check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Valve leakage due to contaminant entrapment and chattering is effectively minimized by a metallic poppet-and-seat check valve designed for use in extreme environmental and fluid temperature conditions.

  9. Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... separated by: (A) A fixed trimmed surface whose top surface is unpadded and that has a width not less than... plane, or (ii) Interior trim interrupts the measurement of the nominal hip room of the seating...

  11. 3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, TRAFFIC DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - Gilbert Bridge, U.S. Route 52, spanning Guyandotte River near confluence of Gilbert Creek, Gilbert, Mingo County, WV

  12. 10. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BRIDGE SEAT AND PIER, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BRIDGE SEAT AND PIER, LOOKING SOUTH - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  13. Comparison of surgical care deficiencies between US civil war hospitals and present-day hospitals in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Joseph; Kingham, T Peter; Kamara, T B; Brennan, Murray F; Kushner, Adam L

    2010-08-01

    Surgery is rapidly becoming a part of public health initiatives in developing countries. In collaboration with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, a team of local surgeons and surgeons from the organization Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) used the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency Surgical Care to quantify surgical capacity in Sierra Leone. These data were then compared to data collected from the Medical and Surgical History of the Civil War, a work documenting surgical care and hospitals during the US Civil War. There are 0.2 government hospital surgeons/100,000 people in Sierra Leone compared to 300 surgeons/100,000 soldiers in the Union Army. In Sierra Leone it is rare to have running water, fuel, anesthesia, and reliable X-rays. In comparison, US Civil War hospitals had reliable running water, fuel, and anesthesia. It is rare to manage open fractures, limb dislocations, amputations, and conditions requiring chest tubes in Sierra Leone, while these procedures were commonly employed in US Civil War hospitals. Government hospitals in present day Sierra Leone lack the infrastructure, personnel, supplies, and equipment to adequately provide emergency and essential surgical care. In a comparison of present day Sierra Leonean and US Civil War hospitals, the US Civil War facilities are equivalent and in many ways superior. It is hoped that such a comparison will aid advocacy efforts so that greater resources are devoted to improving emergency and essential surgical care in low- and middle-income countries.

  14. Police officer in-vehicle discomfort: appointments carriage method and vehicle seat features.

    PubMed

    Filtness, A J; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, E; Rudin-Brown, C M

    2014-07-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported by police officers. A potential cause of officer discomfort is a mismatch between vehicle seats and the method used for carrying appointments. Twenty-five police officers rated their discomfort while seated in: (1) a standard police vehicle seat, and (2) a vehicle seat custom-designed for police use. Discomfort was recorded in both seats while wearing police appointments on: (1) a traditional appointments belt, and (2) a load-bearing vest/belt combination (LBV). Sitting in the standard vehicle seat and carrying appointments on a traditional appointments belt were both associated with significantly elevated discomfort. Four vehicle seat features were most implicated as contributing to discomfort: back rest bolster prominence; lumbar region support; seat cushion width; and seat cushion bolster depth. Authorising the carriage of appointments using a LBV is a lower cost solution with potential to reduce officer discomfort. Furthermore, the introduction of custom-designed vehicle seats should be considered.

  15. [Emerging deep-seated fungal infection, trichosporonosis].

    PubMed

    Tokimatsu, Issei; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2006-05-01

    Deep-seated trichosporonosis is a lethal opportunistic infection occasionally found in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic due to cytotoxic therapy for hematological malignancies. Trichosporon asahii is considered the principal etiologic agent of non-Candida fungemia and disseminated trichosporonosis in Japan. This infection may disseminate to multiple organs and difficult to diagnosis and treat. Because clinical findings and courses of trichosporonosis are similar to disseminated candidasis, it is impossible to distinguish these infections without fungal isolation. Monotherapy of amphotericin B is thought to be unsuccessful for this infection, and new antifungal agents echinocandins are also not active against Trichosporon species. Some clinical reports and animal models suggest that triazoles and combination therapies are most effective drugs against trichosporonosis. Recently, T. asahii isolates with reduced susceptibility in vitro to multi-antifungal agents are reported. T. asahii is the allergen of summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sometimes isolated from the houses environments, but it is not clear that the environmental strains directly infect to human. There is no clinical evidence that Trichosporon is the common outbreak pathogen in the hospital. However, it is necessary for a clinician to pay enough care as the lethal infections in immunocompromised patients.

  16. Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.

  17. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  18. Analysis of seated and standing triple Wingate tests.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert W; Snyder, Ann C; Dorman, Jason C

    2009-05-01

    Observations of athletes in seated and standing cycling positions in laboratory and field settings have led to the perception that they produce different outputs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power output and physiological responses between seated and standing positions of athletes during 3 consecutive Wingate tests. Seven (n = 7) elite-level speedskaters completed 3 x 30-second Wingate tests (resistance = 7.5% body weight) with 3.5 minutes of recovery between each test in both seated and standing positions. During the recovery period, athletes pedaled against no resistance in the seated position. Testing was randomized and separated by at least 48 hours. Power output, heart rate, blood lactate, and muscle oxygenation data were collected. Statistical analysis of comparable tests (i.e., seated Wingate test 1 [WinD1] compared with standing Wingate test 1 [WinU1]; WinD2:WinU2; WinD3:WinU3) revealed no significant differences between the seated and standing variables. Position during a short-duration maximal-effort exercise test on a stationary bike did not produce statistically different results in power, maximal heart rate, blood lactate, or muscle oxygenation. As no differences were detected between positions, practitioners can allow subjects to choose their position. Also, if a subject rises out of the seat during a "seated" test, this change may not affect the subject's physiological variables. However, transitioning from one position to the other during the test is not advised due to the possible chance of injury. It should be acknowledged that there may be reasons for stipulating one position over another (e.g., injuries, leg length).

  19. Pediatricians' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding car booster seats.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Faith; Stombaugh, Heather A; Jeffrey, James; LaPorte, Frankie B; Oswanski, Michael F

    2011-02-01

    Pediatricians are a recognized primary resource and advocate for injury prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine pediatricians' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding car booster seats and their willingness to use resources for parent education. Investigators implemented an anonymous, mailed survey to a national random sample of 1,041 US office-based pediatricians with 464 respondents: 53% female, 63% Caucasian, 52% parents of children under 12 years, and 87% board-certified. Fifty-two percent have counseled at least half of their families about booster seats. Sixty-nine percent rely on American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) resources for counseling, and 87% agreed that counseling parents improves child outcomes in a motor vehicle crash. Fifty-seven percent said there were no barriers to booster seat counseling; 39% did not counsel parents about booster seats unless it is the reason for the office visit. Forty-seven percent lacked the time to counsel, and 81% were confident they were counseling according to AAP guidelines. Twelve percent were unsure of their state's booster seat laws. Significant relationships were found between responses to knowledge questions and suburban location, gender, race, length of time in pediatric practice. Many pediatricians are not counseling their patients' parents on booster seats but believe counseling is important; many are confident in their counseling but do not rely on AAP-recognized counseling resources. Education about state booster seat laws and AAP guidelines may be useful in increasing the cues to action pediatricians convey to parents regarding booster seat use.

  20. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  1. Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark; Carlson, Lindsay L; Rees, Daniel I

    2017-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The importance of the seated condylar position in orthodontic correction.

    PubMed

    Cordray, Frank E

    2002-04-01

    It has been proposed that the discrepancy between the seated and unseated condylar position be identified and eliminated when the occlusion is reorganized. Identification of this discrepancy is most accurately accomplished through the use of diagnostic casts that have been taken from a deprogrammed patient and mounted in the seated condylar position on a semiadjustable articulator through an estimated facebow transfer. The amount and direction of any discrepancy is determined three dimensionally with condylar position instrumentation.

  3. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass of...

  4. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... withstand the following forces, in newtons, except for: a side-facing seat; a passenger seat on a bus other... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... shall not release or fail when a forward longitudinal force, in newtons, equal to 20 times the mass of...

  5. Optimal seat suspension design based on minimum "simulated subjective response".

    PubMed

    Wan, Y; Schimmels, J M

    1997-11-01

    This work addresses a method for improving vertical whole body vibration isolation through optimal seat suspension design. The primary thrusts of this investigation are: (1) the development of a simple model that captures the essential dynamics of a seated human exposed to vertical vibration, (2) the selection and evaluation of several standards for assessing human sensitivity to vertical vibration, and (3) the determination of the seat suspension parameters that minimize these standards to yield optimal vibration isolation. Results show that the optimal seat and cushion damping coefficients depend very much on the selection of the vibration sensitivity standard and on the lower bound of the stiffnesses used in the constrained optimization procedure. In all cases, however, the optimal seat damping obtained here is significantly larger (by than a factor of 10) than that obtained using existing seat suspension design methods or from previous optimal suspension studies. This research also indicates that the existing means of assessing vibration in suspension design (ISO 7096) requires modification.

  6. Influence of heating car seats on scrotal temperature.

    PubMed

    Jung, Andreas; Strauss, Philipp; Lindner, Hans-Joachim; Schuppe, Hans-Christian

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of a heated versus an unheated car seat on scrotal temperature under standardized experimental conditions. Controlled clinical study. Healthy volunteers in an academic research environment. Thirty volunteers without a history of infertility and with a normal andrological examination. Scrotal temperatures were measured every minute with a portable data recorder connected to two thermistor temperature sensors, which were attached on either side of the scrotum. All volunteers started the experiment at the same time of day wearing standardized cotton wool trousers and shirts fitting to body size. Each volunteer performed two periods of 90 minutes in a randomized manner on either the heated or unheated car seat. At the end of the sitting periods scrotal temperatures were significantly higher using the heated car seat versus the unheated seat (left scrotal side: 0.5 degrees C; right scrotal side: 0.6 degrees C). Maximum values recorded during sitting alone were exceeded on the heated seat already after one-third of the exposure time. The present study suggests that the frequent use of a heated car seat represents an additional scrotal, and consequently, testicular heat stress factor to that which is present by merely sitting for long periods.

  7. Preferred seat orientation of senior high-school students.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, N; Barrett, R; Gass, E

    2007-10-01

    The height of the front of the seat is the primary determinant of appropriate seat size in the school setting. In the present study, this dimension was fixed at 445 mm and, using a brief adjustment period, students adjusted the angle of the seat to their preferred rear seat height (PRSH) under three fixed and one adjustable desk height conditions and for one desk height, under two time conditions. PRSH was significantly greater at an 800 mm desk height (454+/-14 mm) compared to 735 mm (447+/-15 mm) and 720 mm (444+/-16 mm). When desk height as well as rear seat height were adjustable, PRSH was 446+/-15 mm and preferred desk height 751+/-25 mm. Taller students or those with larger popliteal heights selected lower PRSHs at all desk heights, with PRSH more strongly related to popliteal height (r = -0.54 to -0.59) than stature (r = -0.44 to -0.50). No differences were found in PRSH between short (<5 min) and long (30 min) adjustment periods for the 735 mm desk height. The nearly horizontal seat positions found in this study were between those recommended by other authors.

  8. Inappropriate use of infant seating devices increases risks of injury.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Marianne; Maugans, Todd; St-Vil, Dickens; Falcone, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiology and resulting injuries following falls sustained by infants seated in a variety of seating devices. A retrospective chart review of a cohort of infants less than 12 months old who presented to our institution from 1991 to 2010 after a fall from various seating devices was performed. Two hundred five infants were identified, including 146 patients who were admitted to our institution (1991-2010) and 59 patients who were seen and discharged from the ED (2008-2010). Mean age of admitted infants was younger (3.5 vs. 5.3 months). Two patients (1%) required surgery for a depressed skull fracture. Overall, 18% had an intra-cranial hemorrhage. More patients requiring an admission secondary to their injuries fell from a table or counter (42% vs. 27%). Falls sustained by children seated in a variety of devices are frequent. Failure to restrain children in seating devices or improperly placing them on a table/counter is associated with more significant injuries. In order to minimize such injuries, it is important to educate caregivers of the risk in utilizing such seating devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Condoms and seat belts: the parallels and the lessons.

    PubMed

    Richens, J; Imrie, J; Copas, A

    2000-01-29

    This paper investigates the relation between behavior adaptation and safety benefits of seat belts and whether condom promotion can be undermined by unintended changes in sexual risk perception and behavior. The comparison between 13 countries that passed seat belt laws and 4 countries without such laws shows a significant number of deaths among countries with seat belt laws. It has been suggested that drivers who wear seat belts feel safer and drive faster and more carelessly compared to those without seat belts. A model of individual risk management, postulating that every individual is comfortable with a certain level of risk and aims to balance the rewards of risk-taking against perceived hazards was developed to describe the behavior. This increase in seat belt use was then paralleled with condom use since the rise of HIV, with 3 ways in which a large increase in condom use could fail to affect transmission: 1) it appeals to risk-averse individuals who contribute little to epidemic transmission; 2) increased use of condom increases the number of transmission caused by condom failure; and 3) the increased use of condoms reflect the change in the decision of individuals from one partner to maintaining higher rates of partners and reliance on condoms. This paper, in conclusion, emphasizes the need for program development and implementation in response to this sexual behavior, particularly among developing countries.

  10. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  11. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance.

  12. Comprehensive Yet Scalable Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: A Collaborative Effort in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Braa, Jørn; Kanter, Andrew S.; Lesh, Neal; Crichton, Ryan; Jolliffe, Bob; Sæbø, Johan; Kossi, Edem; Seebregts, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate health information systems in low-income African countries in which technical infrastructure and human resources vary wildly within countries. We describe a set of tools to meet the needs of different service areas including managing aggregate indicators, patient level record systems, and mobile tools for community outreach. We present the case of Sierra Leone and use this case to motivate and illustrate an architecture that allows us to provide services at each level of the health system (national, regional, facility and community) and provide different configurations of the tools as appropriate for the individual area. Finally, we present a, collaborative implementation of this approach in Sierra Leone. PMID:21347003

  13. Comprehensive yet scalable health information systems for low resource settings: a collaborative effort in sierra leone.

    PubMed

    Braa, Jørn; Kanter, Andrew S; Lesh, Neal; Crichton, Ryan; Jolliffe, Bob; Sæbø, Johan; Kossi, Edem; Seebregts, Christopher J

    2010-11-13

    We address the problem of how to integrate health information systems in low-income African countries in which technical infrastructure and human resources vary wildly within countries. We describe a set of tools to meet the needs of different service areas including managing aggregate indicators, patient level record systems, and mobile tools for community outreach. We present the case of Sierra Leone and use this case to motivate and illustrate an architecture that allows us to provide services at each level of the health system (national, regional, facility and community) and provide different configurations of the tools as appropriate for the individual area. Finally, we present a, collaborative implementation of this approach in Sierra Leone.

  14. GR712RC- The Dual-Core LEON3FT System-on-Chip Avionics Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habinc, Sandi; Glembo, Kristoffer; Gaisler, Jiri

    2010-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler's GRLIB IP library [1][2] and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness. The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32-bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high-performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit. This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  15. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  16. Porting LEON3FT/GRLIB to 4th Generation Flash-Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jan; Habinc, Sandi; Prinetto, Paolo; Trotta, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Cobham Gaisler develops the LEON3FT SPARC V8 fault-tolerant microprocessor that is available both as IP cores part of an IP library (GRLIB) that allows users to design their own custom system-on-chip (SoC) designs, and also as part of ready-made designs and devices. Cobham Gaisler has recently added support for Microsemi IGLOO2, and experimental support for Microsemi radiation-tolerant RTG4, devices to GRLIB.

  17. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-04-19

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission.

  18. Natural law Judaism? The genesis of bioethics in Hans Jonas, Leo Strauss, and Leon Kass.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Leon Kass is much misunderstood. He is not simply a Republican ideologue who tailored his ideas to break out of the ivory tower and into the halls of power. Nor does he look simply to use human nature as a moral guide. When the full range of his writings is considered and set in the tradition of his teachers, Hans Jonas and Leo Strauss, what emerges is a natural law position colored by religious revelation.

  19. PDSparc: A Drop-In Replacement for LEON3 Written Using Synopsys Processor Designer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    processor that could be used to demonstrate and even productize novel system features for DoD applications. MIT LL chose Synopsys Processor Designer (PD...replacement for the LEON3 [4] variant of Sparc v8 processors. This paper is intended for an audience experienced in RTL system design and conversant in...processor system created to facilitate experimentation and customization of embedded processing for a wide variety of DoD applications. It is based on

  20. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease Linked to a Single Funeral - Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathryn G; Gibson, James J; Marke, Dennis; Caulker, Victor; Bomeh, John; Redd, John T; Bunga, Sudhir; Brunkard, Joan; Kilmarx, Peter H

    2016-03-04

    As of February 17, 2016, a total of 14,122 cases (62% confirmed) of Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) and 3,955 Ebola-related deaths had been reported in Sierra Leone since the epidemic in West Africa began in 2014. A key focus of the Ebola response in Sierra Leone was the promotion and implementation of safe, dignified burials to prevent Ebola transmission by limiting contact with potentially infectious corpses. Traditional funeral practices pose a substantial risk for Ebola transmission through contact with infected bodies, body fluids, contaminated clothing, and other personal items at a time when viral load is high; however, the role of funeral practices in the Sierra Leone epidemic and ongoing Ebola transmission has not been fully characterized. In September 2014, a sudden increase in the number of reported Ebola cases occurred in Moyamba, a rural and previously low-incidence district with a population of approximately 260,000. The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation and CDC investigated and implemented public health interventions to control this cluster of Ebola cases, including community engagement, active surveillance, and close follow-up of contacts. A retrospective analysis of cases that occurred during July 11-October 31, 2014, revealed that 28 persons with confirmed Ebola had attended the funeral of a prominent pharmacist during September 5-7, 2014. Among the 28 attendees with Ebola, 21 (75%) reported touching the man's corpse, and 16 (57%) reported having direct contact with the pharmacist before he died. Immediate, safe, dignified burials by trained teams with appropriate protective equipment are critical to interrupt transmission and control Ebola during times of active community transmission; these measures remain important during the current response phase.

  1. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  2. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    PubMed

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field.

  3. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  4. Rapid assessment of Ebola infection prevention and control needs--six districts, Sierra Leone, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Ishani; O'Connor, Katherine A; Adams, Monica L; Rao, Carol Y; Kilmarx, Peter H; Park, Benjamin J; Mermin, Jonathan; Kargbo, Brima; Wurie, Alie H; Clarke, Kevin R

    2014-12-12

    As of October 31, 2014, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation had reported 3,854 laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) since the outbreak began in May 2014; 199 (5.2%) of these cases were among health care workers. Ebola infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are essential to interrupt Ebola virus transmission and protect the health workforce, a population that is disproportionately affected by Ebola because of its increased risk of exposure yet is essential to patient care required for outbreak control and maintenance of the country's health system at large. To rapidly identify existing IPC resources and high priority outbreak response needs, an assessment by CDC Ebola Response Team members was conducted in six of the 14 districts in Sierra Leone, consisting of health facility observations and structured interviews with key informants in facilities and government district health management offices. Health system gaps were identified in all six districts, including shortages or absence of trained health care staff, personal protective equipment (PPE), safe patient transport, and standardized IPC protocols. Based on rapid assessment findings and key stakeholder input, priority IPC actions were recommended. Progress has since been made in developing standard operating procedures, increasing laboratory and Ebola treatment capacity and training the health workforce. However, further system strengthening is needed. In particular, a successful Ebola outbreak response in Sierra Leone will require an increase in coordinated and comprehensive district-level IPC support to prevent ongoing Ebola virus transmission in household, patient transport, and health facility settings.

  5. Analysis of water-surface profiles in Leon County and the city of Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, M.A.; Orr, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water surface profiles for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-yr recurrence interval floods for most of the streams that drain developing areas of Leon County and the city of Tallahassee are presented. The principal streams studied are in the Lake Munson, Lake Lafayette, and Lake Jackson basins Peak discharges were computed from regression equations based on information gained from 15 streamflow stations in the area. Standard step-backwater procedures were used to determine the water-surface elevations for the streams. The flood elevations were generally higher than those in the Flood Insurance Studies for Tallahassee (1976) and Leon County (1982). The primary reason for the higher profiles is that peak discharges used in this report are larger than those used previously, largely due to changes in land use. The flood profiles for Bradford Brook, North Branch Gum Creek, and West Branch Gum Creek generally match those in the Leon County Flood Insurance Studies. Channel improvements in some areas would lower the flood elevation in that area, but would probably increase flooding downstream. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Herbs and herbal combinations used to treat suspected malaria in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ansumana, Rashid; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Buanie, Jacob A G; Stenger, David A; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-05-26

    Most adults in West Africa treat acute febrile illnesses with local herbs, but the patterns of herbs used for malaria have not been recently described in Sierra Leone. We used a population-based cross-sectional approach to interview 810 randomly-sampled rural and urban adult residents of Bo, Sierra Leone, in December 2013 and January 2014 about their use of herbal remedies when they suspect they have malaria. In total, 55% of the participants reported taking one or more of seven herbs to treat symptoms of malaria. Among herb users, the most commonly used anti-malarial herbs were Moringa oleifera (moringa, 52%) and Sarcocephalus latifolius (yumbuyambay, 50%). The other herbs used included Senna siamea (shekutoure, 18%), Cassia sieberiana (gbangba, 18%), Uvaria afzelii (gone-botai, 14%), Morinda chrysorhiza (njasui, 14%), and Craterispermum laurinum (nyelleh, 7%). Combination herbal therapy was common, with 37% of herb users taking two or more herbs together when ill with suspected malaria. Indigenous medical knowledge about herbal remedies and combinations of local herbs remains an integral part of malaria case management in Sierra Leone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-06-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  9. LEON-BIS: multiple alignment evaluation of sequence neighbours using a Bayesian inference system.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutreve, Renaud; Kress, Arnaud; Legrand, Baptiste; Gass, Hélène; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D

    2016-07-07

    A standard procedure in many areas of bioinformatics is to use a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) as the basis for various types of homology-based inference. Applications include 3D structure modelling, protein functional annotation, prediction of molecular interactions, etc. These applications, however sophisticated, are generally highly sensitive to the alignment used, and neglecting non-homologous or uncertain regions in the alignment can lead to significant bias in the subsequent inferences. Here, we present a new method, LEON-BIS, which uses a robust Bayesian framework to estimate the homologous relations between sequences in a protein multiple alignment. Sequences are clustered into sub-families and relations are predicted at different levels, including 'core blocks', 'regions' and full-length proteins. The accuracy and reliability of the predictions are demonstrated in large-scale comparisons using well annotated alignment databases, where the homologous sequence segments are detected with very high sensitivity and specificity. LEON-BIS uses robust Bayesian statistics to distinguish the portions of multiple sequence alignments that are conserved either across the whole family or within subfamilies. LEON-BIS should thus be useful for automatic, high-throughput genome annotations, 2D/3D structure predictions, protein-protein interaction predictions etc.

  10. [Evaluation of the influenza a H1N1 vaccination in Castilla and Leon regions, Spain].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rubio, Alberto; Eiros Bouza, Jose María; Castrodeza Sanz, Jose Javier

    2010-10-16

    The recent approval of influenza A H1N1 monovalent vaccine has attracted considerable public health interest. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of vaccination campaign in Castilla y Leon. We have performed a descriptive analysis of the number of vaccines given in Castilla y Leon from November 16, 2009 to January 17, 2010, inside the designed campaign for that purpose. The total number of vaccines administered has been 116,243, 86,810 of which were from Focetria(®) which were administered to 3286 children under 18 years; 28,439 were from Pandemrix(®) and 994 from Panenza(®). The estimated vaccination coverage for all of the target groups has reached a percentage of 26.3% while the coverage achieved in pregnant women has been 4.7%. Of all the vaccines administered during this period, 82.2% were applied in the first month of the vaccination campaign. The introduction of pandemic vaccine in target groups of Castilla y Leon has been lower than expected, with a mismatch between the different health areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Socio-economic modelling of rotavirus vaccination in Castilla y Leon, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rubio, Alberto; Luquero, Francisco Javier; Eiros Bouza, Jose María; Castrodeza Sanz, Jose Javier; Bachiller Luque, Maria Rosario; de Lejarazu, Raúl Ortiz; Sánchez Porto, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Furthermore, rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization and death from acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. Although death due to rotavirus is rare in industrialized regions such as Spain, the rotavirus disease burden and its economic impact is severe. This study aims to assess systematic vaccination against rotavirus economically and socially in a Spanish region. Economic cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit assessment through a choice tree was designed. We estimated health provider costs, economic costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost due to rotavirus infections. The study includes a fictitious cohort of 100,000 children from Castilla y Leon who were also administered the rotavirus vaccine together with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) . The study adopted a society and health care system perspective. A sensitivity analysis was developed to assess the uncertainty of some variables. According to the estimated incidence rate for children in Castilla y Leon, rotavirus immunization is projected to prevent 45% of cases with RotaTeq and 57% with Rotarix. The respective cost per QALY is about Euro 75,000 and 50,000 from the perspective of the health care system. Routine infant vaccination in Castilla y Leon using either rotavirus vaccine is not profitable from the payer's perspective and is not cost-effective under basic case assumptions unless the vaccine is available at a lower cost.

  12. The use of seat belts in cars with smart seat belt reminders--results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2006-06-01

    Recently, smart seat belt reminders (SBR) have been introduced in cars. By increasingly reminding drivers and passengers if they are not using the seat belt, the intention is to increase the belt use to almost 100%. The objective was to study if there were differences in driver's seat belt use between cars with and without SBR. Drivers of cars with and without SBR were observed concerning seat belt use. The case (cars with SBR) and the control group (cars without SBR) were similar in all major aspects except SBR. In all, more than 3,000 drivers were observed in five cities in Sweden. In cars without SBR, 82.3 percent of the drivers used the seat belt, while in cars with SBR, the seat belt use was 98.9 percent. The difference was significant. In cars with mild reminders, the use was 93.0 percent. It is concluded, that if the results can be generalised to the whole car population this would have a dramatic impact on the number of fatally and seriously injured car occupants.

  13. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Seated Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Martin L.; Ross, Shane D.; Nussbaum, Maury A.

    2009-01-01

    Various methods have been used to quantify the kinematic variability or stability of the human spine. However, each of these methods evaluates dynamic behavior within the stable region of state space. In contrast, our goal was to determine the extent of the stable region. A 2D mathematical model was developed for a human sitting on an unstable seat apparatus (i.e., the “wobble chair”). Forward dynamic simulations were used to compute trajectories based on the initial state. From these trajectories, a scalar field of trajectory divergence was calculated, specifically a finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. Theoretically, ridges of local maxima within this field are expected to partition the state space into regions of qualitatively different behavior. We found that ridges formed at the boundary between regions of stability and failure (i.e., falling). The location of the basin of stability found using the FTLE field matched well with the basin of stability determined by an alternative method. In addition, an equilibrium manifold was found, which describes a set of equilibrium configurations that act as a low dimensional attractor in the controlled system. These simulations are a first step in developing a method to locate state space boundaries for torso stability. Identifying these boundaries may provide a framework for assessing factors that contribute to health risks associated with spinal injury and poor balance recovery (e.g., age, fatigue, load/weight and distribution). Furthermore, an approach is presented that can be adapted to find state space boundaries in other biomechanical applications. PMID:20018288

  15. Lift performance and lumbar loading in standing and seated lifts.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of posture on lifting performance. Twenty-three male soldiers lifted a loaded box onto a platform in standing and seated postures to determine their maximum lift capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Lift performance, trunk kinematics, lumbar loads, anthropometric and strength data were recorded. There was a significant main effect for lift effort but not for posture or the interaction. Effect sizes showed that lumbar compression forces did not differ between postures at lift initiation (Standing 5566.2 ± 627.8 N; Seated 5584.0 ± 16.0) but were higher in the standing posture (4045.7 ± 408.3 N) when compared with the seated posture (3655.8 ± 225.7 N) at lift completion. Anterior shear forces were higher in the standing posture at both lift initiation (Standing 519.4 ± 104.4 N; Seated 224.2 ± 9.4 N) and completion (Standing 183.3 ± 62.5 N; Seated 71.0 ± 24.2 N) and may have been a result of increased trunk flexion and a larger horizontal distance of the mass from the L5-S1 joint. Practitioner Summary: Differences between lift performance and lumbar forces in standing and seated lifts are unclear. Using a with-in subjects repeated measures design, we found no difference in lifted mass or lumbar compression force at lift initiation between standing and seated lifts.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in the Gambia and Sierra Leone, western Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Morcos; Setareh-Shenas, Saman; Robert Pixton, J; Soliman, Camelia; Czer, Lawrence SC; Ruzza, Andrea; Mirocha, James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africa, and may be associated with lower socio-economic status (SES). The prevalence of HTN is not well established in the Gambia or in Sierra Leone. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study of adults was conducted in the Gambia in 2000 and in Sierra Leone from 2001 to 2003 and in 2009. The study was conducted as part of the annual visit to countries in western Africa sponsored by a medical delegation from California. People from the Gambia and Sierra Leone were examined by the medical delegation and blood pressures were measured. Results A total of 2 615 adults were examined: 1 400 females and 1 215 males. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the females was 134.3 ± 29.7 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 84.5 ± 17.5 mmHg, and 46.2% were hypertensive. The mean SBP of the males was 132.8 ± 28.5 mmHg, mean DBP was 82.8 ± 16.2 mmHg, and 43.2% were hypertensive. Overall prevalence of HTN in the subjects was 44.8%. Mean SBP, mean DBP and HTN prevalence increased with age decade, both in males and females. In addition, after age adjustment (known age), females had higher mean SBP (p = 0.042), mean DBP (p = 0.001) and rate of occurrence of HTN (p = 0.016) when compared with males. Conclusions Prevalence rates of HTN in the Gambia and Sierra Leone were higher than 40% in males and females, and may be a major contributor to CVD in both countries. Due to the association of HTN with low SES, improvements in educational, public health, economic, non-governmental and governmental efforts in the Gambia and Sierra Leone may lead to a lower prevalence of HTN. The cause of the higher prevalence in women may be due to post-menopausal hormonal changes. PMID:25333811

  17. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    PubMed

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P <.01); 56% preferred CC and 44% preferred BP but the difference was not significant. In total, 81% wanted to have extra seat belts in their family car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further

  18. The influence of car-seat design on its character experience.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Irene

    2012-03-01

    Producing higher efficiency cars with less and lighter materials but without compromising safety, comfort and driving pleasure might give a competitive advantage. In this light, at BMW a new light weight car-seat concept was developed based on the human body contour. A possibility to increase the comfort is using a seat which elicits positive tactile experiences. However, limited information is available on seat characteristics and tactile experiences. Therefore, this study describes the contour of three different car-seat designs, including a light weight seat, and the recorded corresponding emotion and tactile experience of 21 persons sitting in the seats. Results show that the new light weight car-seat concept rated well on experienced relaxedness, even with the lack of a side support. The most important findings are that hard seats with rather high side supports are rated sporty and seats that are softer are rated more luxurious.

  19. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  20. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    PubMed

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  1. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  2. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  3. Variations in rear seat cushion properties and the effects on submarining.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of seating posture and seat cushion properties on submarining risk for rear seated children. An instrumented 6-year-old Hybrid III dummy restrained by an inertial-reel 3-point seat belt was subjected to simulated frontal impacts (Δv=28.8 km/h, peak acceleration=16 g). Dummy motion was captured using high-speed digital video. Head acceleration, neck loads, chest deflection, pelvic rotation, and femur displacement were used to assess submarining. Factors investigated included pre-impact seating posture, seat cushion length, stiffness of the seat cushion foam, and the inclination of the seat cushion. The most severe submarining was observed when the dummy was seated in a slouched posture where pelvic rotation was over 3 times greater than in the upright seating posture. Though the standard seat cushion with the dummy seated in the upright posture recorded the lowest values of pelvic rotation and femur displacement, it is unlikely that a child will sit in such a posture. The shortened seat cushion increased femur displacement by 19 percent compared to the standard test seat, but it offers good pre-impact belt position. Submarining occurred in cases where the front edge of the seat collapsed during interactions with the dummy's buttocks. These data suggest that shortening the rear seat cushion alone will not necessarily prevent submarining, but this does allow improved seated posture of the occupant, thus reducing submarining risk. This study has also shown that the collapse of the front edge of the seat cushion is a critical factor in submarining risk.

  4. Adaptive control of an active seat for occupant vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zengkang; Hillis, Andrew J.; Darling, Jocelyn

    2015-08-01

    The harmful effects on human performance and health caused by unwanted vibration from vehicle seats are of increasing concern. This paper presents an active seat system to reduce the vibration level transmitted to the seat pan and the occupants' body under low frequency periodic excitation. Firstly, the detail of the mechanical structure is given and the active seat dynamics without external load are characterized by vibration transmissibility and frequency responses under different excitation forces. Owing the nonlinear and time-varying behaviour of the proposed system, a Filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive control algorithm with on-line Fast-block LMS (FBLMS) identification process is employed to manage the system operation for high vibration cancellation performance. The effectiveness of the active seat system is assessed through real-time experimental tests using different excitation profiles. The system identification results show that an accurate estimation of the secondary path is achieved by using the FBLMS on-line technique. Substantial reduction is found for cancelling periodic vibration containing single and multiple frequencies. Additionally, the robustness and stability of the control system are validated through transient switching frequency tests.

  5. Optimization of nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Mahesh P; Vikhe Patil, Gahininath J; Zaware Patil, Rahul N

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV) at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force. ISO 2631-1 standard was adopted to assess ride and health criterions. Suspension spring stiffness and damping and seat cushion stiffness and damping are the design variables. Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization - Crowding Distance (MOPSO-CD) algorithm are implemented for optimization. Simulation result shows that optimum design improves ride comfort and health criterion over classical design variables.

  6. Statistical Signature of Deep-seated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Belmont, P.; Mackey, B. H.; Fuller, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the statistical signature of deep-seated landslides using basin wide topographic data and flowpath arrangement and explore the extent to which these globally derived signatures can be used to locally map landslides. We used directed distance from the divide, which accounts for the distance traveled along flowpaths starting from significant ridgelines, as a scale parameter and demonstrate that local slope vs. directed distance and curvature vs. local slope offer powerful means for identifying the presence of landslides in a landscape. By exploring a threshold on the probability distribution of local slopes conditional on directed distance we show that mapping of landslide features is possible. We apply the methodology to three 0.5 to 2.5 km2 watersheds in northern California and document three regions of distinct geomorphic signatures [Gangodagamage et al., 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009252]. In region A, hillslope gradient increases with distance from the divide and flowpaths are divergent or parallel. Region B corresponds to the zone with highly convergent flowpaths and exhibits the strongest signal of landslide related features. Region C is a moderately convergent zone that transitions into the fluvial channel network. Next, we use specific quantiles of the probability density function of local slopes conditioned on directed distance from the divide to map individual landslide features. This analysis allows us to explore the 3D morphometry of the landslide affected basins and to develop a supervised set of ensemble templates for landslides as a function of local slope vs. directed distance (DD) relationship. Then we use this template and demonstrate that the landslide affected basins can be identified by iterative matching the landslide signature template with the basin wide signatures of the tributary basins in the South Fork Eel River, CA. Finally, we perform a multiscale analysis of the contributing area parameterized by directed

  7. Using multiple imputation and propensity scores to test the effect of car seats and seat belt usage on injury severity from trauma registry data.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Groner, Jonathan I

    2008-05-01

    Missing data and the retrospective, nonrandomized nature of trauma registries can decrease the quality of registry-based research. Therefore, we used multiple imputation and propensity scores to test the effect of car seats and seat belt usage on injury severity in children involved in motor vehicle crashes. All children admitted after injury from motor vehicle crashes who had complete data on seat belt or car seat usage from 2003 to 2006 were included in the study. The sample was divided into children younger than 4 years (n = 130) or 5 years or older (n = 575) and analyzed for seat belt usage, car seat usage, injury severity score, revised trauma score, and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Data were analyzed before and after matching on propensity scores after multiple imputation. There were no outcome differences between car seat users and non-car seat users. However, there were significant improvements in injury severity score (7.0 vs. 10.1, P = .002) and revised trauma score (7.6 vs 7.3, P = .013 for seat belt users compared to nonusers) even after matching on propensity score. Multiple imputation and propensity scores demonstrated the efficacy of seat belts, but not car seat in this preliminary study. This statistical method can strengthen registry-based research.

  8. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber s insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  9. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  10. Seat Belt Compression Appendicitis following Motor Vehicle Collision

    PubMed Central

    Zia Ullah, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis and trauma both present in emergency department commonly but their presentation together in the same patient is unusual. We present a case of a middle-aged man brought by emergency medical services (EMS) to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain after he was involved in motor vehicle collision. He was perfectly fine before the accident. His primary survey was normal. Secondary survey revealed tenderness in right iliac fossa with seat belt mark overlying it. Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed which showed 8 mm thickening of appendix with minimal adjacent fat stranding. There is also subcutaneous fat stranding of anterior lower abdominal wall possibly due to bruising. Impression of posttraumatic seat belt compression appendicitis was made. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done and patient recovered uneventfully. Histopathology showed inflamed appendix, proving it to be a case of seat belt compression appendicitis. PMID:28337350

  11. Seat Belt Compression Appendicitis following Motor Vehicle Collision.

    PubMed

    Khilji, Muhammad Faisal; Zia Ullah, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis and trauma both present in emergency department commonly but their presentation together in the same patient is unusual. We present a case of a middle-aged man brought by emergency medical services (EMS) to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain after he was involved in motor vehicle collision. He was perfectly fine before the accident. His primary survey was normal. Secondary survey revealed tenderness in right iliac fossa with seat belt mark overlying it. Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed which showed 8 mm thickening of appendix with minimal adjacent fat stranding. There is also subcutaneous fat stranding of anterior lower abdominal wall possibly due to bruising. Impression of posttraumatic seat belt compression appendicitis was made. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done and patient recovered uneventfully. Histopathology showed inflamed appendix, proving it to be a case of seat belt compression appendicitis.

  12. Physics-based seated posture prediction for pregnant women and validation considering ground and seat pan contacts.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bradley; Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, Jingzhou James

    2012-07-01

    An understanding of human seated posture is important across many fields of scientific research. Certain demographics, such as pregnant women, have special postural limitations that need to be considered. Physics-based posture prediction is a tool in which seated postures can be quickly and thoroughly analyzed, as long the predicted postures are realistic. This paper proposes and validates an optimization formulation to predict seated posture for pregnant women considering ground and seat pan contacts. For the optimization formulation, the design variables are joint angles (posture); the cost function is dependent on joint torques. Constraints include joint limits, joint torque limits, the distances from the end-effectors to target points, and self-collision avoidance constraints. Three different joint torque cost functions have been investigated to account for the special postural characteristics of pregnant women and consider the support reaction forces (SRFs) associated with seated posture. Postures are predicted for three different reaching tasks in common reaching directions using each of the objective function formulations. The predicted postures are validated against experimental postures obtained using motion capture. A linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the validity of the predicted postures and was the criteria for comparison between the different objective functions. A 56 degree of freedom model was used for the posture prediction. Use of the objective function minimizing the maximum normalized joint torque provided an R² value of 0.828, proving superior to either of two alternative functions.

  13. Rear seat safer: seating position, restraint use and injuries in children in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Siskind, Vic; Haworth, Narelle

    2008-03-01

    Car crashes are a major cause of death and serious injury to children but most analyses of risk are based on US data. The Australian context is different in at least three ways: (1) the proportion of passenger-side airbags, a potential risk to children in front seats, is much lower; (2) unlike in the US, Australian airbags are designed to work with restrained passengers; (3) restraint use for children 0-12 years is high (>90%). Official data drawn from Victorian crash records (n=30,631) were used to calculate relative risks of death or serious injury for children (0-3 years, 4-7 years; 8-12 years) traveling in passenger cars during 1993-1998 and 1999-2004. Over 90% were reportedly wearing a restraint, and 20% were traveling in the front seat. For children under 4 years traveling in the front seat, the relative risk of death was twice as great as when traveling in the rear, and that of serious injury was 60% greater. The relative risk of death whilst traveling in the front seat was almost four times greater for children aged under 1 year. We suggest that serious consideration should be given to mandating rear seating for children, particularly those aged 4 and under.

  14. The Children's War: Towards Peace in Sierra Leone. A Field Report Assessing the Protection and Assistance Needs of Sierra Leonean Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    Based on a 3-week field visit to Sierra Leone and Guinea, this report investigates why children (ages 0-17) have become key figures in Sierra Leone's civil war, and explores the problems that war has caused them. The report describes significant new effects of violence on three groups of Sierra Leonean children, very few of whom have received any…

  15. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  16. Catalytic Layer Makes Aircraft Seats More Fire Retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1987-01-01

    Specially constructed cushion retards fires in aircraft seats through action of catalytic matrix that cracks flammable gaseous decomposition products to less flammable species. Improved cushion contributes substantially to fire safety without adding significantly to weight or to manufacturing cost. In this fire-blocking covering for an aircraft seat cushion, flammable pyrolysis products cracked to less flammable species by catalytic layer covering foam core of cushion. Aluminum foil holds in pyrolysis vapors to promote catalysis and prevent spread of fire by ignition of released vapors.

  17. Catalytic Layer Makes Aircraft Seats More Fire Retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1987-01-01

    Specially constructed cushion retards fires in aircraft seats through action of catalytic matrix that cracks flammable gaseous decomposition products to less flammable species. Improved cushion contributes substantially to fire safety without adding significantly to weight or to manufacturing cost. In this fire-blocking covering for an aircraft seat cushion, flammable pyrolysis products cracked to less flammable species by catalytic layer covering foam core of cushion. Aluminum foil holds in pyrolysis vapors to promote catalysis and prevent spread of fire by ignition of released vapors.

  18. Optimization of Semi-active Seat Suspension with Magnetorheological Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segla, Stefan; Kajaste, J.; Keski-Honkola, P.

    The paper deals with modeling, control and optimization of semiactive seat suspension with pneumatic spring and magnetorheological damper. The main focus is on isolating vertical excitation from the cabin of a bucket-wheel excavator in order to protect the excavator driver against harmful vibration. Three different control algorithms are used to determine the desired semi-active damping force: skyhook control, balance control and combination of balance and skyhook controls. The dynamic behavior of the semi-active system is optimized using genetic algorithms. As the objective function the effective value of the seat (sprung mass) acceleration is used.

  19. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  20. A plan for community event-based surveillance to reduce Ebola transmission - Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sam; Hertz, Darren; Maenner, Matt; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Baker, Pieter; Lash, R Ryan; Klena, John; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Williams, Candice; Jonnie, Gabriel T; Gorina, Yelena; Anderson, Alicia; Saffa, Gbessay; Carr, Dana; Tuma, Jude; Miller, Laura; Turay, Alhajie; Belay, Ermias

    2015-01-30

    Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 and was likely introduced into the eastern part of the country from Guinea. The disease spread westward, eventually affecting Freetown, Sierra Leone's densely populated capital. By December 2014, Sierra Leone had more Ebola cases than Guinea and Liberia, the other two West African countries that have experienced widespread transmission. As the epidemic intensified through the summer and fall, an increasing number of infected persons were not being detected by the county's surveillance system until they had died. Instead of being found early in the disease course and quickly isolated, these persons remained in their communities throughout their illness, likely spreading the disease.

  1. Comparison of social resistance to Ebola response in Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests explanations lie in political configurations not culture

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Annie; Fairhead, James

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Leone and Guinea share broadly similar cultural worlds, straddling the societies of the Upper Guinea Coast with Islamic West Africa. There was, however, a notable difference in their reactions to the Ebola epidemic. As the epidemic spread in Guinea, acts of violent or everyday resistance to outbreak control measures repeatedly followed, undermining public health attempts to contain the crisis. In Sierra Leone, defiant resistance was rarer. Instead of looking to ‘culture’ to explain patterns of social resistance (as was common in the media and in the discourse of responding public health authorities) a comparison between Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests that explanations lie in divergent political practice and lived experiences of the state. In particular the structures of state authority through which the national epidemic response were organised integrated very differently with trusted institutions in each country. Predicting and addressing social responses to epidemic control measures should assess such political-trust configurations when planning interventions. PMID:28366999

  2. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  3. Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi-Gang; Shi, Wei-Feng; Liu, Di; Qian, Jun; Liang, Long; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hong-Guang; Fan, Hang; Ni, Ming; Sun, Yang; Jin, Yuan; Teng, Yue; Li, Zhen; Kargbo, David; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Chen, Cheng-Chao; Lan, Zhi-Heng; Jiang, Hui; Luo, Yang; Lu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Fan; Hu, Yi; Cao, Yu-Xi; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Su, Hao-Xiang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Wen-Sen; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Bu, Zhao-Yang; Guo, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, Liu-Bo; Nie, Wei-Min; Bai, Chang-Qing; Sun, Chun-Hua; An, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Pei-Song; Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan; Huang, Yong; Mi, Zhi-Qiang; Yu, Dong; Yao, Hong-Wu; Feng, Yong; Xia, Zhi-Ping; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Yang, Song-Tao; Lu, Bing; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Kargbo, Brima; He, Fu-Chu; Gao, George F; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-08-06

    A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 × 10(-3) to 1.41 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics.

  4. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  5. Traumatic Injuries in Developing Countries: Report from a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Groen, Reinou S.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Farahzard, Mina; Samai, Mohamed; Yambasu, Sahr E.; Cassidy, Laura D.; Kushner, Adam L.; Wren, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the tremendous disability and mortality caused by traumatic injuries worldwide, there is a relative dearth of information on the burden of injuries in developing countries. In an effort to document the surgical burden of disease in Sierra Leone, a nationwide survey was conducted utilizing the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. Here, we report the injury data from this study with the aim to (1) provide an estimate of injury prevalence, (2) determine the mechanisms of injury, and (3) evaluate the degree of injury related deaths. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in Sierra Leone in 2012. Participants were selected using a two-stage random sampling method, which generated a target population of 3750 participants across the 14 districts of Sierra Leone. Frequency distributions of mechanisms of injury based on age, sex, and urban versus rural residence were computed, and bivariate logistic regression models used to determine associations between sociodemographic factors and injury patterns. Results Data was analyzed from 1,843 households and 3,645 respondents, representing a response rate of 98.3%. Four hundred and fifty-two respondents (12.4%) reported at least one traumatic injury in the preceding year. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, accounting for over 40% of injuries. The extremities were most commonly injured (55% of injuries) regardless of age or sex. Although motor vehicle related injuries were the 4th most common cause of injury overall, they were the leading cause of injury related deaths, accounting for almost 6% of fatal injuries. Conclusion This study provides baseline data on the burden of traumatic injuries in one of the world's poorest nations. In addition to injury prevention measures, immediate strategies to address current healthcare deficits are urgently needed in these resource poor areas. This report is an Original Article with Level I evidence. PMID:23325317

  6. [Epidemiology of Campylobacteriosis in Castile and Leon, Spain,during the period 2008-2015].

    PubMed

    Berradre-Sáenz, Belén; Yáñez-Ortega, José Luis; García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero-Gil, Beatriz; Rovira-Carballido, Jordi; Carramiñana-Martínez, Isabel; Tejero-Encinas, Silvia; Ruiz-Sopeña, Cristina; Fernández-Arribas, Socorro

    2017-03-30

    Campylobacter is considered the most frequent agent of gastroenteritis in humans all around the world. The aim of this study was to know the incidence, trend and seasonality of notified campylobacteriosis cases in Castile and Leon, Spain, from 2008 to 2015. In addition, to describe the type of case and source of notification, and study the influence of age, sex and Campylobacter species on the hospitalization of cases. Retrospective cross-sectional study with a time series analysis. Data on notified campylobacteriosis cases were collected from the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Castile and Leon (2008-2015). Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios by age, sex and year of notification were calculated. In order to estimate trend and seasonality, a time series analysis was performed using a multiplicative method and adjusted to a linear and exponential model. From 4,330 cases analyzed, 49.4% of children aged under 5 were affected. The ratio of men to women was 1.43 and 61.8% of cases were notified from secondary care. C. jejuni was isolated from 72.3% of samples (n=2,593). Incidence rate ranged from 11.42 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2008 to 33.53 in 2015. The seasonality range was from 71.97% (13th four-week period) to 125.54% (9th four-week period). Hospitalization reached 62.5% for people aged 60 or over. A growing trend of notified campylobacteriosis cases is observed in Castile and Leon (2008-2015), mainly in children aged under 5, with a peak in summer months. Males are more affected than females and hospitalization increases with age.

  7. Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Cepek, P.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the Tertiary section on Sierra Leone Rise off northwest Africa consists of chalk, marl, and limestone that show cyclic alterations of clay-rich and clay-poor beds about 20-60 cm thick. On the basis of biostratigraphic accumulation rates, the cycles in Oligocene and Miocene chalk have periods which average about 44,000 years, and those in Eocene siliceous limestone have periods of 4000-27,000 years. Several sections were sampled in detail to further define the cycles in terms of content of CaCO3, clay minerals, and relative abundances of calcareous nannofossils. Extending information gained by analyses of Pleistocene cores from the continental margin of northwest Africa to the Tertiary cycles on Sierra Leone Rise, both dilution by noncarbonate material and dissolution of CaCO3 could have contributed to the observed relative variations in clay and CaCO3. However, dissolution of CaCO3 as the main cause of the carbonate-clay cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, rather than dilution by clay, is suggested by the large amount of change (several thousand percent) in terrigenous influx required to produce the observed variations in amount of clay and by the marked increase in abundance of dissolution-resistant discoasters relative to more easily dissolved coccoliths in low-carbonate parts of cycles. The main cause of dissolution of CaCO3 was shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the early Neogene and climatically induced fluctuations in the thickness of Antarctic Bottom Water. ?? 1981.

  8. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  9. Gross Hematuria and Urinary Retention among Men from a Nationally Representative Survey in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Kamara, Thaim B; Kushner, Adam L; Groen, Reinou S; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of gross hematuria and urinary retention among men in Sierra Leone and report on barriers to care and associated disability. Gross hematuria and urinary retention are classic urologic complaints that require medical attention for significant underlying pathology, but their burden has not been quantified in a developing country. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey was administered in Sierra Leone using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical need tool as a verbal head-to-toe examination. A total of 2 respondents in each of 25 households in 75 clusters were surveyed to assess surgical needs. Data on questions related to blood from the penis and the inability to urinate for men >12 years of age were included in the present analysis to determine the period and point prevalence of hematuria and urinary retention. Results From 3645 total respondents, 1054 (28.9%) were men >12 years old included in the analysis. Period and point prevalence of gross hematuria were 21.8 per 1,000 (95%CI 13.0-30.7) and 12.3 per 1,000 (95%CI 5.7-19.0), respectively, and for urinary retention they were 19.9 per 1,000 (95%CI 11.5-28.4) and 4.7 per 1,000 (95%CI 0.5-8.9), respectively. Lack of financial resources was the major barrier to care. Disability assessment showed 19.1% were not able to work as a result of urinary retention and 34.8% felt ashamed of their gross hematuria. Conclusions The results provide a prevalence estimate of gross hematuria and urinary retention for men in Sierra Leone. Accessible medical and surgical care will be critical for early intervention and management. PMID:24726148

  10. Technical efficiency of peripheral health units in Pujehun district of Sierra Leone: a DEA application.

    PubMed

    Renner, Ade; Kirigia, Joses M; Zere, Eyob A; Barry, Saidou P; Kirigia, Doris G; Kamara, Clifford; Muthuri, Lenity H K

    2005-12-14

    The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been fruitfully used in many countries in Asia, Europe and North America to shed light on the efficiency of health facilities and programmes. There is, however, a dearth of such studies in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since hospitals and health centres are important instruments in the efforts to scale up pro-poor cost-effective interventions aimed at achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, decision-makers need to ensure that these health facilities provide efficient services. The objective of this study was to measure the technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. This study applied the Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the TE and SE among a sample of 37 PHUs in Sierra Leone. Twenty-two (59%) of the 37 health units analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average score of 63% (standard deviation = 18%). On the other hand, 24 (65%) health units were found to be scale inefficient, with an average scale efficiency score of 72% (standard deviation = 17%). It is concluded that with the existing high levels of pure technical and scale inefficiency, scaling up of interventions to achieve both global and regional targets such as the MDG and Abuja health targets becomes far-fetched. In a country with per capita expenditure on health of about USD 7, and with only 30% of its population having access to health services, it is demonstrated that efficiency savings can significantly augment the government's initiatives to cater for the unmet health care needs of the population. Therefore, we strongly recommend that Sierra Leone and all other countries in the Region should institutionalize health facility efficiency monitoring at the Ministry of Health headquarter (MoH/HQ) and at each health district headquarter.

  11. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  12. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Sierra Leone from a nationwide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Samai, Mohamed; Farahzad, Mina M; Cassidy, Laura D; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large number of unrepaired inguinal hernias is expected in sub-Saharan Africa where late presentation often results in incarceration, strangulation, or giant scrotal hernias. However, no representative population-based data is available to quantify the prevalence of hernias. We present data on groin masses in Sierra Leone to estimate prevalence, barriers to care, and associated disability. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey of 75 clusters of 25 households with 2 respondents each was designed to calculate the prevalence of and disability caused by groin hernias in Sierra Leone using a verbal head-to-toe examination. Barriers to hernia repairs were assessed by asking participants the main reason for delay in surgical care. Results Information was obtained from 3645 respondents in 1843 households, of which 1669 (46%) were male and included in the study. In total, 117 males or 7.01% (95% CI 5.64-8.38) reported a soft or reducible swelling likely representing a hernia with four men having two masses. Of the 93.2% who indicated the need for health care, only 22.2% underwent a procedure, citing limited funds (59.0%) as the major barrier to care. On disability assessment, 20.2% were not able to work secondary to the groin swelling. Conclusions The results indicate groin masses represent a major burden for the male population in Sierra Leone. Improving access to surgical care for adult patients with hernias and early intervention for children will be vital to address the burden of disease and prevent complications or limitations of daily activity. PMID:24241327

  13. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    PubMed

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  14. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers. Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just ‘business as normal’. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  15. Clinical Illness and Outcomes in Patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Schieffelin, J.S.; Shaffer, J.G.; Goba, A.; Gbakie, M.; Gire, S.K.; Colubri, A.; Sealfon, R.S.G.; Kanneh, L.; Moigboi, A.; Momoh, M.; Fullah, M.; Moses, L.M.; Brown, B.L.; Andersen, K.G.; Winnicki, S.; Schaffner, S.F.; Park, D.J.; Yozwiak, N.L.; Jiang, P.-P.; Kargbo, D.; Jalloh, S.; Fonnie, M.; Sinnah, V.; French, I.; Kovoma, A.; Kamara, F.K.; Tucker, V.; Konuwa, E.; Sellu, J.; Mustapha, I.; Foday, M.; Yillah, M.; Kanneh, F.; Saffa, S.; Massally, J.L.B.; Boisen, M.L.; Branco, L.M.; Vandi, M.A.; Grant, D.S.; Happi, C.; Gevao, S.M.; Fletcher, T.E.; Fowler, R.A.; Bausch, D.G.; Sabeti, P.C.; Khan, S.H.; Garry, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. METHODS We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P = 0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P = 0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded

  16. Technical efficiency of peripheral health units in Pujehun district of Sierra Leone: a DEA application

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ade; Kirigia, Joses M; Zere, Eyob A; Barry, Saidou P; Kirigia, Doris G; Kamara, Clifford; Muthuri, Lenity HK

    2005-01-01

    Background The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been fruitfully used in many countries in Asia, Europe and North America to shed light on the efficiency of health facilities and programmes. There is, however, a dearth of such studies in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since hospitals and health centres are important instruments in the efforts to scale up pro-poor cost-effective interventions aimed at achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, decision-makers need to ensure that these health facilities provide efficient services. The objective of this study was to measure the technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. Methods This study applied the Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the TE and SE among a sample of 37 PHUs in Sierra Leone. Results Twenty-two (59%) of the 37 health units analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average score of 63% (standard deviation = 18%). On the other hand, 24 (65%) health units were found to be scale inefficient, with an average scale efficiency score of 72% (standard deviation = 17%). Conclusion It is concluded that with the existing high levels of pure technical and scale inefficiency, scaling up of interventions to achieve both global and regional targets such as the MDG and Abuja health targets becomes far-fetched. In a country with per capita expenditure on health of about US$7, and with only 30% of its population having access to health services, it is demonstrated that efficiency savings can significantly augment the government's initiatives to cater for the unmet health care needs of the population. Therefore, we strongly recommend that Sierra Leone and all other countries in the Region should institutionalise health facility efficiency monitoring at the Ministry of Health headquarter (MoH/HQ) and at each health district headquarter. PMID:16354299

  17. 75 FR 66064 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... for Conservation; and alternates seats for Whalewatching, Education, At-Large and Mobile Gear... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Extension of Application Period for Seats for the... of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of extension for application period and request for...

  18. The effect of rear-seat overloading in a car crash: pathological and kinematics evidences.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Duccio; Sammicheli, Michele; Cortucci, Cristiano

    2013-09-01

    Seat belts have been shown to decrease the incidence of lethal lesions to the head, chest, and abdomen. Since the introduction of seat belts, it is reported that the incidence of traumatic lesions in these body parts is reduced. In the meantime, the characteristic lesions to the chest and abdomen caused by the use of seat belts are described (J Trauma. 2007;62(6):1473-1480).Reported is a peculiar case of an oblique front-to-rear car collision, in which overloading of the rear seat with packages pushed forward the passenger front seat in an abnormal way, causing fatal thoracic and abdominal lesions.The authors underline that the seat belt protection device is defeated if front seats are damaged by heavy unanchored bags on the rear seat or on the rear parcel shelf of a motor vehicle.

  19. 78 FR 20297 - Availability of Seats for the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... vacant seats on the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council:...

  20. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.