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Sample records for propellant production plant

  1. In-Situ Propellant Production on Mars: A Sabatier/Electrolysis Demonstration Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient, reliable propellant production plant has been developed for use on Mars. Using a Sabatier reactor in conjunction with a water electrolysis system, a complete demonstration plant has produced methane and liquid oxygen from simulated Martian atmosphere. The production plant has demonstrated high efficiency, extended duration production and autonomous operations. This paper presents the results and conclusions relating to eventual use in a Mars sample return mission. This work was funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The production plant was built and tested at the Propulsion Center of Lockheed Martin at the Denver Colorado facility.

  2. Microreactor System Design for a NASA In Situ Propellant Production Plant on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TeGrotenhuis, W. E.; Wegeng, R. S.; Vanderwiel, D. P.; Whyatt, G. A.; Viswanathan, V. V.; Schielke, K. P.; Sanders, G. B.; Peters, T. A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program is planning near-term missions to Mars that will include chemical processes for converting the carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly water from the Martian environment to propellants, oxygen, and other useful chemicals. The use of indigenous resources reduces the size and weight of the payloads from Earth significantly, representing enormous cost savings that make human exploration of Mars affordable. Extraterrestrial chemical processing plants will need to be compact, lightweight, highly efficient under reduced gravity, and extraordinarily reliable for long periods. Microchemical and thermal systems represent capability for dramatic reduction in size and weight, while offering high reliability through massive parallelization. In situ propellant production (ISPP), one aspect of the ISRU program, involves collecting and pressurizing atmospheric CO2, conversion reactions, chemical separations, heat exchangers, and cryogenic storage. A preliminary system design of an ISPP plant based on microtechnology has demonstrated significant size, weight, and energy efficiency gains over the current NASA baseline. Energy management is a strong driver for Mars-based processes, not only because energy is a scarce resource, but because heat rejection is problematic; the low pressure environment makes convective heat transfer ineffective. Energy efficiency gains are largely achieved in the microchemical plant through extensive heat recuperation and energy cascading, which has a small size and weight penalty because the added micro heat exchangers are small. This leads to additional size and weight gains by reducing the required area of waste heat radiators. The microtechnology-based ISPP plant is described in detail, including aspects of pinch analysis for optimizing the heat exchanger network. Three options for thermochemical compression Of CO2 from the Martian atmosphere, adsorption, absorption, and cryogenic freezing, are presented

  3. Models of an In-Situ Propellant Production Plant for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Charlie; Kurien, James; Millar, Bill; Sweet, Adam; Waterman, Sue; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An in-situ propellant production system (ISPP) is designed to make rocket fuel from chemicals in the Martian atmosphere in order to reduce the amount of materials that would need to be brought from Earth to support Mars missions. We have developed a description of a hypothetical ISPP system that we would like to make available to researchers who are interested in the problem of automatically diagnosing failures in complex NASA systems. This problem description will help researchers to investigate problems of interest to NASA. We would like to make the following material publicly available: (1) a 'common sense' model of an ISPP system; (2) low- and medium-fidelity simulations of the ISPP system written in Microsoft Excel and HCC; and (3) previously published data and diagrams concerning ISPP components. We do not believe there are any export considerations on these materials for the following reasons: (1) These models are not useful for guidance and real time control of vehicles, encrpytion, or any other software purpose categorized under the Export Control Classification Numbers; and (2) The models are very high level and would not by themselves enable real-time control of a real hardware system. The models are at the level of common sense. They capture, for example, that if a heater is turned on an increase in temperature should result(see the attached excerpt). We do not believe there is any commercial value to this material, given the low commercial demand for propellant plants on mars. We have spoken to acting Code IC Division Chief Dan Clancy, and he concurs with our desire to make these materials publicly available via a technical report.

  4. Mars ISPP Precursor (MIP): The First Flight Demonstration of In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David

    1997-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified in-situ propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. The Mars reference mission concept predeploys a robotic propellant production plant to the planet two years before the planned departure of the crew from Earth. The successful operation of this plant is necessary for the human journey to begin.

  5. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  6. Options for Martian propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

  7. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H20/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  8. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx.8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H2O/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  9. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllectorPrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methaneoxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO(sub 2) is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a H(sub 2)CO(sub 2) recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO(sub 2) hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO(sub 2) freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH(sub 4) hr and 71.3 g H(sub 2)O hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH(sub 2)O(sub 2) propellant per 14 hr day (including O(sub 2) from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H(sub 2) for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASAs new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  10. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, A.; Devor, R.; Captain, J.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methaneoxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx. 8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO(sub 2) is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a H(sub 2)CO(sub 2) recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO(sub 2) hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO(sub 2) freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH(sub 4) hr and 71.3 g H(sub 2)O hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH(sub 2)O(sub 2) propellant per 14 hr day (including O(sub 2) from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H(sub 2) for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASAs new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  11. In-Space Propellant Production Using Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William; Johnson, Wesley; Swanger, Adam; McQuade, William

    2012-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Manned exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space, and larger science mission directorate payloads can be delivered using cryogenic propulsion stages. Several architecture studies have shown that in-space cryogenic propulsion depots offer benefits including lower launch costs, smaller launch vehicles, and enhanced mission flexibility. NASA is currently planning a Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) technology demonstration mission that will use existing technology to demonstrate long duration storage, acquisition, mass gauging, and transfer of liquid hydrogen in low Earth orbit. This mission will demonstrate key technologies, but the CPST architecture is not designed for optimal mission operations for a true propellant depot. This paper will consider cryogenic propellant depots that are designed for operability. The operability principles considered are reusability, commonality, designing for the unique environment of space, and use of active control systems, both thermal and fluid. After considering these operability principles, a proposed depot architecture will be presented that uses water launch and on orbit electrolysis and liquefaction. This could serve as the first true space factory. Critical technologies needed for this depot architecture, including on orbit electrolysis, zero-g liquefaction and storage, rendezvous and docking, and propellant transfer, will be discussed and a developmental path forward will be presented. Finally, use of the depot to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate exploration goals will be presented.

  12. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2005-09-01

    An in situ propellant production (ISPP) plant on future Mars robotic missions can produce oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) that can be used for propellant for the return voyage. By producing propellants from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) brought from Earth, the initial mass launched in low Earth orbit can be reduced by 20% to 45%, as compared to carrying all of the propellant for a round-trip mission to the Mars surface from Earth. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used microchannel architecture to develop a Mars-based In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system. This three year research and development effort focused on process intensification and system miniaturization of three primary subsystems: a thermochemical compressor, catalytic reactors, and components for separating gas phases from liquid phases. These systems were designed based on a robotic direct return mission scenario, but can be scaled up to human flight missions by simply numbering up the microchannel devices. The thermochemical compression was developed both using absorption and adsorption. A multichannel adsorption system was designed to meet the full-scale CO2 collection requirements using temperature swing adsorption. Each stage is designed to achieve a 10x compression of CO2. A compression ratio to collect Martian atmospheric CO2 at ~0.8 kPa and compress it to at least 100 kPa can be achieved with two adsorption stages in series. A compressor stage incorporates eight thermally coupled adsorption cells at various stages in the adsorption/desorption cycle to maximize the recuperation of thermal energy and provide a nearly continuous flow of CO2 to the downstream reactors. The thermochemically compressed CO2 is then mixed with hydrogen gas and fed to two reactors: a Sabatier Reaction unit and a Reverse Water/Gas Shift unit. The microchannel architecture allows better heat control than is possible in an adiabatic system, resulting in significantly higher conversion. The

  13. This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production buildings as seen looking directly north (6 degrees) from the roof of the Administration Building (4231-E-32). The structures closest to the camera contain the equipment for weighing, grinding, mixing, and casting solid propellant grain for motors. Structures in the distance generally house curing or inspection activities. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  15. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  16. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  17. A Liquefier for Mars Surface Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Lou J.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Kittel, P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's planned Mars exploration missions will require that cryogenic propellants be manufactured on the surface. The present scenario calls for oxygen and methane gases to he produced using the carbon dioxide atmosphere plus seed hydrogen brought from Earth. Gases will require liquefaction for both storage on the Martian surface and for use in the ascent vehicle. The planned liquefaction rates range from 12.6 g/hr of oxygen for the 2003 robotic mission to 2500 g/hr for the later human missions. This paper presents the results of a nitrogen liquefaction demonstration using a commercially available cryocooler. The experiment was set up to liquefy nitrogen gas instead of oxygen to limit laboratory safety concerns. A nitrogen gas condensor, attached to the cooler's cold tip, was sized to liquefy up to 42 gN2/hr at the intended storage pressure (0.2 MPa). The experiment was conducted inside an atmospheric, air-filled, refrigerated chamber simulating the average Martian daytime temperature (240 K). In this demonstration a liquefaction rate of 9.1 gN2/hr was realized, which is equivalent to 13 gO2/hr.

  18. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  19. Microreactor Development for Martian In-Situ Propellant Production

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Hu, Jianli; Sanders, J.; Baird, S.

    2007-01-30

    The second part of the Martian In-situ Propellant Production (MIPPS) system reviews the development of the Sabatier Reactor (SR). The microchannel SR had integrated cooling channels as well as reaction channels. It was <100cc in volume. The reactor utilized a proprietary catalyst. When operated at 400oC 70-80% CO2 conversion was achieved which enabled ~0.0125 kg CH4/hr production, or 1/8th the target mission. The modular design of the microchannel reactors would enable simple scale up to full scale production for the proposed mission.

  20. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  1. Low-Cost High-Performance Cryocoolers for In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.; Corey, J. A.; Peters, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of many In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) schemes is the production of rocket fuel and oxidizer from the Martian atmosphere. Many of the fuels under consideration will require cryogenic cooling for efficient long-term storage. Although significant research has been focused on the techniques for producing the fuels from Martian resources, little effort has been expended on the development of cryocoolers to efficiently liquefy these fuels. This paper describes the design of a pulse tube liquefier optimized for liquefying oxygen produced by an In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) plant on Mars.

  2. Low-Cost, High-Performance Cryocoolers for In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.; Corey, J. A.; Peters, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of many In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) schemes is the production of rocket fuel and oxidizer from the Martian atmosphere. Many of the fuels under consideration will require cryogenic cooling for efficient long-term storage. Although significant research has been focused on the techniques for producing the fuels from Martian resources, little effort has been expended on the development of cryocoolers to efficiently liquefy these fuels. This paper describes the design of a pulse tube liquefier optimized for liquefying oxygen produced by an In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) plant on Mars.

  3. A Design Tool for Matching UAV Propeller and Power Plant Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangio, Arion L.

    A large body of knowledge is available for matching propellers to engines for large propeller driven aircraft. Small UAV's and model airplanes operate at much lower Reynolds numbers and use fixed pitch propellers so the information for large aircraft is not directly applicable. A design tool is needed that takes into account Reynolds number effects, allows for gear reduction, and the selection of a propeller optimized for the airframe. The tool developed in this thesis does this using propeller performance data generated from vortex theory or wind tunnel experiments and combines that data with an engine power curve. The thrust, steady state power, RPM, and tip Mach number vs. velocity curves are generated. The Reynolds number vs. non dimensional radial station at an operating point is also found. The tool is then used to design a geared power plant for the SAE Aero Design competition. To measure the power plant performance, a purpose built engine test stand was built. The characteristics of the engine test stand are also presented. The engine test stand was then used to characterize the geared power plant. The power plant uses a 26x16 propeller, 100/13 gear ratio, and an LRP 0.30 cubic inch engine turning at 28,000 RPM and producing 2.2 HP. Lastly, the measured power plant performance is presented. An important result is that 17 lbf of static thrust is produced.

  4. Mars Sample Return mission utilizing in-situ propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Price, Steve

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study examining the potential of in-situ propellant production (ISPP) on Mars to aid in achieving a low cost Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. Two versions of such a mission were examined: a baseline version employing a dual string spacecraft, and a light weight version employing single string architecture with selective redundancy. Both systems employed light weight avionics currently being developed by Lockheed Martin, Jet Propulsion Lab and elsewhere in the aerospace community, both used a new concept for a simple, light weight parachuteless sample return capsule, both used a slightly modified version of the Mars Surveyor lander currently under development at Lockheed Martin for flight in 1998, and both used a combination of the Sabatier-electrolysis and reverse water gas shift ISPP systems to produce methane/oxygen propellant on Mars by combining a small quantity of imported hydrogen with the Martian CO2 atmosphere. It was found that the baseline mission could be launched on a Delta 7925 and return a 0.5 kg sample with 82 percent mission launch margin;over and beyond subsystem allocated contingency masses . The lightweight version could be launched on a Mid-Lite vehicle and return a 0.25 kg sample with 11 percent launch margin, over and above subsystem contingency mass allocations.

  5. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  6. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laclair, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  7. Propellant production on Mars - Single cell oxygen production test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, James; Schallhorn, Paul; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A study focusing on oxygen production using resources indigenous to Mars is presented. A bank of solid zirconia electrolytic cells that will electrochemically separate oxygen from a high temperature stream of carbon dioxide is at the center of the oxygen production system. The experimental data are discussed with attention given to the cell operating temperature, the carbon dioxide flow rate, and the voltage applied across the cell.

  8. Trade Study of Five In-Situ Propellant Production System for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. T.; Deffenbaugh, D. M.; Miller, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA''s HEDS enterprise is to establish a long-term human presence on Mars at a fraction of the cost of employing today''s technology. The most direct method of reducing mission cost is to reduce the launch mass of the spacecraft. If the propellants for the return phase of the mission are produced on Mars, the total spacecraft mass could be reduced significantly. An interim goal is a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, which is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of in-situ propellant production (ISPP). Five candidate ISPP systems for producing two fuels and oxygen from the Martian atmosphere are considered in this design trade-off study:(1) Zirconia cell with methanol synthesis, (2) Reverse water gas shift (RWGS) with water electrolysis and methanol synthesis, (3) Sabatier process for methane production with water electrolysis, (4) Sabatier process with water electrolysis and partial methane pyrolysis, and (5) Sabatier/RWGS combination with water electrolysis. These systems have been the subject of numerous previous analytical studies and laboratory demonstrations. In this investigation, the systems are objectively compared on the basis of thermochemical performance models using a commonly used chemical plant analysis software package. The realistic effects of incomplete chemical conversion and gas phase separator performance are included in these models. This study focuses on the chemical processing and product separation subsystems. The CO2 compression upstream of the chemical plane and the liquefaction/storage components are not included here.

  9. In situ propellant production: Alternatives for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Cole, Kevin J.; Collins, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Current planning for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) recognizes the need for extraterrestrial resources to sustain long-term human presence and to attain some degree of self-sufficiency. As a practical matter, reducing the need to carry large supplies of propellant from Earth will make space exploration more economical. For nearly every round trip planned with conventional propulsion, the actual payload is only a small fraction - perhaps 10-15 percent - of the mass launched from Earth. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential application for SEI missions of propellants made exclusively from lunar or martian resources. Using such propellants could minimize or eliminate the cost of carrying propellant for surface excursion vehicles and return transfers through two high-energy maneuvers: Earth launch and trans-Mars injection. Certain chemical mono- and bipropellants are candidates for this approach; they could be recovered entirely from in situ resources on the Moon and Mars, without requiring a continuing Earth-based resupply of propellant constituents (e.g., fuel to mix with a locally obtained oxidizer) and, perhaps, with minimal need to resupply consumables (e.g., reagents or catalyst for process reactions). A complete assessment of the performance potential of these propellants must include the requirements for installation, operations, maintenance, and resupply of the chemical processing facility.

  10. Development of a Microchannel In Situ Propellant Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Rassat, Scot D.; Hu, Jianli; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Simon, Tom; Romig, Kris A.; Howard, Candice L.

    2006-04-12

    A microchannel-based system is being developed for NASA to produce propellants from atmospheric CO2 on Mars. This system will provide a means of reducing the earth-based launch mass for both sample return and human exploration missions. The atmospheric CO2 will be collected, separated, and compressed with a microchannel thermal swing adsorption system. It will be reacted with hydrogen that has either been electrolyzed from the available subsurface water or brought from earth. Methane and water will be produced by using microchannel Reverse Water Gas Shift and Sabatier reactors. The water will then separated with a microchannel condenser/phase separator and electrolyzed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Feed gases will be separated from the products and recycled. The system design requirements will be presented in this paper. The design and fabrication methods of the microchannel CO2 sorption pump, reactors, and phase separators will be described, and the advantages of microchannel architecture will be delineated for each component. Estimates of system mass and volume will also be provided in comparison to conventional hardware. The testing and integration proposed during this project to meet NASA's Technology Readiness Level 5 will also be presented.

  11. Impact of supersonic versus propeller wind data on dispersion estimates for nuclear plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, S J; Katagiri, H; Kobayashi, H

    1991-12-01

    Statistical analyses and comparisons of the wind data obtained by the propeller and supersonic anemometers at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were performed. For wind speeds less than 1 ms-1, the propeller readings are inaccurate and are generally 0.5 ms-1 less than the supersonic readings. Thus, the number of calms recorded differs. These differences affect the sum of the inverse of wind speed, frequency distribution of wind direction, and the annual percentage frequency distribution of stability categories. The resultant average air concentrations and ground-level gamma exposure rates due to the normal operational releases from a nuclear plant are overestimated when calculated using the propeller wind data.

  12. Impact of supersonic versus propeller wind data on dispersion estimates for nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.J.; Katagiri, H.; Kobayashi, H. )

    1991-12-01

    Statistical analyses and comparisons of the wind data obtained by the propeller and supersonic anemometers at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were performed. For wind speeds less than 1 ms-1, the propeller readings are inaccurate and are generally 0.5 ms-1 less than the supersonic readings. Thus, the number of calms recorded differs. These differences affect the sum of the inverse of wind speed, frequency distribution of wind direction, and the annual percentage frequency distribution of stability categories. The resultant average air concentrations and ground-level gamma exposure rates due to the normal operational releases from a nuclear plant are overestimated when calculated using the propeller wind data.

  13. Space Resource Requirements for Future In-Space Propellant Production Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Fikes, John; Roy, Stephanie; Henley, Mark W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 studies were conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the technical requirements and commercial potential for propellant production depots in low Earth orbit (LEO) to support future commercial, NASA, and other Agency missions. Results indicate that propellant production depots appear to be technically feasible given continued technology development, and there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process utilizes large amounts of power, therefore a depot derived from advanced space solar power technology was defined. Results indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  14. Assessment of potential benefits from lunar/Mars propellant production for support of human exploration of the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.; Collins, John T.; Stancati, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of potential benefits offered through use of lunar/Mars in situ propellant production to support manned missions to the moon and Mars. Resources available at each location and processing options for their extraction are discussed. Key infrastructure and support systems needed to sustain the propellant production operation and to deliver the propellants from their point of origin to the point of application are defined. The analysis focuses on reductions of earth launched mass over the course of multiple missions to assess the potential savings offered. Initial results show the impact of requirements for sustaining in situ propellant production systems on benefits offered during steady-state operation.

  15. The effect of Mars surface and Phobos propellant production on Earth launch mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Gus R.; Stump, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel and oxidizer produced on the surface of Mars and on the Martian Moon Phobos can reduce the cumulative mass of fuel and oxidizer which must be launched to low Earth orbit for Mars exploration missions. A scenario in which ten conjunction class trajectory missions over a twenty year period land a surface base and propellant production facilities on the Martian surface and on Phobos was examined. Production of oxygen on Phobos provides the greatest benefit. If all the propellant for Mars operations and Earth return is produced at Phobos and on Mars, a 30% reduction in cumulative low Earth orbit mass can be achieved at the end of the 20 year period.

  16. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  17. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  18. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  19. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  20. Plant Productivity and ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, V.; Drysdale, A.; Bartsev, S.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

    An approach for relating Plant Productivity (PP) and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) has been formulated. On this basis, possible reductions of ESM have been analyzed in relation to:-the general mission scenario;-the physiology and cultivation of mixed plant crops;-natural and modified environmental conditions for plant cultivation;-benefits of management approaches;-degree of closure of the artificial support system;-improved plant chamber design. This approach is applied to estimates of minimal ESM for Martian Deployable Greenhouse (MDG).

  1. Demonstration of Critical Systems for Propellant Production on Mars for Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Gaier, James R.; Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Kolacz, John S.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Clark, D. Larry

    2013-01-01

    A Mars hopper has been proposed as a Mars mobility concept that will also demonstrate and advance in-situ resource utilization. The components needed in a Mars propellant production plant have been developed to various levels of technology maturity, but there is little experience with the systems in a Mars environment. Two systems for the acquisition and compression of the thin carbon dioxide atmosphere were designed, assembled, and tested in a Mars environment chamber. A microchannel sorption pump system was able to raise the pressure from 7 Torr to 450 Torr or from 12 Torr to over 700 Torr in two stages. This data now provides information needed to make additional improvements in the sorption pump technology to increase performance, although a system-level analysis might prove that some amount of pre- or post-compression may be a preferred solution. A mini cryofreezer system was also evaluated as an alternative method for carbon dioxide acquisition and compression. Finally, an electrolysis system was tested and successfully demonstrated start-up operation and thermal stability of all components during long-term operation in the chamber.

  2. Conceptual study of on orbit production of cryogenic propellants by water electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility is assessed of producing cryogenic propellants on orbit by water electrolysis in support of NASA's proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. Using this method, water launched into low earth orbit (LEO) would be split into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis in an orbiting propellant processor spacecraft. The resulting gases would then be liquified and stored in cryogenic tanks. Supplying liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel to space vehicles by this technique has some possible advantages over conventional methods. The potential benefits are derived from the characteristics of water as a payload, and include reduced ground handling and launch risk, denser packaging, and reduced tankage and piping requirements. A conceptual design of a water processor was generated based on related previous studies, and contemporary or near term technologies required. Extensive development efforts would be required to adapt the various subsystems needed for the propellant processor for use in space. Based on the cumulative results, propellant production by on orbit water electrolysis for support of SEI missions is not recommended.

  3. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  4. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  5. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

  6. A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

  7. Trade Study of Five In-Situ Propellant Production Systems for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. T.; Deffenbaugh, D. M.; Miller, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's HEDS enterprise is to establish a long-term human presence on Mars at a fraction of the cost of employing today's technology. The most direct method of reducing mission cost is to reduce the launch mass of the spacecraft. If the propellants for the return phase of the mission are produced on Mars, the total spacecraft mass could be reduced significantly. An interim goal is a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, which is proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of in-situ propellant production (ISPP). Five candidate ISPP systems for producing two fuels and oxygen from the Martian atmosphere are considered in this design trade-off study: 1) Zirconia cell with methanol synthesis, 2) Reverse water gas shift with water electrolysis and methanol synthesis, 3) Sabatier process for methane product ion with water electrolysis, 4) Sabatier process with water electrolysis and partial methane pyrolysis, and 5) Sabatier/RWGS combination with water electrolysis.

  8. Comment on 'Propellant production from the Martian atmosphere'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, H. O.

    1993-01-01

    The optimism of the Tauber et al. (1992) note on photosynthetic production of spacecraft fuels from Martian atmospheric gases is presently noted, in conjunction with the need for prior missions' verification of such a system. Two of the original authors reply that their solar cell array assumptions are conservative in light of plausible performance projections for 2010-decade technology.

  9. Information Technology and the Autonomous Control of a Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Sridhar, K. R.; Larson, William E.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Peschur, Charles; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Zornetzer, Steven F. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing performance of information technology, i.e., computer hardware and software systems, as well as networks and communication systems, a new capability is being developed that holds the clear promise of greatly increased exploration capability, along with dramatically reduced design, development, and operating costs. These new intelligent systems technologies, utilizing knowledge-based software and very high performance computer systems, will provide new design and development tools, scheduling mechanisms, and vehicle and system health monitoring capabilities. In addition, specific technologies such as neural nets will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy which has previously been unavailable to the mission and spacecraft designer and to the system operator. One of the most promising applications of these new information technologies is to the area of in situ resource utilization. Useful resources such as oxygen, compressed carbon dioxide, water, methane, and buffer gases can be extracted and/or generated from planetary atmospheres, such as the Martian atmosphere. These products, when used for propulsion and life-support needs can provide significant savings in the launch mass and costs for both robotic and crewed missions. In the longer term the utilization of indigenous resources is an enabling technology that is vital to sustaining long duration human presence on Mars. This paper will present the concepts that are currently under investigation and development for mining the Martian atmosphere, such as temperature-swing adsorption, zirconia electrolysis etc., to create propellants and life-support materials. This description will be followed by an analysis of the information technology and control needs for the reliable and autonomous operation of such processing plants in a fault tolerant manner, as well as the approach being taken for the development of the controlling software. Finally, there will be a brief

  10. The 2001 Mars In-Situ-Propellant-Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David I.; Baird, R. Scott; Ratliff, James E.; Baraona, Cosmo R.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinza, David E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Karlmann, Paul B.; Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias

    2000-01-01

    The successful performance of the five individual demonstrations of MARS IN-SITU-PROPELLANT-PRODUCTION PRECURSOR (MIP) will provide both knowledge of and confidence in the reliability of this technology. At the completion of this flight demonstration, the MIP Team will be able to: a) recommend preferred hardware configurations for the intake and adsorption of carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere; b) understand the performance characteristics of zirconia cells to generate propellant-grade oxygen; c) understand long-term performance characteristics of advanced solar cells/arrays operated in the actual Mars environment; d) evaluate the functionality of methods to mitigate the deposition of airborne dust onto solar arrays; and e) recommend preferred hardware designs for innovative thermal management including the radiation of heat to the outside environment.

  11. Autonomously Propelled Motors for Value-Added Product Synthesis and Purification.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarvesh K; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-06-27

    A proof-of-concept design for autonomous, self-propelling motors towards value-added product synthesis and separation is presented. The hybrid motor design consists of two distinct functional blocks. The first, a sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) granule, serves both as a reaction prerequisite for the reduction of vanillin and also as a localized solid-state fuel in the reaction mixture. The second capping functional block consisting of a graphene-polymer composite serves as a hydrophobic matrix to attract the reaction product vanillyl alcohol (VA), resulting in facile separation of this edible value-added product. These autonomously propelled motors were fabricated at a length scale down to 400 μm, and once introduced in the reaction environment showed rapid bubble-propulsion followed by high-purity separation of the reaction product (VA) by the virtue of the graphene-polymer cap acting as a mesoporous sponge. The concept has excellent potential towards the synthesis/isolation of industrially important compounds, affinity-based product separation, pollutant remediation (such as heavy metal chelation/adsorption), as well as localized fuel-gradients as an alternative to external fuel dependency. PMID:27123788

  12. Autonomously Propelled Motors for Value-Added Product Synthesis and Purification.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sarvesh K; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-06-27

    A proof-of-concept design for autonomous, self-propelling motors towards value-added product synthesis and separation is presented. The hybrid motor design consists of two distinct functional blocks. The first, a sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) granule, serves both as a reaction prerequisite for the reduction of vanillin and also as a localized solid-state fuel in the reaction mixture. The second capping functional block consisting of a graphene-polymer composite serves as a hydrophobic matrix to attract the reaction product vanillyl alcohol (VA), resulting in facile separation of this edible value-added product. These autonomously propelled motors were fabricated at a length scale down to 400 μm, and once introduced in the reaction environment showed rapid bubble-propulsion followed by high-purity separation of the reaction product (VA) by the virtue of the graphene-polymer cap acting as a mesoporous sponge. The concept has excellent potential towards the synthesis/isolation of industrially important compounds, affinity-based product separation, pollutant remediation (such as heavy metal chelation/adsorption), as well as localized fuel-gradients as an alternative to external fuel dependency.

  13. In situ propellant production - A new potential for round-trip spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, M. L.; Niehoff, J. C.; Wells, W. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    In situ propellant production (ISPP) greatly reduces the Earth escape requirements for some roundtrip missions, particularly Mars Sample Return. ISPP systems are described which produce oxygen or oxygen and methane from available atmospheric and surface materials. With ISPP, a 1 kg sample can be returned direct from Mars using a single Shuttle launch. Mars entry can be either direct or from orbit. Comet and asteroid sample return is also accomplished within a single Shuttle launch. Launch requirements for round-trip missions to Ganymede and Callisto are reduced by 15 to 40%.

  14. Solid propellants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  15. Destruction of propellant magazine, November 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, N. H.

    1984-08-01

    Details on the destruction of a propellant magazine are given. The properties of single base propellants are discussed. Although single base propellants have been around for one hundred years, production of this type of propellant in Australia only commenced during World War 2 when appropriate plant and know how were provided under the Lend Lease Scheme. Most of the single base propellants made at Mulwala Explosives Factory have been of the IMR type i.e., single perforated tubular granules with their surface coated with DNT for use in small to medium calibre ammunition. Since production started at Mulwala Explosives Factory in 1944 some fourteen different versions of style of propellant have been manufactured. Four versions only were made up until 1957 and these were identified with an IMR type number matching the US propellants from which they were copied. New varieties introduced since 1957 have been identified with an AR aeries number commencing with AR2001 - the original Australian 7.62 mm rifle propellant.

  16. The influence of lunar propellant production on the cost-effectiveness of cislunar transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that propellants produced at the points of destination such as the Moon or Mars will help the economy of space transportation, particularly if round trips with a crew are involved. The construction and operation of a lunar base shortly after the turn of the century is one of the space programs under serious consideration at the present time. Space transportation is one of the major cost drivers. With present technology, if expendable launchers were employed, the specific transportation costs of one-way cargo flights would be approximately 10,000 dollars/kg (1985) at life-cycle cumulative 100,000 ton payload to the lunar surface. A fully reusable space transportation system using lunar oxygen and Earth-produced liquid hydrogen (LH2) would reduce the specific transportation costs by one order of magnitude to less than 1000 dollars/kg at the same payload volume. Another case of primary interest is the delivery of construction material and consumables from the lunar surface to the assembly site of space solar power plants in geostationary orbit (GEO). If such a system were technically and economically feasible, a cumulative payload of about 1 million tons or more would be required. At this level a space freighter system could deliver this material from Earth for about 300 dollars/kg (1985) to GEO. A lunar space transportation system using lunar oxygen and a fuel mixture of 50 percent Al and 50 percent LH2 (that has to come from Earth) could reduce the specific transportation costs to less than half, approximately 150 dollars/kg. If only lunar oxygen were available, these costs would come down to 200 dollars/kg. This analysis indicates a sizable reduction of the transportation burden on this type of mission. It should not be overlooked, however, that there are several uncertainties in such calculations. It is quite difficult at this point to calculate the cost of lunar-produced O and/or Al. This will be a function of production rate and life

  17. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  18. [Nitric oxide production in plants].

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Urszula

    2007-01-01

    There are still many controversial observations and opinions on the cellular/subcellular localization and sources of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis in plant cells. NO can be produced in plants by non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems depending on plant species, organ or tissue as well as on physiological state of the plant and changing environmental conditions. The best documented reactions in plant that contribute to NO production are NO production from nitrite as a substrate by cytosolic (cNR) and membrane bound (PM-NR) nitrate reductases (NR), and NO production by several arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase-like activities (NOS). The latest papers indicate that mitochondria are an important source of arginine- and nitrite-dependent NO production in plants. There are other potential enzymatic sources of NO in plants including xanthine oxidoreductase, peroxidase, cytochrome P450. PMID:18399354

  19. Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration Project: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Ratliff, J. E.; Sanders, G. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Karlmann, P. B.; Juanero, K. J.; Barona, C. R.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; Scheiman, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified in-situ propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. A team of scientists and engineers from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Lewis Research Center is preparing the MARS ISPP Precursors (MIP) Flight Demonstration. The objectives of MIP are to characterize the performance of processes and hardware which are important to ISPP concepts and to demonstrate how these processes and hardware interact with the Mars environment. Operating this hardware in the actual Mars environment is extremely important due to both uncertainties in our knowledge of the Mars environment as well as because of conditions that cannot be adequately simulated on Earth. The MIP Flight Demonstration is a payload onboard the MARS SURVEYOR Lander and will be launched in April 2001. MIP will be the first hardware to utilize the indigenous resources of a planet or moon. Its successful operation will pave the way for future robotic and human missions to rely on propellants produced using Martian resources as feedstock.

  20. Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration Project: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Ratliff, J. E.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Karlmann, P. B.; Juanero, K. J.; Baraona, C. R.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; Scheiman, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified in-situ propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. A team of scientists and engineers from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Lewis Research Center is preparing the MARS ISPP PRECURSOR (MIP) Flight Demonstration. The objectives of MIP are to characterize the performance of processes and hardware which are important to ISPP concepts and to demonstrate how these processes and hardware interact with the Mars environment. Operating this hardware in the actual Mars environment is extremely important due to both uncertainties in our knowledge of the Mars environment as well as because of conditions that cannot be adequately simulated on Earth. The MIP Flight Demonstration is a payload onboard the MARS SURVEYOR Lander and will be launched in April 2001. MIP will be the first hardware to utilize the indigenous resources of a planet or moon. Its successful operation will pave the way for future robotic and human missions to rely on propellants produced using Martian resources as feedstock.

  1. The Mars In-Situ-Propellant-Production Precursor (MIP) Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Ratliff, J. E.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Karlmann, P. B.; Baraona, C. R.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; Scheiman, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Strategic planning for human missions of exploration to Mars has conclusively identified insitu propellant production (ISPP) as an enabling technology. A team of scientists and engineers from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Glenn Research Center is preparing the MARS ISPP PRECURSOR (MIP) Flight Demonstration. The objectives of MIP are to characterize the performance of processes and hardware that are important to ISPP concepts and to demonstrate how these processes and hardware interact with the Mars environment. Operating this hardware in the actual Mars environment is extremely important due to (1) uncertainties in our knowledge of the Mars environment, and (2) conditions that cannot be adequately simulated on Earth. The MIP Flight Demonstration is a payload onboard the MARS SURVEYOR Lander and will be launched in April 2001. MIP will be the first hardware to utilize the indigenous resources of a planet or moon. Its successful operation will pave the way for future robotic and human missions to rely on propellants produced using Martian resources as feedstock.

  2. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  3. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  4. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  5. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  6. 21 CFR 700.23 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.23 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited...

  7. Energy release properties of amorphous boron and boron-based propellant primary combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Jinwu; Xi, Jianfei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Junhu

    2015-07-01

    The microstructure of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products of boron-based fuel-rich propellant (hereafter referred to as primary combustion products) was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Composition analysis of the primary combustion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy release properties of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products were comparatively studied by laser ignition experimental system and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. The primary combustion products contain B, C, Mg, Al, B4C, B13C2, BN, B2O3, NH4Cl, H2O, and so on. The energy release properties of primary combustion products are different from amorphous boron, significantly. The full-time spectral intensity of primary combustion products at a wavelength of 580 nm is ~2% lower than that of amorphous boron. The maximum spectral intensity of the former at full wave is ~5% higher than that of the latter. The ignition delay time of primary combustion products is ~150 ms shorter than that of amorphous boron, and the self-sustaining combustion time of the former is ~200 ms longer than that of the latter. The thermal oxidation process of amorphous boron involves water evaporation (weight loss) and boron oxidation (weight gain). The thermal oxidation process of primary combustion products involves two additional steps: NH4Cl decomposition (weight loss) and carbon oxidation (weight loss). CL-20 shows better combustion-supporting effect than KClO4 in both the laser ignition experiments and the thermal oxidation experiments.

  8. Development of a Two-Stage Mars Ascent Vehicle Using In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Laurel; Vaughan, David

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) and Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) present two main challenges for the advancement of Mars science. MSR would demonstrate Mars lift-off capability, while ISRU would test the ability to produce fuel and oxidizer using Martian resources, a crucial step for future human missions. A two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) concept was developed to support sample return as well as in-situ propellant production. The MAV would be powered by a solid rocket first stage and a LOX-propane second stage. A liquid second-stage provides higher orbit insertion reliability than a solid second stage as well as a degree of complexity eventually required for manned missions. Propane in particular offers comparable performance to methane without requiring cryogenic storage. The total MAV mass would be 119.9 kg to carry an 11 kg payload to orbit. The feasibility of in-situ fuel and oxidizer production was also examined. Two potential schemes were evaluated for production capability, size and power requirements. The schemes examined utilize CO2 and water as starting blocks to produce LOX and a propane blend. The infrastructure required to fuel and launch the MAV was also explored.

  9. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  10. Lunar/Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Technology: Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The mission strategy used in the ISPP Roadmap for human exploration in the 21st Century is still very preliminary, but covers human exploration of both the Moon and Mars. The mission strategy for lunar exploration begins with a simple, short term lunar surface stay in 2003. The first mission would last only a few days and consist primarily of existing technology; however, long duration landers and habitats, and nuclear transfer stages would be demonstrated on other missions. For missions to Mars, human exploration would begin with the launch of an unmanned habitat and return stage in 2009 to support the first human mission to Mars in 2011. The 2009 return lander would include an ISPP plant to produce the propellant needed for ascent from the Mars surface before the first human crew left Earth in 2011. Robotic orbiters and landers to help define the environment and surface conditions as well as perform engineering demonstrations of key technologies are also an integral part of these mission strategies.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process for In-Situ Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of mathematical models and simulation tools developed for the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process. This process is a candidate technology for oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) project. An analysis of the RWGS process was performed using a material balance for the system. The material balance is very complex due to the downstream separations and subsequent recycle inherent with the process. A numerical simulation was developed for the RWGS process to provide a tool for analysis and optimization of experimental hardware, which will be constructed later this year at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Attempts to solve the material balance for the system, which can be defined by 27 nonlinear equations, initially failed. A convergence scheme was developed which led to successful solution of the material balance, however the simplified equations used for the gas separation membrane were found insufficient. Additional more rigorous models were successfully developed and solved for the membrane separation. Sample results from these models are included in this report, with recommendations for experimental work needed for model validation.

  12. Simulated consumer exposure to propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) in aerosol personal products.

    PubMed

    Hartop, P J; Adams, M G

    1989-02-01

    Summary The potential human exposure to the aerosol propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) arising from its use in personal products has been assessed. HCFC 22 concentrations were measured in the 'breathing zone' of an experimental manikin and an 'accompanying child' designed to simulate human use of hairsprays, body sprays and antiperspirants in a closed room. Results were expressed as the 10-min time-weighted average concentration in the air (TWA 10) and as the peak concentration in the 'breathing zone' of the 'user'. Following a 10-s use of hairspray containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22, TWA10 values for an adult user and child were 64-116 ppm and 44-100 ppm, respectively. Use of an aerosol body spray containing 20-65% HCFC 22 for 5-20 s gave rise to TWA10 values of 32-411 ppm for an adult user and 20-395 ppm for a child. A 4-s use of an antiperspirant containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22 sprayed at a distance of 10-30 cm from the breathing zone of the adult user generated TWA 10 values in the range of 14-34 ppm for both the adult user and child. Opening the door of the room prior to hairspray and antiperspirant spraying slightly reduced these TWA 10 values. The peak values recorded in these studies for the adult user were 208 ppm for hairspray, 1415 ppm for body sprays and 82 ppm for antiperspirants.

  13. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate must give each variable pitch propeller an...

  14. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person manufacturing propellers under a type certificate only shall give each variable pitch propeller...

  15. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  16. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  17. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. PMID:27289269

  18. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    PubMed

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  19. Propellant production and useful materials: Hardware data from components and the systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    During the past year significant progress included: a major breakthrough in oxygen production through discs (instead of tubes) that resulted in two orders-of-magnitude increase in the yield rates, proving that oxygen production from any iron-bearing silicate (avoiding costly beneficiation) in lunar in-situ resource utilization (ISRU); construction of a half-scale robotic soil processor; production of melt-spun fibers in a solar furnace; and the culmination of first-stage research in the construction (and delivery to NASA LaRC) of a self-contained portable oxygen plant that incorporates the first generation ISRU technologies developed at UA SERC. In addition, further reductions in mass and power needs were achieved in two smaller oxygen plants, which, however, have far greater production rates. SERC continued to attract bright students both at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and several area high school students through the Professional Internship Program (PIP) administered by the local school district. Invited lectures at elementary schools continue to draw enthusiastic response. Another important first was the creation of the Freshman Colloquium, 'Space in Our Future, and Our Future in Space,' geared toward women and minority students. This course proved to be a success, with more than one-half of the enrollment composed of women. In recognition of these important contributions, the author was appointed to the NRC Committee on Space Science Technologies.

  20. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Marjorie Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and “leads” which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations. PMID:10515903

  1. Propellant production and useful materials: Hardware data from components and the systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Research activities at the University of Arizona/NASA Space Engineering Research Center are described; the primary emphasis is on hardware development and operation. The research activities are all aimed toward introducing significant cost reductions through the utilization of resources locally available at extraterrestrial sites. The four logical aspects include lunar, Martian, support, and common technologies. These are described in turn. The hardware realizations are based upon sound scientific principles which are used to screen a host of interesting and novel concepts. Small scale feasibility studies are used as the screen to allow only the most promising concepts to proceed. Specific examples include: kg/day-class oxygen plant that uses CO2 as the feed stock, spent stream utilization to produce methane and 'higher' compounds (using hydrogen from a water electrolysis plant), separation of CO from the CO2, reduction of any iron bearing silicate (lunar soils), production of structural components, smart sensors and autonomous controls, and quantitative computer simulation of extraterrestrial plants. The most important feature of all this research continues to be the training of high-quality students for our future in space.

  2. Field Analysis of Propellant Stabilizers and their Daughter Products in any Propellant Formulation by Thin-Layer Chromatography Year End Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, R

    2003-12-04

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Forensic Science Center (FSC) has successfully resolved a variety of concerns related to propellant stabilizer analysis by thin-layer chromatography. The technology is now ready to proceed to validation and the related issues associated with deployment, both CONUS and OCONUS. The goal of this project is to develop a completely self-contained field-portable system to quantitatively analyze propellants for their stabilizer content. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Forensic Science Center (FSC) has taken an established technology, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and developed new sampling protocols, unique hardware, and specialized chemistries for incorporation into a new field-portable TLC kit. Some of the advantages of this system are the ability to analyze several samples or lots simultaneously, very low detection limits, and field reliability when deployed, it will become an efficient, cost-effective method for the determination of the remaining effective stabilizer (%RES) in propellants. Due to its portability, ease of use, and low cost, this technology will be useful in a variety of CONUS and OCONUS analysis scenarios. The TLC technology development is sponsored by the US Army, Defense Ammunition Center (DAC). Patents on this technology have been awarded and the kit is now commercially available.

  3. Project Hyreus: Mars sample return mission utilizing in situ propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita; Bair, Chris; Hink, Anthony; Kim, Jae; Koch, Amber; Kruse, Ross; Ngo, Dung; Nicholson, Heather; Nill, Laurie; Perras, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Project Hyreus is an unmanned Mars sample return mission that utilizes propellants manufactured in situ from the Martian atmosphere for the return voyage. A key goal of the mission is to demonstrate the considerable benefits of using indigenous resources and to test the viability of this approach as a precursor to manned Mars missions. The techniques, materials, and equipment used in Project Hyreus represent those that are currently available or that could be developed and readied in time for the proposed launch date in 2003. Project Hyreus includes such features as a Mars-orbiting satellite equipped with ground-penetrating radar, a large rover capable of sample gathering and detailed surface investigations, and a planetary science array to perform on-site research before samples are returned to Earth. Project Hyreus calls for the Mars Landing Vehicle to land in the Mangala Valles region of Mars, where it will remain for approximately 1.5 years. Methane and oxygen propellant for the Earth return voyage will be produced using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere and a small supply of hydrogen brought from Earth. This process is key to returning a large Martian sample to Earth with a single Earth launch.

  4. The materials and elements production practice of counter-erosional and thermal protection system of the SPR-solid-propellant sustainer nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkurenko, V. M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the production scheme for heat- and erosion-protective carbon plastic materials for heat shield elements of solid-propellant nozzles. Attention is also given the method of manufacturing adhesive joint assemblies, and the production scheme is included.

  5. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. Plant productivity in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Bugbee, B.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the cost and area/volume requirements of a farm in a space station or Lunar or Martian base, a few laboratories in the United States, the Soviet Union, France, and Japan are studying optimum controlled environments for the production of selected crops. Temperature, light, photoperiod, CO2, humidity, the root-zone environment, and cultivars are the primary factors being manipulated to increase yields and harvest index. Our best wheat yields on a time basis (24 g m-2 day-1 of edible biomass) are five times good field yields and twice the world record. Similar yields have been obtained in other laboratories with potatoes and lettuce; soybeans are also promising. These figures suggest that approximately 30 m2 under continuous production could support an astronaut with sufficient protein and about 2800 kcal day-1. Scientists under Iosif Gitelzon in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, have lived in a closed system for up to 5 months, producing 80% of their own food. Thirty square meters for crops were allotted to each of the two men taking part in the experiment. A functional controlled-environment life-support system (CELSS) will require the refined application of several disciplines: controlled-environment agriculture, food preparation, waste disposal, and control-systems technology, to list only the broadest categories. It has seemed intuitively evident that ways could be found to prepare food, regenerate plant nutrients from wastes, and even control and integrate several subsystems of a CELSS. But could sufficient food be produced in the limited areas and with the limited energy that might be available? Clearly, detailed studies of food production were necessary.

  7. Light production by green plants.

    PubMed

    STREHLER, B L; ARNOLD, W

    1951-07-01

    1. Green plants have been found to emit light of approximately the same color as their fluorescent light for several minutes following illumination. This light is about 10(-3) the intensity of the fluorescent light, about one-tenth second after illumination below saturation or 10(-6) of the intensity of the absorbed light. 2. The decay curve follows bimolecular kinetics at 6.5 degrees C. and reaction order 1.6 at 28 degrees C. 3. This light saturates as does photosynthesis at higher light intensities and in about the same intensity range as does photosynthesis. 4. An action spectrum for light emitted as a function of the wave length of exciting light has been determined. It parallels closely the photosynthetic action spectrum. 5. The intensity of light emission was studied as a function of temperature and found to be optimal at about 37 degrees C. with an activation energy of approximately 19,500 calories. Two-temperature studies indicated that the energy may be trapped in the cold, but that temperatures characteristic for enzymatic reactions are necessary for light production. 6. Illumination after varying dark periods showed initial peaks of varying height depending on the preceding dark period. 7. 5 per cent CO(2) reversibly depresses the amount of light emitted by about 30 per cent. About 3 minutes are required for this effect to reach completion at room temperatures. 8. Various inhibitors of photosynthesis were tested for their effect on luminescence and were all inhibitory at appropriate concentrations. 9. Irradiation with ultraviolet light (2537A) inhibits light production at about the same rate as it inhibits photosynthesis. 10. This evidence suggests that early and perhaps later chemical reactions in photosynthesis may be partially reversible.

  8. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  9. Propeller injuries.

    PubMed

    Mann, R J

    1976-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, and pleasure boat cruising are increasing in popularity. As a result the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. In a ten-year period from 1963 to 1973, I collected a total of nine cases. In some amputations were necessary, and in other cases amputations occurred at the time of injury. Problems with bacterial flora occurring in open sea water versus salt water enclosed near docks and fresh lake water are discussed. A review of the orthopedic literature revealed sparse information regarding propeller injuries.

  10. New routes to plant secondary products

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, J.D.; Parr, A.J.; Rhodes, M.J.C.; Robins, R.J.; Walton, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    For some years, there has been great interest in the exploitation of plant cell cultures to produce fine chemicals. With a few exceptions, progress in commercialization has been slow, largely due to the low and/or unstable productivity of many undifferentiated cultures. Recent developments leading to the production of rapidly growing, organized, 'hairy' root cultures following the genetic transformation of plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes may revolutionize certain areas of plant cell biotechnology. The application of hairy root technology to the production of plant secondary metabolites are discussed. (Refs. 45).

  11. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  12. Recent Advancements in Propellant Densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Nancy B.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Next-generation launch vehicles demand several technological improvements to achieve lower cost and more reliable access to space. One technology area whose performance gains may far exceed others is densified propellants. The ideal rocket engine propellant is characterized by high specific impulse, high density, and low vapor pressure. A propellant combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) is one of the highest performance propellants, but LH2 stored at standard conditions has a relatively low density and high vapor pressure. Propellant densification can significantly improve this propellant's properties relative to vehicle design and engine performance. Vehicle performance calculations based on an average of existing launch vehicles indicate that densified propellants may allow an increase in payload mass of up to 5 percent. Since the NASA Lewis Research Center became involved with the National Aerospace Plane program in the 1980's, it has been leading the way in making densified propellants a viable fuel for next-generation launch vehicles. Lewis researchers have been working to provide a method and critical data for continuous production of densified hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. Spectral filtering for plant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy E.; Mcmahon, Margaret J.; Rajapakse, Nihal C.; Decoteau, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Both plants and animals have one general commonality in their perception of light. They both are sensitive primarily to the 400 to 700 nm wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is referred to as the visible spectrum for animals and as the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectrum for plants. Within this portion of the spectrum, animals perceive colors. Relatively recently it has been learned that within this same spectral range plants also demonstrate varying responses at different wavelengths, somewhat analogous to the definition of various colors at specific wavelengths. Although invisible to the human eye, portions of the electromagnetic spectrum on either side of the visible range are relatively inactive photosynthetically but have been found to influence important biological functions. These portions include the ultraviolet (UV approximately equal to 280-400 nm) and the far-red (FR approximately equal to 700-800 nm). The basic photoreceptor of plants for photosynthesis is chlorophyll. It serves to capture radiant energy which combined with carbon dioxide and water produces oxygen and assimulated carbon, used for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccarides, proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular constituents. The energy and carbon building blocks of photosynthesis sustain growth of plants. On the other hand, however, there are other photoreceptors, or pigments, that function as signal transducers to provide information that controls many physiological and morphological responses of how a plant grows. Known photomorphogenic receptors include phytochrome (the red/far-red sensor in the narrow bands of 655-665 nm and 725-735 nm ranges, respectively) and 'cryptochrome' (the hypothetical UV-B sensor in the 280-320 nm range). Since the USDA team of W. L. Butler, S. B. Hendricks, H. A. Borthwick, H. A. Siegleman and K. Norris in Beltsville, MD detected by spectroscopy, extracted and identified phytochrome as a protein in the 1950's, many

  14. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    PubMed

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  15. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables.

  16. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel.

  18. Human excreta for plant production.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; van Wijk-Sijbesma, Christine

    2005-03-01

    Human excreta are a natural resource which is always available in all societies. Unfortunately, their value is highly underestimated in present agriculture and horticulture including in many tropical developing countries. Especially human urine is rich in nitrogen. This "free" fertiliser should be used as much as possible and needed. In many cases, human urine and composted human faeces could be fortified with wood ash and kitchen and garden waste to meet the potassium and phosphorus needs of plants and to improve soil structure. Avoiding health risks and dosage requirements are also discussed. The ideas presented here can be used even with the cheap pit latrines that are common in the rural and peri-urban areas of developing countries. They do not require electricity and/or tap water. They may also fit conditions in areas of Eastern Europe where piped water and sewerage are absent and/or people lack money for fertilisers and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants.

  19. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen data base. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches for approx. 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  20. Slush hydrogen propellant production, transfer, and expulsion studies at the NASA K-Site Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1991-01-01

    Slush hydrogen is currently being considered as a fuel for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) because it offers the potential for decreased vehicle size and weight. However, no large-scale data was available on the production, transfer, and tank pressure control characteristics required to use the fuel for the NASP. Therefore, experiments were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center K-Site Facility to improve the slush hydrogen database. Slush hydrogen was produced using the evaporative cooling, or freeze-thaw, technique in batches of about 800 gallons. This slush hydrogen was pressure transferred to a 5 ft diameter spherical test tank following production, and flow characteristics were measured during this transfer process. The slush hydrogen in the test tank was pressurized and expelled using a pressurized expulsion technique to obtain information on tank pressure control for the NASP. Results from the production, transfer, pressurization, and pressurized expulsion tests are described.

  1. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-12-01

    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production. PMID:25330253

  2. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-12-01

    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  3. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  4. Using plants for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this program is to make a quantitative assessment of the potential for using marine algae for producing hydrogen and oxygen from sea water. The approach is to screen selected species of green algae for simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen. Six marine green algae have been identified as having this property. The limiting step of algal hydrogen production is turnover time. This report contains data on the first simultaneous measurement of the turnover times of steady-state photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production. An instrument for measuring the absolute yield of hydrogen or oxygen per saturating single-turnover flash of light has been designed and built as part of this research program.

  5. Green biofactories: recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Adil; Pereira, Eridan O; Conley, Andrew J; Richman, Alex S; Menassa, Rima

    2010-11-01

    Until recently, low accumulation levels have been the major bottleneck for plant-made recombinant protein production. However, several breakthroughs have been described in the past few years allowing for very high accumulation levels, mainly through chloroplast transformation and transient expression, coupled with subcellular targeting and protein fusions. Another important factor influencing our ability to use plants for the production of recombinant proteins is the availability of quick and simple purification strategies. Recent developments using oleosin, zein, ELP and hydrophobin fusion tags have shown promise as efficient and cost-effective methods for non-chromatographic separation. Furthermore, plant glycosylation is a major barrier to the parenteral administration of plant-made biopharmaceuticals because of potential immunogenicity concerns. A major effort has been invested in humanizing plant glycosylation, and several groups have been able to reduce or eliminate immunogenic glycans while introducing mammalian-specific glycans. Finally, biosafety issues and public perception are essential for the acceptance of plants as bioreactors for the production of proteins. Over recent years, it has become clear that food and feed plants carry an inherent risk of contaminating our food supply, and thus much effort has focused on the use of non-food plants. Presently, Nicotiana benthamiana has emerged as the preferred host for transient expression, while tobacco is most frequently used for chloroplast transformation. In this review, we focus on the main issues hindering the economical production of recombinant proteins in plants, describing the current efforts for addressing these limitations, and we include an extensive list of recent patents generated with the intention of solving these limitations. PMID:21171961

  6. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158] PMID:26698871

  7. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  8. Processive Pulses of Retinoic Acid Propel Asynchronous and Continuous Murine Sperm Production1

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Arnold, Samuel; Kent, Travis; Mitchell, Debra; Isoherranen, Nina; Griswold, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asynchronous cyclic nature of spermatogenesis is essential for continual sperm production and is one of the hallmarks of mammalian male fertility. While various mRNA and protein localization studies have indirectly implicated changing retinoid levels along testis tubules, no quantitative evidence for these changes across the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium currently exists. This study utilized a unique mouse model of induced synchronous spermatogenesis, localization of the retinoid-signaling marker STRA8, and sensitive quantification of retinoic acid concentrations to determine whether there are fluctuations in retinoid levels at each of the individual stages of germ cell differentiation and maturation to sperm. These data show that processive pulses of retinoic acid are generated during spermatogonial differentiation and are the likely trigger for cyclic spermatogenesis and allow us, for the first time, to understand how the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium is generated and maintained. In addition, this study represents the first direct quantification of a retinoid gradient controlling cellular differentiation in a postnatal tissue. PMID:25519186

  9. Processive pulses of retinoic acid propel asynchronous and continuous murine sperm production.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Cathryn A; Arnold, Samuel; Kent, Travis; Mitchell, Debra; Isoherranen, Nina; Griswold, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The asynchronous cyclic nature of spermatogenesis is essential for continual sperm production and is one of the hallmarks of mammalian male fertility. While various mRNA and protein localization studies have indirectly implicated changing retinoid levels along testis tubules, no quantitative evidence for these changes across the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium currently exists. This study utilized a unique mouse model of induced synchronous spermatogenesis, localization of the retinoid-signaling marker STRA8, and sensitive quantification of retinoic acid concentrations to determine whether there are fluctuations in retinoid levels at each of the individual stages of germ cell differentiation and maturation to sperm. These data show that processive pulses of retinoic acid are generated during spermatogonial differentiation and are the likely trigger for cyclic spermatogenesis and allow us, for the first time, to understand how the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium is generated and maintained. In addition, this study represents the first direct quantification of a retinoid gradient controlling cellular differentiation in a postnatal tissue.

  10. Mo99 Production Plant Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Naranjo, Angela Carol

    2015-06-25

    The NorthStar Medical Technologies 99Mo production facility configuration is envisioned to be 8 accelerator pairs irradiating 7 100Mo targets (one spare accelerator pair undergoing maintenance while the other 7 pairs are irradiating targets). The required shielding in every direction for the accelerators is initially estimated to be 10 feet of concrete. With the accelerator pairs on one (ground) level and spaced with the required shielding between adjacent pairs, the only practical path for target insertion and removal while minimizing floor space is vertical. The current scheme then requires a target vertical lift of nominally 10 feet through a shield stack. It is envisioned that the lift will be directly into a hot cell where an activated target can be removed from its holder and a new target attached and lowered. The hot cell is on a rail system so that a single hot cell can service all active target locations, as well as deliver the ready targets to the separations lab. On this rail system, coupled to the hot cell, will be a helium recovery and clean-up system. All helium coolant equipment is located on the upper level near to the target removal point.

  11. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  12. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each... acceptable functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  13. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  14. 14 CFR 21.129 - Tests: propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: propellers. 21.129 Section 21.129... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.129 Tests: propellers. Each person... functional test to determine if it operates properly throughout the normal range of operation....

  15. Phytotreatment of propellant contamination.

    PubMed

    Riefler, R Guy; Medina, Victor F

    2006-05-01

    Nitroglycerine (NG) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are propellants often found in soil and groundwater at military firing ranges. Because of the need for training with live ammunition, control or cleanup of these contaminants may be necessary for the continued use of these firing ranges. One inexpensive approach for managing sites exposed to these contaminants is the use phytoremedation, particularly using common or native grasses. In this study, the uptake of NG and 2,4-DNT from water by three common grasses, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus escalantus), yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca), and common rush (Juncus effusus), was investigated using hydroponic reactors. Rapid removal from solution by all grasses was observed, with yellow nutsedge removal rates being the highest. NG or 2,4-DNT accumulated in the tissues in all of the plants, except yellow foxtail did not accumulate NG. Higher concentrations were observed in killed roots, demonstrating the presence of plant-based enzymes actively transforming the contaminants. Yellow nutsedge was also grown in 2,4-DNT spiked soil. Significant uptake into the plants roots and leaves was observed and concentrations in the soil decreased rapidly, although 2,4-DNT concentration also decreased in the unplanted controls. In summary, the three grasses tested appear to be good candidates for phytoremediation of propellant contamination.

  16. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  17. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    , collect soil and retract itself to put the material on the top of the spacecraft inside a hole which will be opened; 3) an infrared laser based on solar electrical energy -a "solar laser" -when the soil be inside the chamber inside the spacecraft, the solar laser will be turned on and it will strike against the soil, heating it up, and release all oxygen and hydrogen from it. The oxygen and hydrogen molecules will be separated from the rest of the material by a mass spectrometer and they will be liquefied by thermal and pressure internal control sub-systems of the spacecraft, and pumped to vessels in a way similar to a micro-industrial line production process; the vessels with the propellants will be then ready to be taken by astronauts, from a small door outside the LPM. The shape of this spacecraft must be conical in order to not unbalance it during the landing and roving maneuvers and soil cargoes, and it will be shielded externally from heat and radiation from the Sun, and micrometeoroids, to prevent the internal thermal conduction and electronic operations from damaging. A solar array externally deployed can produce 44 KW of electric soil energy for the production process. This miniature chemical-processing plant can possibly have an output of 100 Kg of liquid oxygen and 200 Kg of liquid hydrogen per day. Telecommunications with Earth will provide the onboard computer courses for roving to new mapped areas with richer propellants content in the soil. The spacecraft can weight approximately 6,000 Kg (at launch time from Earth). It will be necessary two LPMs for providing all the liquid oxygen and hydrogen needed to supply spacecrafts next to a semi-permanent small manned lunar base. With the Lunar Propellant Manufacturer it will solve the problem of not-expensively producing great quantities of propellants for a manned spacecraft to explore Mars and beyond In the Solar System.

  18. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  19. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  20. AEROSOL INDUSTRY SUCCESS IN REDUCING CFC PROPELLANT USAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part I of this report discusses the U.S. aerosol industry's experience in converting from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants to alternative aerosol formulations. Detailed examples of non-CFC formulations are provided for 28 categories of aerosol products. ydrocarbon propellants...

  1. Lead-Free Propellant for Propellant Actuated Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's CAD/PAD Department has been working to remove toxic compounds from our products for about a decade. In 1992, we embarked on an effort to develop a lead-free double base propellant to replace that of a foreign sole source. At the time there were availability concerns. In 1995, the department developed a strategic proposal to include a wider range of products. Efforts included such efforts as removing lead sheathing from linear explosives and replacing lead azide and lead styphnate compounds. This paper will discuss efforts specifically related to developing non-leaded double base propellant for use in various Propellant Actuated Devices (PADs) for aircrew escape systems. The propellants can replace their leaded counterparts, mitigating lead handling, processing, or toxic exposure to the environment and personnel. This work eliminates the use of leaded compounds, replacing them with a more environmentally benign metal-organic salt. Historically double-base propellants have held an advantage over other families of energetic materials through their relative insensitivity of the burning rate to changes in temperature and pressure. This desirable ballistic effect has been obtained with the use of a lead-organic salt alone or in a physical mixture with a copper-organic salt, or more recently with a lead-copper complex. These ballistic modifiers are typically added to the double-base 'paste' prior to gelatinization on heated calendars or one type or another. The effect of constant burning rate over a pressure range is called a 'plateau' while an even more beneficial effect of decreasing burning rate with increasing pressure is termed a 'mesa.' The latter effect results in very low temperature sensitivity of the propellant burning rate. Propellants with such effects are ideal tactical rocket motor propellants. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and personnel safety due to the metal's toxic

  2. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  3. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  4. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  5. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  6. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  7. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ambus, Per

    2012-03-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH(4) ) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH(4) production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH(4) in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. In consequence, scaling up of aerobic CH(4) emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH(4) into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH(4) precursors in plant material.

  9. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section... production of plant materials. NRCS can produce plant materials in the quantity required to do a specific conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are...

  10. Production of interspecific hybrid plants in Primula.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The methods of production of inter-specific hybrids in Primula are categorized into four steps: (1) emasculation, (2) pollination, (3) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (4) confiration of hybridity and ploidy level of the regenerated plants. Although most of the Primula pecies have a heteromorphic self-incompatibility system, an emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination since self-incompatibility is not always complete. At the resue culture step, addition of plant hormones (e.g., auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin) to the culture medium is proved to be effective. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the comparison of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is easy and rapid technique to confirm hybridity and to estimate ploidy level and genomic combination.

  11. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  12. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  13. Materials characterization of propellants using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Propellant characteristics for solid rocket motors were not completely determined for its use as a processing variable in today's production facilities. A major effort to determine propellant characteristics obtainable through ultrasonic measurement techniques was performed in this task. The information obtained was then used to determine the uniformity of manufacturing methods and/or the ability to determine non-uniformity in processes.

  14. Terrestrial plant production and climate change.

    PubMed

    Friend, Andrew D

    2010-03-01

    The likely future increase in atmospheric CO(2) and associated changes in climate will affect global patterns of plant production. Models integrate understanding of the influence of the environment on plant physiological processes and so enable estimates of future changes to be made. Moreover, they allow us to assess the consequences of different assumptions for predictions and so stimulate further research. This paper is a review of the sensitivities of one such model, Hybrid6.5, a detailed mechanistic model of terrestrial primary production. This model is typical of its type, and the sensitivities of the global distribution of predicted production to model assumptions and possible future CO(2) levels and climate are assessed. Sensitivity tests show that leaf phenology has large effects on mean C(3) crop and needleleaved cold deciduous tree production, reducing potential net primary production (NPP) from that obtained using constant maximum annual leaf area index by 32.9% and 41.6%, respectively. Generalized Plant Type (GPT) specific parameterizations, particularly photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf N, affect mean predicted NPP of higher C(3) plants by -22.3% to 27.9%, depending on the GPT, compared to NPP predictions obtained using mean parameter values. An increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations from current values to 720 ppm by the end of this century, with associated effects on climate from a typical climate model, is predicted to increase global NPP by 37.3%. Mean increases range from 43.9-52.9% across different C(3) GPTs, whereas the mean NPP of C(4) grass and crop increases by 5.9%. Significant uncertainties concern the extent to which acclimative processes may reduce any potential future increase in primary production and the degree to which any gains are transferred to durable, and especially edible, biomass. Experimentalists and modellers need to work closely together to reduce these uncertainties. A number of research priorities are suggested

  15. Potential Use of Abrasive Air-Propelled Agricultural Residues for Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new postemergence weed control tactic is proposed for organic production systems that results in plant abrasion and death upon assault from abrasive grits propelled by compressed air. Grit derived from granulated walnut shells was delivered by a sand blaster at 517 kPa at distances of 30 to 60 cm ...

  16. Handbook on Hypergolic Propellant Discharges and Disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, T. E.; Sivik, H. E.; Thomas, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of all treatment methods formerly or currently used in treating chemical wastes is assessed with emphasis on the disposal of hypergolic propellants. Maximum focus is on the space shuttle propellants MMH and N2O4. Except for hydrogen peroxide oxidizers, all the propellants are nitrogen based and can be potentially reduced to valuable plant nutrients. In theory, all the propellants can be reduced to carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, except of fuming nitric acid which contains a small amount of fluorine. Appendices cover: (1) a general design criteria for disposal ponds; (2) thermal aspects of reaction in dilute solution; (3) gas bubble growth, detachment, and rise (4) absorption scrubber fundamentals and descriptions; (5) separation of a propellant vapor from a helium stream by permeation; and (6) atmospheric emission limits.

  17. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  18. 78 FR 45052 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... considered the comment received. Hartzell Propeller, Inc. supports the NPRM (78 FR 18255, dated March 26... specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18255). The NPRM... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will...

  19. 14 CFR 21.500 - Approval of engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of engines and propellers. 21.500... AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Approval of Engines, Propellers, Materials, Parts, and Appliances: Import § 21.500 Approval of engines and propellers. Each holder or licensee of a...

  20. The theoretical limit to plant productivity.

    PubMed

    DeLucia, Evan H; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Hudiburg, Tara W; Kantola, Ilsa B; Long, Stephen P; Miller, Adam D; Ort, Donald R; Parton, William J

    2014-08-19

    Human population and economic growth are accelerating the demand for plant biomass to provide food, fuel, and fiber. The annual increment of biomass to meet these needs is quantified as net primary production (NPP). Here we show that an underlying assumption in some current models may lead to underestimates of the potential production from managed landscapes, particularly of bioenergy crops that have low nitrogen requirements. Using a simple light-use efficiency model and the theoretical maximum efficiency with which plant canopies convert solar radiation to biomass, we provide an upper-envelope NPP unconstrained by resource limitations. This theoretical maximum NPP approached 200 tC ha(-1) yr(-1) at point locations, roughly 2 orders of magnitude higher than most current managed or natural ecosystems. Recalculating the upper envelope estimate of NPP limited by available water reduced it by half or more in 91% of the land area globally. While the high conversion efficiencies observed in some extant plants indicate great potential to increase crop yields without changes to the basic mechanism of photosynthesis, particularly for crops with low nitrogen requirements, realizing such high yields will require improvements in water use efficiency. PMID:25069060

  1. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  2. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  3. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  4. Plant productivity and heavy metal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Guidi, G.V.; Petruzzelli, G.; Vallini, G.; Pera, A.

    1990-06-01

    This article describes the potential for use of composts from green waste and from municipal solid wastes for agricultural use in Italy. The accumulation of heavy metals in compost-amended soils and crops was evaluated and the influence of these composts on plant productivity was studied. Green compost was obtained from vegetable organic residues; municipal solid waste derived compost was obtained from the aerobic biostabilization of a mixture of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. The two composts had good chemical characteristics and their use caused no pollution to soil and plants. The overall fertilizing effect was higher for green compost even though green compost and municipal solid waste derived compost had similar contents of primary elements of fertility.

  5. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  6. Compact, Lightweight Adsorber and Sabatier Reactor for CO2 Capture and Reduction for Consumable and Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junaedi, Christian; Hawley, Kyle; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Busby, Stacy A.; Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of CO2 to produce (or recycle) life support consumables, such as O2 and H2O, and to generate propellant fuels is an important aspect of NASA's concept for future, long duration planetary exploration. One potential approach is to capture and use CO2 from the Martian atmosphere to generate the consumables and propellant fuels. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, continues to develop its regenerable adsorber technology for capturing CO2 from gaseous atmospheres (for cabin atmosphere revitalization and in-situ resource utilization applications) and its Sabatier reactor for converting CO2 to methane and water. Both technologies are based on PCI's Microlith(R) substrates and have been demonstrated to reduce size, weight, and power consumption during CO2 capture and methanation process. For adsorber applications, the Microlith substrates offer a unique resistive heating capability that shows potential for short regeneration time and reduced power requirements compared to conventional systems. For the Sabatier applications, the combination of the Microlith substrates and durable catalyst coating permits efficient CO2 methanation that favors high reactant conversion, high selectivity, and durability. Results from performance testing at various operating conditions will be presented. An effort to optimize the Sabatier reactor and to develop a bench-top Sabatier Development Unit (SDU) will be discussed.

  7. Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means

  8. Production of interspecific hybrids in ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Kato, Juntaro; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In breeding of ornamental plants, interspecific hybridization and polyploidization have successfully been used to produce novel cultivars with blended traits of both parents and to introgress useful traits of one species to another. Embryo rescue techniques and molecular cytogenetic methods have successfully been used to produce and characterize interspecific hybrids in various genera. In this paper, recent advances in interspecific hybridization are described based on the results obtained in Primula, Cosmos, and Kalanchoe with special references to the use of embryo culture techniques for rescuing the abortive hybrid embryos. The methods for production and characterization of interspecific hybrids are categorized into three steps, i.e., (1) pollination, (2) rescue culture of immature embryo, and (3) confirmation of hybridity and ploidy level of the plants obtained. For interspecific crosses, emasculation step is usually needed to avoid self-pollination even in the genera with self-incompatibility system, such as Primula and Cosmos, since self-incompatibility is not always complete. Since interspecific crosses are usually hindered by various cross-incompatibility mechanisms, successful production of interspecific hybrids could be achieved only from limited crosses among those using many cultivars/strains of both parents, suggesting the importance of the selection of the compatible genotypes. Unilateral cross incompatibility is commonly observed in interspecific cross combinations, so reciprocal crosses should be conducted as an indispensable step. At the rescue culture step, addition of plant hormones, e.g., auxin cytokinin and gibberellin, to the culture medium at the appropriate concentrations is proved to be effective and necessary. The hybridity of the plants is efficiently confirmed at the seedling stage by DNA analysis in addition to the observation of morphological characters. The analysis of relative DNA contents by flow cytometry is an easy and rapid means

  9. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  10. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  11. Propeller/wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

  12. Ariane-5 solid-propellant stage development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigou, Jacques

    1992-03-01

    The development status of the solid propellant engine (P230) of the Ariane-5 launcher is described. Large new industrial plants were built in Europe and Guiana for the development and manufacture of the solid-booster stage and are now operational. A product assurance policy, specific and common to the companies that are involved in the engine's development, was defined and will be implemented. The paper describes the production cycles for the charged segments, the igniter, and the nozzle for P230 engine, as well as the process of engine integration and testing. Consideration is also given to the engine thrust capability, the launcher flight control, and the interfaces. The the major engine development tests are described.

  13. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT...

  14. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT...

  15. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT...

  16. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT...

  17. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT...

  18. Temperature automation for a propellant mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Wilson, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis and installation of an automatic temperature controller on a propellant mixer is presented. Ultimately, the entire mixing process will come under automation, but since precise adherence to the temperature profile is very difficult to sustain manually, this was the first component to be automated. Automation is not only important for producing a uniform product, but it is necessary for envisioned space-based propellant production.

  19. Production simulator for wave power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsethaugen, K.

    1994-07-01

    The report gives plans and specifications for a wave power production simulator. The simulator is a computer program that computes how much of the energy in the open ocean that can be converted to usable energy at a site off or onshore. The production of wave power from sea waves is not an easy task. Efforts have been made in several countries to develop devices that can extract energy from the ocean, but very few have so far been successful. During the last 15 years a considerable know-how has been established in Norway on wave energy utilization. Part of this know-how will be included in the proposed production simulator. Evaluation of new devices and new sites can be done in a more comparative and efficient way by this tool. It will contribute to interdisciplinary activity in the field of wave power utilization, and should be applicable for the nonexpert. The simulator consists of several modules, joined together by computer software. The plans so far include purpose, needs and background for the development of a wave power plant simulator and a high level specification of the software and scope of work.

  20. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Plants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moussavou, Ghislain; Ko, Kisung; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Choo, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Plants are considered as an alternative platform for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) production due to the improvement and diversification of transgenic techniques. The diversity of plant species offers a multitude of possibilities for the valorization of genetic resources. Moreover, plants can be propagated indefinitely, providing cheap biomass production on a large scale in controlled conditions. Thus, recent studies have shown the successful development of plant systems for the production of mAbs for cancer immunotherapy. However, their several limitations have to be resolved for efficient antibody production in plants. PMID:26550566

  1. ISRU Propellant Selection for Space Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical propulsion remains the only viable solution as technically matured technology for the near term human space transportation to Lunar and Mars. Current mode of space travel requires us to "take everything we will need", including propellant for the return trip. Forcing the mission designers to carry propellant for the return trip limits payload mass available for mission operations and results in a large and costly (and often unaffordable) design. Producing propellant via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) will enable missions with chemical propulsion by the "refueling" of return-trip propellant. It will reduce vehicle propellant mass carrying requirement by over 50%. This mass reduction can translates into increased payload to enhance greater mission capability, reduces vehicle size, weight and cost. It will also reduce size of launch vehicle fairing size as well as number of launches for a given space mission and enables exploration missions with existing chemical propulsion. Mars remains the ultimate destination for Human Space Exploration within the Solar System. The Mars atmospheric consist of 95% carbon dioxide (CO2) and the presence of Ice (water) was detected on Mars surfaces. This presents a basic chemical building block for the ISRU propellant manufacturing. However, the rationale for the right propellant to produce via ISRU appears to be limited to the perception of "what we can produce" as oppose to "what is the right propellant". Methane (CH4) is often quoted as a logical choice for Mars ISRU propellant, however; it is believed that there are better alternatives available that can result in a better space transportation architecture. A system analysis is needed to determine on what is the right propellant choice for the exploration vehicle. This paper examines the propellant selection for production via ISRU method on Mars surfaces. It will examine propellant trades for the exploration vehicle with resulting impact on vehicle performance, size

  2. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products: Description of sampling and analysis methods for rocket exhaust characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.

    1990-06-07

    A systematic approach has been developed and experimentally validated for the sampling and chemical characterization of the rocket motor exhaust generated from the firing of scaled down test motors at the US Army's Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. The overall strategy was to sample and analyze major exhaust constituents in near real time, while performing off-site analyses of samples collected for the determination of trace constituents of the particulate and vapor phases. Initial interference studies were performed using atmospheric pressure burns of 1 g quantities of propellants in small chambers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined using non-dispersive infrared instrumentation. Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and ammonia determinations were made using ion selective electrode technology. Oxides of nitrogen were determined using chemiluminescence instrumentation. Airborne particulate mass concentration was determined using infrared forward scattering measurements and a tapered element oscillating microbalance, as well as conventional gravimetry. Particulate phase metals were determined by collection on Teflon membrane filters, followed by inductively coupled plasma and atomic absorption analysis. Particulate phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were collected using high volume sampling on a two stage filter. Target species were extracted, and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vapor phase species were collected on multi-sorbent resin traps, and subjected to thermal desorption GC/MS for analysis. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2011-10-01

    Soil microbes play key roles in ecosystems, yet the impact of their diversity on plant communities is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the diversity of belowground plant-associated soil fungi promotes plant productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant biodiversity studies, we demonstrate that this positive relationship can be driven by complementarity effects among soil fungi in one soil type and by a selection effect resulting from the fungal species that stimulated plant productivity the most in another soil type. Selection and complementarity effects among fungal species contributed to improving plant productivity up to 82% and 85%, respectively, above the average of the respective fungal species monocultures depending on the soil in which they were grown. These results also indicate that belowground diversity may act as insurance for maintaining plant productivity under differing environmental conditions.

  4. Application of Two-Phase CFD to the Design and Analysis of a Subscale Motor Experiment to Evaluate Propellant Slag Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    The redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) Pressure Perturbation Investigation Team concluded that the cause of recent pressure spikes during both static and flight motor burns was the expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool which collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes which may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distribution, contaminants, or processing variations. In order to determine the effect of suspect propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production in a real motor environment, a subscale motor experiment was designed. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle due to low cost and quick turn around times. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nozzle nose design to provide a positive trap for the slag which would increase both the quantity and repeatability of measured slag weights. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to assess a variety of submerged nose configurations to identify the design which possessed the best capability to reliably collect slag. CFD also was used to assure that the final selected nozzle design would result in flow field characteristics such as dividing streamline location, nose attach point, and separated flow structure which would have similtude with the RSRM submerged nozzle nose flow field. It also was decided to spin the 5 inch motor about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection quantities. Again, CFD was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, including the avoidance of burn rate enhancement from radial acceleration effects.

  5. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  6. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  7. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive. PMID:11543164

  8. Propellant for the NASA Standard Initiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl; Tipton, Bill, Jr.; Dutton, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses processes employed in manufacturing zirconium-potassium perchlorate propellant for the NASA standard initiator. It provides both a historical background on the NSI device-detailing problem areas and their resolution--and on propellant blending techniques. Emphasis is placed on the precipitation blending method. The findings on mixing equipment, processing, and raw materials are described. Also detailed are findings on the bridgewire slurry operation, one of the critical steps in the production of the NASA standard initiator.

  9. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity.

    PubMed

    Muller, Jonathon N; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these "urban plantings" are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant "ecological values" by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban center of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region) over 2, 6 week sampling periods characterized by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation), plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity. Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly-likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  10. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  11. Liquid propellant densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

  12. Return of the propeller

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Resurrecting the propeller-driven airplane could help save fuel if there is another oil crisis like in the 1970s. This article discusses the new propeller engine, propfans, which are being developed for commercial airplanes. It discusses the three types of propfan engines and the advantages and disadvantages of each. It also tells about the propfan airplanes several companies are developing.

  13. A Study on New Composite Thermoplastic Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahara, Takehiro; Nakayama, Masanobu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Katoh, Kazushige; Miyazaki, Shigehumi; Maruizumi, Haruki; Hori, Keiichi; Morita, Yasuhiro; Akiba, Ryojiro

    Efforts have been paid to realize a new composite propellant using thermoplastics as a fuel binder and lithium as a metallic fuel. Thermoplastics binder makes it possible the storage of solid propellant in small blocks and to provide propellants blocks into rocket motor case at a quantity needed just before use, which enables the production facility of solid propellant at a minimum level, thus, production cost significantly lower. Lithium has been a candidate for a metallic fuel for the ammonium perchlorate based composite propellants owing to its capability to reduce the hydrogen chloride in the exhaust gas, however, never been used because lithium is not stable at room conditions and complex reaction products between oxygen, nitrogen, and water are formed at the surface of particles and even in the core. However, lithium particles whose surface shell structure is well controlled are rather stable and can be stored in thermoplastics for a long period. Evaluation of several organic thermoplastics whose melting temperatures are easily tractable was made from the standpoint of combustion characteristics, and it is shown that thermoplastics propellants can cover wide range of burning rate spectrum. Formation of well-defined surface shell of lithium particles and its kinetics are also discussed.

  14. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  15. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  16. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  17. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  18. Metabolic engineering for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Andrew; Desgagné-Penix, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Several plant isoquinoline alkaloids (PIAs) possess powerful pharmaceutical and biotechnological properties. Thus, PIA metabolism and its fascinating molecules, including morphine, colchicine and galanthamine, have attracted the attention of both the industry and researchers involved in plant science, biochemistry, chemical bioengineering and medicine. Currently, access and availability of high-value PIAs [commercialized (e.g. galanthamine) or not (e.g. narciclasine)] is limited by low concentration in nature, lack of cultivation or geographic access, seasonal production and risk of overharvesting wild plant species. Nevertheless, most commercial PIAs are still extracted from plant sources. Efforts to improve the production of PIA have largely been impaired by the lack of knowledge on PIA metabolism. With the development and integration of next-generation sequencing technologies, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics analyses and bioinformatics, systems biology was used to unravel metabolic pathways allowing the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches to increase production of valuable PIAs. Metabolic engineering provides opportunity to overcome issues related to restricted availability, diversification and productivity of plant alkaloids. Engineered plant, plant cells and microbial cell cultures can act as biofactories by offering their metabolic machinery for the purpose of optimizing the conditions and increasing the productivity of a specific alkaloid. In this article, is presented an update on the production of PIA in engineered plant, plant cell cultures and heterologous micro-organisms.

  19. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model is derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. A computer program is developed to solve the time-dependent equations, and is applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. In the case of nitramine propellants the cratering of the burning surface associated with combustion above break-point pressures augments the effective burning rate as deduced from the closed vessel experiment. Low pressure combustion is significantly affected by the ignition process and, in the case of nitramine propellants, by the developing and changing surface structure. Thus, burning rates deduced from the closed vessel experiment may or may not agree with those measured in the equilibrium strand burner. Series of T burner experiments are performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP)propellants. Although ash produced by more fuel rich propellants could have provided mechanical suppression, results from clean-burning propellants permit the conclusion that HMX reduces the acoustic driving.

  20. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  1. High temperature propellant development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported that the neccessary technology has been developed and demonstrated for the manufacture of heat-sterilizable solid propellants which meet specific ballistic goals. It is shown that: (1) phosphate doping of ammonium perchlorate significantly enhances the thermal stability of the substance; (2) grinding the ammonium perchlorate to reduce particle size further increases thermal stability; and (3) unsaturated polymers such as the polybutadienes can be successfully used in a heat-sterilizable propellant system. Among the topics considered by the study are oxidizers, dopants, binders, and the thermal cycling of 70 lb and 600 lb propellant grains.

  2. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant's pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their 'metagenome' and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth. PMID:25908654

  3. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant's pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their 'metagenome' and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth.

  4. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  5. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  6. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:25792513

  7. Nitramine smokeless propellant research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A transient ballistics and combustion model was derived to represent the closed vessel experiment that is widely used to characterize propellants. The model incorporates the nitramine combustion mechanisms. A computer program was developed to solve the time dependent equations, and was applied to explain aspects of closed vessel behavior. It is found that the rate of pressurization in the closed vessel is insufficient at pressures of interest to augment the burning rate by time dependent processes. Series of T-burner experiments were performed to compare the combustion instability characteristics of nitramine (HMX) containing propellants and ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellants. It is found that the inclusion of HMX consistently renders the propellant more stable.

  8. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant’s pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their ‘metagenome’ and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth. PMID:25908654

  9. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  10. Solid propellant environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Le, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the Solid Propellant Environmental Issues (SPEI) project is to demonstrate environmentally acceptable technologies that will enhance the continued production of solid rocket motors (SRMs) by complying with current and anticipated environmental regulations. Phase 1 of the project identifies current and anticipated environmental regulations that may affect SRMs manufacturing in the future and identify emerging process technologies which comply with these regulations. Phase 2 of the project established a baseline database by fabricating a 363 kg motor using the current manufacturing process. In Phase 3, environmentally acceptable process technologies were evaluated, ranked, and selected for demonstration using criteria developed by the team. The results for Phase 1--3 have previously been presented. This paper will present data obtained to date on Phase 4. In Phase 4, the alternate process technologies were evaluated for compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and waste minimization/pollution prevention. The best performing candidate for each application area was selected for demonstration. The selected process technologies will be inserted into the baseline manufacturing process from Phase 2. The new manufacturing process will be demonstrated and evaluated through the scale-up and fabrication of two 363 kg solid rocket motors.

  11. Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Md. Sarfaraj; Fareed, Sheeba; Ansari, Saba; Rahman, Md. Akhlaquer; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Saeed, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals. PMID:22368394

  12. Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Brad R.

    2004-02-01

    The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

  13. Propellant Readiness Level: A Methodological Approach to Propellant Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John A.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2010-01-01

    A methodological approach to defining propellant characterization is presented. The method is based on the well-established Technology Readiness Level nomenclature. This approach establishes the Propellant Readiness Level as a metric for ascertaining the readiness of a propellant or a propellant combination by evaluating the following set of propellant characteristics: thermodynamic data, toxicity, applications, combustion data, heat transfer data, material compatibility, analytical prediction modeling, injector/chamber geometry, pressurization, ignition, combustion stability, system storability, qualification testing, and flight capability. The methodology is meant to be applicable to all propellants or propellant combinations; liquid, solid, and gaseous propellants as well as monopropellants and propellant combinations are equally served. The functionality of the proposed approach is tested through the evaluation and comparison of an example set of hydrocarbon fuels.

  14. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~<500m in size) have been indirectly identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring. In this paper we present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B

  15. 1996--97 buying guide: Power plant products and services

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This is a buying guide/directory of power plant products and services. The guide includes a product index and a directory of product suppliers and manufacturers with the information necessary for making contact; and index of services and a directory of businesses providing the services with the information necessary for making contact with them.

  16. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  17. Studies on the Contamination of Products Produced by Rendering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tittiger, F.

    1971-01-01

    Studies on the bacterial contamination in rendered product and the environment of five rendering plants were carried out. From a total of 180 samples examined, total bacterial and anaerobic spore counts were conducted on 135. Plants with melter systems produced a sterile product which was recontaminated before reaching the finished stage. Two plants with continuous rendering systems did not achieve sterilization of the product during the heating process. Spore forming organisms regularly survived heating in the continuous rendering system. Salmonellae were isolated from samples collected in four of the five plants under study. Pathogenic Clostridia, especially Cl. novyi, Cl. septicum and Cl. perfringens were present in samples from all plants. Other pathogens found were Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynebacteria and Pasteurella. PMID:4253467

  18. Screening of novel plants for biogas production in northern conditions.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Mari; Laine, Antti; Rintala, Jukka

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to screen nine annual or perennial novel plants for biogas production cultivated in years 2007-2010 in Finland. The most promising novel plants for biogas production were found to be brown knapweed, giant goldenrod and Japanese millet producing 14-27 t total solids/ha and 4000-6100 Nm(3)CH4/ha. The specific methane yields of all studied plants varied from 170 to 381 Nm(3)CH4/t volatile solids (VS), depending on harvest time and plant species. Co-digestion of brown knapweed with cow manure in continuously stirred tank reactor was investigated and the highest methane yield was 254 NL CH4/kg VS, when the share of brown knapweed was 50% in the feed VS (organic loading rate (OLR) 2 kg VS/m(3)/d). The cultivation managements and sustainability of novel plants for biogas production have to be investigated. PMID:23669072

  19. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  20. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  1. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  2. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section 613.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.4...

  3. Stability of production and plant species diversity in managed grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant biodiversity theory suggests that increased plant species diversity contributes to the stability of ecosystems. In managed grasslands, such as pastures, greater stability of herbage production would be beneficial. In this retrospective study, I used data from three reports from the 1930s, 1940...

  4. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  5. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban center of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region) over 2, 6 week sampling periods characterized by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation), plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity. Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly—likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context. PMID:25400642

  6. Mortality of workers at acetylene production plants.

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, M L; Matthews, G; Sheikh, K; Knight, K L; Oakes, D; Sullivan, K R

    1988-01-01

    To reduce the risk of explosion oxyacetylene cylinders are filled with a spongy mass, acetone is added to saturate the mass, and acetylene is pumped into the cylinder. The first cylinders manufactured before 1936 used a kapok filling topped off with about 16 oz of crocidolite asbestos, with a metal gauze thimble inserted to reduce risk of flash back. Cylinders must be examined annually. The use of crocidolite ceased in 1972 and other fillings have been adopted since 1970; kapok cylinders now constitute less than 5% of the total stock. To assess possible hazards, a mortality study of workers first employed between 1935 and 1975 and followed up to December 1984 was undertaken. Simulation tests showed low concentrations of asbestos in the air even in the earliest period. The population studied consisted of 370 workers at the Bilston plant in the West Midlands, 611 at the 14 other plants in England and Wales, and 120 in Scotland. No deaths occurred from mesothelial tumours but there was an excess of deaths from cancer, particularly lung cancer, cancer of the stomach, and cancer of the pancreas, the latter accounting for eight deaths. Risks appeared to be concentrated at the Bilston plant. The importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:3342189

  7. Plant Natural Products Targeting Bacterial Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laura Nunes; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Macedo, Alexandre José; Trentin, Danielle Silva

    2016-08-24

    Decreased antimicrobial efficiency has become a global public health issue. The paucity of new antibacterial drugs is evident, and the arsenal against infectious diseases needs to be improved urgently. The selection of plants as a source of prototype compounds is appropriate, since plant species naturally produce a wide range of secondary metabolites that act as a chemical line of defense against microorganisms in the environment. Although traditional approaches to combat microbial infections remain effective, targeting microbial virulence rather than survival seems to be an exciting strategy, since the modulation of virulence factors might lead to a milder evolutionary pressure for the development of resistance. Additionally, anti-infective chemotherapies may be successfully achieved by combining antivirulence and conventional antimicrobials, extending the lifespan of these drugs. This review presents an updated discussion of natural compounds isolated from plants with chemically characterized structures and activity against the major bacterial virulence factors: quorum sensing, bacterial biofilms, bacterial motility, bacterial toxins, bacterial pigments, bacterial enzymes, and bacterial surfactants. Moreover, a critical analysis of the most promising virulence factors is presented, highlighting their potential as targets to attenuate bacterial virulence. The ongoing progress in the field of antivirulence therapy may therefore help to translate this promising concept into real intervention strategies in clinical areas. PMID:27437994

  8. Plant Products for Pharmacology: Application of Enzymes in Their Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Zarevúcka, Marie; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Different plant products have been subjected to detailed investigations due to their increasing importance for improving human health. Plants are sources of many groups of natural products, of which large number of new compounds has already displayed their high impact in human medicine. This review deals with the natural products which may be found dissolved in lipid phase (phytosterols, vitamins etc.). Often subsequent convenient transformation of natural products may further improve the pharmacological properties of new potential medicaments based on natural products. To respect basic principles of sustainable and green procedures, enzymes are often employed as efficient natural catalysts in such plant product transformations. Transformations of lipids and other natural products under the conditions of enzyme catalysis show increasing importance in environmentally safe and sustainable production of pharmacologically important compounds. In this review, attention is focused on lipases, efficient and convenient biocatalysts for the enantio- and regioselective formation / hydrolysis of ester bond in a wide variety of both natural and unnatural substrates, including plant products, eg. plant oils and other natural lipid phase compounds. The application of enzymes for preparation of acylglycerols and transformation of other natural products provides big advantage in comparison with employing of conventional chemical methods: Increased selectivity, higher product purity and quality, energy conservation, elimination of heavy metal catalysts, and sustainability of the employed processes, which are catalyzed by enzymes. Two general procedures are used in the transformation of lipid-like natural products: (a) Hydrolysis/alcoholysis of triacylglycerols and (b) esterification of glycerol. The reactions can be performed under conventional conditions or in supercritical fluids/ionic liquids. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in supercritical fluids combine the advantages of

  9. Holographic investigation of solid propellant combustion particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellin, P. J.

    1983-12-01

    This investigation continued the development of a method for obtaining high quality holograms of the combustion products from aluminized solid rocket motor propellants burned in a two-dimensional motor to provide a cross-flow environment. The use of glass side plates as a motor casing provided both a convenient construction technique and allowed good quality holograms to be obtained. At combustion pressures above 500 psia and propellant slab thicknesses greater than 0.080 inches, the timing of the laser pulse during the burn was found to be critical, since an extremely short time interval existed between the establishment of steady state slab burning and the generation of too much smoke/combustion products to permit laser penetration. As desired operating pressures increase and aluminum powder particle sizes decrease, it will probably be necessary to use thinner propellant slabs.

  10. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies.

  11. Production of Aromatic Plant Terpenoids in Recombinant Baker's Yeast.

    PubMed

    Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Pichler, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Plant terpenoids are high-value compounds broadly applied as food additives or fragrances in perfumes and cosmetics. Their biotechnological production in yeast offers an attractive alternative to extraction from plants. Here, we provide two optimized protocols for the production of the plant terpenoid trans-nootkatol with recombinant S. cerevisiae by either (I) converting externally added (+)-valencene with resting cells or (II) cultivating engineered self-sufficient production strains. By synthesis of the hydrophobic compounds in self-sufficient production cells, phase transfer issues can be avoided and the highly volatile products can be enriched in and easily purified from n-dodecane, which is added to the cell broth as second phase. PMID:26843167

  12. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies. PMID:23799872

  13. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  14. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings [5, 8]. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~ 100m in size) have been identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images [10, 7, 9, 11]. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring [6, 2]. In this paper we present our new results about by now classical A ring propellers and more enigmatic B ring population. Due to the presence of self-gravity wakes the analysis of propeller brightness in ISS images always bears some ambiguity [7, 9] and consequently the exact morphology of propellers is not a settled issue. In 2008 we obtained a fortunate Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation of the largest A ring propeller Bleriot. Utilizing Cassini ISS images we obtain Bleriot orbit and demonstrate that UVIS Persei Rev42 occultation did cut across Bleriot about 100km downstream from the center. The occultation itself shows a prominent partial gap and higher density outer flanking wakes, while their orientation is consistent with a downstream cut. While in the UVIS occultation the partial gap is more prominent than the flanking wakes, the features mostly seen in Bleriot images are actually flanking wakes. One of the most interesting aspects of the A ring propellers are their wanderings, or longitudinal deviations from a pure circular orbit [11]. We numerically investigated the possibility of simple moon

  15. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  16. Installation-restoration program environmental technology development. Task Order 12. Field demonstration - composting of propellant-contaminated sediments at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Final report, Jul 87-Mar 89

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.; Ziegenfuss, P.S.; Marks, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    A field-scale demonstration of composting propellants-contaminated sediment was conducted at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP). Composting, as used at BAAP, is a treatment process in which organic-chemical contaminated soils or sediments are mixed with organic materials such as manure to enhance the role of microbial metabolism in degrading and stabilizing soil/sediment contaminants. Sediments contaminated with the propellant nitrocellulose (NC) were mixed with manure, alfalfa, livestock feed, and wood chips and composted in four static piles. Negative pressure aeration was used to maintain aerobiosis and remove excess heat. Experimental variables investigated during the study were temperature (mesophilic, 35 C vs. thermophilic, 55 C), sediment loading (19 to 32 weight percent), and NC loading. Small aliquots of compost (approximately 400 cu cm) were spiked with pure NC, placed in porous nylon bags and buried in compost piles. These bagged compost samples were used to determine if high levels of NC could be successfully composted. Thermophilic temperatures resulted in the highest percent reduction in NC concentration.

  17. Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed. PMID:25583225

  18. In-Situ Cryogenic Propellant Liquefaction and Storage for a Precursor to a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Paul; Durrant, Tom

    The current mission plan for the first human mission to Mars is based on an in-situ propellant production (ISPP) approach to reduce the amount of propellants needed to be taken to Mars and ultimately to reduce mission cost. Recent restructuring of the Mars Robotic Exploration Program has removed ISPP from the early sample return missions. A need still exists to demonstrate ISPP technologies on one or more robotic missions prior to the first human mission. This paper outlines a concept for an ISPP-based precursor mission as a technology demonstration prior to the first human mission. It will also return Martian soil samples to Earth for scientific analysis. The mission will primarily demonstrate cryogenic oxygen and fuel production, liquefaction, and storage for use as propellants for the return trip. Hydrogen will be brought from Earth as a feedstock to produce the hydrocarbon fuel (most likely methane). The analysis used to develop the mission concept includes several different thermal control and liquefaction options for the cryogens. Active cooling and liquefaction devices include Stirling, pulse tube, and Brayton-cycle cryocoolers. Insulation options include multilayer insulation, evacuated microspheres, aerogel blankets, and foam insulation. The cooling capacity and amount of insulation are traded off against each other for a minimum-mass system. In the case of hydrogen feedstock, the amount of hydrogen boiloff allowed during the trip to Mars is also included in the tradeoff. The spacecraft concept includes a Lander (including the propellant production plant) with a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) mounted atop it. An option is explored where the engines on the MAV are also used for descent and landing on the Martian surface at the beginning of the mission. So the MAV propellant tanks would contain oxygen and methane during the trip from Earth. This propellant would be consumed in descent to the Martian surface, resulting in nearly-empty MAV tanks to be filled by the

  19. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD. PMID:27651267

  20. Propeller pitch change mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, P.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes an aircraft propulsion system. It comprises: a first turbine carrying a first set of propeller blades; a second turbine carrying a second set of propeller blades; a gear system carried by the first turbine for changing pitch of the first set of propeller blades, which includes a pair of ring gears, both coaxial with the first turbine; a first set of planet gears which engage both ring gears and which induce pitch change when the planet gears rotate; a sun gear which drives the planet gears; a second set of planet gears which are carried by a planet gear carrier affixed to the second turbine and which drive the sun gear in order to change pitch by causing relative motion between the sung ear and the first turbine; and means for preventing a change in speed of the planet gear carrier from causing a change in pitch.

  1. Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. Conclusions/Significance Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning. PMID:21249208

  2. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  3. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  4. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty. PMID:25901325

  5. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty. PMID:25901325

  6. Optimum propeller wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, R. J.; Archer, R. D.

    1983-12-01

    The Prandtl-Betz-Theodorsen theory of heavily loaded airscrews has been adapted to the design of propeller windmills which are to be optimized for maximum power coefficient. It is shown that the simpler, light-loading, constant-area wake assumption can generate significantly different 'optimum' performance and geometry, and that it is therefore not appropriate to the design of propeller wind turbines when operating in their normal range of high-tip-speed-to-wind-speed ratio. Design curves for optimum power coefficient are presented and an example of the design of a typical two-blade optimum rotor is given.

  7. The CELSS breadboard project: Plant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, William M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Breadboard Project for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program is described. The simplified schematic of a CELSS is given. A modular approach is taken to building the CELSS Breadboard. Each module is researched in order to develop a data set for each one prior to its integration into the complete system. The data being obtained from the Biomass Production Module or the Biomass Production Chamber is examined. The other primary modules, food processing and resource recovery or waste management, are discussed briefly. The crew habitat module is not discussed. The primary goal of the Breadboard Project is to scale-up research data to an integrated system capable of supporting one person in order to establish feasibility for the development and operation of a CELSS. Breadboard is NASA's first attempt at developing a large scale CELSS.

  8. Active synchrophasing of propeller unbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaptein, Dick

    1992-01-01

    The results of a survey are presented to reduce the inflight propeller unbalance vibrations in the cabin of the Fokker 50 airplanes. Several approaches have been investigated. Active synchrophasing of the unbalance vibrations of both propellers appears to be successful.

  9. Convergence of terrestrial plant production across global climate gradients.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, Sean T; Cheng, Dongliang; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-08-01

    Variation in terrestrial net primary production (NPP) with climate is thought to originate from a direct influence of temperature and precipitation on plant metabolism. However, variation in NPP may also result from an indirect influence of climate by means of plant age, stand biomass, growing season length and local adaptation. To identify the relative importance of direct and indirect climate effects, we extend metabolic scaling theory to link hypothesized climate influences with NPP, and assess hypothesized relationships using a global compilation of ecosystem woody plant biomass and production data. Notably, age and biomass explained most of the variation in production whereas temperature and precipitation explained almost none, suggesting that climate indirectly (not directly) influences production. Furthermore, our theory shows that variation in NPP is characterized by a common scaling relationship, suggesting that global change models can incorporate the mechanisms governing this relationship to improve predictions of future ecosystem function.

  10. The onsite manufacture of propellant oxygen from lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Beegle, Robert L., Jr.; Guter, Gerald A.; Miller, Frederick E.; Rothenberg, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Aerojet carbothermal process for the manufacture of oxygen from lunar materials has three essential steps: the reduction of silicate with methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen; the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen to form methane and water; and the electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen. The reactions and the overall process are shown. It is shown with laboratory experimentation that the carbothermal process is feasible. Natural silicates can be reduced with carbon or methane. The important products are carbon monoxide, metal, and slag. The carbon monoxide can be completely reduced to form methane and water. The water can be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen and oxygen. A preliminary engineering study shows that the operation of plants using this process for the manufacture of propellant oxygen has a large economic advantage when the cost of the plant and its operation is compared to the cost of delivering oxygen from Earth.

  11. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils).

  12. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  13. Ducted propeller design and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    The theory and implementation of the design of a ducted propeller blade are presented and discussed. Straightener (anti-torque) vane design is also discussed. Comparisons are made to an existing propeller design and the results and performance of two example propeller blades are given. The inflow velocity at the propeller plane is given special attention and two dimensionless parameters independent of RPM are discussed. Errors in off-design performance are also investigated. 11 refs., 26 figs.

  14. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    PubMed

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same. PMID:25033667

  15. Automated production of plant-based vaccines and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Holger; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Briggs, John; Sharpe, Aaron; Shu, Sudong; Sharon, Andre

    2012-12-01

    A fully automated "factory" was developed that uses tobacco plants to produce large quantities of vaccines and other therapeutic biologics within weeks. This first-of-a-kind factory takes advantage of a plant viral vector technology to produce specific proteins within the leaves of rapidly growing plant biomass. The factory's custom-designed robotic machines plant seeds, nurture the growing plants, introduce a viral vector that directs the plant to produce a target protein, and harvest the biomass once the target protein has accumulated in the plants-all in compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines (e.g., current Good Manufacturing Practices). The factory was designed to be time, cost, and space efficient. The plants are grown in custom multiplant trays. Robots ride up and down a track, servicing the plants and delivering the trays from the lighted, irrigated growth modules to each processing station as needed. Using preprogrammed robots and processing equipment eliminates the need for human contact, preventing potential contamination of the process and economizing the operation. To quickly produce large quantities of protein-based medicines, we transformed a laboratory-based biological process and scaled it into an industrial process. This enables quick, safe, and cost-effective vaccine production that would be required in case of a pandemic.

  16. Propeller Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    This picture shows a general view of the Propeller Research Tunnel engine room under construction. Workmen were installing the two submarine diesel engines that would power the PRT. The room was constructed of concrete with corrugated metal siding and roofing with the intention of making the engine room as fireproof as possible.

  17. Silicone containing solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small amount, for example 1% by weight, of a liquid silicone oil to a metal containing solid rocket propellant provides a significant reduction in heat transfer to the inert nozzle walls. Metal oxide slag collection and blockage of the nozzle are eliminated and the burning rate is increased by about 5% to 10% thus improving ballistic performance.

  18. New Propellants and Cryofuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palasezski, Bryan; Sullivan, Neil S.; Hamida, Jaha; Kokshenev, V.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed research will investigate the stability and cryogenic properties of solid propellants that are critical to NASA s goal of realizing practical propellant designs for future spacecraft. We will determine the stability and thermal properties of a solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer in a laboratory environment in order to design a practical propellant. In particular, we will explore methods of embedding atomic species and metallic nano-particulates in hydrogen matrices suspended in liquid helium. We will also measure the characteristic lifetimes and diffusion of atomic species in these candidate cryofuels. The most promising large-scale advance in rocket propulsion is the use of atomic propellants; most notably atomic hydrogen stabilized in cryogenic environments, and metallized-gelled liquid hydrogen (MGH) or densified gelled hydrogen (DGH). The new propellants offer very significant improvements over classic liquid oxygen/hydrogen fuels because of two factors: (1) the high energy-release, and (ii) the density increase per unit energy release. These two changes can lead to significant reduced mission costs and increased payload to orbit weight ratios. An achievable 5 to 10 percent improvement in specific impulse for the atomic propellants or MGH fuels can result in a doubling or tripling of system payloads. The high-energy atomic propellants must be stored in a stabilizing medium such as solid hydrogen to inhibit or delay their recombination into molecules. The goal of the proposed research is to determine the stability and thermal properties of the solid hydrogen-liquid helium stabilizer. Magnetic resonance techniques will be used to measure the thermal lifetimes and the diffusive motions of atomic species stored in solid hydrogen grains. The properties of metallic nano-particulates embedded in hydrogen matrices will also be studied and analyzed. Dynamic polarization techniques will be developed to enhance signal/noise ratios in order to be able to

  19. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  20. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  1. The components of crop productivity: measuring and modeling plant metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1995-01-01

    Several investigators in the CELSS program have demonstrated that crop plants can be remarkably productive in optimal environments where plants are limited only by incident radiation. Radiation use efficiencies of 0.4 to 0.7 g biomass per mol of incident photons have been measured for crops in several laboratories. Some early published values for radiation use efficiency (1 g mol-1) were inflated due to the effect of side lighting. Sealed chambers are the basic research module for crop studies for space. Such chambers allow the measurement of radiation and CO2 fluxes, thus providing values for three determinants of plant growth: radiation absorption, photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield), and respiration efficiency (carbon use efficiency). Continuous measurement of each of these parameters over the plant life cycle has provided a blueprint for daily growth rates, and is the basis for modeling crop productivity based on component metabolic processes. Much of what has been interpreted as low photosynthetic efficiency is really the result of reduced leaf expansion and poor radiation absorption. Measurements and models of short-term (minutes to hours) and long-term (days to weeks) plant metabolic rates have enormously improved our understanding of plant environment interactions in ground-based growth chambers and are critical to understanding plant responses to the space environment.

  2. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  3. Gene delivery into plant cells for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  4. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  5. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    PubMed

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  6. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less “leaky” and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding

  7. [Production of plant-derived natural products in yeast cells - A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived natural products (PNPs) have been widely used in pharmaceutical and nutritional fields. So far, the main method to produce PNPs is extracting them from their original plants, however, there remains lots of problems. With the concept of synthetic biology, construction of yeast cell factories for production of PNPs provides an alternative way. In this review, we will focus on PNPs' market and application, research progress for production of artemisinin, research progress for production of terpenes, alkaloids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and recent technology development to give a brief introduction of construction of yeast cells for production of PNPs.

  8. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  9. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  10. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  11. Developments in the production of mucosal antibodies in plants.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Smales, C Mark; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Schiermeyer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mucosal antibodies represent attractive target molecules for the development of next generation biopharmaceuticals for passive immunization against various infectious diseases and treatment of patients suffering from mucosal antibody deficiencies. As these polymeric antibodies require complex post-translational modifications and correct subunit assembly, they are considered as difficult-to-produce recombinant proteins. Beside the traditional, mammalian-based production platforms, plants are emerging as alternative expression hosts for this type of complex macromolecule. Plant cells are able to produce high-quality mucosal antibodies as shown by the successful expression of the secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA) and M (IgM) in various antibody formats in different plant species including tobacco and its close relative Nicotiana benthamiana, maize, tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. Importantly for biotherapeutic application, transgenic plants are capable of synthesizing functional IgA and IgM molecules with biological activity and safety profiles comparable with their native mammalian counterparts. This article reviews the structure and function of mucosal IgA and IgM antibodies and summarizes the current knowledge of their production and processing in plant host systems. Specific emphasis is given to consideration of intracellular transport processes as these affect assembly of the mature immunoglobulins, their secretion rates, proteolysis/degradation and glycosylation patterns. Furthermore, this review provides an outline of glycoengineering efforts that have been undertaken so far to produce antibodies with homogenous human-like glycan decoration. We believe that the continued development of our understanding of the plant cellular machinery related to the heterologous expression of immunoglobulins will further improve the production levels, quality and control of post-translational modifications that are 'human-like' from plant systems and enhance the

  12. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  13. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  14. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  15. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  16. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  17. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  18. Influence of Plant Community Composition on Biomass Production in Planted Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Henschell, Max A.; Webster, Christopher R.; Flaspohler, David J.; Fortin, Chad R.

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield < 3500 kh/ha) had 8% lower plant community evenness and 9% lower FQI scores than those in the upper quartile (biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity. PMID:26018412

  19. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  20. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Stepping Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; Fikes, John C.

    2005-01-01

    An In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) is an important stepping stone to provide the capability to preposition, store, manufacture, and later use the propellants for Earth-Neighborhood campaigns and beyond. An in-space propellant depot will provide affordable propellants and other similar consumables to support the development of sustainable and affordable exploration strategies as well as commercial space activities. An in-space propellant depot not only requires technology development in key areas such as zero boil-off storage and fluid transfer, but in other areas such as lightweight structures, highly reliable connectors, and autonomous operations. These technologies can be applicable to a broad range of propellant depot concepts or specific to a certain design. In addition, these technologies are required for spacecraft and orbit transfer vehicle propulsion and power systems, and space life support. Generally, applications of this technology require long-term storage, on-orbit fluid transfer and supply, cryogenic propellant production from water, unique instrumentation and autonomous operations. This paper discusses the reasons why such advances are important to future affordable and sustainable operations in space. This paper also discusses briefly R&D objectives comprising a promising approach to the systems planning and evolution into a meaningful stepping stone design, development, and implementation of an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot. The success of a well-planned and orchestrated approach holds great promise for achieving innovation and revolutionary technology development for supporting future exploration and development of space.

  1. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity.

  2. The production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Napier, Johnathan A

    2007-01-01

    The ability to genetically engineer plants has facilitated the generation of oilseeds synthesizing non-native fatty acids. Two particular classes of fatty acids are considered in this review. First, so-called industrial fatty acids, which usually contain functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, or acetylenic bonds, and second, very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids normally found in fish oils and marine microorganisms. For industrial fatty acids, there has been limited progress toward obtaining high-level accumulation of these products in transgenic plants. For very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, although they have a much more complex biosynthesis, accumulation of some target fatty acids has been remarkably successful. In this review, we consider the probable factors responsible for these different outcomes, as well as the potential for further optimization of the transgenic production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  3. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  4. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a "supporting" ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed.

  5. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. The screw propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1980-07-01

    Marine and air screw propellers are considered in terms of theoretical hydrodynamics as developed by Joukowsky, Prandtl, and Betz. Attention is given to the flow around wings of finite span where spanwise flow exists and where lift and the bound vorticity must all go smoothly to zero at the wing tips. The concept of a trailing vortex sheet made up of infinitesimal line vortexes roughly aligned with the direction of flight is discussed in this regard. Also considered is induced velocity, which tends to convect the sheet downward at every stage in the roll-up process, the vortex theory of propellers and the Betz-Prandtl circulation distribution. The performance of the Gossamer Albatross and of a pedal-driven biplane called the Chrysalis are also discussed.

  7. Propellers and windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Newnham, J.H.

    1983-04-12

    The present invention provides a propeller or windmill blank comprising a planar sheet of material having markings defining, or being shaped to have, a central or hub region and two blades extending in opposite directions along imaginary lines; and wherein the blank has a marking or line of preferential folding inclined to the first mentioned lines which, when the blank is bent therealong, will result in pitch being applied to the blades.

  8. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Philip A.; Newingham, Beth A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.; Nowak, Robert S.; Smith, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland with fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85 % of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland, where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. Future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment. PMID

  9. Numerical simulation of shrouded propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for the evaluation of the performance characteristics of a shrouded propeller. Using this model, a computational study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of a propeller by encasing it in a shroud. The propeller blade was modeled by a segmented bound vortex positioned along the span of the blade at its quarter-chord-line. The shroud was modeled by a number of discrete vortex rings. Due to the mutual dependence of shroud and propeller vortex strengths and the propeller vortex wake an iterative scheme was employed. Three shroud configurations were considered: a cylindrical and two conical shrouds. The computed performance of the shrouded propeller was compared with that of a free propeller of identical propeller geometry. The numerical results indicated that the cylindrical shroud outperformed the conical shroud configurations for the cases considered. Furthermore, when compared to the free propeller performance, the cylindrical shroud showed a considerable performance enhancement over the free propeller. However, the improvements were found to decrease with an increase in the advance ratio and to virtually diminish at advance ratios of about 2.5.

  10. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  11. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  12. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  13. Simulating the Composite Propellant Manufacturing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Suzanne; Love, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    There is a strategic interest in understanding how the propellant manufacturing process contributes to military capabilities outside the United States. The paper will discuss how system dynamics (SD) has been applied to rapidly assess the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a specific composite propellant production complex. These facilities produce a commonly used solid propellant with military applications. The authors will explain how an SD model can be configured to match a specific production facility followed by a series of scenarios designed to analyze operational vulnerabilities. By using the simulation model to rapidly analyze operational risks, the analyst gains a better understanding of production complexities. There are several benefits of developing SD models to simulate chemical production. SD is an effective tool for characterizing complex problems, especially the production process where the cascading effect of outages quickly taxes common understanding. By programming expert knowledge into an SD application, these tools are transformed into a knowledge management resource that facilitates rapid learning without requiring years of experience in production operations. It also permits the analyst to rapidly respond to crisis situations and other time-sensitive missions. Most importantly, the quantitative understanding gained from applying the SD model lends itself to strategic analysis and planning.

  14. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  15. Helium Saturation of Liquid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Moran, Clifford M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is in three areas which are: (1) techniques were devised for achieving the required levels of helium (He) saturation in liquid propellants (limited to monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)); (2) the values were evaluated for equilibrium solubilities of He in liquid propellants as currently used in the industry; and (3) the He dissolved in liquid propellants were accurately measured. Conclusions drawn from these studies include: (1) Techniques for dissolving He in liquid propellants depending upon the capabilities of the testing facility (Verification of the quantity of gas dissolved is essential); (2) Until greater accuracy is obtained, the equilibrium solubility values of He in MMH and NTO as cited in the Air Force Propellant Handbooks should be accepted as standard (There are still enough uncertainties in the He saturation values to warrant further basic experimental studies); and (3) The manometric measurement of gas volume from a frozen sample of propellant should be the accepted method for gas analysis.

  16. Study of the supersonic propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabri, Jean; Siestrunck, Raymond

    1953-01-01

    In this paper a propeller having all sections operating at supersonic speeds is designated a supersonic propeller regardless of flight speed. Analyses assume subsonic flight speeds but very high rotational speeds. A very elementary analysis of the efficiency of a jet-propeller system is presented. A propeller analysis based on conventional vortex blade element theory is presented and reduced to a single point method which leads to an expression for optimum advance ratio in terms of hub-tip diameter ratio and airfoil fineness ratio. An expression for propeller efficiency in terms of advance ratio, hub-tip diameter ratio, and airfoil thickness ratio is also presented. Use is made of theoretical airfoil characteristics at supersonic speeds. A study of blade section interference, blade shock and expansion fields, at supersonic section speeds is presented. An example taken indicates that an efficiency of seventy percent can be obtained with a propeller having a tip Mach number of 2.3.

  17. Performance optimization of marine propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Sup; Choi, Young-Dal; Ahn, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Myoung-Sup; Jang, Hyun-Gil

    2010-12-01

    Recently a Wide Chord Tip (WCT) propeller has been developed and applied to a commercial ship by STX Offshore & Shipbuilding. It is reported that the WCT propeller significantly reduces pressure fluctuations and also ship's noise and vibration. On the sea trial, vibration magnitude in the accommodations at NCR was measured at 0.9mm/sec which is only 10% of international allowable magnitude of vibration (9mm/sec). In this paper, a design method for increasing performance of the marine propellers including the WCT propeller is suggested. It is described to maximize the performance of the propeller by adjusting expanded areas of the propeller blade. Results show that efficiency can be increased up to over 2% through the suggested design method.

  18. Physiological response to aerosol propellants.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, R D; Newton, P E; Baretta, E D; Herrmann, A A; Forster, H V; Soto, R J

    1978-01-01

    Acute exposures to isobutane, propane, F-12, and F-11 in concentrations of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for periods of 1 min to 8 hr did not produce any untoward physiological effects as determined by the methods employed which included serial EKG's and continuous monitoring of modified V5 by telemetry during exposure. Repetitive exposures to these four propellants were also without measurable untoward physiological effect with the exception of the eight male subjects repetitively exposed to 1000 ppm, F-11, who did show minor decrements in several of the cognitive tests. Of particular importance is the observation that none of the subjects showed any decrement in pulmonary function or alteration in cardiac rhythm as the result of exposure to concentrations of the gases or vapors far greater than encountered in the normal use of aerosol products in the home. PMID:214300

  19. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  20. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  1. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  2. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  3. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  4. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  5. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  6. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  7. 14 CFR 23.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 23.905 Section 23.905... Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the limits for which the propeller is certificated. (c) Each featherable...

  8. 14 CFR 35.22 - Feathering propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feathering propellers. 35.22 Section 35.22... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.22 Feathering propellers. (a) Feathering propellers are... feathering and unfeathering limitations must be documented in the appropriate manuals. (b) Propeller...

  9. Mycorrhizal Productivity Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutton, T. W.; Rowe, H. I.; Ariza, M. C.; Miller, R. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in soil carbon storage and dynamics through the production of recalcitrant organic compounds (e.g., glomalin and chitin), and through the production of hyphae which entangle and enmesh soil particles to form aggregates which physically protect organic matter from decomposer organisms. Despite these important functions, little is known regarding rates of mycorrhizal productivity and how these rates might be influenced by changes in plant community composition. We quantified mycorrhizal production in a subtropical savanna parkland in southern Texas where woody plants have invaded areas that were once open grassland. Mycorrhizal ingrowth bags (3 x 10 cm) were made from 50 μm nylon mesh, filled with sterile sand (200-600 μm particle size), and deployed in the field in triplicate in remnant grasslands (n=15), and in woody plant stands (n=13) ranging in age from 15 to 86 yrs. Ingrowth bags were installed in May and harvested in Oct 2007 after 156 days. Hyphae were isolated by flotation/filtration, cleaned thoroughly to remove sand, freeze-dried, and weighed. Microscopic examination indicated that nearly all hyphae recovered from ingrowth bags were from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. During the ingrowth period, nearly 4X more hyphal biomass accumulated in wooded areas (9.00 ± 3.84 g m- 2) compared to remnant grasslands (2.35 ± 0.56 g m-2). Hyphal productivity rates increased linearly with woody plant stand age (r = 0.89) from 15 ± 4 mg m-2 day-1 in grasslands (time 0) up to 58-98 mg m-2 day-1 in wooded areas >65 yrs old. When these productivity rates are annualized, we find that hyphal productivity represents approximately 4% of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in wooded areas, and 2% of ANPP in remnant grasslands. These observations are consistent with concurrent studies showing that glomalin concentrations and chitinase enzyme activity both increase in soils with time following woody encroachment into grassland

  10. New delivery systems and propellants.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, M

    1999-01-01

    The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countries of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth) of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada - Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  11. Commercial reformulation, an economic and environmentally benign means of using explosives and solid propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfman, D.S. ||; Sitton, O.C. |; Worsey, P.; Johnson, M.; Burch, D.

    1995-12-31

    The reformulation of military explosives and solid propellants into commercial explosives offers a unique solution to the problem of disposing of high energy materials with essentially zero environmental impact at a low cost and with a salable product. Studies using the insensitive PBX, PBXN-4 have been completed through the pilot plant stage and have been successfully tested as a mining explosive. A number of other military explosives have been examined and their VODs and heats of explosions determined and in some instances tested in field operations. The equipment and unit operations required for reformulation are simple and inexpensive. The total market potential is far larger than the available supply of PBXs and other military explosives. The extension of the reformulation approach to 1.1 solid rocket propellants is in progress. Initial studies indicate that the method is viable. The quantities involved have the potential of impacting less than 1% of the very large US explosives market. The products available from reformulation are in part a function of the means of removal of the 1.1 propellants from the cases. With dry methods, a range of products from super blasting gelatins to materials comparable to ANFO are available in the form of dry or slurried explosives. With wet methods, the range is narrower with VODs of ca. 5 km/sec and heats of explosion of ca. 1000 cal/g at a density of 1.25 g/cc being easily attainable in the form of slurries and sticks. With both HE and 1.1 propellant streams it is possible to tailor the power of the resultant explosives to reach a desired set of properties. This permits the handling of a variable stream of redundant materials and the furnishing of a constant product to the customer. The technology involved has essentially no waste stream and very closely meets the goals of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  12. Composite propellant combustion modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of theoretical and experimental studies of composite propellant combustion. The theoretical investigations include a model of the combustion of a nonmetallized ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellant (noting time scales for vapor-phase combustion and the condensed phase) and response functions in pressure-coupled oscillations. The experimental studies are discussed with reference to scale-modeling apparatus, flame standoff distance versus velocity as a function of pressure, and results from T-burner firings of a nonmetallized AP/polysulfide propellant. Research applications including problems with nitramine propellants, the feasibility of stop-restart rockets with salt quench, and combustion problems in large boosters are outlined.

  13. Propeller Analysis from Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    The operation of the propeller is analyzed by the use of the distribution of forces along the radius, combined with theoretical equations. The data were obtained in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel on a 4-foot-diameter, two-blade propeller, operating in front of four body shapes, ranging from a small shaft to support the propeller to conventional NACA cowling. A method of estimating the axial and the rotational energy in the wake as a fractional part of the propeller power is given. A knowledge of the total thrust and torque is necessary for the estimation.

  14. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  15. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  16. Classification of explosives transformation products in plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.L.; Jones, R.P. . Waterways Experiment Station); Escalon, L.; Parker, D. )

    1999-06-01

    Explosives contamination in surface or groundwater used for the irrigation of food crops and phytoremediation of explosives-contaminated soil or water using plant-assisted biodegradation have brought about concerns as to the fate of explosives in plants. Liquid scintillation counting, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography were utilized to characterize explosives (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and trinitrotoluene) and their metabolites in plant tissues obtained from three separate studies. Analyzing tissues of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), corn (Zea mays), lettuce (Lacuta sativa), tomato (Lyopersicum esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), and parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from three studies where exposure to explosives at nontoxic levels occurred showed that extensive transformation of the explosive contaminant occurred, variations were noted in uptake and transformation between terrestrial and aquatic plants, the products had significantly higher polarity and water solubility than the parent compounds, and the molecular sizes of the transformation products were significantly greater than those of the parent compounds.

  17. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  18. 78 FR 41283 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2010-17-11R1 Dowty Propellers... (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Dowty Propellers R408/6-123-F/17... to revise AD 2010-17-11, Amendment 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010). That AD applies to...

  19. 78 FR 9005 - Airworthiness Directives; Dowty Propellers Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... AD Was Issued Since we issued AD 2010-17-11 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), Dowty Propellers... 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Dowty Propellers (formerly.... Discussion On August 5, 2010, we issued AD 2010-17-11, Amendment 39-16403 (75 FR 51656, August 23, 2010),...

  20. 78 FR 18255 - Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hartzell Propeller, Inc. Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. Propeller blade retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Simon, III, Victor H. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns the mounting of propeller blades to a ring-shaped rotor. The blades are of the variable pitch type, and the shank of each blade extends through a respective hole in the rotor. Each hole contains an annular shelf which is fastened to the wall of the hole and surrounds each shank. Each shank bears a pair of bearing races which sandwich the annular shelf in order to connect the blade to the rotor. Bearing rollers are positioned between the annular shelf and the bearing races.

  2. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques. PMID:26654659

  3. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  4. Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter B. Adler; et al.

    2011-09-22

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity and richness.

  5. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    Ethylene production by 20-m^2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml m^-2 day^-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 nl g^-1 fresh weight h^-1 Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  6. Ethylene Production by Plants in a Closed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    Ethylene production by 20-sq m stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml/sq m/day during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 ml/g fresh weight/h. Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  7. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Vietnam Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. Well-established agricultural management by agrotechnological means has shown no longer to be effective enough to confront with this challenge. Instead, in order to maximize the production, it is advisable to implement such practices in combination with biological applications. Nowadays, high technologies are widely adopted into agricultural production, biological diversity conservation and crop improvement. Wang et al. has nicely outlined the utilization of DNA-based technologies in this field. Among these are the applications of (i) DNA markers into cultivar identification, seed purity analysis, germplasm resource evaluation, heterosis prediction, genetic mapping, cloning and breeding; and (ii) gene expression data in supporting the description of crop phenology, the analytic comparison of crop growth under stress versus non-stress conditions, or the study of fertilizer effects. Besides, various purposes of using transgenic technologies in agriculture, such as generating cultivars with better product quality, better tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, are also discussed in the review. One of the important highlights in this issue is the review of the benefits brought by high-throughput sequencing technology, which is also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). It is not so difficult to recognize that its application has allowed us to carry out biological studies at much deeper level

  8. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Vietnam Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. Well-established agricultural management by agrotechnological means has shown no longer to be effective enough to confront with this challenge. Instead, in order to maximize the production, it is advisable to implement such practices in combination with biological applications. Nowadays, high technologies are widely adopted into agricultural production, biological diversity conservation and crop improvement. Wang et al. has nicely outlined the utilization of DNA-based technologies in this field. Among these are the applications of (i) DNA markers into cultivar identification, seed purity analysis, germplasm resource evaluation, heterosis prediction, genetic mapping, cloning and breeding; and (ii) gene expression data in supporting the description of crop phenology, the analytic comparison of crop growth under stress versus non-stress conditions, or the study of fertilizer effects. Besides, various purposes of using transgenic technologies in agriculture, such as generating cultivars with better product quality, better tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, are also discussed in the review. One of the important highlights in this issue is the review of the benefits brought by high-throughput sequencing technology, which is also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). It is not so difficult to recognize that its application has allowed us to carry out biological studies at much deeper level

  9. Increasing plant productivity in closed environments with inner canopy illumination.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, M A; Cote, R; Dixon, M; Grodzinski, B

    1998-01-01

    Due to the high cost of habitable real estate associated with space travel and colonization, and the ultimate use of plants as the primary method of life support, it is necessary to develop cultivation methods whereby the highest sustainable level of productivity is achieved within the least amount of space. It is well known that in a dense plant canopy, lower leaves become shaded from above and eventually no longer contribute to carbon gain. In fact, they contribute to net respiratory carbon losses. One method of improving biomass production is to introduce light of suitable quantity and quality to the inner canopy, thereby utilizing unused photosynthetic capacity. By coupling microwave-powered lights to 100-mm-diameter glass tubes lined with 3M Optical Lighting Film, light with a spectral quality similar to that of sunlight was delivered to the inner canopy of a developing soybean crop. Results indicated that increases in productivity of 23-87%, as measured by CO2 assimilation, can be achieved in dense plant canopies (LAI approximately 6) when overhead lighting (40O-1200 micromoles m-2 s-1) is supplemented with inner canopy illumination.

  10. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and

  12. Atomic hydrogen propellants: Historical perspectives and future possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-02-01

    Atomic hydrogen, a very high density free-radical propellant, is anticipated to generate a specific impulse of 600-1500 lb-f sec/lb-mass performance; this may facilitate the development of unique launch vehicles. A development status evaluation is presently given for atomic hydrogen investigations. It is noted that breakthroughs are required in the production, storage, and transfer of atomic hydrogen, before this fuel can become a viable rocket propellant.

  13. Atomic hydrogen propellants: Historical perspectives and future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, a very high density free-radical propellant, is anticipated to generate a specific impulse of 600-1500 lb-f sec/lb-mass performance; this may facilitate the development of unique launch vehicles. A development status evaluation is presently given for atomic hydrogen investigations. It is noted that breakthroughs are required in the production, storage, and transfer of atomic hydrogen, before this fuel can become a viable rocket propellant.

  14. Propellant Chemistry for CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Anderson, P. G.; Cheng, Gary C.

    1996-01-01

    Current concepts for reusable launch vehicle design have created renewed interest in the use of RP-1 fuels for high pressure and tri-propellant propulsion systems. Such designs require the use of an analytical technology that accurately accounts for the effects of real fluid properties, combustion of large hydrocarbon fuel modules, and the possibility of soot formation. These effects are inadequately treated in current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes used for propulsion system analyses. The objective of this investigation is to provide an accurate analytical description of hydrocarbon combustion thermodynamics and kinetics that is sufficiently computationally efficient to be a practical design tool when used with CFD codes such as the FDNS code. A rigorous description of real fluid properties for RP-1 and its combustion products will be derived from the literature and from experiments conducted in this investigation. Upon the establishment of such a description, the fluid description will be simplified by using the minimum of empiricism necessary to maintain accurate combustion analyses and including such empirical models into an appropriate CFD code. An additional benefit of this approach is that the real fluid properties analysis simplifies the introduction of the effects of droplet sprays into the combustion model. Typical species compositions of RP-1 have been identified, surrogate fuels have been established for analyses, and combustion and sooting reaction kinetics models have been developed. Methods for predicting the necessary real fluid properties have been developed and essential experiments have been designed. Verification studies are in progress, and preliminary results from these studies will be presented. The approach has been determined to be feasible, and upon its completion the required methodology for accurate performance and heat transfer CFD analyses for high pressure, tri-propellant propulsion systems will be available.

  15. Propeller pitch change actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kusiak, E.H.

    1988-06-28

    An apparatus is described for adjusting the pitch of a variable pitch propeller blade characterized by: an actuator for setting the pitch of the propeller blade the actuator having; a rotatable screw for setting propeller pitch, a nut mounted for longitudinal motion along the screw as the screw is rotated, means for connecting the nut to the propeller blade to adjust the pitch of the propeller blade as the screw rotates, and a rotatable means mounted within the nut for locking the nut against longitudinal motion if the rotatable means is not rotating with the longitudinal motion of the nut and for allowing the nut to move longitudinally if the rotatable means is rotating with the longitudinal motion of the nut.

  16. Shrimp vessel test of the GSM-Marshall automatic marine propeller

    SciTech Connect

    Veal, C.D.; Burrage, D.

    1987-08-17

    In a field comparison of the Marshall propeller with the standard fixed pitch propeller, the Marshall propeller exhibited greater bollard pull during all ranges of the test, and correspondingly, greater fuel consumption during those same ranges. Speed over the bottom during trawling and steaming was 9.8% and 11% greater respectively for the Marshall propeller when compared to a standard propeller. Speed over the bottom per unit of fuel consumed was 17.65% greater for the Marshall propeller during trawling and 6.67% greater during steaming. If a vessel were operating at a fixed engine speed, the addition of a Marshall propeller would allow the towing of larger, and thus more productive, nets. If a vessel owner or captain were to choose to maintain net size, then a reduction in engine speed and thus a corresponding reduction in fuel consumption, would occur. When the wheel was operating at any given rpm under load, and the engine and shaft speed decreased suddenly, insufficient damping was built into the Marshall propeller, so that a substantial vibration of the vessel occurred. This problem could be remedied by increasing the damping of the internal hydraulic cylinders of the Marshall propeller. While in operation, the Marshall propeller operated smoothly, free of the vibration normally associated with three blade propellers.

  17. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  18. Data on IL-17 production induced by plant lectins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We reported in article da Silva et al. (2016) [2] that ArtinM induces the IL-17 production through interaction with CD4+ T cells and stimulation of IL-23 and IL-1. Besides ArtinM, other plant lectins (PLs) induce IL-17 production by murine spleen cells. The IL-17 production induced by PLs was evaluated regarding the involvement of IL-23, IL-6, Th1-, and Th2-cytokines. Furthermore, the effect exerted TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 on the PLs׳ performance in the induction of IL-17 was examined. The current data were compared to the known ArtinM ability to induce Th17 immunity. PMID:27222857

  19. Using Plant Functional Traits to Explain Diversity–Productivity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Gubsch, Marlén; Lipowsky, Annett; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina; Schmid, Bernhard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background The different hypotheses proposed to explain positive species richness–productivity relationships, i.e. selection effect and complementarity effect, imply that plant functional characteristics are at the core of a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community-weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao’s quadratic diversity (FDQ) to predict biomass production and measures of biodiversity effects in experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) with different species richness (2, 4, 8, 16 and 60) and different functional group number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs) four years after establishment. Functional trait composition had a larger predictive power for community biomass and measures of biodiversitity effects (40–82% of explained variation) than species richness per se (<1–13% of explained variation). CWM explained a larger amount of variation in community biomass (80%) and net biodiversity effects (70%) than FDQ (36 and 38% of explained variation respectively). FDQ explained similar proportions of variation in complementarity effects (24%, positive relationship) and selection effects (28%, negative relationship) as CWM (27% of explained variation for both complementarity and selection effects), but for all response variables the combination of CWM and FDQ led to significant model improvement compared to a separate consideration of different components of functional trait composition. Effects of FDQ were mainly attributable to diversity in nutrient acquisition and life-history strategies. The large spectrum of traits contributing to positive effects of CWM on biomass production and net biodiversity effects indicated that effects of dominant species were associated with different trait combinations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the

  20. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants. PMID:16381771

  1. Combustion characteristics of SMX and SMX based propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, David A.

    This work investigates the combustion of the new solid nitrate ester 2,3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dinitro-1,4-butanediol tetranitrate (SMX, C6H 8N6O16). SMX was synthesized for the first time in 2008. It has a melting point of 85 °C and oxygen balance of 0% to CO 2, allowing it to be used as an energetic additive or oxidizer in solid propellants. In addition to its neat combustion characteristics, this work also explores the use of SMX as a potential replacement for nitroglycerin (NG) in double base gun propellants and as a replacement for ammonium perchlorate in composite rocket propellants. The physical properties, sensitivity characteristics, and combustion behaviors of neat SMX were investigated. Its combustion is stable at pressures of up to at least 27.5 MPa (n = 0.81). The observed flame structure is nearly identical to that of other double base propellant ingredients, with a primary flame attached at the surface, a thick isothermal dark zone, and a luminous secondary flame wherein final recombination reactions occur. As a result, the burning rate and primary flame structure can be modeled using existing one-dimensional steady state techniques. A zero gas-phase activation energy approximation results in a good fit between modeled and observed behavior. Additionally, SMX was considered as a replacement for nitroglycerin in a double base propellant. Thermochemical calculations indicate improved performance when compared with the common double base propellant JA2 at SMX loadings above 40 wt-%. Also, since SMX is a room temperature solid, migration may be avoided. Like other nitrate esters, SMX is susceptible to decomposition over long-term storage due to the presence of excess acid in the crystals; the addition of stabilizers (e.g., derivatives of urea) during synthesis should be sufficient to prevent this. the addition of Both unplasticized and plasticized propellants were formulated. Thermal analysis of unplasticized propellant showed a distinct melt

  2. Production of antibodies in plants: status after twenty years.

    PubMed

    De Muynck, Benoit; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2010-06-01

    Thanks to their potential to bind virtually all types of molecules; monoclonal antibodies are in increasing demand as therapeutics and diagnostics. To overcome the overloading of current production facilities, alternative expression systems have been developed, of which plants appear the most promising. In this review, we focus on the expression of monoclonal IgG or IgM in plant species. We analyse the data for 32 different antibodies expressed in various ways, differing in DNA construction, transformation method, signal peptide source, presence or absence of an endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence, host species and the organs tested, together resulting in 98 reported combinations. A large heterogeneity is found in the quantity and quality of the antibody produced. We discuss in more detail the strategy used to express both chains, the nature of the transcription promoters, subcellular localization and unintended proteolysis, when encountered.

  3. Plant ecology. Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lauchlan H; Pither, Jason; Jentsch, Anke; Sternberg, Marcelo; Zobel, Martin; Askarizadeh, Diana; Bartha, Sandor; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Bennett, Jonathan A; Bittel, Alex; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Boldrini, Ilsi I; Bork, Edward; Brown, Leslie; Cabido, Marcelo; Cahill, James; Carlyle, Cameron N; Campetella, Giandiego; Chelli, Stefano; Cohen, Ofer; Csergo, Anna-Maria; Díaz, Sandra; Enrico, Lucas; Ensing, David; Fidelis, Alessandra; Fridley, Jason D; Foster, Bryan; Garris, Heath; Goheen, Jacob R; Henry, Hugh A L; Hohn, Maria; Jouri, Mohammad Hassan; Klironomos, John; Koorem, Kadri; Lawrence-Lodge, Rachael; Long, Ruijun; Manning, Pete; Mitchell, Randall; Moora, Mari; Müller, Sandra C; Nabinger, Carlos; Naseri, Kamal; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Palmer, Todd M; Parsons, Sheena; Pesek, Mari; Pillar, Valério D; Pringle, Robert M; Roccaforte, Kathy; Schmidt, Amanda; Shang, Zhanhuan; Stahlmann, Reinhold; Stotz, Gisela C; Sugiyama, Shu-ichi; Szentes, Szilárd; Thompson, Don; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; van Rooyen, Margaretha; Wellstein, Camilla; Wilson, J Bastow; Zupo, Talita

    2015-07-17

    The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and comprising a wide range of site productivities, we provide evidence in support of the HBM pattern at both global and regional extents. The relationships described here provide a foundation for further research into the local, landscape, and historical factors that maintain biodiversity.

  4. Plant ecology. Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lauchlan H; Pither, Jason; Jentsch, Anke; Sternberg, Marcelo; Zobel, Martin; Askarizadeh, Diana; Bartha, Sandor; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Bennett, Jonathan A; Bittel, Alex; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Boldrini, Ilsi I; Bork, Edward; Brown, Leslie; Cabido, Marcelo; Cahill, James; Carlyle, Cameron N; Campetella, Giandiego; Chelli, Stefano; Cohen, Ofer; Csergo, Anna-Maria; Díaz, Sandra; Enrico, Lucas; Ensing, David; Fidelis, Alessandra; Fridley, Jason D; Foster, Bryan; Garris, Heath; Goheen, Jacob R; Henry, Hugh A L; Hohn, Maria; Jouri, Mohammad Hassan; Klironomos, John; Koorem, Kadri; Lawrence-Lodge, Rachael; Long, Ruijun; Manning, Pete; Mitchell, Randall; Moora, Mari; Müller, Sandra C; Nabinger, Carlos; Naseri, Kamal; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Palmer, Todd M; Parsons, Sheena; Pesek, Mari; Pillar, Valério D; Pringle, Robert M; Roccaforte, Kathy; Schmidt, Amanda; Shang, Zhanhuan; Stahlmann, Reinhold; Stotz, Gisela C; Sugiyama, Shu-ichi; Szentes, Szilárd; Thompson, Don; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; van Rooyen, Margaretha; Wellstein, Camilla; Wilson, J Bastow; Zupo, Talita

    2015-07-17

    The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and comprising a wide range of site productivities, we provide evidence in support of the HBM pattern at both global and regional extents. The relationships described here provide a foundation for further research into the local, landscape, and historical factors that maintain biodiversity. PMID:26185249

  5. Dynamic characterization and analysis of space shuttle SRM solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufferd, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of the space shuttle solid rocket moter (TP-H1148) propellant were characterized and the expected limits of propellant variability were established. Dynamic shear modulus tests conducted on six production batches of TP-H1148 at various static and dynamic strain levels over the temperature range from 40 F to 90 F. A heat conduction analysis and dynamic response analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) were also conducted. The dynamic test results show significant dependence on static and dynamic strain levels and considerable batch-to-batch and within-batch variability. However, the results of the SRM dynamic response analyses clearly demonstrate that the stiffness of the propellant has no consequential on the overall SRM dynamic response. Only the mass of the propellant needs to be considered in the dynamic analysis of the space shuttle SRM.

  6. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  7. Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, Marc W; Cardinale, Bradley J; Oakley, Todd H

    2008-11-01

    Loss of biological diversity because of extinction is one of the most pronounced changes to the global environment. For several decades, researchers have tried to understand how changes in biodiversity might impact biomass production by examining how biomass correlates with a number of biodiversity metrics (especially the number of species and functional groups). This body of research has focused on species with the implicit assumption that they are independent entities. However, functional and ecological similarities are shaped by patterns of common ancestry, such that distantly related species might contribute more to production than close relatives, perhaps by increasing niche breadth. Here, we analyze 2 decades of experiments performed in grassland ecosystems throughout the world and examine whether the evolutionary relationships among the species comprising a community predict how biodiversity impacts plant biomass production. We show that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups. Our results reveal how evolutionary history can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve as an impetus for new biodiversity experiments.

  8. Propellers: Theory and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.

    2007-12-01

    The question on the origin and evolution of planetary rings is one of the prominent unsolved problems of planetary sciences with direct implications for planet-forming processes in preplanetary disks. The recent detection of four propeller-shaped features in Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al., 2006) proved the presence of large boulder-sized moonlets in the rings (Spahn & Sremcevic, 2000). Their very existence favors a ring creation in a catastrophic disruption of an icy satellite (Sremcevic et al., 2007) rather than a co-genetic origin with Saturn, since bodies of this size can hardly have accreted inside the rings. Here we will review the current state of theoretical modeling and Cassini observations.

  9. Micarta propellers I : materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    Here, values for tension, compression edgewise of laminations, and transverse flatwise of laminations are given for Micarta made with various kinds of sheet material. The corresponding values for white oak are given for comparison. It was found by destructive and service tests that Micarta made with a good grade of cotton duck will give satisfactory service with most designs. In propellers having detachable blades, it is desirable that the root of the blade be of a small cross section to decrease the weight of the metal hub. Here the use of the special fabric or wood veneer offers advantages due to greater tensile strength. These materials, especially the wood veneer, produce stiffer blades than duck. This is also a value in controllable and reversible pitch designs where it is desirable that the plan form of the blades be symmetrical.

  10. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  11. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-09-30

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station.

  12. Environmentally compatible solid rocket propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacox, James L.; Bradford, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Hercules' clean propellant development research is exploring three major types of clean propellant: (1) chloride-free formulations (no chlorine containing ingredients), being developed on the Clean Propellant Development and Demonstration (CPDD) contract sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) low HCl scavenged formulations (HCl-scavenger added to propellant oxidized with ammonium perchlorate (AP)); and (3) low HCl formulations oxidized with a combination of AN and AP (with or without an HCl scavenger) to provide a significant reduction (relative to current solid rocket boosters) in exhaust HCl. These propellants provide performance approaching that of current systems, with less than 2 percent HCl in the exhaust, a significant reduction (greater than or equal to 70 percent) in exhaust HCl levels. Excellent processing, safety, and mechanical properties were achieved using only readily available, low cost ingredients. Two formulations, a sodium nitrate (NaNO3) scavenged HTPB and a chloride-free hydroxy terminated polyether (HTPE) propellant, were characterized for ballistic, mechanical, and rheological properties. In addition, the hazards properties were demonstrated to provide two families of class 1.3, 'zero-card' propellants. Further characterization is planned which includes demonstration of ballistic tailorability in subscale (one to 70 pound) motors over the range of burn rates required for retrofit into current Hercules space booster designs (Titan 4 SRMU and Delta 2 GEM).

  13. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-01

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India. PMID:26954729

  14. A theoretical evaluation of aluminum gel propellant two-phase flow losses on vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Donn C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a hydrocarbon/Al/O2(gaseous) fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed to study secondary atomization effects on propellant combustion. This chamber model was coupled with a two dimensional, two-phase flow nozzle code to estimate the two-phase flow losses associated with solid combustion products. Results indicate that moderate secondary atomization significantly reduces propellant burnout distance and Al2O3 particle size; however, secondary atomization provides only moderate decreases in two-phase flow induced I(sub sp) losses. Despite these two-phase flow losses, a simple mission study indicates that aluminum gel propellants may permit a greater maximum payload than the hydrocarbon/O2 bi-propellant combination for a vehicle of fixed propellant volume. Secondary atomization was also found to reduce radiation losses from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls, primarily through reductions in propellant burnout distance.

  15. A theoretical evaluation of aluminum gel propellant two-phase flow losses on vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Donn C.; Turns, Stephen R.

    1993-11-01

    A one-dimensional model of a hydrocarbon/Al/O2(gaseous) fueled rocket combustion chamber was developed to study secondary atomization effects on propellant combustion. This chamber model was coupled with a two dimensional, two-phase flow nozzle code to estimate the two-phase flow losses associated with solid combustion products. Results indicate that moderate secondary atomization significantly reduces propellant burnout distance and Al2O3 particle size; however, secondary atomization provides only moderate decreases in two-phase flow induced I(sub sp) losses. Despite these two-phase flow losses, a simple mission study indicates that aluminum gel propellants may permit a greater maximum payload than the hydrocarbon/O2 bi-propellant combination for a vehicle of fixed propellant volume. Secondary atomization was also found to reduce radiation losses from the solid combustion products to the chamber walls, primarily through reductions in propellant burnout distance.

  16. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  17. The Source of Propeller Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsthausen, W

    1937-01-01

    A two blade propeller of 40 cm diameter and zero pitch was explored for its noise development; it could be whirled up to 17,000 rpm - i.e., a tip speed of 355 meters/second. To obtain the power loss N(sub m) of the propeller for comparison with the produced acoustical power N(sub A) the engine performance characteristics were measured with and without propeller. The result is the sought-for relation c, that is, curve c' after correction with the engine efficiency.

  18. Cycle Configurations for a PBMR Steam and Electricity Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Dieter; Kriel, Willem; Correia, Michael; Greyvenstein, Renee

    2006-07-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that is capable of multiple missions. The petrochemical industry requires the use of high temperature steam and electricity for their processes. Currently coal or natural gas is utilised for the generation of high temperature steam and electricity, which under-utilises natural resources and in the process emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. This paper provides an overview of the PBMR product development path and discusses how steam production forms part of the future possibilities of the PBMR technology. Suitable cycle configurations for both process steam and electricity generation as required by petrochemical plants are discussed. (authors)

  19. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depots to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing, and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. A Mars Orbital Depot is also described to support ongoing Mars missions. New concepts for vehicle designs are presented that can be launched on current 5-meter diameter expendable launch vehicles. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a LEO Depot, L1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. The high-energy depots at L1 and Mars orbit are compatible with, but do not require, electric propulsion tug use for propellant and/or cargo delivery. New reusable in-space crew transportation vehicles include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot and the L1 Depot, a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface, and a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) to support crew missions from the L1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroid, and Mars destinations. A 6 meter diameter Mars lander concept is presented that can be launched without a fairing based on the Delta IV heavy Payload Planners Guide, which indicates feasibility of a 6.5 meter fairing. This lander would evolve to re-usable operations when propellant production is established on Mars. Figure 1 provides a summary of the possible missions this infrastructure can support. Summary mission profiles are presented

  20. Micropropagation of tulip: production of virus-free stock plants.

    PubMed

    Podwyszyńska, Małgorzata; Sochacki, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a new tulip micropropagation method based on the cyclic shoot multiplication in presence of the thidiazuron (TDZ), which enables the production of virus-free stock plants, speeds up breeding, and provides new genotypes for the market. In our novel protocol, cyclic shoot multiplication can be performed for 2-3 years by using TDZ instead of other cytokinins, as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and N(6)-(-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). It makes possible to produce 500-2,000 microbulbs from one healthy plant. There are six main stages of tulip micropropagation. Stage 0 is the selection of true-to-type and virus-free plants, confirmed by ELISA. Fragments of flower stems isolated from bulbs are used as initial explants. Shoot multiplication is based on the regeneration of adventitious shoots, which are sub-cultured every 8 weeks. In the Stage 3, the specially prepared shoots are induced by low temperature treatment to form bulbs which finally develop on a sucrose-rich medium at 20 degrees C. Bulbs are then dried for 6 weeks and rooted in vivo. The number of multiplication subcultures should be limited to 5-10 cycles in order to lower the risk of mutation. Virus indexing should be repeated 3-4 times, at the initial stage and then during shoot multiplication. Genetic stability of micropropagated shoots can be confirmed using molecular markers.

  1. Herbivore effects on plant species density at varying productivity levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Artificially increasing primary productivity decreases plant species richness in many habitats; herbivory may affect this outcome, but it has rarely been directly addressed in fertilization studies. This experiment was conducted in two Louisiana coastal marshes to examine the effects of nutrient enrichment and sediment addition on herbaceous plant communities with and without vertebrate herbivory. After three growing seasons, fertilization increased community biomass in all plots, but decreased species density (the number of species per unit area) only in plots protected from herbivory. Herbivory alone did not alter species density at either site. At the brackish marsh, herbivory caused a shift in dominance in the fertilized plots from a species that is considered the competitive dominant, but is selectively eaten, to another less palatable species. At the fresh marsh, increased dead biomass in the absence of herbivory and in the fertilized plots probably contributed to the decrease in species density, perhaps by limiting germination of annuals. Our results support those of other fertilization studies in which plant species density decreases with increased biomass, but only in those plots protected from herbivory.

  2. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  3. Use of remote sensing to determine plant health and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Chuan S.; Basart, John P.; Nutter, Forrest W., Jr.; Tylka, Gregory L.; Guan, Jie

    2002-02-01

    This project seeks to assess plant productivity and health in time and space by measuring spectral reflectance from soybean canopies using remote sensing images that do not require ground assessment. Aerial images and reflectance measurements from a multi-spectral radiometer were obtained simultaneously from a soybean field located in Story County, Iowa. The multi-spectral radiometer has eight wavelength bands, ranging from 460-nm to 810-nm and was used as a ground reference for the data analysis. Aerial images were obtained from altitudes ranging from 152 to 427 meters from the ground during summer 2000. Aerial images were analyzed using Matlab, ArcView and Imagine. Difficulties in image analysis and interpretation may occur as the sensing equipment increases in altitude because atmospheric influences become more pronounced. Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere change the spectrum of the reflected wave emitting from the plants as it propagates from the plants to the sensors. Color calibration procedures were used with red, green and blue ground cloths to correct aerial images in the respective red, blue and green bands. Regression analysis was carried out to quantify the relationships between multi-spectral radiometer data and aerial image data.

  4. Influence of fuselage on propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troller, Theodor

    1928-01-01

    In the present paper I shall not consider the problem of the best arrangement of airplane and propeller, but only a simple method for designing a propeller for a given arrangement of airplane parts. The inflow to the propeller and hence the efficiency of the propeller is affected most by the fuselage.

  5. Application of theory to propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. G.; Morgan, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various theories concerning propeller design are discussed. The use of digital computers to obtain specific blade shapes to meet appropriate flow conditions is emphasized. The development of lifting-line and lifting surface configurations is analyzed. Ship propulsive performance and basic propeller design considerations are investigated. The characteristics of supercavitating propellers are compared with those of subcavitating propellers.

  6. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  7. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  8. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  9. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  11. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  12. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.905 - Propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellers. 25.905 Section 25.905... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.905 Propellers. (a) Each propeller must have a type certificate. (b) Engine power and propeller shaft rotational speed may not exceed the...

  14. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  15. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  16. Rapid On-Site Environmental Sampling and Analysis of Propellant Stabilizers and their Decomposition Products by Portable Sampling and Thin-Layer Chromotography Kits

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J S; Gonzalez, M A

    2003-08-04

    Sustainable future use of land containing unexploded ordnance requires extensive field assessments, cleanup, and restoration. The ordnance is generally semi-exposed or buried in pits and, because of aging, needs to be handled with caution. Being able to characterize the ordnance in the field to minimize handling, as well as to distinguish it from inert mock material, greatly facilitates assessments and clean-up. We have developed unique sample preparation methodologies and a portable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) kit technology for rapid field screening and quantitative assessment of stabilizer content in propellants and, energetic materials (explosives) in environmental scenarios. Major advantages of this technology include simultaneous chromatography of multiple samples and standards for high sample throughput, high resolution, very low detection limits, and ease of operation. The TLC kit technology, sponsored by the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) of the U.S. Army, is now patented and has been completely transitioned to our commercial partners, Ho'olana Technologies, located in Hilo, Hawaii. Once fully deployed in the field, the new technology will demonstrate a cost-effective and efficient means for determining the percent of effective stabilizer that is remaining on-site and at munitions clean-up sites, as well as munitions storage facilities. The TLC kit technology is also readily applicable for analysis at military or commercial facilities, for a variety of emergency and non-emergency scenarios, and for situations where public concern is high.

  17. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  18. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m−2 s−1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  20. Auxin Production by Plant-Pathogenic Pseudomonads and Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Fett, William F.; Osman, Stanley F.; Dunn, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines which cause hypertrophy of leaf cells of susceptible soybean cultivars and nonpathogenic strains which do not cause hypertrophy were compared for their ability to produce indole compounds, including the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in liquid media with or without supplementation with l-tryptophan. Several additional strains of plant-pathogenic xanthomonads and pseudomonads were also tested for IAA production to determine whether in vitro production of IAA is related to the ability to induce hypertrophic growth of host tissues. Indoles present in culture filtrates were identified by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, UV spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. All strains examined produced IAA when liquid media were supplemented with l-tryptophan. The highest levels of IAA were found in culture filtrates from the common bean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and this was the only bacterium tested which produced IAA without addition of tryptophan to the medium. Additional indoles identified in culture filtrates of the various strains included indole-3-lactic acid, indole-3-aldehyde, indole-3-acetamide, and N-acetyltryptophan. Pseudomonads and xanthomonads could be distinguished by the presence of N-acetyltryptophan, which was found only in xanthomonad culture filtrates. PMID:16347409

  1. Proof-of-concept automation of propellant processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    For space-based propellant production, automation of the process is needed. Currently, all phases of terrestrial production have some form of human interaction. A mixer was acquired to help perform the tasks of automation. A heating system to be used with the mixer was designed, built, and installed. Tests performed on the heating system verify design criteria. An IBM PS/2 personal computer was acquired for the future automation work. It is hoped that some the mixing process itself will be automated. This is a concept demonstration task; proving that propellant production can be automated reliably.

  2. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, David H; Ting, K C

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  3. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  4. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, David H; Ting, K C

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal. PMID:12882224

  5. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  6. Propellant gaging for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazietti, A. J.; Orton, G. F.; Schreib, R.

    1986-06-01

    Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low-g tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were an ultrasonic point sensor system, a nucleonic gaging system, an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and an ultrasonic flowmeter. The first three systems provide a direct measurement of propellant quantity remaining, while the fourth system integrates (totalizes) the propellant flow to the engines and infers propellant remaining based on a known initial propellant load. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment. These systems offer high end-of-life accuracy potential, are nonintrusive (external to the tanks and feedlines), and are low in risk because of their good technology base. The Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment has been assembled and passed flight certification testing in late April 1986.

  7. Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    The Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU) is being designed to support spacecraft liquid propellant operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Eastern Test Range (ETR). The GPTU will have a 500 gallon capacity and be Department Of Transportation (DOT) approved for over-the-road transportation of hypergolic propellants. The use of these containers will allow the users to increase efficiency and reduce the following costs: design/construction, transportation (to/from the launch site), propellant transfer operations, and decontamination operations. The user also acquires the flexibility of transporting to an offsite location for processing or storage without obtaining special exemptions or permits. These containers will incorporate their own quantity gaging and temperature sensing systems, and be integrated onto a transport trailer which contains work platforms and a fluid transfer system.

  8. Propeller speed and phase sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collopy, Paul D. (Inventor); Bennett, George W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A speed and phase sensor counterrotates aircraft propellers. A toothed wheel is attached to each propeller, and the teeth trigger a sensor as they pass, producing a sequence of signals. From the sequence of signals, rotational speed of each propeller is computer based on time intervals between successive signals. The speed can be computed several times during one revolution, thus giving speed information which is highly up-to-date. Given that spacing between teeth may not be uniform, the signals produced may be nonuniform in time. Error coefficients are derived to correct for nonuniformities in the resulting signals, thus allowing accurate speed to be computed despite the spacing nonuniformities. Phase can be viewed as the relative rotational position of one propeller with respect to the other, but measured at a fixed time. Phase is computed from the signals.

  9. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  10. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  11. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-06-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  12. NASA's Space Launch Initiative Targets Toxic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; McNeal, Curtis; Davis, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When manned and unmanned space flight first began, the clear and overriding design consideration was performance. Consequently, propellant combinations of all kinds were considered, tested, and, when they lifted the payload a kilometer higher, or an extra kilogram to the same altitude, they became part of our operational inventory. Cost was not considered. And with virtually all of the early work being performed by the military, safety was hardly a consideration. After all, fighting wars has always been dangerous. Those days are past now. With space flight, and the products of space flight, a regular part of our lives today, safety and cost are being reexamined. NASA's focus turns naturally to its Shuttle Space Transportation System. Designed, built, and flown for the first time in the 1970s, this system remains today America's workhorse for manned space flight. Without its tremendous lift capability and mission flexibility, the International Space Station would not exist. And the Hubble telescope would be a monument to shortsighted management, rather than the clear penetrating eye on the stars it is today. But the Shuttle system fully represents the design philosophy of its period: it is too costly to operate, and not safe enough for regular long term access to space. And one of the key reasons is the utilization of toxic propellants. This paper will present an overview of the utilization of toxic propellants on the current Shuttle system.

  13. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  18. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  19. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  20. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  1. New high energetic composite propellants for space applications: refrigerated solid propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franson, C.; Orlandi, O.; Perut, C.; Fouin, G.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.; Calabro, M.

    2009-09-01

    Cryogenic solid propellants (CSP) are a new kind of chemical propellants that use frozen products to ensure the mechanical resistance of the grain. The objective is to combine the high performances of liquid propulsion and the simplicity of solid propulsion. The CSP concept has few disadvantages. Storability is limited by the need of permanent cooling between motor loading and firing. It needs insulations that increase the dry mass. It is possible to limit significantly these drawbacks by using a cooling temperature near the ambient one. It will permit not to change the motor materials and to minimize the supplementary dry mass due to insulator. The designation "Refrigerated Solid Propellant" (RPS) is in that case more appropriate as "Cryogenic Solid Propellant." SNPE Matériaux Energétiques is developing new concept of composition e e with cooling temperature as near the ambient temperature as possible. They are homogeneous and the main ingredients are hydrogen peroxide, polymer and metal or metal hydride, they are called "HydroxalaneTM." This concept allows reaching a high energy level. The expected specific impulse is between 355 and 375 s against 315 s for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) / ammonium perchlorate (AP) / Al composition. However, the density is lower than for current propellants, between 1377 and 1462 kg/m3 compared to around 1800 kg/m3 . This is an handicap only for volume-limited application. Works have been carried out at laboratory scale to define the quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process to realize sample and small grain in a safer manner. To assess the process, a small grain with an internal bore had been realized with a composition based on aluminum and water. This grain had shown very good quality, without any defect, and good bonding properties on the insulator.

  2. Ultrapure Gases - From the Production Plant to the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, H.; Zuzel, G.

    2007-03-28

    Radioactive noble gas isotopes are a potential source of background in low-level physics experiments, since they are present in the atmosphere and also in widely used gases produced from the atmosphere. We have studied the 39Ar, 85Kr and 222Rn contamination of commercially available nitrogen using low background proportional counters and a rare gas mass spectrometer. It was found that air separation plants are very effective in removing traces of radioactive noble gases and that the available purity can be significantly higher than commercial specifications. On the other hand the gas handling processes which are necessary to deliver gases from the production plant to the customer are a possible source of re-contaminations and determine in most cases the achievable purity. By simulating these processes under realistic conditions we have establish together with the Italian company 'SOL group' a well controlled delivery path which can hold the purity. For the short-lived 222Rn the initial contamination is less critical, because it decays away. Instead the emanation rate of the cryogenic tank was found to determine the achievable purity, since it permanently delivers new 222Rn.

  3. Earthworms increase plant production: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Lubbers, Ingrid M; Vos, Hannah M J; Brown, George G; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, in turn affecting plant growth. Yet, studies on the effect of earthworm presence on crop yields have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that on average earthworm presence in agroecosystems leads to a 25% increase in crop yield and a 23% increase in aboveground biomass. The magnitude of these effects depends on presence of crop residue, earthworm density and type and rate of fertilization. The positive effects of earthworms become larger when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil nitrogen availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through releasing nitrogen locked away in residue and soil organic matter. Our results therefore imply that earthworms are of crucial importance to decrease the yield gap of farmers who can't -or won't- use nitrogen fertilizer. PMID:25219785

  4. Earthworms increase plant production: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Lubbers, Ingrid M; Vos, Hannah M J; Brown, George G; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

    2014-09-15

    To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, in turn affecting plant growth. Yet, studies on the effect of earthworm presence on crop yields have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that on average earthworm presence in agroecosystems leads to a 25% increase in crop yield and a 23% increase in aboveground biomass. The magnitude of these effects depends on presence of crop residue, earthworm density and type and rate of fertilization. The positive effects of earthworms become larger when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil nitrogen availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through releasing nitrogen locked away in residue and soil organic matter. Our results therefore imply that earthworms are of crucial importance to decrease the yield gap of farmers who can't -or won't- use nitrogen fertilizer.

  5. Engineering of plant cell walls for enhanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V; Pauly, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The biomass of plants consists predominately of cell walls, a sophisticated composite material composed of various polymer networks including numerous polysaccharides and the polyphenol lignin. In order to utilize this renewable, highly abundant resource for the production of commodity chemicals such as biofuels, major hurdles have to be surpassed to reach economical viability. Recently, major advances in the basic understanding of the synthesis of the various wall polymers and its regulation has enabled strategies to alter the qualitative composition of wall materials. Such emerging strategies include a reduction/alteration of the lignin network to enhance polysaccharide accessibility, reduction of polymer derived processing inhibitors, and increases in polysaccharides with a high hexose/pentose ratio.

  6. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  7. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  8. Fundamentals of the Control of Gas-Turbine Power Plants for Aircraft. Part 2; Principles of Control Common to Jet, Turbine-Propeller Jet, and Ducted-Fan Jet Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehl, H.

    1947-01-01

    After defining the aims and requirements to be set for a control system of gas-turbine power plants for aircraft, the report will deal with devices that prevent the quantity of fuel supplied per unit of time from exceeding the value permissible at a given moment. The general principles of the actuation of the adjustable parts of the power plant are also discussed.

  9. Project Genesis: Mars in situ propellant technology demonstrator mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Francisco Garcia; Anderson, Scott; Andrews, Jason; Deger, Matt; Hedman, Matt; Kipp, Jared; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Marcelo, Mohrli; Mark, Karen; Matheson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Project Genesis is a low cost, near-term, unmanned Mars mission, whose primary purpose is to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. The essence of the mission is to use indigenously produced fuel and oxidizer to propel a ballistic hopper. The Mars Landing Vehicle/Hopper (MLVH) has an Earth launch mass of 625 kg and is launched aboard a Delta 117925 launch vehicle into a conjunction class transfer orbit to Mars. Upon reaching its target, the vehicle performs an aerocapture maneuver and enters an elliptical orbit about Mars. Equipped with a ground penetrating radar, the MLVH searches for subsurface water ice deposits while in orbit for several weeks. A deorbit burn is then performed to bring the MLVH into the Martian atmosphere for landing. Following aerobraking and parachute deployment, the vehicle retrofires to a soft landing on Mars. Once on the surface, the MLVH begins to acquire scientific data and to manufacture methane and oxygen via the Sabatier process. This results in a fuel-rich O2/CH4 mass ratio of 2, which yields a sufficiently high specific impulse (335 sec) that no additional oxygen need be manufactured, thus greatly simplifying the design of the propellant production plant. During a period of 153 days the MLVH produces and stores enough fuel and oxidizer to make a 30 km ballistic hop to a different site of scientific interest. At this new location the MLVH resumes collecting surface and atmospheric data with the onboard instrumentation. Thus, the MLVH is able to provide a wealth of scientific data which would otherwise require two separate missions or separate vehicles, while proving a new and valuable technology that will facilitate future unmanned and manned exploration of Mars. Total mission cost, including the Delta launch vehicle, is estimated to be $200 million.

  10. Viton's Impact on NASA Standard Initiator Propellant Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl; Tipton, Bill, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the properties of Viton that are relevant to its use as a pyrotechnic binder in a NASA standard initiator (NSI) propellant. Nearly every aspect of NSI propellant manufacture and use is impacted by the binder system. The effect of Viton's molecular weight on solubility, solution viscosity, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics as applied to NSI production and performance are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the Viton fractionation that occurs during the precipitation cycle and its impact on bridgewire functions. Special consideration is given to the production of bridgewire slurry mixtures.

  11. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  12. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities §...

  13. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  14. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  15. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  16. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  17. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  18. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  19. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  20. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  1. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. Exotic plants contribute positively to biodiversity functions but reduce native seed production and arthropod richness.

    PubMed

    Cook-Patton, Susan C; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-06-01

    Although exotic plants comprise a substantial portion of floristic biodiversity, their contributions to community and ecosystem processes are not well understood. We manipulated plant species richness in old-field communities to compare the impacts of native vs. exotic species on plant biomass, seed production, and arthropod community structure. Plants within diverse communities, regardless of whether they were native or exotic, had higher biomass and seed production than in monocultures and displayed positive complementarity. Increasing native or exotic plant richness also enhanced the richness of arthropods on plants, but exotics attracted fewer arthropod species for a given arthropod abundance than did natives. Additionally, when exotic and native plants grew together, exotics suppressed seed production of native species. Thus, exotic plants appear to contribute positively to some biodiversity functions, but may impact native communities over longer time frames by reducing native seed production and recruiting fewer arthropod species.

  3. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration of tobacco leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plant expression plasmid provides a convenient method for laboratory scale protein production. When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), diffic...

  4. Bioproduction of therapeutic proteins in the 21st century and the role of plants and plant cells as production platforms.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Robert

    2007-04-01

    In the last decade, the technique to genetically modify crop plants has gained more and more interest in terms of bioproduction of heterologous proteins. Plants have been discovered as a possible source for large amounts of cost effective recombinant protein. Main application fields are therapeutics for use in animal and human health, diagnostics, and technical enzymes. This review is focused on the recent progress in this field of molecular farming. After a comparison with hitherto established protein production systems, the advantages of plants as an alternative production system are discussed. An overview about the different host plants and possible expression strategies is given and the progress in commercialization of the techniques is highlighted. Finally, the role of plant cell cultures for the production of recombinant proteins is discussed.

  5. Modelling production processes in a vehicle recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The European Directive on end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) fundamentally changed the business philosophy of the European vehicle recycling system, which was exclusively profit-oriented. As the dominant participants of this system, vehicle recycling plants (VRPs) are especially affected by its implementation. For VRPs to successfully respond to the prescribed eco-efficiency quotas, investment will be needed to procure modern sorting equipment as well as to achieve full transformation of their production process. However, before VRPs decide to make this very important investment decision, it is necessary to determine the adequacy of such a decision in detail. Consequently, the following questions become unavoidable: Can modernly equipped VRPs conduct profitable business? Are eco-efficiency quotas actually attainable? How will the new changes in vehicle design influence VRPs? To provide answers to these essential questions, a production planning model of a modernly equipped VRP was first developed and then tested extensively using real data. Based on the answers provided by the proposed model testing analysis it was concluded that VRP transformation is not only necessary but completely justified and that the final success of the ELV Directive is realistic.

  6. Recent Advances and Applications in Cryogenic Propellant Densification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review several historical cryogenic test programs that were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio over the past fifty years. More recently these technology programs were intended to study new and improved denser forms of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic rocket fuels. Of particular interest are subcooled cryogenic propellants. This is due to the fact that they have a significantly higher density (eg. triple-point hydrogen, slush etc.), a lower vapor pressure and improved cooling capacity over the normal boiling point cryogen. This paper, which is intended to be a historical technology overview, will trace the past and recent development and testing of small and large-scale propellant densification production systems. Densifier units in the current GRC fuels program, were designed and are capable of processing subcooled LH2 and L02 propellant at the X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) scale. One final objective of this technical briefing is to discuss some of the potential benefits and application which propellant densification technology may offer the industrial cryogenics production and end-user community. Density enhancements to cryogenic propellants (LH2, LO2, CH4) in rocket propulsion and aerospace application have provided the opportunity to either increase performance of existing launch vehicles or to reduce the overall size, mass and cost of a new vehicle system.

  7. Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III; Scott, W.S.

    1995-02-01

    One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.

  8. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. Filter media candidates were evaluated for dewatering the ultrafine ash (UFA) product. Media candidates were selected based on manufacturer recommendations and evaluated using standard batch filtration techniques. A final media was selected; 901F, a multifilament polypropylene. While this media would provide adequate solids capture and cake moisture, the use of flocculants would be necessary to enable adequate filter throughput. Several flocculant chemistries were also evaluated and it was determined that polyethylene oxide (PEO) at a dosage of 5 ppm (slurry basis) would be the most suitable in terms of both settling rate and clarity. PEO was evaluated on a continuous vacuum filter using 901F media. The optimum cycle time was found to be 1.25 minutes which provided a 305% moisture cake, 85% solids capture with a throughput of 115 lbs dry solids per hour and a dry cake rate of 25 lb/ft2/hr. Increasing cycle time not did not reduce cake moisture or increase throughput. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities.

  9. The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Bardgett, Richard D; van Straalen, Nico M

    2008-03-01

    Microbes are the unseen majority in soil and comprise a large portion of life's genetic diversity. Despite their abundance, the impact of soil microbes on ecosystem processes is still poorly understood. Here we explore the various roles that soil microbes play in terrestrial ecosystems with special emphasis on their contribution to plant productivity and diversity. Soil microbes are important regulators of plant productivity, especially in nutrient poor ecosystems where plant symbionts are responsible for the acquisition of limiting nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for c. 5-20% (grassland and savannah) to 80% (temperate and boreal forests) of all nitrogen, and up to 75% of phosphorus, that is acquired by plants annually. Free-living microbes also strongly regulate plant productivity, through the mineralization of, and competition for, nutrients that sustain plant productivity. Soil microbes, including microbial pathogens, are also important regulators of plant community dynamics and plant diversity, determining plant abundance and, in some cases, facilitating invasion by exotic plants. Conservative estimates suggest that c. 20 000 plant species are completely dependent on microbial symbionts for growth and survival pointing to the importance of soil microbes as regulators of plant species richness on Earth. Overall, this review shows that soil microbes must be considered as important drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. Combustion chemistry of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, A. D.; Ryan, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    Several studies are described of the chemistry of solid propellant combustion which employed a fast-scanning optical spectrometer. Expanded abstracts are presented for four of the studies which were previously reported. One study of the ignition of composite propellants yielded data which suggested early ammonium perchlorate decomposition and reaction. The results of a study of the spatial distribution of molecular species in flames from uncatalyzed and copper or lead catalyzed double-based propellants support previously published conclusions concerning the site of action of these metal catalysts. A study of the ammonium-perchlorate-polymeric-fuel-binder reaction in thin films, made by use of infrared absorption spectrometry, yielded a characterization of a rapid condensed-phase reaction which is likely important during the ignition transient and the burning process.

  11. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  12. RSRM Propellant Grain Geometry Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Endicott, Joni B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is composed of viewgraphs about the RSRM propellant grain geometry modification project, which hopes to improve personnel and system safety by modifying propellant grain geometry to improve structural factors of safety. Using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis to determine blend radii required to reduce localized stresses, and ballistic predictions to ensure that the ballistics, ignition transient and Block Model have not been adversely affected, the project hopes to build and test FSM-10 with a new design, and determine flight effectivity pending successful test evaluation.

  13. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  14. Solid Propellant Grain Structural Integrity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural properties of solid propellant rocket grains were studied to determine the propellant resistance to stresses. Grain geometry, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and failure modes are discussed along with design criteria and recommended practices.

  15. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here.

  16. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  17. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yun-Peng; Fan, Ming-Xia; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Feng; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Chymosin (also known as rennin) plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen. PMID:27136529

  18. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yun-Peng; Fan, Ming-Xia; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Feng; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Chymosin (also known as rennin) plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen. PMID:27136529

  19. MCS-18, a novel natural plant product prevents autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Christian; Littmann, Leonie; Resheq, Yazid; Rössner, Susanne; Goldwich, Andreas; Pangratz, Nadine; Kerek, Franz; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2011-09-30

    There is still a vital need for new therapies in order to prevent or treat type I diabetes. In this respect, we report that MCS-18 a novel natural product isolated from the plant Helleborus purpurascens (i.e. Christmas rose) is able to increase diabetes free survival using the NOD-mouse model, which is accompanied with a diminished IFN-γ secretion of splenocytes. In the animal group which has been treated with MCS-18 during week 8 and week 12 of age 70% of the animals showed a diabetes free survival at week 30, whereas in contrast in the untreated animals less than 10% were free of diabetes. MCS-18 treatment significantly reduced islet T-cell infiltrates as well as the rate of T-cell proliferation. Periinsular infiltrates in the MCS-18 treated animals showed a significantly enhanced number of Foxp3(+) CD25(+) T cells, indicating the increased presence of regulatory T cells. These studies show that MCS-18 exerts an efficient immunosuppressive activity with remarkable potential for the therapy of diseases characterized by pathological over-activation of the immune system.

  20. Note on the Effects of First-Order Aerodynamic Loads on Propeller Shaft Loads with Emphasis on Counterrotating Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Vernon L.; McCloud, John L., III; Yaggy, Paul F.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation of the 1XP excitation of inclined single-rotation propellers has indicated a new concept for determining propeller shaft forces and moments of an inclined propeller. This report presents preliminary results, in particular to the counterrotating propeller.

  1. Fatal propeller injuries: three autopsy case reports.

    PubMed

    Ihama, Yoko; Ninomiya, Kenji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

    2009-10-01

    Most propeller injuries occur at water recreational facilities such as those with provision for water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving. Propeller injuries resulting from nautical accidents can be fatal. The sharp blades of propellers rotating at high speeds cause multiple and serious injuries such as deep laceration, chop wounds, bone fractures and mutilation of extremities. We present the autopsy reports of three people who died after colliding with boat propellers.

  2. Micarta propellers IV : technical methods of design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used in design of Micarta propellers. The most direct method for working out the design of a Micarta propeller is to start with the diameter and blade angles of a wooden propeller suited for a particular installation and then to apply one of the plan forms suitable for Micarta propellers. This allows one to obtain the corresponding blade widths and to then use these angles and blade widths for an aerodynamic analysis.

  3. Metabolic engineering for the production of prenylated polyphenols in transgenic legume plants using bacterial and plant prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Linley, Philip J; Sasaki, Kanako; Kumano, Takuto; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Shitan, Nobukazu; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takanashi, Kojiro; Harada, Emiko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2011-11-01

    Prenylated polyphenols are secondary metabolites beneficial for human health because of their various biological activities. Metabolic engineering was performed using Streptomyces and Sophora flavescens prenyltransferase genes to produce prenylated polyphenols in transgenic legume plants. Three Streptomyces genes, NphB, SCO7190, and NovQ, whose gene products have broad substrate specificity, were overexpressed in a model legume, Lotus japonicus, in the cytosol, plastids or mitochondria with modification to induce the protein localization. Two plant genes, N8DT and G6DT, from Sophora flavescens whose gene products show narrow substrate specificity were also overexpressed in Lotus japonicus. Prenylated polyphenols were undetectable in these plants; however, supplementation of a flavonoid substrate resulted in the production of prenylated polyphenols such as 7-O-geranylgenistein, 6-dimethylallylnaringenin, 6-dimethylallylgenistein, 8-dimethylallynaringenin, and 6-dimethylallylgenistein in transgenic plants. Although transformants with the native NovQ did not produce prenylated polyphenols, modification of its codon usage led to the production of 6-dimethylallylnaringenin and 6-dimethylallylgenistein in transformants following naringenin supplementation. Prenylated polyphenols were not produced in mitochondrial-targeted transformants even under substrate feeding. SCO7190 was also expressed in soybean, and dimethylallylapigenin and dimethylallyldaidzein were produced by supplementing naringenin. This study demonstrated the potential for the production of novel prenylated polyphenols in transgenic plants. In particular, the enzymatic properties of prenyltransferases seemed to be altered in transgenic plants in a host species-dependent manner.

  4. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  5. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  6. Aerosol propellant interference with clinical mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, E D; Sivarajan, M

    1991-04-01

    Metered dose inhalers containing halogenated propellants may interfere with mass spectrometer quantitation of halogenated inhalation anesthetics. We identify the propellant(s) in a commercially available metered dose inhaler that caused erroneous mass spectrometer readings. In addition, we identify the causes of different types of interference in different mass spectrometers. PMID:2072131

  7. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  8. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  9. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  10. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  11. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  12. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  13. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  14. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  15. 21 CFR 801.417 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 801.417 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.417 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbon in devices as propellants in self-pressurized containers...

  16. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  17. 21 CFR 300.100 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 300.100 Section 300.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human drugs as propellants in...

  18. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section 189... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  19. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  20. 21 CFR 189.191 - Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. 189.191 Section... Generally Prohibited From Direct Addition or Use as Human Food § 189.191 Chlorofluorocarbon propellants. The use of chlorofluorocarbons in human food as propellants in self-pressurized containers is...

  1. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  2. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  3. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  5. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  6. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  7. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  8. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  9. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  10. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  12. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  14. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  15. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For airplanes... accumulation on propellers or on accessories where ice accumulation would jeopardize engine performance. (b)...

  16. Micarta Propellers II : Method of Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, F W; Clay, N S

    1924-01-01

    The methods used in manufacturing Micarta propellers differ considerably from those employed with wood propellers on account of the hardness of the materials. The propellers must be formed accurately to size in a mold and afterwards balanced without the customary trimming of the material from the tips. Described here are the pressing and molding processes, filing, boring, balancing, and curing.

  17. Badger Army Ammunition Plant groundwater data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    At the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (Badger), there are currently over 200 wells that are monitored on a quarterly basis. Badger has had three active production periods since its construction in 1942. During these periods, various nitrocellulose based propellants were produced including single base artillery propellants were produced including single base artillery propellant, double base rocket propellant and BALL POWDER{reg_sign} propellant. Intermediate materials used in the manufacture of these propellants were also produced, including nitroglycerine, and sulfuric and nitric acids. To meet the challenge of managing the data in-house, a groundwater data management system (GDMS) was developed. Although such systems are commercially available, they were not able to provide the specific capabilities necessary for data management and reporting at Badger. The GDMS not only provides the routine database capabilities of data sorts and queries, but has provided an automated data reporting system as well. The reporting function alone has significantly reduced the time and efforts that would normally be associated with this task. Since the GDMS was developed at Badger, the program can be continually adapted to site specific needs. Future planned modifications include automated reconciliation, improved transfer of data to graphics software, and statistical analysis and interpretation of the data.

  18. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  19. Composite propellant tank study for very low cost space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. J.; Keith, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study of life-cycle cost is conducted to determine acceptable options for composite propellant tanks at low cost and weight and for use at moderate pressures. The review examines all cost issues relevant to the production, mass, applications, and reliability of the tanks for pressure-fed rockets. Specific attention is given to the manufacturing and life-cycle issues relevant to the use of composite materials in this application since composites are effective materials for liquid propellant tanks. Specific costs and parametric considerations are given for several tank candidates with 62,303-lb capacities. The mass sensitivity of the fourth stage for the concept vehicle is shown to be high, and the use of a 325-psi fourth-stage tank is shown to yield the minimum cost/lb for the stage. Wound S-glass/epoxy composites can be employed as cost-effective replacements for steel in the design of liquid-propellant tanks.

  20. Ignition characterization of the GOX/ethanol propellant combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, B. R.; Rousar, D. C.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to define the ignition characteristics and thruster pulse mode capabilities of the GOX/ethanol propellant combination. Ignition limits were defined in terms of mixture ratio and cold flow pressure using a spark initiated torch igniter. Igniter tests were run over a wide range of cold flow pressure, propellant temperature and mixture ratio. The product of cold flow pressure and igniter chamber diameter was used to correlate mixture ratio regimes of ignition and nonignition. Engine ignition reliability and pulse mode capability were demonstrated using a 620 lbF thruster with an integrated torch igniter. The nominal chamber pressure and mixture ratio were 150 psia and 1.8, respectively, thruster tests were run over a wide range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. The feasibility of thruster pulse mode operation with the non-hypergolic GOX/ethanol propellant combination was demonstrated.

  1. Laboratory test methods for combustion stability properties of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Brown, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of experimental methods for determining the combustion-stability properties of solid propellants. The methods are generally based on either the temporal response to an initial disturbance or on external methods for generating the required oscillations. The size distribution of condensed-phase combustion products are characterized by means of the experimental approaches. The 'T-burner' approach is shown to assist in the derivation of pressure-coupled driving contributions and particle damping in solid-propellant rocket motors. Other techniques examined include the rotating-valve apparatus, the impedance tube, the modulated throat-acoustic damping burner, and the magnetic flowmeter. The paper shows that experimental methods do not exist for measuring the interactions between acoustic velocity oscillations and burning propellant.

  2. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  3. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304' of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400' of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  4. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  5. The Propeller and the Frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Blériot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 year period over which Blériot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  6. Novel sequences propel familiar folds.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Zahra; Paoli, Massimo

    2002-04-01

    Recent structure determinations have made new additions to a set of strikingly different sequences that give rise to the same topology. Proteins with a beta propeller fold are characterized by extreme sequence diversity despite the similarity in their three-dimensional structures. Several fold predictions, based in part on sequence repeats thought to match modular beta sheets, have been proved correct.

  7. THE PROPELLER AND THE FROG

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2010-10-20

    'Propellers' in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the 'frog' resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bleriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of {approx}4 years, similar to the {approx}3.7 year period over which Bleriot's orbital longitude is observed to vary. These librations should be subtracted from the longitude data before any inferences about moonlet migration are made.

  8. Propeller dynamic and aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of propeller blade dynamics are considered including those factors which are exciting the blades and the dynamic response of the blades to the excitations. Methods for treating this dynamic system are described and problems are discussed which may arise with advanced turboprop designs employing thin, swept blades.

  9. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Jackura; John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-12-31

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The market study for the products of the processing plant (Subtask 1.6), conducted by Cemex, is reported herein. The study incorporated simplifying assumptions and focused only on pozzolan and ultra fine fly ash (UFFA). It found that the market for pozzolan in the Ghent area was oversupplied, with resultant poor pricing structure. Reachable export markets for the Ghent pozzolan market were mostly locally served with the exception of Florida. It was concluded that a beneficiated material for that market may be at a long term disadvantage. The market for the UFFA was more complex as this material would compete with other beneficiated ash and potential metakaolin and silica fume as well. The study concluded that this market represented about 100,000 tons of sales per year and, although lucrative, represented a widely dispersed niche market.

  10. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  11. The Role of Molybdenum in Agricultural Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    KAISER, BRENT N.; GRIDLEY, KATE L.; NGAIRE BRADY, JOANNE; PHILLIPS, THOMAS; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background The importance of molybdenum for plant growth is disproportionate with respect to the absolute amounts required by most plants. Apart from Cu, Mo is the least abundant essential micronutrient found in most plant tissues and is often set as the base from which all other nutrients are compared and measured. Molybdenum is utilized by selected enzymes to carry out redox reactions. Enzymes that require molybdenum for activity include nitrate reductase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase. • Scope Loss of Mo-dependent enzyme activity (directly or indirectly through low internal molybdenum levels) impacts upon plant development, in particular, those processes involving nitrogen metabolism and the synthesis of the phytohormones abscisic acid and indole-3 butyric acid. Currently, there is little information on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution and redistribute it within the plant. In this review, the role of molybdenum in plants is discussed, focusing on its current constraints in some agricultural situations and where increased molybdenum nutrition may aid in agricultural plant development and yields. • Conclusions Molybdenum deficiencies are considered rare in most agricultural cropping areas; however, the phenotype is often misdiagnosed and attributed to other downstream effects associated with its role in various enzymatic redox reactions. Molybdenum fertilization through foliar sprays can effectively supplement internal molybdenum deficiencies and rescue the activity of molybdoenzymes. The current understanding on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution or later redistribute it once in the plant is still unclear; however, plants have similar physiological molybdenum transport phenotypes to those found in prokaryotic systems. Thus, careful analysis of existing prokaryotic molybdate transport mechanisms, as well as a re-examination of know anion transport mechanisms present in plants, will help to

  12. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  13. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 1. Plant products.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Caio Teves; Chalk, Phillip Michael; Magalhães, Alberto M T

    2015-01-01

    Among the lighter elements having two or more stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, S), δ(15)N appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate plant products from conventional and organic farms. Organic plant products vary within a range of δ(15)N values of +0.3 to +14.6%, while conventional plant products range from negative to positive values, i.e. -4.0 to +8.7%. The main factors affecting δ(15)N signatures of plants are N fertilizers, biological N2 fixation, plant organs and plant age. Correlations between mode of production and δ(13)C (except greenhouse tomatoes warmed with natural gas) or δ(34)S signatures have not been established, and δ(2)H and δ(18)O are unsuitable markers due to the overriding effect of climate on the isotopic composition of plant-available water. Because there is potential overlap between the δ(15)N signatures of organic and conventionally produced plant products, δ(15)N has seldom been used successfully as the sole criterion for differentiation, but when combined with complementary analytical techniques and appropriate statistical tools, the probability of a correct identification increases. The use of organic fertilizers by conventional farmers or the marketing of organic produce as conventional due to market pressures are additional factors confounding correct identification. The robustness of using δ(15)N to differentiate mode of production will depend on the establishment of databases that have been verified for individual plant products.

  14. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 1. Plant products.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Caio Teves; Chalk, Phillip Michael; Magalhães, Alberto M T

    2015-01-01

    Among the lighter elements having two or more stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, S), δ(15)N appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate plant products from conventional and organic farms. Organic plant products vary within a range of δ(15)N values of +0.3 to +14.6%, while conventional plant products range from negative to positive values, i.e. -4.0 to +8.7%. The main factors affecting δ(15)N signatures of plants are N fertilizers, biological N2 fixation, plant organs and plant age. Correlations between mode of production and δ(13)C (except greenhouse tomatoes warmed with natural gas) or δ(34)S signatures have not been established, and δ(2)H and δ(18)O are unsuitable markers due to the overriding effect of climate on the isotopic composition of plant-available water. Because there is potential overlap between the δ(15)N signatures of organic and conventionally produced plant products, δ(15)N has seldom been used successfully as the sole criterion for differentiation, but when combined with complementary analytical techniques and appropriate statistical tools, the probability of a correct identification increases. The use of organic fertilizers by conventional farmers or the marketing of organic produce as conventional due to market pressures are additional factors confounding correct identification. The robustness of using δ(15)N to differentiate mode of production will depend on the establishment of databases that have been verified for individual plant products. PMID:24915332

  15. Towards high-yield production of pharmaceutical proteins with plant cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Ge, Xumeng; Dolan, Maureen C

    2011-01-01

    "Molecular farming" in plants with significant advantages in cost and safety is touted as a promising platform for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins. While whole-plant produced biopharmaceuticals account for a significant portion of the preclinical and clinical pipeline, plant cell suspension culture, which integrates the merits of whole-plant systems with those of microbial fermentation, is emerging as a more compliant alternative "factory". However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of plant cell bioproduction platform. This review highlights the advantages and recent progress in plant cell culture technology and outlines viable strategies at both the biological and process engineering levels for advancing the economic feasibility of plant cell-based protein production. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include non-mammalian glycosylation and genetic instability will also be discussed. PMID:21236330

  16. Towards high-yield production of pharmaceutical proteins with plant cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Ge, Xumeng; Dolan, Maureen C

    2011-01-01

    "Molecular farming" in plants with significant advantages in cost and safety is touted as a promising platform for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins. While whole-plant produced biopharmaceuticals account for a significant portion of the preclinical and clinical pipeline, plant cell suspension culture, which integrates the merits of whole-plant systems with those of microbial fermentation, is emerging as a more compliant alternative "factory". However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of plant cell bioproduction platform. This review highlights the advantages and recent progress in plant cell culture technology and outlines viable strategies at both the biological and process engineering levels for advancing the economic feasibility of plant cell-based protein production. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include non-mammalian glycosylation and genetic instability will also be discussed.

  17. Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ming; Bell, Colin; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Pendall, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss can potentially mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2, but we currently lack effective means to achieve these goals. Soil microbes may play critical roles in mediating plant productivity and soil C/N dynamics under future climate scenarios of elevated CO2 (eCO2) through optimizing functioning of the root-soil interface. By using a labeling technique with 13C and 15N, we examined the effects of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens on C and N cycling in the rhizosphere of a common grass species under eCO2. These microbial inoculants were shown to increase plant productivity. Although strong competition for N between the plant and soil microbes was observed, the plant can increase its capacity to store more biomass C per unit of N under P. fluorescens addition. Unlike eCO2 effects, P. fluorescens inoculants did not change mass-specific microbial respiration and accelerate soil decomposition related to N cycling, suggesting these microbial inoculants mitigated positive feedbacks of soil microbial decomposition to eCO2. The potential to mitigate climate change by optimizing soil microbial functioning by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens is a prospect for ecosystem management. PMID:25784647

  18. Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ming; Bell, Colin; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Pendall, Elise

    2015-03-01

    Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss can potentially mitigate increasing atmospheric CO2, but we currently lack effective means to achieve these goals. Soil microbes may play critical roles in mediating plant productivity and soil C/N dynamics under future climate scenarios of elevated CO2 (eCO2) through optimizing functioning of the root-soil interface. By using a labeling technique with 13C and 15N, we examined the effects of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens on C and N cycling in the rhizosphere of a common grass species under eCO2. These microbial inoculants were shown to increase plant productivity. Although strong competition for N between the plant and soil microbes was observed, the plant can increase its capacity to store more biomass C per unit of N under P. fluorescens addition. Unlike eCO2 effects, P. fluorescens inoculants did not change mass-specific microbial respiration and accelerate soil decomposition related to N cycling, suggesting these microbial inoculants mitigated positive feedbacks of soil microbial decomposition to eCO2. The potential to mitigate climate change by optimizing soil microbial functioning by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens is a prospect for ecosystem management.

  19. Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under elevated CO₂.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Bell, Colin; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Pendall, Elise

    2015-03-18

    Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss can potentially mitigate increasing atmospheric CO₂, but we currently lack effective means to achieve these goals. Soil microbes may play critical roles in mediating plant productivity and soil C/N dynamics under future climate scenarios of elevated CO₂ (eCO₂) through optimizing functioning of the root-soil interface. By using a labeling technique with (13)C and (15)N, we examined the effects of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens on C and N cycling in the rhizosphere of a common grass species under eCO₂. These microbial inoculants were shown to increase plant productivity. Although strong competition for N between the plant and soil microbes was observed, the plant can increase its capacity to store more biomass C per unit of N under P. fluorescens addition. Unlike eCO₂ effects, P. fluorescens inoculants did not change mass-specific microbial respiration and accelerate soil decomposition related to N cycling, suggesting these microbial inoculants mitigated positive feedbacks of soil microbial decomposition to eCO₂. The potential to mitigate climate change by optimizing soil microbial functioning by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens is a prospect for ecosystem management.

  20. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  1. Workforce Competencies of Finnish Plant Production Graduates as Assessed by Students, Employers and Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Ritva; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which Finnish horticulture graduates' assessments of their work force competencies differ from those of their teachers and employers. Questionnaires were sent to all 68 plant production graduates of the University of Helsinki's plant production program from 1990-1993, a sample of 38 employers representing…

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress.

  3. Installation effects on propeller wake/vortex induced structure-borne noise transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus was employed to investigate the effects of power-plant placement, engine/nacelle mass installation, and wing-to-fuselage attachment methods on propeller-induced structure-borne noise (SBN) transmission levels and their effects on noise-control measures. Data are presented showing SBN transmission is insensitive to propeller spanwise placement, however some sensitivity is seen in propeller-to-wing spacing. Installation of an engine/nacelle mass and variation in wing-to-fuselage attachments have measurable influences on SBN transmission and control measures.

  4. Parametric Optimization of Ares I Propellant Slosh Characteristics Using Frequency Response Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel technique for developing propellant slosh damping requirements with respect to the stability characteristics of large flexible launch vehicles is presented. A numerical algorithm is devised which allows an automated software program to rapidly converge to pseudo-optimal solutions that minimize required propellant slosh damping for multiple tanks while maintaining constraints on the frequency response characteristics of a particular open-loop plant transfer function. An implementation of the algorithm using a high-order linear model of the Ares I plant dynamics considers all relevant dynamic interactions of flexible body modes, propellant slosh, and nozzle inertia effects. A high-resolution propellant damping requirements table is produced that can be used for baffle design. The method is demonstrated to provide exceptional speed and accuracy when compared with the alternative human-in-the-loop approach.

  5. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS AND TOBACCO PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous field and laboratory studies with vascular plants have shown that perchlorate is transported from perchlorate fortified soils and is accumulated in the plant tissues and organs. This paper reports results of initial investigations on the accumulation of perchlorate in t...

  6. Production Of Cellulase In Plastids Of Transgenic Plants

    DOEpatents

    Lamppa, Gayle

    2002-08-06

    A genetic construct encoding a fusion protein including endogluconase E1 and a transit peptide is used to transform plants. The plants produce cellulase by expressing the genetic construct. The cellulase is targeted to plastids and can be collected and purified.

  7. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS AND TOBACCO PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous field and laboratory studies with vascular plants have shown that perchlorate is transported from perchlorate fortified soils and is accumulated in the plant tissues and organs. This paper reports results of initial investigations on the accumulation of perchlorate in t...

  8. Instrumentation advances in emissions characterization from propellant/explosive combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Morrison, D.J.; Mullins, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Results from a chamber study to characterize emissions from combustion of selected pure energetic materials are presented in this paper. The study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive air pathways risk assessment for a propellant and explosive manufacturing facility that engages in open burning methods for manufacturing waste disposal. Materials selected for emissions characterization in this study included both aluminized and non-aluminized composite propellant, a double base propellant and a plastic bonded explosive. Combustion tests in a specialized chamber revealed very low emissions for gaseous products of incomplete combustion such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Analysis of gaseous and aerosol emission products for a pre-selected target analyte list that included both volatile and semi-volatile organics revealed either low or non-detectable emissions for the four energetic types tested. Hydrogen chloride was detected as a major emission product from propellants containing ammonium perchlorate. Results from this work reveal that about one-half of the chlorine in the original material is released as hydrogen chloride. Based on earlier work, the balance of the chlorine emissions is expected to be in the form of chlorine gas.

  9. Effects of Proplet on Propeller Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. H.; Song, W. P.; Yang, X. D.

    2011-09-01

    Many studies have proved the validation of winglets on improving aerodynamic efficiency. Similar to winglet, a suitable proplet can improve the efficiency of a propeller. The effect of proplet on propeller performance is investigated in this paper. With a cell-centered finite-volume scheme, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved on a chimera grid system to simulate the flow around propeller to obtain the aerodynamic performance. A propeller designed for high altitude at 20 km with a diameter of 6.8 m is used as a baseline propeller. The effect of chord length and incidence angle of proplet tip on 8the efficiency of the propeller are also considered. The simulation results demonstrate that a proper proplet leads to weaker blade tip vortex, which is helpful to improve the efficiency of the propeller.

  10. Aerosol industry success in reducing CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) propellant usage. Final report, January-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.P.; Wevill, S.L.

    1989-11-01

    The two-part report discusses the reduction of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellant usage. Part I discusses the U.S. aerosol industry's experience in converting from CFC propellants to alternative aerosol formulations. Detailed examples of non-CFC formulations are provided for 28 categories of aerosol products. Hydrocarbon propellants, which cost less than CFCs, are most often selected as the propellants of choice unless special properties (e.g., increased solvency or reduced flammability) are needed. Dimethyl ether is the next most preferred CFC alternative although it is flammable and a strong solvent. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen are inexpensive and widely available, but have been underused as aerosol propellants. Special equipment is often needed to add them to the aerosol containers.

  11. Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Armor, A.F.; Wolk, R.H. |

    1998-09-01

    This book is written to help electric generation staff operate their plants more profitably in a competitive environment. Since responsibility for keeping the plant running falls directly on the shoulders of plant personnel, they want to understand what can go wrong, receive information on the current condition of equipment, and fix things when equipment fails or performs poorly. The information in this book is organized so a reader can quickly and easily grasp the current state-of-the-art in maintaining fossil steam units, obtain guidance on specific plant problems, and move ahead with solutions. Many reports and guidelines have been issued on boilers, turbines, generators, heat exchangers, and other plant equipment covering failure modes, causes, fixes, and maintenance practices. Liberal use has been made of these reports to extract the salient recommendations, and the citations and bibliographies acknowledge these sources. The reader is directed to the comprehensive list of reports and papers for further details on specific issues. The scope of this book does not permit a detailed and extensive treatment of each of the hundreds of potential in-plant problems, but does permit the reader to get a first assessment of likely symptoms and modes of failure, and enough information to do something about it. It`s a working handbook for fossil plant staff who are daily faced with protecting the integrity and reliability of the electric generation business.

  12. Propelling efficiency of front-crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, H M; Beelen, A; Rodenburg, A; Sargeant, A J; de Groot, G; Hollander, A P; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1988-12-01

    In this study the propelling efficiency (ep) of front-crawl swimming, by use of the arms only, was calculated in four subjects. This is the ratio of the power used to overcome drag (Pd) to the total mechanical power (Po) produced including power wasted in changing the kinetic energy of masses of water (Pk). By the use of an extended version of the system to measure active drag (MAD system), Pd was measured directly. Simultaneous measurement of O2 uptake (VO2) enabled the establishment of the relationship between the rate of the energy expenditure (PVO2) and Po (since when swimming on the MAD system Po = Pd). These individual relationships describing the mechanical efficiency (8-12%) were then used to estimate Po in free swimming from measurements of VO2. Because Pd was directly measured at each velocity studied by use of the MAD system, ep could be calculated according to the equation ep = Pd/(Pd + Pk) = Pd/Po. For the four top class swimmers studied, ep was found to range from 46 to 77%. Total efficiency, defined as the product of mechanical and propelling efficiency, ranged from 5 to 8%. PMID:3215850

  13. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida

  14. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl; Robert Rathbone

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The secondary classification testing was concluded using a continuous demonstration-scale lamella classifier that was operated at a feed rate of 0.3 to 1.5 tons/hr. Feed to the secondary classifier was generated by operating the primary classifier at the conditions shown to be effective previously. Samples were taken while the secondary classifier was operated under a variety of conditions in order to determine the range of conditions where the unit could be efficiently operated. Secondary classification was effective for producing an ultra-fine ash (UFA) product. Inclined lamella plates provided an effective settling surface for coarser ash particles and plate spacing was shown to be an important variable. Results showed that the closer the plate spacing, the finer the size distribution of the UFA product. Flotation of the secondary classifier feed provided a lower LOI UFA product (2.5% LOI vs. 4.5% LOI) and a dispersant dosage of 2 to 2.5 g/kg was adequate to provide UFA grade (3.8 to 4.4 {micro}m) and recovery (53 to 68% 5{micro}m recovery). The UFA yield without flotation was {approx}33% and lower ({approx}20%) with flotation. Demonstration plant product evaluations showed that water requirements in mortar were reduced and 100% of control strength was achieved in 28 days for the coarser products followed by further strength gain of up to 130% in 56 days. The highest strengths of 110% of control in 7 days and 140% in 56 days were achieved with the finer products. Mortar air requirements for processed products were essentially the same as those for standard mortar, suggesting that the unburned carbon remaining does not have

  15. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  16. Modeling and Fault Simulation of Propellant Filling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Liu, Weidong; Hou, Xiaobo

    2012-05-01

    Propellant filling system is one of the key ground plants in launching site of rocket that use liquid propellant. There is an urgent demand for ensuring and improving its reliability and safety, and there is no doubt that Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a good approach to meet it. Driven by the request to get more fault information for FMEA, and because of the high expense of propellant filling, in this paper, the working process of the propellant filling system in fault condition was studied by simulating based on AMESim. Firstly, based on analyzing its structure and function, the filling system was modular decomposed, and the mathematic models of every module were given, based on which the whole filling system was modeled in AMESim. Secondly, a general method of fault injecting into dynamic system was proposed, and as an example, two typical faults - leakage and blockage - were injected into the model of filling system, based on which one can get two fault models in AMESim. After that, fault simulation was processed and the dynamic characteristics of several key parameters were analyzed under fault conditions. The results show that the model can simulate effectively the two faults, and can be used to provide guidance for the filling system maintain and amelioration.

  17. Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Annette C; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Possell, Malcolm; Vickers, Claudia E; Purnell, Anna; Mullineaux, Philip M; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Isoprene protects the photosynthetic apparatus of isoprene-emitting plants from oxidative stress. The role of isoprene in the response of plants to drought is less clear. Water was withheld from transgenic isoprene-emitting and non-emitting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, to examine: the response of isoprene emission to plant water deficit; a possible relationship between concentrations of the drought-induced phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and isoprene; and whether isoprene affected foliar reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Isoprene emission did not affect whole-plant water use, foliar ABA concentration or leaf water potential under water deficit. Compared with well-watered controls, droughted non-emitting plants significantly increased ROS content (31-46%) and lipid peroxidation (30-47%), concomitant with decreased operating and maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry and lower leaf and whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE). Droughted isoprene-emitting plants showed no increase in ROS content or lipid peroxidation relative to well-watered controls, despite isoprene emission decreasing before leaf wilting. Although isoprene emission protected the photosynthetic apparatus and enhanced leaf and whole-plant WUE, non-emitting plants had 8-24% more biomass under drought, implying that isoprene emission incurred a yield penalty.

  18. Liquid propellant gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design of gas generators intended to provide hot gases for turbine drive is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design and operation of bipropellant gas generators because of their wider use. Problems and limitations involved in turbine operation due to temperature effects are analyzed. Methods of temperature control of gas turbines and combustion products are examined. Drawings of critical sections of gas turbines to show their operation and areas of stress are included.

  19. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  20. Production of plant proteases in vivo and in vitro--a review.

    PubMed

    González-Rábade, Nuria; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Aranda-Barradas, Juan Silvestre; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    In the latest two decades, the interest received by plant proteases has increased significantly. Plant enzymes such as proteases are widely used in medicine and the food industry. Some proteases, like papain, bromelain and ficin are used in various processes such as brewing, meat softening, milk-clotting, cancer treatment, digestion and viral disorders. These enzymes can be obtained from their natural source or through in vitro cultures, in order to ensure a continuous source of plant enzymes. The focus of this review will be the production of plant proteases both in vivo and in vitro, with particular emphasis on the different types of commercially important plant proteases that have been isolated and characterized from naturally grown plants. In vitro approaches for the production of these proteases is also explored, focusing on the techniques that do not involve genetic transformation of the plants and the attempts that have been made in order to enhance the yield of the desired proteases. PMID:21889977