Science.gov

Sample records for properties in-canopy gradients

  1. Fluxes and In-Canopy Gradients of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Above Contrasting South East Asian Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, E.; Misztal, P.; Langford, B.; Oram, D.; Phillips, G.; di Marco, C.; Davison, B.; Hewitt, N.; Cape, N.

    2008-12-01

    Fluxes of volatile organic compounds were measured above tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation in the Malaysian state of Sabah on the island of Borneo. During April and July 2008 an Ionikon proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (ptrms) was operated at the 100 m Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower at Bukit Atur, at the edge of the Danum Valley conservation area. An ultrasonic anemometer and air inlet were mounted at 76 m, with the ptrms housed in a laboratory building at the foot of the tower, measuring fluxes over tropical rainforest (selectively logged in 1989) with a typical canopy height of 30 to 40 m. In addition, during the July period, a second ptrms was coupled to a lift system which automatically moved an inlet to sample in-canopy gradients inside the forest canopy, between 2 and 30 m. During May 2008, the ptrms was moved to an oil palm plantation, north of the town of Lahad Datu, were fluxes were measured at a height of 15 m above the 12 m tall canopy, together with concentrations and fluxes of ozone and aerosols. These measurements formed part of two major UK projects: OP3-Danum-2008 (Oxidant and Particle Production Processes above South East Asian Rainforest) was aimed at quantifying biogenic emissions and evaluating their impact on air chemistry and the production of photo-oxidants and biogenic secondary organic aerosol, while ACES (Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System) studies the role of primary biogenic emissions, in-canopy processes and the effect of land-use change on aerosols. Initial results indicate that fluxes of isoprene above forest averaged 1.4 mg m-2 s-1 which is somewhat smaller than previous measurements in Amazonia and than previous estimates derived from leaf- level measurements, reflecting uncertainties in the assumed plant species composition. Concentrations peaked at the top of the canopy during midday. With an average of 5.5 mg m-2s-1, isoprene fluxes above the oil palm plantation were four times larger. Average fluxes

  2. The global convergence properties of a conjugate gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Mamat, Mustafa; Abashar, Abdelrhaman; Rivaie, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are the most famous methods for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially large scale problems. That is, for its simplicity and low memory requirement. The strong Wolfe line search are usually used in practice for the analyses and implementations of conjugate gradient methods. In this paper, we present a new method of nonlinear conjugate gradient method with strong Wolfe line search for unconstrained optimization problems. Under some assumptions, the sufficient descent property and the global convergence are given. The numerical results show that our new method is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  3. A note on spectral properties of some gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Serafino, Daniela; Ruggiero, Valeria; Toraldo, Gerardo; Zanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Starting from the work by Barzilai and Borwein, gradient methods have gained a great amount of attention, and efficient low-cost schemes are available nowadays. The acceleration strategies used by these methods are based on the definition of effective steplength updating rules, which capture spectral properties of the Hessian of the objective function. The methods arising from this idea represent effective computational tools, extremely appealing for a variety of large-scale optimization problems arising in applications. In this work we discuss the spectral properties of some recently proposed gradient methods with the aim of providing insight into their computational effectiveness. Numerical experiments supporting and illustrating the theoretical analysis are provided.

  4. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-04

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  5. Phenological changes in morphological, physiological and optical properties of single-leaves in canopy trees of a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H. M.; Muraoka, H.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology of forest canopy has been focused in carbon cycle studies, but still we need further understandings on its ecophysiological dynamics, to link them to the ecosystem function. For example, combined analysis of yearly NEP (net ecosystem production) by eddy covariance and NPP (net primary production) by biometric measurements in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Japan showed that the interannual variability of NEP is mostly explained by the NPP in tree biomass, rather than those by NPP in foliage nor heterotrophyic respiration (Ohtsuka et al. 2009; Glob. Chan. Ecol.). This result suggests the possible influence of interannual variations in either the length of growing season, phenology and the yearly maximum of leaf photosynthetic capacity, which largely affects GPP (gross primary production). In present study, in order to reveal the phenological pattern and its interannual variation of the leaf ecophysiological properties, leaf mass per area (LMA), chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic traits (Vcmax and Jmax) were measured for dominant canopy tree species Quercus crispla and Betula ermanii in Takayama site (AsiaFlux, JaLTER) for nine years during 2003 and 2012. In addition, to link such ecophysiological traits to the remote sensing of canopy dynamics, the optical properties (reflectance and transmittance spectra) of single leaf were also measured in spring (early June), summer (mid August) and autumn (October) in 2010 and 2012. Leaf budbreak occurred in mid to late May, after two to three weeks of snowmelt, and the photosynthetic capacity increased gradually in Quercus crispla but quickly in Betula ermanii. Seasonal developmental rate, the timing of leaf photosynthetic maturation and its maximum values varied year by year. Photosynthetic capacity was largely correlated with chlorophyll contents throughout the growing season. From spring to summer, i.e., in developing period, both chlorophyll content and LMA increased almost in parallel

  6. Photoelectric and passivation properties of atomic layer deposited gradient AZO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Tang, Li-dan; Wang, Bing; Jia, Yi; Feng, Jia-heng

    2017-02-01

    Gradient Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with different Al concentration gradient, and their photoelectric and passivation properties were investigated. With increasing Al concentration gradient from 0.09 to 1.21%/nm, Hall-effect showed that the resistivity of gradient AZO thin films deteriorates. The minimal resistivity (2.81 × 10-3 Ω cm), the maximum mobility (9.03 cm2/Vs) and the maximum carrier concentration (2.46 × 1020 cm-3) were obtained at 0.09%/nm Al concentration gradient. The average transmittance of all the gradient AZO films can be more than 85% in the visible region. In addition, gradient AZO thin films demonstrated excellent passivation properties. The maximum minority carrier lifetime (120.6 μs) and the minimal surface recombination velocity (≤208.3 cm/s) were obtained at 0.71%/nm Al concentration gradient.

  7. Bending efficiency through property gradients in bamboo, palm, and wood-based composites.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2011-07-01

    Nature, to a greater extent than engineering, takes advantage of hierarchical structures. These allow for optimization at each structural level to achieve mechanical efficiency, meaning mechanical performance per unit mass. Palms and bamboos do this exceptionally well; both are fibre-reinforced cellular materials in which the fibres are aligned parallel to the stem or culm, respectively. The distribution of these fibres is, however, not uniform: there is a density and modulus gradient across the section. This property gradient increases the flexural rigidity of the plants per unit mass, mass being a measure of metabolic investment made into an organism's construction. An analytical model is presented with which a 'gradient shape factor' can be calculated that describes by how much a plant's bending efficiency is increased through gradient structures. Combining the 'gradient shape factor' with a 'microstructural shape factor' that captures the efficiency gained through the cellular nature of the fibre composite's matrix, and a 'macroscopical shape factor' with which the tubular shape of bamboo can be described, for example, it is possible to explore how much each of these three structural levels of the hierarchy contributes to the overall bending performance of the stem or culm. In analogy, the bending efficiency of the commonly used wood-based composite medium-density fibreboard can be analysed; its property gradient is due to its manufacture by hot pressing. A few other engineered materials exist that emulate property gradients; new manufacturing routes to prepare them are currently being explored. It appears worthwhile to pursue these further.

  8. Small scale vertical gradients of Arctic ice algal photophysiological properties.

    PubMed

    Manes, Sarah Story; Gradinger, Rolf

    2009-10-01

    Photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and sea ice algae from landfast sea ice of the Chukchi Sea off Point Barrow, Alaska, were assessed in spring 2005 and winter through spring 2006 using Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry including estimates of maximum quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETR(max)), photosynthetic efficiency (alpha), and the photoadaptive index (E(k)). The use of centrifuged brine samples allowed to document vertical gradients in ice algal acclimation with 5 cm vertical resolution for the first time. Bottom ice algae (0-5 cm from ice-water interface) expressed low F(v)/F(m) (0.331-0.426) and low alpha (0.098-0.130 (micromol photons m(-2)s(-1))(-1)) in December. F(v)/F(m) and alpha increased in March and May (0.468-0.588 and 0.141-0.438 (micromol photons m(-2)s(-1))(-1), respectively) indicating increased photosynthetic activity. In addition, increases in rETR(max) (3.3-16.4 a.u.) and E(k) (20-88 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) from December to May illustrates a higher potential for primary productivity as communities become better acclimated to under-ice light conditions. In conclusion,photosynthetic performance by ice algae (as assessed by PAM fluorometry) was tightly linked to sea ice salinity, temperature, and inorganic nutrient concentrations (mainly nitrogen).

  9. Methods for Fabricating Gradient Alloy Articles with Multi-Functional Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Dillon, Robert P. (Inventor); Suh, Eric J. (Inventor); Mulder, Jerry L. (Inventor); Gardner, Paul B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for fabricating multi-functional articles comprised of additively formed gradient materials are provided. The fabrication of multi-functional articles using the additive deposition of gradient alloys represents a paradigm shift from the traditional way that metal alloys and metal/metal alloy parts are fabricated. Since a gradient alloy that transitions from one metal to a different metal cannot be fabricated through any conventional metallurgy techniques, the technique presents many applications. Moreover, the embodiments described identify a broad range of properties and applications.

  10. Research of Mechanical Property Gradient Distribution of Al-Cu Alloy in Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Sui, Yanwei; Liu, Aihui; Li, Bangsheng; Guo, Jingjie

    Al-Cu alloy castings are obtained using centrifugal casting. The regularity of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy castings with the same centrifugal radius at different positions is investigated. The result shows that the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and microscope hardness exhibit the following gradient distribution characteristic — high on both sides and low on the center. The trend of mechanical property gradient distribution of Al-Cu alloy increases with the increase in the rotation speed. Moreover, the mechanical properties of casting centerline two sides have asymmetry. The reason is that the grain size of casting centerline two sides and Al2Cu phase and Cu content change correspondingly.

  11. Measured and theoretical characterization of the RF properties of stacked, high-gradient insulator material

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T. L., LLNL

    1997-05-09

    Recent high-voltage breakdown experiments of periodic metallic-dielectric insulating structures have suggested several interesting high-gradient applications. One such area is the employment of high-gradient insulators in high-current, electron-beam, accelerating induction modules. For this application, the understanding of the rf characteristics of the insulator plays an important role in estimating beam-cavity interactions. In this paper, we examine the rf properties of the insulator comparing simulation results with experiment. Different insulator designs are examined to determine their rf transmission properties in gap geometries.

  12. Combined use of heat and saline tracer to estimate aquifer properties in a forced gradient test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, N.; Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2015-06-01

    Usually electrolytic tracers are employed for subsurface characterization, but the interpretation of tracer test data collected by low cost techniques, such as electrical conductivity logging, can be biased by cation exchange reactions. To characterize the aquifer transport properties a saline and heat forced gradient test was employed. The field site, located near Ferrara (Northern Italy), is a well characterized site, which covers an area of 200 m2 and is equipped with a grid of 13 monitoring wells. A two-well (injection and pumping) system was employed to perform the forced gradient test and a straddle packer was installed in the injection well to avoid in-well artificial mixing. The contemporary continuous monitor of hydraulic head, electrical conductivity and temperature within the wells permitted to obtain a robust dataset, which was then used to accurately simulate injection conditions, to calibrate a 3D transient flow and transport model and to obtain aquifer properties at small scale. The transient groundwater flow and solute-heat transport model was built using SEAWAT. The result significance was further investigated by comparing the results with already published column experiments and a natural gradient tracer test performed in the same field. The test procedure shown here can provide a fast and low cost technique to characterize coarse grain aquifer properties, although some limitations can be highlighted, such as the small value of the dispersion coefficient compared to values obtained by natural gradient tracer test, or the fast depletion of heat signal due to high thermal diffusivity.

  13. Tuning Surface Microstructure and Gradient Property of Polymer by Photopolymerizable Polysiloxane-modified Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Liu, JianCheng; Sun, Fang; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a series of photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels for regulating surface microstructure and gradient property of polymers, which were synthesized by solution polymerization under different feed ratios of a methacrylate-modified polysiloxane, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA) in the presence of a thiol chain transfer agent. The nanogel structure and composition were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dispersion of these nanogels in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) can reduce the onset and magnitude of shrinkage stress during polymerization without compromise to mechanical properties of the resulting polymers. Most importantly, as demonstrated by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the nanogels exhibit good self-floating ability in the monomer/polymer matrix and the increase of polysiloxane content in the nanogel can enhance the self-floating capability due to the lower surface tension and energy associated with the polysiloxane component. As a result, the polysiloxane-modified nanogels can spontaneously form a concentration gradient that can be locked in upon photopolymerization leading to a well-controlled heterogeneous polymer that presents a gradient change in thermal stability. With the increase of polysiloxane content, the thermal stability of the polymer was improved significantly. Furthermore, the enrichment of the nanogel on the surface resulting from the good self-floating ability can reduce the dispersion surface energy of gradient polymer film and generate a more hydrophobic surface with altered surface microstructure. These photopolymerizable polysiloxane-modified nanogels are demonstrated to have potential broad application in the preparation of gradient

  14. Modifying gradient theory to predict the surface properties of halogenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestova, T. D.; Lozovsky, T. L.; Zhelezny, V. P.

    2014-05-01

    A new method is proposed for predicting the surface tension, density profile, and thickness of the surface layer of a liquid near an interface using gradient theory. The objects of study are halogenated hydrocarbons. The algorithm for calculating surface properties includes a new modification of the Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state (EoS) that does not require information on the critical parameters, and a new procedure for calculating the influence parameter. Validation of the procedure for predicting the surface properties of liquids shows that the agreement between the calculated surface tension of halogenated hydrocarbons and the existing literature data is sufficient for practical use.

  15. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    SciTech Connect

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  16. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  17. Gradients of stellar population properties and evolution clues in a nearby galaxy M101

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen; Zou, Hu; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A {sub FUV} relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an 'inside-out' disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  18. Gradients of Stellar Population Properties and Evolution Clues in a Nearby Galaxy M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Zou, Hu; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A FUV relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an "inside-out" disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of gradient polymer composites with nano-inclusions fabricated by laser assisted sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Ionin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) was used to prepare porous gradient polymer nanocomposites consisting of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix doped with alternating layers of Ni and Cu nanoparticles. Optimal regimes of such 3D-fabrication were determined. The functional graded (FG) structure of sintered parts was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis. Temperature dependence of electro-physical properties was studied for alternating ferromagnetic/non-magnetic layers (up to 10 layers) into 3D-graded samples derived from Ni-PEEK-Cu powders. Temperature dependences for the real part of the dielectric permeability and loss tangent were found to have a hysteresis character.

  20. Speed and convergence properties of gradient algorithms for optimization of IMRT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Helen; Wang, Xiaochun; Dong, Lei; Wu, Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2004-05-01

    Gradient algorithms are the most commonly employed search methods in the routine optimization of IMRT plans. It is well known that local minima can exist for dose-volume-based and biology-based objective functions. The purpose of this paper is to compare the relative speed of different gradient algorithms, to investigate the strategies for accelerating the optimization process, to assess the validity of these strategies, and to study the convergence properties of these algorithms for dose-volume and biological objective functions. With these aims in mind, we implemented Newton's, conjugate gradient (CG), and the steepest decent (SD) algorithms for dose-volume- and EUD-based objective functions. Our implementation of Newton's algorithm approximates the second derivative matrix (Hessian) by its diagonal. The standard SD algorithm and the CG algorithm with "line minimization" were also implemented. In addition, we investigated the use of a variation of the CG algorithm, called the "scaled conjugate gradient" (SCG) algorithm. To accelerate the optimization process, we investigated the validity of the use of a "hybrid optimization" strategy, in which approximations to calculated dose distributions are used during most of the iterations. Published studies have indicated that getting trapped in local minima is not a significant problem. To investigate this issue further, we first obtained, by trial and error, and starting with uniform intensity distributions, the parameters of the dose-volume- or EUD-based objective functions which produced IMRT plans that satisfied the clinical requirements. Using the resulting optimized intensity distributions as the initial guess, we investigated the possibility of getting trapped in a local minimum. For most of the results presented, we used a lung cancer case. To illustrate the generality of our methods, the results for a prostate case are also presented. For both dose-volume and EUD based objective functions, Newton's method far

  1. Biogenic gradients in algal density affect the emergent properties of spatially self-organized mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J; Gupta, Rohit; Herman, Peter M J; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-07-06

    Theoretical models highlight that spatially self-organized patterns can have important emergent effects on the functioning of ecosystems, for instance by increasing productivity and affecting the vulnerability to catastrophic shifts. However, most theoretical studies presume idealized homogeneous conditions, which are rarely met in real ecosystems. Using self-organized mussel beds as a case study, we reveal that spatial heterogeneity, resulting from the large-scale effects of mussel beds on their environment, significantly alters the emergent properties predicted by idealized self-organization models that assume homogeneous conditions. The proposed model explicitly considers that the suspended algae, the prime food for the mussels, are supplied by water flow from the seaward boundary of the bed, which causes in combination with consumption a gradual depletion of algae over the simulated domain. Predictions of the model are consistent with properties of natural mussel patterns observed in the field, featuring a decline in mussel biomass and a change in patterning. Model analyses reveal a fundamental change in ecosystem functioning when this self-induced algal depletion gradient is included in the model. First, no enhancement of secondary productivity of the mussels comparing with non-patterns states is predicted, irrespective of parameter setting; the equilibrium amount of mussels is entirely set by the input of algae. Second, alternate stable states, potentially present in the original (no algal gradient) model, are absent when gradual depletion of algae in the overflowing water layer is allowed. Our findings stress the importance of including sufficiently realistic environmental conditions when assessing the emergent properties of self-organized ecosystems.

  2. Surface chemistry, morphological analysis and properties of cellulose nanocrystals with gradiented sulfation degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-04-01

    The process of sulfuric acid-hydrolysis of cellulose fibers for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) includes an esterification reaction between acid and cellulose molecules, which induces the covalent coupling of sulfate groups on the surface of prepared CNs. Negatively charged sulfate groups play an important role in both surface chemistry and physical properties of CNs. This study explored the strategy of introducing a gradient of sulfate groups on the surface of CNs, and further investigated the effect of the sulfation degree on surface chemistry, morphology, dimensions, and physical properties of different CN samples. Based on the discussion of their surface chemistry, the selection of different cross-section models was reported to significantly affect the calculation of the degree of substitution of sulfate groups on CNs. A new ellipsoid cross-section model was proposed on the basis of AFM observations. The effect of sulfate groups on crystal properties and thermal stability was discussed and validated, and the birefringence behavior of nanocrystal suspensions was observed.The process of sulfuric acid-hydrolysis of cellulose fibers for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) includes an esterification reaction between acid and cellulose molecules, which induces the covalent coupling of sulfate groups on the surface of prepared CNs. Negatively charged sulfate groups play an important role in both surface chemistry and physical properties of CNs. This study explored the strategy of introducing a gradient of sulfate groups on the surface of CNs, and further investigated the effect of the sulfation degree on surface chemistry, morphology, dimensions, and physical properties of different CN samples. Based on the discussion of their surface chemistry, the selection of different cross-section models was reported to significantly affect the calculation of the degree of substitution of sulfate groups on CNs. A new ellipsoid cross-section model was

  3. The effects of temperature gradient and growth rate on the morphology and fatigue properties of MAR-M246(Hf)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. D.; Alter, W. S.; Hamilton, W. D.; Parr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    MAR-M246(Hf) is a nickel based superalloy used in the turbopump blades of the Space Shuttle main engines. The effects are considered of temperature gradient (G) and growth rate (R) on the microstructure and fatigue properties of this superalloy. The primary dendrite arm spacings were found to be inversely proportional to both temperature gradient and growth rate. Carbide and gamma - gamma prime morphology trends were related to G/R ratios. Weibull analysis of fatigue results shows the characteristic life to be larger by a factor of 10 for the low gradient/fast rate pairing of G and R, while the reliability (beta) was lower.

  4. Effects of para-fluorine substituent of polystyrene on gradient-index fiber-optic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kotaro; Suzuki, Akifumi; Makino, Kenji; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of fluorine substituent of polystyrene (PSt) on gradient-index fiber-optic properties, a poly(para-fluorostyrene) (P(p-FSt))-based graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) is fabricated, and its properties are compared with those of a PSt-based GI POF. The para-fluorine substitution positively affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the core, wavelength dispersion of the optimum refractive index profile, bandwidth, and attenuation. The core Tg of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is 88 °C, which is higher than that of the PSt-based GI POF by 9 °C when both fibers have an identical numerical aperture (NA = 0.2). The optimum refractive index profile coefficient for the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF varies from 2.2 to 2.1 in the 600-800 nm range, whereas that for the PSt-based GI POF varies from 2.6 to 2.3 in the same wavelength region. The bandwidth of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is intrinsically higher than that of PSt-based GI POF. Moreover, the fiber attenuation of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF was significantly smaller than that of the PSt-based GI POF over the source wavelength range. Our study demonstrates that P(p-FSt) has favorable properties as a GI POF base material.

  5. Scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity in the zero pressure gradient boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tie; Klewicki, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    The scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity, V (x , y) , in zero-pressure-gradient laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows is investigated using numerical simulation data, physical experiment data, and integral analyses of governing equations. The maximum mean wall-normal velocity, V∞, and the boundary layer thickness, δ, are evidenced to be the proper scaling for V over most if not the entire boundary layer. This is different from the behavior of the mean streamwise velocity (U) or the turbulent shear stress (T = - ρ < uv >), which depend on different characteristic length scales in the regions near to and away from the surface. Insights pertaining to this are further surmised from an analytical relationship for the ratio of the displacement to momentum thickness, i.e., shape factor, H. Integral analyses using the continuity and mean momentum equation show that (U∞V∞) /uτ2 = H , where uτ is the friction velocity. Both the laminar similarity solution and DNS data in post-transitional flows convincingly support this relation. Over the transitional regime, sufficiently high quality data is still lacking to check if this relation remains valid.

  6. Scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tie; Klewicki, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    The scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity V (x ,y ) in zero-pressure-gradient laminar and turbulent boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical simulation data, physical experiment data, and integral analyses of the governing equations. The maximum mean wall-normal velocity V∞ and the boundary-layer thickness δ are evidenced to be the proper scaling for V over most if not all of the boundary layer. This is different from the behavior of the mean streamwise velocity U or the turbulent shear stress T =-ρ , which depend on different characteristic length scales in the regions near and away from the surface, respectively. The reason for this apparent difference in scaling behaviors is described physically relative to the downstream development of the U velocity profile and the mechanisms of boundary-layer growth. Insights pertaining to this are further surmised from an analytical relationship for the ratio of the displacement to momentum thickness, i.e., shape factor H . Integral analyses using the continuity and mean momentum equation show that U∞V∞/uτ2=H , where uτ is the friction velocity. Both the laminar similarity solution and direct numerical simulation data in post-transitional flows convincingly support this relation. Over the transitional regime, data of sufficiently high quality are lacking to check if this relation remains valid.

  7. Soil Properties Drive Changes in Water Use efficiency Across a Climatic Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T.; Silva, L. C. R.; Horwath, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    This research uses a series of physiological models and empirical measurements to evaluate biogeochemical controls over coupled carbon-water cycles in forest systems from the individual plant to the ecosystem scale. Cellulosic biomarkers, and bulk tissue of leaf, litter, and soil organic matter have been analyzed for specific stable isotope ratios of oxygen and carbon to examine causal links between plant to ecosystem scale productivity and water balance. A series of latitudinal and altitudinal transects established across the California Sierra Nevada was used to study the effects of climatic and edaphic gradients on the formation and preservation of these plant isotopic signals. Changes in plant-soil-atmosphere relations are related to productivity and water use efficiency in an attempt to elucidate how plant material reflects ecosystem scale processes in response to variation in climate and soil properties. The use of a dual isotopic approach constrains the role of environmental variables on stable isotope values, allowing for nutritive vs hydrologic limitations over water use efficiency to be assessed. The result of this work is to promote a framework for tracing plant-soil water relations across scales to better understand and more precisely predict the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems.

  8. Microplatforms for gradient field generation of various properties and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Gi-Hun; Park, Joong Yull; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed microfluidic platforms can be excellent tools to eliminate bottleneck problems or issues that have arisen in biological fields by providing unprecedented high-resolution control of mechanical and chemical microenvironments for cell culture. Among such microtechnologies, the precise generation of biochemical concentration gradients has been highly regarded in the biorelated scientific fields; even today, the principles and mechanisms for gradient generation continue to be refined, and the number of applications for this technique is growing. Here, we review the current status of the concentration gradient generation technologies achieved in various microplatforms and how they have been and will be applied to biological issues, particularly those that have arisen from cancer research, stem cell research, and tissue engineering. We also provide information about the advances and future challenges in the technological aspects of microscale concentration gradient generation.

  9. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-06-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  10. The structure and tribological properties of gradient layers prepared by plasma-based ion implantation on 2024 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J. X.; Xia, L. F.; Sun, M. R.; Liu, W. M.; Xu, T.; Xue, Q. J.

    2004-02-01

    Using plasma-based ion implantation, two types of gradient layers have been prepared on 2024 Al alloy. One is prepared by N-implantation then C-deposition, the other adds an interlayer composed of a Ti layer and a Ti-N layer between N-implantation and C-deposition. C-deposition is carried out at various implanting voltages or C2H2/H2 ratios. The composition depth profiles of these layers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The structure, morphologies and microstructure of the C layers were studied using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The surface hardness was measured with a Knoop tester and a mechanical property microprobe. The dry ball-on-disc wear tests were performed in ambient air. The gradient layer without interlayer is composed of an N-implanted layer rich in AlN and a diamond-like carbon (DLC) layer (film), and the two layers are connected with a C-Al transition layer containing Al4C3. The Ti layer rich in agr -Ti and the N-implanted layer are connected by a Ti-Al transition layer containing TiAl3, while the Ti-N layer rich in TiN and the DLC film are connected by a C-Ti transition layer containing TiC, TiCN, etc. Thus, the gradient layer with interlayers has optimized the gradient structure. DLC films are compact and amorphous, contain high sp3/sp2 ratios and depend on the implanting voltage and the C2H2/H2 ratio. Similarly, these gradient layers exhibit significant improvement in morphologies, surface hardness and tribological properties; the interlayer, the implanting voltage and the C2H2/H2 ratio all have prominent effects on these properties.

  11. Dynamics of absorption properties along a latitudinal gradient: sources of absorption in Australian inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestir, E. L.; Campbell, G.; Malthus, T. J.; Dekker, A.; Botha, E.

    2013-12-01

    Australian inland waters are optically complex and vary spatially and temporally. Inversion of optical remote sensing data for the retrieval of optically active water quality constituents (chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter and total suspended solids) is impeded by the scarcity of inherent optical property (IOP) data sets. In 2012 a major measurement program commenced to improve understanding of IOPs in Australia. Seven large lakes were sampled along a latitudinal gradient in Eastern Australia; in situ observations were made of the absorption properties of the water quality during two epochs (wet and dry season). This study documents the seasonal, inter & intra lake variability of the absorption budget of Australian lakes. These data reveal the sources of biogeochemical constituents determining the light climate of lakes. Optically active water quality constituents (total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a, and colored dissolved organic matter) varied significantly between wet and dry season and between lakes. The primary contribution to the absorption budget was from non-algal particulate matter (NAP; 10-60%), followed by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; 20-80%). Absorption from phytoplankton contributed only 0-30% of the total budget. This indicates that these lakes are primarily light limited, though the limitation comes from multiple sources. The contribution of NAP to the total absorption budget showed the greatest amount of variance between wet and dry seasons. Examination of the organic matter and estimated phytoplankton biomass contributions to TSS reveal that chlorophyll is not the primary source of organic matter in Australian lakes: allochthonous inputs are the primary trophic driver. Finally, there is strong regional and seasonal variation in the IOPs of the lakes, with the exception of the slope of CDOM. The slope of CDOM was not significantly different between seasons (p=0.94). Non-parametric stepwise multiple comparisons showed the

  12. Estimation of In-Canopy Ammonia Sources and Sinks in a Fertilized Zea mays Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical model was developed that describes the in-canopy vertical distribution of NH3 source and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy concentration and wind speed profiles.

  13. Gradient-index crystalline lens model: A new method for determining the paraxial properties by the axial and field rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, María. Angeles; Pérez, María. Victoria; Bao, Carmen; Flores-Arias, María. Teresa; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Gradient-index (GRIN) models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering the effect of inhomogeneity of the refractive index on the optical properties of the lens. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine analytically cardinal elements, magnifications and refractive power of the lens by the axial and field rays in order to study the paraxial light propagation through the human lens from its GRIN nature.

  14. Estimation of in-canopy ammonia sources and sinks in a fertilized Zea mays field

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical model was developed that describes the in-canopy vertical distribution of NH3 source and sinks and vertical fluxes in a fertilized agricultural setting using measured in-canopy concentration and wind speed profiles. This model was applied to quantify in-canopy air-s...

  15. Gradient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kozma, Balázs; Bassler, Kevin E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Korniss, G.

    2008-04-01

    Gradient networks are defined (Toroczkai and Bassler 2004 Nature 428 716) as directed graphs formed by local gradients of a scalar field distributed on the nodes of a substrate network G. We present the derivation for some of the general properties of gradient graphs and give an exact expression for the in-degree distribution R(l) of the gradient network when the substrate is a binomial (Erd{\\;\\kern -0.10em \\raise -0.35ex \\{{^{^{\\prime\\prime}}}}\\kern -0.57em \\o} s-Rényi) random graph, G_{N,p} , and the scalars are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. We show that in the limit N \\to \\infty, p \\to 0, z = pN = \\mbox{const} \\gg 1, R(l)\\propto l^{-1} for l < l_c = z , i.e., gradient networks become scale-free graphs up to a cut-off degree. This paper presents the detailed derivation of the results announced in Toroczkai and Bassler (2004 Nature 428 716).

  16. Gradient Films of Pristine Graphene/Pyrene-Functional Copolymers with Janus Electrical Properties.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Dorsa; Yu, Ziniu; Verkhoturov, Stanislav; Green, Micah J; Hedden, Ronald C

    2016-11-23

    We describe the first preparation of polymer-supported pristine graphene thin films with dramatically different electrical conductivities on the top and bottom surfaces. Pyrene-functional stabilizers based on polystyrene or poly(methyl methacrylate) were first synthesized by copolymerization of their monomers with 1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate. Stable dispersions of pristine graphene nanosheets were prepared by sonication of graphite in chloroform solutions of the pyrene-functional copolymers. Vacuum filtration of the polymer-stabilized graphene dispersions through a porous PTFE filter produces films with an internal gradient in nanosheet concentration. This gradient graphene concentration results in an electrically conductive, graphene-rich surface on one side of the composite film and a nonconductive, polymer-rich surface on its other side. Electrical conductivities ranging from 60 to 194 S/m are measured on the graphene-rich surface, which are among the highest conductivities reported for pristine graphene/polymer composites. Through scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization, these films were found to contain three distinct layers: a polymer-rich top surface, a transition layer with a gradient in nanosheet concentration, and a buckypaper-like bottom layer consisting of densely packed, highly oriented graphene nanosheets. The gradient structure of these films and their Janus-like electrical conductivity has potential applications in graded coatings for radiofrequency and optical devices.

  17. Properties of bubbled gases transportation in a bromothymol blue aqueous solution under gradient magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaka, M.; Kurita, S.; Owada, N.

    2012-04-01

    A new system for the observation of the transport process of dissolved oxygen and carbon-dioxide gases is proposed that utilizes a water-containing column with an optical monitoring unit under gradient magnetic fields of up to 5 T. The system consists of a column for liquid chromatography with "branching flow" tubing at the center of a vertical bore of a superconducting magnet of 5 T. By utilizing bromothymol blue (BTB) as a CO2 concentration indicator, CO2 concentration in the bifurcated liquid stream from the gradient magnetic fields was measured by a time-resolved spectrophotometer in the range of 550 nm-660 nm. The results indicated that the gradient magnetic fields of up to 5 T accelerated the pushing-out of the CO2-rich BTB solution from the branched inlet of the column. Comparing the effects of O2-gas bubbling with He-gas bubbling, it was found that the oxygen gases dissolved in a BTB aqueous solution controlled the transport of CO2 gases in the solution under gradient magnetic fields of up to 5 T. By monitoring the chromatogram pattern of oxygen-gas-bubbled water flow in a straight flow system at the UV band, it was indicated that the paramagnetic oxygen-gas-bubbles stay longer in the magnetic field center of the magnet. The proposed method with the branch flow can enhance the condensation of carbon dioxide gases in a room temperature liquid by the assistance of oxygen-gas in water under gradient magnetic fields of up to 5 T.

  18. Gradient-based Electrical Properties Tomography (gEPT): a Robust Method for Mapping Electrical Properties of Biological Tissues In Vivo Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaen; Zhang, Xiaotong; Schmitter, Sebastian; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop high-resolution electrical properties tomography (EPT) methods and investigate a gradient-based EPT (gEPT) approach which aims to reconstruct the electrical properties (EP), including conductivity and permittivity, of an imaged sample from experimentally measured B1 maps with improved boundary reconstruction and robustness against measurement noise. Theory and Methods Using a multi-channel transmit/receive stripline head coil, with acquired B1 maps for each coil element, by assuming negligible Bz component compared to transverse B1 components, a theory describing the relationship between B1 field, EP value and their spatial gradient has been proposed. The final EP images were obtained through spatial integration over the reconstructed EP gradient. Numerical simulation, physical phantom and in vivo human experiments at 7 T have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Results Reconstruction results were compared with target EP values in both simulations and phantom experiments. Human experimental results were compared with EP values in literature. Satisfactory agreement was observed with improved boundary reconstruction. Importantly, the proposed gEPT method proved to be more robust against noise when compared to previously described non-gradient-based EPT approaches. Conclusion The proposed gEPT approach holds promises to improve EP mapping quality by recovering the boundary information and enhancing robustness against noise. PMID:25213371

  19. Optical Properties of a Bio-Inspired Gradient Refractive Index Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-21

    crystalline lens. GRIN lenses found in nature typically consist of approximately 22,000 nonplanar layers of proteins with different refractive...indices [5]. Systematic variation in protein and water concentration in different layers provides the index gradient [6]. The refractive index range (Δn...typically composed of tens of thousands of protein layers. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) can confirm

  20. Analytical applications and effective properties of a second gradient isotropic elastic material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enakoutsa, Koffi

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.

  1. Investigating the Thermophysical Properties of the Ice-Snow Interface Under a Controlled Temperature Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Kevin; Lieb-Lappen, Ross; Baker, Ian; Wang, Xuan; Courville, Zoe

    2015-04-01

    Of critical importance for avalanche forecasting, is the ability to draw meaningful conclusions from a handful of field observations. To this end, it is common for avalanche forecasters to not only have to rely on these sparse data, but also to use their own intuitive understanding of how these observations are correlated with the complex physical processes that produce mechanical instabilities within a snowpack. One such example of this is the long-held notion that kinetic snow metamorphism does not occur at bulk temperature gradients of less than -10°C/m. Although this may be true for the homogeneous case, it has become a point of contention as to whether or not this guideline should be applied to the more representative case of a heavily stratified and anisotropic snowpack. As an idealized case for our initial laboratory investigations, we have studied how an artificially created ice layer or "lens" would affect the thermophysical state of the snow layers adjacent to the ice lens and the ice lens itself, while being held under a controlled temperature gradient. Our findings have shown, via in-situ micro-thermocouple measurements, that a super-temperature gradient many times greater than the imposed bulk temperature gradient can exist within a millimeter above and below the surface of the ice lens. Furthermore, microstructural analysis via time-lapse X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography and environmental SEM imaging has been performed. Results from this analysis show new ice crystal growth and kinetic snow metamorphism occurring simultaneously on or near the ice lens itself with the connectivity density at the ice-snow interface increasing markedly more below the ice lens than above.

  2. Analytical applications and effective properties of a second gradient isotropic elastic material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enakoutsa, Koffi

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.

  3. Reactive combinatorial synthesis and characterization of a gradient Ag-Ti oxide thin film with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Unosson, Erik; Rodriguez, Daniel; Welch, Ken; Engqvist, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for orthopedic and dental implants has spurred researchers to develop multifunctional coatings, combining tissue integration with antibacterial features. A possible strategy to endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties is by incorporating silver (Ag), but designing a structure with adequate Ag(+) release while maintaining biocompatibility has been shown difficult. To further explore the composition-structure-property relationships between Ag and Ti, and its effects against bacteria, this study utilized a combinatorial approach to manufacture and test a single sample containing a binary Ag-Ti oxide gradient. The sample, sputter-deposited in a reactive (O2) environment using a custom-built combinatorial physical vapor deposition system, was shown to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus with viability reductions ranging from 17 to above 99%, depending on the amount of Ag(+) released from its different parts. The Ag content along the gradient ranged from 35 to 62 wt.%, but it was found that structural properties such as varied porosity and degree of crystallinity, rather than the amount of incorporated Ag, governed the Ag(+) release and resulting antibacterial activity. The coating also demonstrated in vitro apatite-forming abilities, where structural variety along the sample was shown to alter the hydrophilic behavior, with the degree of hydroxyapatite deposition varying accordingly. By means of combinatorial synthesis, a single gradient sample was able to display intricate compositional and structural features affecting its biological response, which would otherwise require a series of coatings. The current findings suggest that future implant coatings incorporating Ag as an antibacterial agent could be structurally enhanced to better suit clinical requirements.

  4. Study of adhesion and friction properties on a nanoparticle gradient surface: transition from JKR to DMT contact mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Nalam, Prathima C; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-01-08

    We have previously investigated the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness by employing a roughness gradient. In this study, we correlate the obtained adhesion forces on nanometer-scale rough surfaces to their frictional properties. A roughness gradient with varying silica particle (diameter ≈ 12 nm) density was prepared, and adhesion and frictional forces were measured across the gradient surface in perfluorodecalin by means of atomic force microscopy with a polyethylene colloidal probe. Similarly to the pull-off measurements, the frictional forces initially showed a reduction with decreasing particle density and later an abrupt increase as the colloidal sphere began to touch the flat substrate beneath, at very low particle densities. The friction-load relation is found to depend on the real contact area (A(real)) between the colloid probe and the underlying particles. At high particle density, the colloidal sphere undergoes large deformations over several nanoparticles, and the contact adhesion (JKR type) dominates the frictional response. However, at low particle density (before the colloidal probe is in contact with the underlying surface), the colloidal sphere is suspended by a few particles only, resulting in local deformations of the colloid sphere, with the frictional response to the applied load being dominated by long-range, noncontact (DMT-type) interactions with the substrate beneath.

  5. Importance of Gradients in Membrane Properties and Electrical Coupling in Sinoatrial Node Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Shin; Zhang, Henggui; Tellez, James O.; Shibata, Nitaro; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo; Mitsui, Kazuyuki; Dobrzynski, Halina; Boyett, Mark R.; Honjo, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    The sinoatrial node (SAN) is heterogeneous in terms of cell size, ion channels, current densities, connexins and electrical coupling. For example, Nav1.5 (responsible for INa) and Cx43 (responsible for electrical coupling) are absent from the centre of the SAN (normally the leading pacemaker site), but present in the periphery (at SAN-atrial muscle junction). To test whether the heterogeneity is important for the functioning of the SAN, one- and two-dimensional models of the SAN and surrounding atrial muscle were created. Normal functioning of the SAN (in terms of cycle length, position of leading pacemaker site, conduction times, activation and repolarization sequences and space constants) was observed when, from the centre to the periphery, (i) cell characteristics (cell size and ionic current densities) were changed in a gradient fashion from a central-type (lacking INa) to a peripheral-type (possessing INa) and (ii) coupling conductance was increased in a gradient fashion. We conclude that the heterogeneous nature of the node is important for its normal functioning. The presence of Nav1.5 and Cx43 in the periphery may be essential for the node to be able to drive the atrial muscle: Nav1.5 provides the necessary depolarizing current and Cx43 delivers it to the atrial muscle. PMID:24759974

  6. Lie symmetry properties of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with gradient-dependent diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniha, Roman; King, John R.; Kovalenko, Sergii

    2016-07-01

    Complete descriptions of the Lie symmetries of a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with gradient-dependent diffusivity in one and two space dimensions are obtained. A surprisingly rich set of Lie symmetry algebras depending on the form of diffusivity and source (sink) in the equations is derived. It is established that there exists a subclass in 1-D space admitting an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of invariance so that it is linearisable. A special power-law diffusivity with a fixed exponent, which leads to wider Lie invariance of the equations in question in 2-D space, is also derived. However, it is shown that the diffusion equation without a source term (which often arises in applications and is sometimes called the Perona-Malik equation) possesses no rich variety of Lie symmetries depending on the form of gradient-dependent diffusivity. The results of the Lie symmetry classification for the reduction to lower dimensionality, and a search for exact solutions of the nonlinear 2-D equation with power-law diffusivity, also are included.

  7. NMR and pulsed field gradient NMR approach of water sorption properties in Nafion at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Armel; Gebel, Gérard; Mendil-Jakani, Hakima; Pinton, Eric

    2009-05-14

    The water uptake and the water self-diffusion coefficient were measured in Nafion membranes at subzero temperatures. NMR spectroscopy was used to precisely quantify the actual concentration of water in membranes as a function of the temperature and their hydration rates at room temperature. We find that below 273 K the water concentration decreases with temperature to reach, at around 220 K, a limit value independent of the initial concentration. This regime is observed if the concentration at room temperature is higher than 10%. Below this concentration no membrane deswelling was observed. The water self-diffusion coefficient, measured by pulsed field gradient NMR in function of the temperature, is determined by the actual concentration C(T) whatever the concentration at room temperature. The concentration variation is attributed to a decrease in the relative humidity RH(T) of the water vapor surrounding the membrane induced by the simultaneous presence of supercooled water inside the membrane and ice outside the membrane.

  8. Planar gradient metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-12-01

    Metamaterials possess exotic properties that do not exist in nature. Gradient metamaterials, which are characterized by a continuous spatial variation of their properties, provide a promising approach to the development of both bulk and planar optics. In particular, planar gradient metamaterials can be classified into three categories: gradient metasurfaces, gradient index metamaterials and gradient metallic gratings. In this Review, we summarize the progress made in the theoretical modelling of these materials, in their experimental implementation and in the design of functional devices. We discuss the use of planar gradient metamaterials for wave bending and focusing in free space, for supporting surface plasmon polaritons and for the realization of trapped rainbows. We also focus on the implementation of these materials in waveguide systems, which can enable electromagnetic cloaking, Fano resonances, asymmetric transmission and guided mode conversion. Finally, we discuss promising trends, such as the use of dielectric rather than metallic unit elements and the use of planar gradient metamaterials in 3D systems.

  9. Interfacial and biological properties of the gradient coating on polyamide substrate for bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Niu, Lulu; Wei, Yan; Guo, Meiqing; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Hu, Yinchun; Chen, Weiyi; Li, Yubao

    2014-10-06

    Fabrication of bioactive and mechanical matched bone substitutes is crucial for clinical application in bone defects repair. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide (nHA/PA) composite was coated on injection-moulded PA by a chemical corrosion and phase-inversion technique. The shear strength, gradient composition and pore structure of the bioactive coating were characterized. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on pure PA and composite-coated PA samples. The cells' adhesion, spread and proliferation were determined using MTT assay and microscopy. The results confirm that the samples with the nHA/PA composite coating have better cytocompatibility and have no negative effects on cells. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility, both pure PA and composite-coated PA cylinders were implanted in the trochlea of rabbit femurs and studied histologically, and the bonding ability with bone were determined using push-out tests. The results show that composite-coated implants exhibit better biocompatibility and the shear strength of the composite-coated implants with host bone at 12 weeks can reach 3.49±0.42 MPa, which is significantly higher than that of pure PA implants. These results indicate that composite-coated PA implants have excellent biocompatibility and bonding abilities with host bone and they have the potential to be applied in repair of bone defects.

  10. Microstructure development, compositional/physical gradient formation and related mechanical properties of gas-pressure-sintered silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiegs, Terry Norman

    Three inter-related aspects in the fabrication of silicon nitride ceramics were performed for the thesis work. The topics included: (1) an analysis of the composition and physical gradients in bulk silicon nitride, (2) the effect of sintering parameters on microstructure development and the resulting mechanical properties, and (3) an investigation of ss-Sisb3Nsb4 nucleation and initial stage microstructure development. The composition and physical gradients in bulk silicon nitride are due to the furnace conditions and the environment adjacent to the samples. Loss of SiO from the exposed surfaces results in the formation of nitrogen-rich phases, such as melilite on the as-sintered surfaces. The high nitrogen concentration in the near-surface region promotes ss-Sisb3Nsb4 grain growth. Along with the compositional gradients, mechanical property differences also exist between the as-sintered surfaces and the bulk materials. For example, the strengths of as-sintered surfaces of Sisb3Nsb4-Ysb2Osb3-Alsb2Osb3 were observed to be reduced by more than 30% compared to the bulk material. Gas-pressure sintering (GPS) was used to densify silicon nitride two types of sintering additives: Sisb3Nsb4-6% Ysb2Osb3-2% Alsb2Osb3 and Sisb3Nsb4-Srsb2Lasb4Ybsb4(SiOsb4)sb6Osb2. For both compositions a lower densification temperature (1900sp°C in the present tests) was the most significant factor affecting the fracture toughness and promoting a bimodal grain structure. The low significance of the other process parameters implies the microstructure (and therefore properties) are essentially 'locked-in' during the densification stage. The kinetics of the alpha-to-ss Sisb3Nsb4 transformation are dependent on several characteristics of the starting silicon nitride powder. Most importantly, are the silicon nitride powder surface area and initial ss-Sisb3Nsb4 content which both tend to increase the transformation rate. Other factors, such as lattice oxygen or carbon contents, appear to contribute

  11. Hydraulic properties and fine root mass of Larix sibirica along forest edge-interior gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2015-02-01

    At its southernmost distribution limit in Inner Asia, the boreal forest disintegrates into forest fragments on moist sites (e.g. north-facing slopes), which are embedded in grasslands. This landscape mosaic is characterized by a much higher forest edge-to-interior ratio than in closed boreal forests. Earlier work in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia has shown that Larix sibirica trees at forest edges grow faster than in the forest interior, as the more xeric environment at the edge promotes self-thinning and edges are preferentially targeted by selective logging and livestock grazing. Lowered stand density reduces competition for water in these semi-arid forests, where productivity is usually limited by summer drought. We studied how branch and coarse root hydraulic architecture and xylem conductivity, fine root biomass and necromass, and fine root morphology of L. sibirica respond to sites differing in water availability. Studying forest edge-interior gradients in two regions of western Mongolia, we found a significant reduction of branch theoretical (Kp) and empirical conductivity (Ks) in the putatively more drought-affected forest interior in the Mongolian Altai (mean precipitation: 120 mm yr-1), while no branch xylem modification occurred in the moister Khangai Mountains (215 mm yr-1). Kp and Ks were several times larger in roots than in branches, but root hydraulics were not influenced by stand density or mean annual precipitation. Very low fine root biomass: necromass ratios at all sites, and in the forest interior in particular, suggest that L. sibirica seeks to maintain a relatively high root conductivity by producing large conduits, which results in high root mortality due to embolism during drought. Our results suggest that L. sibirica is adapted to the semi-arid climate at its southernmost distribution limit by considerable plasticity of the branch hydraulic system and a small but apparently dynamic fine root system.

  12. Investigation of trace metal binding properties of lignin by diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Hojaji, Elahe

    2012-09-01

    The binding behavior of lignin for Pb, Cu, Co, Mn, Cd and Ni was studied using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Samplers with different structures of diffusive gel were used in the well-stirred systems containing known concentrations of metals along with (a) 10, 20 and 40 μM lignin and; (b) 0.64 and 6.47 μM Suwannee river fulvic acid+40 μM lignin at an ionic strength of 0.01 M (NaNO(3)) and pH=7. Diffusion coefficients of lignin complexes in acrylamide gels were estimated and found to be less than 5% of the equivalent coefficients for the uncomplexed metal ions. These values were used to calculate concentrations of labile metals from DGT measurements in solutions, where lignin could discriminate metals in the order of Pb(+2)>Cu(+2)>Cd(+2)>Ni(+2)>Co(+2)>Mn(+2). Stability constants (LogK) were calculated using Visual MINTEQ II and WHAM V software. The K values were compared with the stability constants from titration of Pb and Cd with 10 μM lignin aqueous samples and with those of humic substances in natural waters. The constants obtained from measurement of complexing capacities might bias the real corresponding values unless two line regression analyses on titration data are considered. The DGT study of fractionation of metal species at varying ratios indicated that the proportion of organic complexes decreased with increasing ratios and gradually more metals were exchanged with inorganic phases. Speciation of Pb and Cd is affected by the concentrations of FA, Cd is dominantly bound with FA while Pb is evenly partitioned between the ligands. The comprehensive knowledge of metal-lignin complexes sheds some light on in situ operational speciation information that can be achieved by DGT.

  13. Pyrogenic Carbon in forest soils across climate and soil property gradients in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, Moritz; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important measure for soil quality. Usually a high organic matter content in soils is favourable for most ecosystems. As a very stable component, pyrogenic organic carbon (PyC) can be of major interest to investigate to potential of organic matter, to persist very long in soils. Recent studies have shown, that the mean residence time of organic matter is not only due to its intrinsic chemical nature, but also to a variety of abiotic and biotic variables set by the ecosystem. Especially for PyC it is unclear, whether its content is related to fire regime, soil properties or other climatic conditions. In this study we wanted to investigate, how climatic and soil-related conditions are influencing the persistence of PyC in soils. Therefore we used a sample set from Swiss forest soil (n = 54), which was designed for the purpose of having most differing climatic conditions (aridity and temperature) and a large range of soil properties (pH between 3.4 and 7.6; clay content between 4.7 % and 60 %). The soils were sampled in the first 20 cm of the mineral horizon on a representative plot area of 40 x 40 m. The soils were sieved to 2 mm and dried prior to the analysis. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) molecular marker method to quantify and characterize PyC in these soil samples. Despite the large span in environmental conditions, we observed rather small differences in the contribution of PyC to SOC between warmer and colder, as well as between wetter and dryer soils. The PyC content in SOC lies well in range with a global average for forest soils estimated in other studies. Stocks of PyC vary more than the content, because of the large range of SOC contents in the samples. The influence of other parameters like soil properties is still under investigation. Qualitative investigation of the BPCAs showed that the degree of condensation, defined by the relative amount of B6CA in the total BPCA, was higher in warmer soils. This

  14. Gradient moduli lens models: how material properties and application of forces can affect deformation and distributions of stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kehao; Venetsanos, Demetrios; Wang, Jian; Pierscionek, Barbara K.

    2016-08-01

    The human lens provides one-third of the ocular focussing power and is responsible for altering focus over a range of distances. This ability, termed accommodation, defines the process by which the lens alters shape to increase or decrease ocular refractive power; this is mediated by the ciliary muscle through the zonule. This ability decreases with age such that around the sixth decade of life it is lost rendering the eye unable to focus on near objects. There are two opponent theories that provide an explanation for the mechanism of accommodation; definitive support for either of these requires investigation. This work aims to elucidate how material properties can affect accommodation using Finite Element models based on interferometric measurements of refractive index. Gradients of moduli are created in three models from representative lenses, aged 16, 35 and 48 years. Different forms of zonular attachments are studied to determine which may most closely mimic the physiological form by comparing stress and displacement fields with simulated shape changes to accommodation in living lenses. The results indicate that for models to mimic accommodation in living eyes, the anterior and posterior parts of the zonule need independent force directions. Choice of material properties affects which theory of accommodation is supported.

  15. Gradient moduli lens models: how material properties and application of forces can affect deformation and distributions of stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kehao; Venetsanos, Demetrios; Wang, Jian; Pierscionek, Barbara K.

    2016-01-01

    The human lens provides one-third of the ocular focussing power and is responsible for altering focus over a range of distances. This ability, termed accommodation, defines the process by which the lens alters shape to increase or decrease ocular refractive power; this is mediated by the ciliary muscle through the zonule. This ability decreases with age such that around the sixth decade of life it is lost rendering the eye unable to focus on near objects. There are two opponent theories that provide an explanation for the mechanism of accommodation; definitive support for either of these requires investigation. This work aims to elucidate how material properties can affect accommodation using Finite Element models based on interferometric measurements of refractive index. Gradients of moduli are created in three models from representative lenses, aged 16, 35 and 48 years. Different forms of zonular attachments are studied to determine which may most closely mimic the physiological form by comparing stress and displacement fields with simulated shape changes to accommodation in living lenses. The results indicate that for models to mimic accommodation in living eyes, the anterior and posterior parts of the zonule need independent force directions. Choice of material properties affects which theory of accommodation is supported. PMID:27507665

  16. Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. I. Structure and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    The structural and energetic properties of purely siliceous, proton-, and Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite have been studied using periodic density-functional (DFT) calculations with both conventional gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals and hybrid functionals mixing exact (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and DFT exchange. Spin-polarized and fixed-moment calculations have been performed to determine the equilibrium and excited spin-configurations of the metal-exchanged chabazites. For the purely siliceous chabazite, hybrid functionals predict a slightly more accurate cell volume and lattice geometry. For isolated Al/Si substitution sites, gradient-corrected functionals predict that the lattice distortion induced by the substitution preserves the local tetrahedral symmetry, whereas hybrid functionals lead to a distorted Al coordination with two short and two long Al-O bonds. Hybrid functionals yield a stronger cation-framework binding that conventional functionals in metal-exchanged zeolites, they favor shorter cation-oxygen bonds and eventually also a higher coordination of the cation. Both types of functionals predict the same spin in the ground-state. The structural optimization of the excited spin-states shows that the formation of a high-spin configuration leads to a strong lattice relaxation and a weaker cation-framework bonding. For both Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite, the prediction of a preferred location of the cation in a six-membered ring of the zeolite agrees with experiment, but the energy differences between possible cation locations and the lattice distortion induced by the Al/Si substitution and the bonding of the cation depends quite significantly on the choice of the functional. All functionals predict similar energy differences for excited spin states. Spin-excitations are shown to be accompanied by significant changes in the cation coordination, which are more pronounced with hybrid functionals. The consequences of electronic spectra and

  17. Bacterial adaptation to sublethal antibiotic gradients can change the ecological properties of multitrophic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Guzman, Laura Melissa; Reuman, Daniel C; Bell, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Antibiotics leak constantly into environments due to widespread use in agriculture and human therapy. Although sublethal concentrations are well known to select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, little is known about how bacterial evolution cascades through food webs, having indirect effect on species not directly affected by antibiotics (e.g. via population dynamics or pleiotropic effects). Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test how temporal patterns of antibiotic stress, as well as migration within metapopulations, affect the evolution and ecology of microcosms containing one prey bacterium, one phage and two protist predators. We found that environmental variability, autocorrelation and migration had only subtle effects for population and evolutionary dynamics. However, unexpectedly, bacteria evolved greatest fitness increases to both antibiotics and enemies when the sublethal levels of antibiotics were highest, indicating positive pleiotropy. Crucially, bacterial adaptation cascaded through the food web leading to reduced predator-to-prey abundance ratio, lowered predator community diversity and increased instability of populations. Our results show that the presence of natural enemies can modify and even reverse the effects of antibiotics on bacteria, and that antibiotic selection can change the ecological properties of multitrophic microbial communities by having indirect effects on species not directly affected by antibiotics.

  18. Effects of glycerol and moisture gradient on thermomechanical properties of white bread.

    PubMed

    Baik, M Y; Chinachoti, P

    2001-08-01

    The thermomechanical properties of breadcrumb were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The main transition (T(1), near 0 degrees C) shifted to lower temperature with added glycerol due to freezing point depression. The low-temperature transition (T(3), approximately -50 degrees C), found only in high-glycerol (8.8%) bread, suggested that of excess or phase-separated glycerol. The high-temperature transition (T(2), 60-85 degrees C) appeared only in aged breadcrumbs; its temperature range was correlated well with the amylopectin melting transition (DSC) but its tan delta amplitude did not correlate well with the amylopectin melting enthalpy (r(2) = 0.72). On the other hand, the change of E' ' (viscous behavior) suggested that T(2) might be related to the change in the amorphous region. Domain-to-domain (amorphous) and crumb-to-crust moisture migrations are two critical phenomenological changes associated with aging and could lead to significant local dehydration of some amorphous regions contributing to mechanical firming during storage.

  19. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  20. The renaturation of procarboxypeptidase B by urea gradient gel filtration and some properties of recombinant carboxypeptidase B.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Yan, Zhang; Su-Xia, Li; Qin-Sheng, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    A new pro-carboxypeptidase (pCPB) gene was cloned by RT-PCR from SD rat pancreas and its overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs). The IBs of pCPB were solubilized in 8 M urea and successively refolded by urea gradient gel filtration. Subsequently, the renatured pCPB was digested by trypsin. Recombinant active CPB was obtained by passing through DEAE-FF ion exchange and Sephadex-G100 chromatographic column. Capillary electrophoresis assay showed that the purity of the recombinant CPB (rCPB) exceeded 90%. Further, some properties of rCPB were characterized. The optimum of activity was achieved at pH 7-9. The activity of rCPB was inhibited by typical metal chelating agents (EDTA) and Hg2+, and was activated by Co2+ and heat treatment at 40 degrees C. The two-dimension electrophoresis map of rCPB showed that the pI value of rCPB was 5.35. UV absorbance spectrum of the enzyme showed that an absorbance maximum was at 277 nm.

  1. Systems Analysis of the Dynamic Inflammatory Response to Tissue Damage Reveals Spatiotemporal Properties of the Wound Attractant Gradient.

    PubMed

    Weavers, Helen; Liepe, Juliane; Sim, Aaron; Wood, Will; Martin, Paul; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2016-08-08

    In the acute inflammatory phase following tissue damage, cells of the innate immune system are rapidly recruited to sites of injury by pro-inflammatory mediators released at the wound site. Although advances in live imaging allow us to directly visualize this process in vivo, the precise identity and properties of the primary immune damage attractants remain unclear, as it is currently impossible to directly observe and accurately measure these signals in tissues. Here, we demonstrate that detailed information about the attractant signals can be extracted directly from the in vivo behavior of the responding immune cells. By applying inference-based computational approaches to analyze the in vivo dynamics of the Drosophila inflammatory response, we gain new detailed insight into the spatiotemporal properties of the attractant gradient. In particular, we show that the wound attractant is released by wound margin cells, rather than by the wounded tissue per se, and that it diffuses away from this source at rates far slower than those of previously implicated signals such as H2O2 and ATP, ruling out these fast mediators as the primary chemoattractant. We then predict, and experimentally test, how competing attractant signals might interact in space and time to regulate multi-step cell navigation in the complex environment of a healing wound, revealing a period of receptor desensitization after initial exposure to the damage attractant. Extending our analysis to model much larger wounds, we uncover a dynamic behavioral change in the responding immune cells in vivo that is prognostic of whether a wound will subsequently heal or not. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  2. Self-assembling gradient copolymers of vinylimidazol and (acrylic)ibuprofen with anti-inflammatory and zinc chelating properties.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Patricia; Rojo, Luis; González-Gómez, Álvaro; Román, Julio San

    2013-09-01

    Novel gradient copolymers of hydrophilic 1-vinylimidazol and hydrophobic methacrylic derivative of ibuprofen prepared by free radical polymerization are described. The heterogeneous distribution of monomeric units along the polymeric chains leads to a gradient distribution of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic sequences responsible of nanoparticles formation through a self-assembling mechanism, capable of tune the water permeation due to the ionizable imidazole moieties and their gradient profile along the macromolecules, exhibiting pH and composition dependent effect in terms of diameter, zeta potential, acid-base buffering, ibuprofen release and chelating capacities, responsible of matrix metalloproteinase dysfunction showing anti-inflammatory activity in a nitric oxide inhibition assay.

  3. Functional gradients in the pericarp of the green coconut inspire asymmetric fibre-composites with improved impact strength, and preserved flexural and tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Nina; Labonte, David; Humburg, Heide; Buzkan, Tayfun; Dörgens, Anna; Kelterer, Wiebke; Müssig, Jörg

    2017-02-28

    Here we investigate the mechanical properties and structural design of the pericarp of the green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The pericarp showed excellent impact characteristics, and mechanical tests of its individual components revealed gradients in stiffness, strength and elongation at break from the outer to the inner layer of the pericarp. In order to understand more about the potential effect of such gradients on 'bulk' material properties, we designed simple, graded, cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA) composites by stacking layers reinforced with fibres of different mechanical properties. Tensile properties of the graded composites were largely determined by the 'weakest' fibre, irrespective of the fibre distribution. However, a graded design led to pronounced asymmetric bending and impact properties. Bio-inspired, asymmetrically graded composites showed a flexural strength and modulus comparable to that of the strongest reference samples, but the elongation at maximum load was dependent on the specimen orientation. The impact strength of the graded composites showed a similar orientation-dependence, and peak values exceeded the impact strength of a non-graded reference composite containing identical fibre fractions by up to a factor of three. In combination, our results show that an asymmetric, systematic variation of fibre properties can successfully combine desirable properties of different fibre types, suggesting new routes for the development of high-performance composites, and improving our understanding of the structure-function relationship of the coconut pericarp.

  4. Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David

    2005-01-01

    We have worked with our collaborators at the University of Milan (Professor Marzio Giglio and his group-supported by ASI) to define the science required to measure gradient driven fluctuations in the microgravity environment. Such a study would provide an accurate test of the extent to which the theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be used to predict the properties of fluids maintained in a stressed, non-equilibrium state. As mentioned above, the results should also provide direct visual insight into the behavior of a variety of fluid systems containing gradients or interfaces, when placed in the microgravity environment. With support from the current grant, we have identified three key systems for detailed investigation. These three systems are: 1) A single-component fluid to be studied in the presence of a temperature gradient; 2) A mixture of two organic liquids to be studied both in the presence of a temperature gradient, which induces a steady-state concentration gradient, and with the temperature gradient removed, but while the concentration gradient is dying by means of diffusion; 3) Various pairs of liquids undergoing free diffusion, including a proteidbuffer solution and pairs of mixtures having different concentrations, to allow us to vary the differences in fluid properties in a controlled manner.

  5. Transport in Halobacterium Halobium: Light-Induced Cation-Gradients, Amino Acid Transport Kinetics, and Properties of Transport Carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1977-01-01

    Cell envelope vesicles prepared from H. halobium contain bacteriorhodopsin and upon illumination protons are ejected. Coupled to the proton motive force is the efflux of Na(+). Measurements of Na-22 flux, exterior pH change, and membrane potential, Delta(psi) (with the dye 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine) indicate that the means of Na(+) transport is sodium/proton exchange. The kinetics of the pH changes and other evidence suggests that the antiport is electrogenic (H(+)/Na(++ greater than 1). The resulting large chemical gradient for Na(+) (outside much greater than inside), as well as the membrane potential, will drive the transport of 18 amino acids. The I9th, glutamate, is unique in that its accumulation is indifferent to Delta(psi): this amino acid is transported only when a chemical gradient for Na(+) is present. Thus, when more and more NaCl is included in the vesicles glutamate transport proceeds with longer and longer lags. After illumination the gradient of H+() collapses within 1 min, while the large Na(+) gradient and glutamate transporting activity persists for 10- 15 min, indicating that proton motive force is not necessary for transport. A chemical gradient of Na(+), arranged by suspending vesicles loaded with KCl in NaCl, drives glutamate transport in the dark without other sources of energy, with V(sub max) and K(sub m) comparable to light-induced transport. These and other lines of evidence suggest that the transport of glutamate is facilitated by symport with Na(+), in an electrically neutral fashion, so that only the chemical component of the Na(+) gradient is a driving force.

  6. Magnetic properties and high-frequency characteristics of FeCoAlO gradient composition thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fu; Luo, Feilong; Lou, Yuanfu; Wang, Ying; Bai, Jianmin; Wei, Dan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Wei, Fulin

    2012-04-01

    5 × 25 mm FeCoAlO gradient composition thin film was prepared with composite target by using RF magnetron sputtering. The Al-O composition gradient along the length direction of the film was introduced by Al2O3 chips asymmetrically arrayed on a Fe70Co30 target disk. The film was divided into five equal segments. All samples showed a low coercive force Hc of 4 - 8 Oe. The saturation magnetization 4πMs increased continuously from 17.3 kGs for sample 1 (has more Al-O content) to 19.7 kGs for sample 5 and it was consistent with the increasing of Fe-Co composition. Meanwhile, these samples showed different anisotropy behaviors relating with Al-O composition. The sample 1 exhibited the same magnetization curve along the directions of G‖ and G⊥ (G‖ and G⊥ are parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the Al-O composition gradient, respectively). In both of G‖ & G⊥ directions, the sample 1 showed a resonance frequency (fr) of around 2.6 - 3.0 GHz, while, in G‖ direction, it showed a high value of real permeability μ'. The sample 5 exhibited a distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and a good high-frequency response of 3.0 GHz resonance frequency. So these films having gradient composition exhibit are suggested for the use in integrated magnetic devices working in the GHz frequency range.

  7. Compressible boundary layer with normal pressure gradients: Quasi-similarity equations - Their properties at the wall and at sharp and blunt leading edges.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.

    1972-01-01

    The failure of most viscous-inviscid interaction methods at strong interactions is attributed to the presence of a normal pressure gradient. A new theory is proposed for supersonic laminar boundary layers that can generate normal pressure gradients. The Navier-Stokes equations are reexamined by an order of magnitude analysis and all first and second order terms are retained. The approximation is found to be dependent not only on the boundary layer thickness but also on the ratio of the dimensionless viscosity and density. The equations are transformed into two quasi-similar, nonlinear, third order, ordinary integro-differential equations for the velocity and pressure as functions of a single transverse variable. The properties of the equations at the boundaries are discussed.

  8. Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F.

    2012-05-24

    Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

  9. Shell properties of commercial clam Chamelea gallina are influenced by temperature and solar radiation along a wide latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gizzi, Francesca; Caccia, Maria Giulia; Simoncini, Ginevra Allegra; Mancuso, Arianna; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Brizi, Leonardo; Fantazzini, Paola; Stagioni, Marco; Falini, Giuseppe; Piccinetti, Corrado; Goffredo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype can express different morphologies in response to biotic or abiotic environmental influences. Mollusks are particularly sensitive to different environmental parameters, showing macroscale shell morphology variations in response to environmental parameters. Few studies concern shell variations at the different scale levels along environmental gradients. Here, we investigate shell features at the macro, micro and nanoscale, in populations of the commercially important clam Chamelea gallina along a latitudinal gradient (~400 km) of temperature and solar radiation in the Adriatic Sea (Italian cost). Six populations of clams with shells of the same length were analyzed. Shells from the warmest and the most irradiated population were thinner, with more oval shape, more porous and lighter, showing lower load fracture. However, no variation was observed in shell CaCO3 polymorphism (100% aragonite) or in compositional and textural shell parameters, indicating no effect of the environmental parameters on the basic processes of biomineralization. Because of the importance of this species as commercial resource in the Adriatic Sea, the experimentally quantified and significant variations of mass and fracture load in C. gallina shells along the latitudinal gradient may have economic implications for fisheries producing different economical yield for fishermen and consumers along the Adriatic coastline. PMID:27805037

  10. The structure and properties of single-layer and gradient-layered coatings of the Ti–Al–Si–Cr–Mo–S–N system

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Stanislav Pinzhin, Yurii

    2015-10-27

    Using the method of microprobe analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the influence of obtaining conditions upon particular elemental composition and growth structure coatings of Ti–Al–Si–Mo–S–N system was studied. The possibility of formation and characteristics of the structural and elastic-stress state single-layer coatings with nanoscale columnar or equiaxed grains and gradient-layered, combining two types of selected structure, was defined. On the basis of hardness, tribological properties and coating hardness, a conclusion was made about the relative prospects of its use as wear-resistant coatings with a nanocrystalline structure.

  11. Validating spatial structure in canopy water content using geostatistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Zhang, M. H.; Ustin, S. L.; Rejmankova, E.; Haxo, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneity in ecological phenomena are scale dependent and affect the hierarchical structure of image data. AVIRIS pixels average reflectance produced by complex absorption and scattering interactions between biogeochemical composition, canopy architecture, view and illumination angles, species distributions, and plant cover as well as other factors. These scales affect validation of pixel reflectance, typically performed by relating pixel spectra to ground measurements acquired at scales of 1m(exp 2) or less (e.g., field spectra, foilage and soil samples, etc.). As image analysis becomes more sophisticated, such as those for detection of canopy chemistry, better validation becomes a critical problem. This paper presents a methodology for bridging between point measurements and pixels using geostatistics. Geostatistics have been extensively used in geological or hydrogeolocial studies but have received little application in ecological studies. The key criteria for kriging estimation is that the phenomena varies in space and that an underlying controlling process produces spatial correlation between the measured data points. Ecological variation meets this requirement because communities vary along environmental gradients like soil moisture, nutrient availability, or topography.

  12. Gradient-index POF without dopants: how the optical properties can be controlled by sole temperature treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, C.-A.; Schüppert, M.; Beckers, M.; Stepniak, G.; Vad, T.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel melt-spinning fabrication process for graded-index polymer optical fibers that completely avoids additional dopants for the formation of the refractive-index profile. In the presented process the meltspun fiber is rapidly cooled down so that the inner and outer parts of the fiber solidify at different speeds resulting in a density gradient. This density variation leads to a refractive-index profile without any further dopants. We present achieved results for fibers made of PMMA, and also first preliminary results for bio polymers such as TPU.

  13. A linear gradient line source facilitates the use of diffusion models with high order approximation for efficient, accurate turbid sample optical properties recovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Wei; Hung, Cheng-Hung; Liao, Jung-Li; Cheng, Nan-Yu; Hou, Ming-Feng; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a scanning MEMS mirror can be employed to create a linear gradient line source that is equivalent to a planar source. This light source setup facilitates the use of diffusion models of increased orders of approximation having closed form solution, and thus enhance the efficiency and accuracy in sample optical properties recovery. In addition, compared with a regular planar light source, the linear gradient line source occupies much less source area and has an elevated measurement efficiency. We employed a δ-P1 diffusion equation with a closed form solution and carried out a phantom study to understand the performance of this new method in determining the absorption and scattering properties of turbid samples. Moreover, our Monte Carlo simulation results indicated that this geometry had probing depths comparable to those of the conventional diffuse reflectance measurement geometry with a source-detector separation of 3 mm. We expect that this new source setup would facilitate the investigating of superficial volumes of turbid samples in the wavelength regions where tissue absorption coefficients are comparable to scattering coefficients.

  14. An experimental study of the properties of surface pressure fluctuations in strong adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on blade self-noise generation by strong adverse-pressure-gradient attached boundary layers and by separated turbulent boundary layers that accompany stall. Two microphones were calibrated, placed in plastic housing, and installed in a wind tunnel where observations of acoustic and turbulent signals permitted decomposition of the surface pressure fluctuation signals into the propagated acoustic part and the turbulent-flow generated portion. To determine the convective wave speed of the turbulent contributions, the microphones were spaced a small distance apart in the streamwise direction and correlations were obtained. The turbulent surface pressure spectra upstream of detachment and downstream of the beginning of separation are discussed as well as measurements of turbulent velocity spectra and wavespeeds.

  15. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s).

  16. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  17. Sedimentation properties in density gradients correspond with levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, chromatin compaction and binding affinity to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Forough; Binduraihem, Adel; Miller, David

    2017-03-01

    Mature spermatozoa bind hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix via hyaladherins. Immature spermatozoa may be unable to interact because they do not express the appropriate hyaladherins on their surface. Fresh human semen samples were fractionated using differential density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) and the ability of these fractions to bind hyaluronic acid was evaluated. The presence of sperm hyaladherins was also assessed. CD44 was located mainly on the acrosome and equatorial segment and became more restricted to the equatorial segment in capacitated spermatozoa. Hyaluronic acid-TRITC (hyaluronic acid conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanante), a generic hyaluronic-acid-binding reagent, labelled the membrane and the neck region, particularly after capacitation. Sperm populations obtained after DDGC or after interaction with hyaluronic acid were assessed for DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity. Strong relationships between both measures and sperm sedimentation and hyaluronic-acid-binding profiles were revealed. Capacitation enhanced hyaluronic acid binding of both DDGC-pelleted sperm and sperm washed free of seminal fluid. In conclusion, hyaladherins were detected on human sperm and a higher capacity for sperm hyaluronic-acid-binding was shown to correspond with their DDGC sedimentation profiles and with lower levels of DNA fragmentation and better chromatin maturity. Capacitation induced changes in the distribution and presence of hyaladherins may enhance hyaluronic-acid-binding.

  18. Gradient shape-persistent pi-conjugated dendrimers for light-harvesting: synthesis, photophysical properties, and energy funneling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Yan, Jing; Tang, Zheng-Ming; Xiao, Qi; Ma, Yuguo; Pei, Jian

    2008-07-30

    A new class of pi-conjugated dendrimers G0, G1, and G2 was developed through a double-stage divergent/convergent growth approach, in which 5,5,10,10,15,15-hexahexyltruxene was employed as the node and oligo(thienylethynylene)s (OTEs) with different lengths as the branching moieties. The dendrimers were fully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and MALDI-TOF MS. Also, by using atomic force microscopy, it was observed that dendrimer G2 laid nearly flat on the mica surface as a single molecule. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the molecule retained its relatively flat shape in solution. To our best knowledge, dendrimer G2, with a radius approaching 10 nm and a molecular weight of 27 072 Da, was the largest among reported second generation dendrimers. The energy gradient in G2 was constructed by linking OTEs of increasing effective conjugation lengths from the dendritic rim to the core. The intramolecular energy transfer process was studied using steady-state UV-vis absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopies, as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our structurally extended dendrimers showed an excellent energy funneling ability (their energy transfer efficiencies were all over 95%). All results demonstrate that these dendrimers are promising candidates as light-harvesting materials for optoelectronic devices.

  19. Joint analysis of GOCE gravity gradients data of gravitational potential and of gravity with seismological and geodynamic observations to infer mantle properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greff-Lefftz, Marianne; Métivier, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Caron, Lambert; Pajot-Métivier, Gwendoline; Bouman, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Joint analysis of the seismic velocities and geoid, gravity and gravity gradients are used to constrain the viscosity profile within the mantle as well as the lateral density variations. Recent ESA's Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer measurements of the second-order derivatives of the Earth's gravity potential give new possibilities to determine these mantle properties. Using a simple mantle model and seismic tomography results, we investigate how the gravitational potential, the three components of the gravity vector and the gravity gradients can bring information on the radial viscosity profile and on the mantle mass anomalies. We start with lateral density variations in the Earth's mantle based either on slab history or deduced from seismic tomography. The main uncertainties are: for the latter case, the relationship between seismic velocity and density-the so-called density/velocity scaling factor-and for the former case, the variation with depth of the density contrast between the cold slabs and the surrounding mantle. We perform a Monte Carlo search for the viscosity and the density/velocity scaling factor profiles within the mantle, which allows to fit the observed geoid, gravity and gradients of gravity. We compute the posterior probability distribution of the unknown parameters, and find that the gravity gradients improve the estimate of the scaling factor within the upper mantle, because of their sensitivity to the masses within the upper mantle, whereas the geoid and the gravity better constrain the scaling factor in the lower mantle. In the upper mantle, it is less than 0.02 in the upper part and about 0.08-0.14 in the lower part, and it is significantly larger for depths greater than 1200 km (about 0.32-0.34). In any case, the density/velocity scaling factor between 670 and 1150 km depth is not well constrained. We show that the viscosity of the upper part of the mantle is strongly correlated with the viscosity of the lower part

  20. Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski growth of large CdWO{sub 4} crystals and electronic properties of (010) cleaved surface

    SciTech Connect

    Atuchin, V.V.; Galashov, E.N.; Khyzhun, O.Y.; Bekenev, V.L.; Pokrovsky, L.D.; Borovlev, Yu.A.; Zhdankov, V.N.

    2016-04-15

    The crystal growth of large high-quality inclusion-free CdWO4 crystals, 110 mm in diameter and mass up to 20 kg, has been carried out by the Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski (LTG Cz) technique. The high-purity CdWO{sub 4}(010) surface has been prepared by cleavage and high structural quality of the surface has been verified by RHEED, revealing a system of Kikuchi lines. The chemical state and electronic structure of the surface have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). The total and partial densities of states of the CdWO{sub 4} tungstate were calculated employing the first-principles full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The results indicate that the principal contributors to the valence band of CdWO{sub 4} are the Cd 4d, W 5d and O 2p states which contribute mainly at the bottom, in the central portion and at the top of the valence band, respectively, with also significant contributions of the mentioned states throughout the whole CdWO{sub 4} valence-band region. With respect to the occupation of the O 2p states, the results of the FP-LAPW calculations are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum and the XES band representing the energy distribution of the O 2p states in this compound. Additionally, the FP-LAPW data allow us to conclude that the CdWO{sub 4} tungstate is a non-direct semiconductor. - Highlights: • Large high-quality CdWO{sub 4} crystals, up to 115 mm in diameter and mass up to 20 kg, have been grown. • The high-purity cleaved CdWO{sub 4}(010) surface has been studied by the XPS and XES methods. • The principal contributors to the CdWO{sub 4} valence band are the Cd 4d, W 5d and O 2p states.

  1. Nitrogen cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests responds rapidly to indirect N and P fertilization.

    PubMed

    Matson, Amanda L; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2014-12-01

    Although the canopy can play an important role in forest nutrient cycles, canopy-based processes are often overlooked in studies on nutrient deposition. In areas of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition, canopy soils may retain a significant proportion of atmospheric inputs, and also receive indirect enrichment through root uptake followed by throughfall or recycling of plant litter in the canopy. We measured net and gross rates of N cycling in canopy soils of tropical montane forests along an elevation gradient and assessed indirect effects of elevated nutrient inputs to the forest floor. Net N cycling rates were measured using the buried bag method. Gross N cycling rates were measured using (15) N pool dilution techniques. Measurements took place in the field, in the wet and dry season, using intact cores of canopy soil from three elevations (1000, 2000 and 3000 m). The forest floor had been fertilized biannually with moderate amounts of N and P for 4 years; treatments included control, N, P, and N + P. In control plots, gross rates of NH4 (+) transformations decreased with increasing elevation; gross rates of NO3 (-) transformations did not exhibit a clear elevation trend, but were significantly affected by season. Nutrient-addition effects were different at each elevation, but combined N + P generally increased N cycling rates at all elevations. Results showed that canopy soils could be a significant N source for epiphytes as well as contributing up to 23% of total (canopy + forest floor) mineral N production in our forests. In contrast to theories that canopy soils are decoupled from nutrient cycling in forest floor soil, N cycling in our canopy soils was sensitive to slight changes in forest floor nutrient availability. Long-term atmospheric N and P deposition may lead to increased N cycling, but also increased mineral N losses from the canopy soil system.

  2. Generalized gradient calculations of magneto-electronic properties for diluted magnetic semiconductors ZnMnS and ZnMnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méçabih, S.; Benguerine, K.; Benosman, N.; Abbar, B.; Bouhafs, B.

    2008-10-01

    Using the first-principles method, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn 1-xMn xS and Zn 1-xMn xSe with 25% of Mn. The calculations are performed by a developed full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW+lo) method within the spin density functional theory. As exchange-correlation potential we used the new generalized gradient approximation GGA form. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations. We show that the cohesive energy of ZnMnS and ZnMnSe exceeds that of the parent elements ZnS and ZnSe. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and local moments. We have calculated the Mn 3d spin-exchange splitting energies Δ x( d), which reflect the effective potential of the majority and the minority spin. From the charge spin densities calculations, we study the nature of the bonding and the effect of the Mn 3d states on these densities. Furthermore, we found that p-d hybridization reduces the local moment of Mn from its free space value of 5.0 μB.

  3. Buckling and free vibration of shallow curved micro/nano-beam based on strain gradient theory under thermal loading with temperature-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Ghoytasi, I.; Golmohammadi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, influences of a uniform thermomechanical loading in buckling and free vibration of a curved FG microbeam have been investigated, based on strain gradient theory (SGT) theory and Timoshenko beam model. Distribution of structural materials varies continuously in thickness direction due to power-law exponent. Unlike classical models, this novel model employs three length scale parameters which can capture the size effect. This work is based on SGT theory and Timoshenko beam model. Governing equation of motion and associated boundary condition have been developed based on Hamilton's principle, which is the specified case of virtual work theorem. In continuance, final differential equations were solved by Navier's solution method and the results have been presented. Moreover, influences of dimensionless length-to-thickness ratio (aspect ratio), dimensionless length scale parameter, power-law exponent, temperature difference and arc angle for various values of mode numbers on natural frequency and critical temperature by considering temperature-dependent material properties have been investigated. In order to validate accomplished study, some of the results were compared with those of previous works. It has been concluded that applying a thermomechanical loading on a FG microbeam causes the natural frequency to become more sensitive about variations of geometrical, physical and mechanical properties and characteristics.

  4. Linking biochemical properties of particles to particle-attached and free-living bacterial community structure along the particle density gradient from freshwater to open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Wei; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that particle composition has a stronger influence on the community structure of particle-attached than free-living bacteria, elemental (C/N, δ13C, and δ15N) and chemical composition of particles and the size-fractionated bacterial community composition were examined along the particle density gradient from the Pearl River to the open basin in the South China Sea. Microbial communities were collected at the three size fractions of 0.2-0.8, 0.8-3, and >3 µm, and the community composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 regions). Multivariate analysis evaluating the similarities of bacterial community composition and chemical composition of particles revealed their general consistent spatial variations along the particle density gradient from freshwater to the sea basin. However, compositions of particulate organic matter were more strongly related to the free living than to the particle-attached bacterial community composition, which was composed of relatively abundant anaerobic bacteria and those taxa preferring low-oxygen conditions. This latter result might be caused by low-oxygen microzones in particles. Community network models further revealed tighter interactions within the particle-attached than in free-living bacterial communities, suggesting that a relatively confined space in particles is more favorable for interactions within the community. These analyses indicated that particle microniche properties might be important in shaping particle-attached community structure. In contrast, particulate organic matter compositions significantly influenced the free-living bacterial community probably through the release of labile or semilabile organic matter from particles contributing to the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon.

  5. Calculation of turbulent boundary layers with heat transfer and pressure gradient utilizing a compressibility transformation. Part 2: Constant property turbulent boundary layer flow with simultaneous mass transfer and pressure gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the incompressible turbulent boundary layer, developing under the combined effects of mass transfer and pressure gradient, is presented in this paper. A strip-integral method is employed whereby two of the three governing equations are obtained by integrating the combined momentum and continuity equation to 50 percent and 100 percent, respectively, of the boundary-layer height. The latter equation is the usual momentum-integral equation; the former equation requires specification of shear. Accordingly, Clauser's equilibrium eddy-viscosity law is assumed valid at this point. The third and final equation is obtained by specifying that Stevenson's velocity profiles apply throughout the domain of interest, from which a skin-friction law can be derived. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experiments of McQuaid, which include combined effects of variable pressure gradient and mass transfer, show good agreement.

  6. On gradient field theories: gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the fundamentals of gradient field theories are presented and reviewed. In particular, the theories of gradient magnetostatics and gradient elasticity are investigated and compared. For gradient magnetostatics, non-singular expressions for the magnetic vector gauge potential, the Biot-Savart law, the Lorentz force and the mutual interaction energy of two electric current loops are derived and discussed. For gradient elasticity, non-singular forms of all dislocation key formulas (Burgers equation, Mura equation, Peach-Koehler stress equation, Peach-Koehler force equation, and mutual interaction energy of two dislocation loops) are presented. In addition, similarities between an electric current loop and a dislocation loop are pointed out. The obtained fields for both gradient theories are non-singular due to a straightforward and self-consistent regularization.

  7. Soil phosphorus mobility and solid-to-solution phase resupply studied by diffusive gradients in thin films: background soil properties driving their variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Philip, Haygarth

    2015-04-01

    The mobility and resupply of inorganic phosphorus (P) from the solid phase was studied in 32 representative soils from the UK. The objective was to identify the background soil properties driving the variation of soil inorganic P desorption kinetics across different soil types. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) and the DGT-induced fluxes in sediments model (DIFS) were used as tools for exploring solid-to-solution desorption kinetics. Previously characterized physicochemical properties of the same soils were used for correlation analysis. On average and across soil types, the inorganic P maximum distance of depletion was 0.42±0.10 cm, the equilibration time (Tc) was 3.63 h, the desorption rate constant (k-1) was 0.0046 h-1, and the desorption rate was 4.71 nmol l-1 s-1. The correlation between P in Olsen extractcs (POlsen) with PDGT, PDET and phosphorus effective concentration (PE) was enhanced when similar soils were isolated and used in the comparison, clearly showing that these parameters are affected differently by soil types. The PE was better correlated to Ptot, POlsen, PFeO, and PNaOH/EDTA than PDGT. This may indicate that PE is a better representation of P availability across soil types than PDGT. While the relative DGT-induced inorganic P flux in the first hour is mainly a function of soil wetting properties and % Corg, at longer times it is a function of the resupply capacity (R-Rdiff) of the soil solid phase. In general, resupply of P from the solid phase was less than that for other chemical elements, as shown by high Tc and low k-1 values. Desorption rates and resupply from the solid phase were fundamentally influenced by P saturation status, as reflected by their strong correlation with P concentration in water, FeO strips, Olsen and NaOH-EDTA extracts. Soil pH and particle size distribution had little or no effect on the evaluated parameters. The DGT and DET techniques, along with the DIFS model

  8. SPIDER. IV. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: NEW INSIGHT INTO CORRELATIONS WITH GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    La Barbera, F.; De Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Swindle, R.; Lopes, P. A. A.

    2010-11-15

    We present an analysis of stellar population gradients in 4546 early-type galaxies (ETGs) with photometry in grizYHJK along with optical spectroscopy. ETGs were selected as bulge-dominated systems, displaying passive spectra within the SDSS fibers. A new approach is described which utilizes color information to constrain age and metallicity gradients. Defining an effective color gradient, {nabla}{sub *}, which incorporates all of the available color indices, we investigate how {nabla}{sub *} varies with galaxy mass proxies, i.e., velocity dispersion, stellar (M{sub *}) and dynamical (M{sub dyn}) masses, as well as age, metallicity, and [{alpha}/Fe]. ETGs with M{sub dyn} larger than 8.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} have increasing age gradients and decreasing metallicity gradients with respect to mass, metallicity, and enhancement. We find that velocity dispersion and [{alpha}/Fe] are the main drivers of these correlations. ETGs with 2.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} {<=} M{sub dyn} {<=} 8.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} show no correlation of age, metallicity, and color gradients with respect to mass, although color gradients still correlate with stellar population parameters, and these correlations are independent of each other. In both mass regimes, the striking anti-correlation between color gradient and {alpha}-enhancement is significant at {approx}5{sigma} and results from the fact that metallicity gradient decreases with [{alpha}/Fe]. This anti-correlation may reflect the fact that star formation and metallicity enrichment are regulated by the interplay between the energy input from supernovae, and the temperature and pressure of the hot X-ray gas in ETGs. For all mass ranges, positive age gradients are associated with old galaxies (>5-7 Gyr). For galaxies younger than {approx}5 Gyr, mostly at low mass, the age gradient tends to be anti-correlated with the Age parameter, with more positive gradients at younger ages.

  9. Understanding Structure-Property Correlation in Monocationic and Dicationic Ionic Liquids through Combined Fluorescence and Pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) and Relaxation NMR Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kumar Sahu, Prabhat; Ghosh, Arindam; Sarkar, Moloy

    2015-11-05

    Steady state, time-resolved fluorescence and NMR experiments are carried out to gain deeper insights into the structure-property correlation in structurally similar monocationic and dicationic room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence response of fluorophore in 1-methy-3-propyllimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [C3MIm][NTf2] is found to be different from that of 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl)hexane bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [C6(MIm)2][NTf2]2 and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [C6MIm][NTf2]. The outcomes of the present solvent dynamics study in [C3MIm][NTf2] when compared with those in [C6(MIm)2][NTf2]2 and in [C6MIm][NTf2] from our previous studies (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 16, 12918-12928) indicate the involvement of dipolar rotation of imidazolium cation during solvation. To correlate the findings of solvation dynamics study with the dipolar rotation of the imidazolium ring, pulsed-field gradient (PFG)-NMR technique for translational diffusion coefficient measurement and (1)H as well as (19)F spin-lattice relaxation measurements are employed. NMR investigation reveals that an ultrafast component of solvation can be related to the dipolar rotation of imidazolium cation; hence, the role of dipolar rotation of cations in governing the dynamics of solvation in ILs cannot be ignored. Analysis of the rotational relaxation dynamics data by the Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory unveils distinctive features of solute-solvent interaction in [C3MIm][NTf2] and [C6(MIm)2][NTf2]2.

  10. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  11. Responses of leaf structure and photosynthetic properties to intra-canopy light gradients: a common garden test with four broadleaf deciduous angiosperm and seven evergreen conifer tree species.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Tomasz P; Oleksyn, J; Zytkowiak, R; Karolewski, P; Jagodziński, A M; Reich, P B

    2012-09-01

    Spectra of leaf traits in northern temperate forest canopies reflect major differences in leaf longevity between evergreen conifers and deciduous broadleaf angiosperms, as well as plastic modifications caused by within-crown shading. We investigated (1) whether long-lived conifer leaves exhibit similar intra-canopy plasticity as short-lived broadleaves, and (2) whether global interspecific relationships between photosynthesis, nitrogen, and leaf structure identified for sun leaves adequately describe leaves differentiated in response to light gradients. We studied structural and photosynthetic properties of intra-tree sun and shade foliage in adult trees of seven conifer and four broadleaf angiosperm species in a common garden in Poland. Shade leaves exhibited lower leaf mass-per-area (LMA) than sun leaves; however, the relative difference was smaller in conifers than in broadleaves. In broadleaves, LMA was correlated with lamina thickness and tissue density, while in conifers, it was correlated with thickness but not density. In broadleaves, but not in conifers, reduction of lamina thickness was correlated with a thinner palisade layer. The more conservative adjustment of conifer leaves could result from a combination of phylogenetic constraints, contrasting leaf anatomies and shoot geometries, but also from functional requirements of long-lived foliage. Mass-based nitrogen concentration (N(mass)) was similar between sun and shade leaves, and was lower in conifers than in deciduous broadleaved species. Given this, the smaller LMA in shade corresponded with a lower area-based N concentration (N(area)). In evergreen conifers, LMA and N(area) were less powerful predictors of area-based photosynthetic rate (A (max(area))) in comparison with deciduous broadleaved angiosperms. Multiple regression for sun and shade leaves showed that, in each group, A (max(mass)) was related to N(mass) but not to LMA, whereas LMA became a significant codeterminant of A (max(mass)) in

  12. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.

  13. Seepage and seepage gradients in an homogeneous, isotropic aquifer with drains as a function of soil properties and flow region geometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seepage and seepage gradients are important parameters in soil erosion processes and water quality problems on agricultural land. Traditionally, surface overland flow is viewed as one of the major soil erosive agents on those areas. In recent years, the role of the subsurface flow regime is increasi...

  14. Biomimetic Gradient Polymers with Enhanced Damping Capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Huan; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Beichen; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Shengjun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Designing gradient structures, mimicking biological materials, such as pummelo peels and tendon, is a promising strategy for developing advanced materials with superior energy damping capacities. Here a facile and effective approach for fabricating polymers with composition gradients at millimeter length scale is presented. The gradient thiol-ene polymers (TEPs) are created by the use of density difference of ternary thiol-ene-ene precursors and the subsequent photo-crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. The compositional gradients are analyzed via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), compressive modulus testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation, and swelling measurements. In contrast to homogeneous TEPs networks, the resultant gradient polymer shows a broader effective damping temperature range combining with good mechanical properties. The present result provides an effective route toward high damping materials by the fabrication of gradient structures.

  15. Modification of the melting properties of duplex DNA by attachment of a GC-rich DNA sequence as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, R M; Fischer, S G; Maniatis, T; Lerman, L S

    1985-01-01

    The melting behavior of a DNA fragment carrying the mouse beta maj-globin promoter was investigated as a means of establishing procedures for separating DNA fragments differing by any single base substitution using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis procedure of Fischer and Lerman (1,2). We find that attachment of a 300 base pair GC-rich DNA sequence, termed a GC-clamp, to a 135 bp DNA fragment carrying the mouse beta-globin promoter significantly alters the pattern of DNA melting within the promoter. When the promoter is attached to the clamp, the promoter sequences melt without undergoing strand dissociation. The calculated distribution of melting domains within the promoter differs markedly according to the relative orientation of the clamp and promoter sequences. We find that the behavior of DNA fragments containing the promoter and clamp sequences on denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gels is in close agreement with the theoretical melting calculations. These studies provide the basis for critical evaluation of the parameters for DNA melting calculations, and they establish conditions for determining whether all single base substitutions within the promoter can be separated on denaturing gradient gels. Images PMID:2987873

  16. Near-surface remote sensing of spatial and temporal variation in canopy phenology.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Braswell, Bobby H; Hollinger, David Y; Jenkins, Julian P; Ollinger, Scott V

    2009-09-01

    There is a need to document how plant phenology is responding to global change factors, particularly warming trends. "Near-surface" remote sensing, using radiometric instruments or imaging sensors, has great potential to improve phenological monitoring because automated observations can be made at high temporal frequency. Here we build on previous work and show how inexpensive, networked digital cameras ("webcams") can be used to document spatial and temporal variation in the spring and autumn phenology of forest canopies. We use two years of imagery from a deciduous, northern hardwood site, and one year of imagery from a coniferous, boreal transition site. A quantitative signal is obtained by splitting images into separate red, green, and blue color channels and calculating the relative brightness of each channel for "regions of interest" within each image. We put the observed phenological signal in context by relating it to seasonal patterns of gross primary productivity, inferred from eddy covariance measurements of surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange. We show that spring increases, and autumn decreases, in canopy greenness can be detected in both deciduous and coniferous stands. In deciduous stands, an autumn red peak is also observed. The timing and rate of spring development and autumn senescence varies across the canopy, with greater variability in autumn than spring. Interannual variation in phenology can be detected both visually and quantitatively; delayed spring onset in 2007 compared to 2006 is related to a prolonged cold spell from day 85 to day 110. This work lays the foundation for regional- to continental-scale camera-based monitoring of phenology at network observatory sites, e.g., National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) or AmeriFlux.

  17. Moving thermal gradients in gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tolley, H Dennis; Tolley, Samuel E; Wang, Anzi; Lee, Milton L

    2014-12-29

    This paper examines the separation effects of a moving thermal gradient on a chromatographic column in gas chromatography. This movement of the gradient has a focusing effect on the analyte bands, limiting band broadening in the column. Here we examine the relationship between the slope of this gradient, the velocity of the gradient and the resulting band width. Additionally we examine how transport of analytes along the column at their analyte specific constant temperatures, determined by the gradient slope and velocity, affects resolution. This examination is based primarily on a theoretical model of partitioning and transport of analyte under low concentration conditions. Preliminary predictions indicate that analytes reach near constant temperatures, relative positions and resolutions in less than 100cm of column transport. Use of longer columns produces very little improvement in resolution for any fixed slope. Properties of the thermal gradient determine a fixed solute band width for each analyte. These widths are nearly reached within the first 40-70cm, after which little broadening or narrowing of the bands occur. The focusing effect of the thermal gradient corrects for broad injections, reduces effects of irregular stationary phase coatings and can be used with short columns for fast analysis. Thermal gradient gas chromatographic instrumentation was constructed and used to illustrate some characteristics predicted from the theoretical results.

  18. Development and application of the High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, W.; Bohrer, G.; Chatziefstratiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    We have been working to develop a new post-processing model - High resolution VOC Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) - which will be able to resolve the dispersion and chemistry of reacting chemical species given their emission rates from the vegetation and soil, driven by high resolution meteorological forcing and wind fields from various high resolution atmospheric regional and large-eddy simulations. Hi-VACC reads in fields of pressure, temperature, humidity, air density, short-wave radiation, wind (3-D u, v and w components) and sub-grid-scale turbulence that were simulated by a high resolution atmospheric model. This meteorological forcing data is provided as snapshots of 3-D fields. Presently, the advection-diffusion portion of the model is fully developed, and we have tested it using a number of RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) runs. Here, we present results from utilizing Hi-VACC in a few different contexts where it performs smoke and particle dispersion well. These include simulations of smoke dispersion from a theoretical forest fire in a domain in The Pine Barrens in New Jersey, as well as simulations to test the effects of heat flux on a scalar plume dispersing over a vegetative windbreak in an agricultural setting. Additional, we show initial results from testing the coupled chemistry component of Hi-VACC. One of the primary benefits of Hi-VACC is that users of other models can utilize this tool with only minimal work on their part -- processing their output fields into the appropriate HI-VACC input format. We have developed our model such that for whatever atmospheric model is being used with it, a MATLAB function must be written to extract the necessary information from the output files of that model and shape it into the proper format. This is the only model-specific work required. As such, this sort of smoke dispersion modeling performed by Hi-VACC - as well as its other capabilities - can be easily performed in other

  19. [Microbial community and its activities in canopy- and understory humus of two montane forest types in Ailao Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-jie; Liu, Wen-yao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Han-bo; Wang, Gao-sheng

    2010-09-01

    Mid-montane moist evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF) and top-montane dwarf mossy forest (DMF) are the two major natural forest types in subtropical mountainous area of Ailao Mountains, Northwest China. In this paper, a comparative study was made on the microbial composition, quantity, biochemical activity, metabolic activity, and their seasonal dynamics in the canopy- and understory humus of the two forest types. The composition, quantity, and metabolic activity of the microbes in the canopy humus of dominant tree species in MMF and DMF were also analyzed. In the canopy humus of the two forest types, the amounts of fungi and actinomycetes, microbial biomass C and N, and intensities of nitrogen fixation and cellulose decomposition were significantly higher than those in understory humus. Meanwhile, the amount of cellulose-decomposing microbes (ACDM), cellulose decomposition intensity, microbial biomass C and N, and metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF were significantly higher than those of DMF. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ANFB) and the metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF and DMF were significantly higher in wet season than in dry season, while a contradictory trend was observed on the amount of actinomycetes. No significant difference was observed on the amount of ACDM between wet season and dry season. For the two forest types, the amounts of microbes and their biochemical activities in canopy humus had a larger seasonal variation range than those in understory humus. There was a significant difference in the amounts of the microbes in canopy humus among the dominant tree species in MMF and DMF, especially in wet season. The microbes in canopy humus played important roles in maintaining the biodiversity of epiphytes in the canopy, and in supplying the needed nutrients for the vigorous growth of the epiphytes.

  20. High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2004-11-29

    A concept being developed for high current electron beams may have application to HEDP and is described here. It involves the use of planar Blumlein stacks placed inside an induction cell. The output end of the Blumlein stack is applied across a high gradient insulator (HGI). These insulators have been used successfully in the presence of kilo Ampere-level electron beam currents for tens of nanoseconds at gradients of 20 MV/meter.

  1. Flow field thermal gradient gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Negative temperature gradients along the gas chromatographic separation column can maximize the separation capabilities for gas chromatography by peak focusing and also lead to lower elution temperatures. Unfortunately, so far a smooth thermal gradient over a several meters long separation column could only be realized by costly and complicated manual setups. Here we describe a simple, yet flexible method for the generation of negative thermal gradients using standard and easily exchangeable separation columns. The measurements made with a first prototype reveal promising new properties of the optimized separation process. The negative thermal gradient and the superposition of temperature programming result in a quasi-parallel separation of components each moving simultaneously near their lowered specific equilibrium temperatures through the column. Therefore, this gradient separation process is better suited for thermally labile molecules such as explosives and natural or aroma components. High-temperature GC methods also benefit from reduced elution temperatures. Even for short columns very high peak capacities can be obtained. In addition, the gradient separation is particularly beneficial for very fast separations below 1 min overall retention time. Very fast measurements of explosives prove the benefits of using negative thermal gradients. The new concept can greatly reduce the cycle time of high-resolution gas chromatography and can be integrated into hyphenated or comprehensive gas chromatography setups.

  2. Convection driven generation of long-range material gradients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanan; Hancock, Matthew J.; He, Jiankang; Villa-Uribe, Jose; Wang, Ben; Cropek, Donald M.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Natural materials exhibit anisotropy with variations in soluble factors, cell distribution, and matrix properties. The ability to recreate the heterogeneity of the natural materials is a major challenge for investigating cell-material interactions and for developing biomimetic materials. Here we present a generic fluidic approach using convection and alternating flow to rapidly generate multi-centimeter gradients of biomolecules, polymers, beads and cells and cross-gradients of two species in a microchannel. Accompanying theoretical estimates and simulations of gradient growth provide design criteria over a range of material properties. A poly(ethyleneglycol) hydrogel gradient, a porous collagen gradient and a composite material with a hyaluronic acid/gelatin cross-gradient were generated with continuous variations in material properties and in their ability to regulate cellular response. This simple yet generic fluidic platform should prove useful for creating anisotropic biomimetic materials and high-throughput platforms for investigating cell-microenvironment interaction. PMID:20035990

  3. Mechanical Properties and Real-Time Damage Evaluations of Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC CMCs Subjected to Tensile Loading Under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require new state-of-the art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to withstand increased temperature requirements and high velocity combustion corrosive combustion gasses. The present work compares the response of coated and uncoated SiC/SiC CMC substrates subjected to simulated engine environments followed by high temperature mechanical testing to asses retained properties and damage mechanisms. Our focus is to explore the capabilities of electrical resistance (ER) measurements as an NDE technique for testing of retained properties under combined high heat-flux and mechanical loading conditions. Furthermore, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were performed to determine material damage onset and accumulation.

  4. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, Awad; Mamat, Mustafa; Mohd, Ismail bin; Rivaie, Mohd; Omer, Osman

    2015-02-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods are essential for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Many of studies and modifications have been practiced to improve this method. In this paper, a new class of conjugate gradient coefficients (βk) with a new parameter m = ‖g/k‖ ‖dk-1‖ that possess global convergence properties is presented. The global convergence and sufficient decent property result is established using inexact line searches to determine the step size of CG, denoted as ∝k. Numerical result shows that the new formula is superior and more efficient when compared to other CG coefficients.

  5. Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations . Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000°C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te

  6. Assessing the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms at different depths as an approach to measure biomechanical gradient of crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav; Manns, Fabrice; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using the dominant frequency of the sample surface response to a mechanical stimulation as an effective indicator for sensing the depthwise distribution of elastic properties in transparent layered phantom samples simulating the cortex and nucleus of the crystalline lens. Focused ultrasound waves are used to noninvasively interrogate the sample surface. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system is utilized to capture the surface dynamics over time with nanometer scale sensitivity. Spectral analysis is performed on the sample surface response to ultrasound stimulation and the dominant frequency is calculated under particular loading parameters. Pilot experiments were conducted on homogeneous and layered tissue-mimicking phantoms. Results indicate that the mechanical layers located at different depths introduce different frequencies to the sample surface response, which are correlated with the depth-dependent elasticity of the sample. The duration and the frequency of the ultrasound excitation are also investigated for their influences on this spectrum-based detection. This noninvasive method may be potentially applied for localized and rapid assessment of the depth dependence of the mechanical properties of the crystalline lens. PMID:24409379

  7. Shoot biomass growth is related to the vertical leaf nitrogen gradient in Salix canopies.

    PubMed

    Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästjung, Ann-Christin

    2007-11-01

    Plant canopy optimization models predict that leaf nitrogen (N) distribution in the canopy will parallel the vertical light gradient, and numerous studies with many species have confirmed this prediction. Further, it is predicted that for a given canopy leaf area, a low vertical light extinction coefficient will promote rapid growth. Therefore, the ideal canopy of fast-growing plants should combine high leaf area index with a low light extinction coefficient; the latter being reflected in a flat vertical leaf N gradient throughout the canopy. Based on data from an experimental Salix stand (six varieties) grown on agricultural land in central Sweden, we tested the hypothesis that shoot growth is correlated with vertical leaf N gradient in canopies of hybrid willows bred for biomass production, which could have implications for Salix breeding. Tree improvement research requires screening of growth-related traits in large numbers of plants, but assessment of canopy leaf N gradients by chemical analysis is expensive, time-consuming and destructive. An alternative to analytical methods is to estimate leaf N gradients nondestructively with an optical chlorophyll meter (SPAD method). Here we provide a specific calibration for interpreting SPAD data measured in hybrid willows grown in biomass plantations on fertile agricultural land. Based on SPAD measurements, a significant and inverse relationship (r(2) = 0.88) was found between shoot biomass growth and vertical leaf N gradient across canopies of six Salix varieties.

  8. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  9. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S

    2004-01-01

    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths.

  10. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  11. Spectroscopic Gradients in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, A.; Battistini, C.; Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.

    2009-11-01

    We review some relevant properties of the observed changes of Hβ, Mg_2, and FeI Lick indices across the surface of 25 bright elliptical galaxies. The impact of these spectroscopic gradients is briefly discussed, in the framework of the leading physical mechanisms that led to galaxy formation. In particular, three relevant evolutionary scenarios are sketched, each one able, in principle, to consistently match galaxy spectral properties and effectively constrain the composing stellar populations in these systems.

  12. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-05-04

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  13. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  14. Stress-gradient plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

  15. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  16. Gradient structure-induced temperature responsiveness in styrene/methyl methacrylate gradient copolymers micelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2014-02-01

    In this work, micelles are formed by gradient copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate in acetone-water mixture and their temperature responsiveness is investigated in a narrow range near room temperature. Three different kinds of structural transitions could be induced by temperature: unimers to micelle transition, shrinkage/stretching of micelles, and morphological transition from spherical micelles to vesicles. In addition, a model analysis on the interface of gradient copolymer micelle is made to better understand these phenomena. It is found that both position and composition of the interface could alter in response to the change in temperature. According to the experiments and model analysis, it is proposed that temperature responsiveness might be an intrinsic and universal property of gradient copolymer micelles, which only originates from the gradient structure.

  17. Thermal Stability of the Dynamic Magnetic Properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 Films Grown by Gradient-Composition Sputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong

    2017-01-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 thin films prepared by gradient-composition deposition technique with respect to temperature in the range of 300 K to 420 K. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy field ( H K) and ferromagnetic resonance frequency ( f FMR) are increased with increasing deposition angle ( β) due to the enhancement of stress ( σ) when concentrations of Al and O or Si and O are increased. The thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al2O3 films show a very interesting behavior with the magnetic anisotropy increasing with temperature when the deposition angle is increased. In contrast, when the deposition angle is lower, the usual trend of decreasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature is observed. Moreover, the temperature-dependent behaviors of the dynamic permeability and effective Gilbert damping coefficient ( α eff) for FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 films at different deposition angles are discussed in detail.

  18. Multiscale architectured materials with composition and grain size gradients manufactured using high-pressure torsion

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Jung Gi; Park, Hyo Wook; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-01-01

    The concept of multiscale architectured materials is established using composition and grain size gradients. Composition-gradient nanostructured materials are produced from coarse grained interstitial free steels via carburization and high-pressure torsion. Quantitative analyses of the dislocation density using X-ray diffraction and microstructural studies clearly demonstrate the gradients of the dislocation density and grain size. The mechanical properties of the gradient materials are compared with homogeneous nanostructured carbon steel without a composition gradient in an effort to investigate the gradient effect. Based on the above observations, the potential of multiscale architecturing to open a new material property is discussed. PMID:27229160

  19. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  20. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  1. Density Gradient Dependent Helicon Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panevsky, Martin; Bengtson, Roger

    2002-11-01

    Radially localized helicon modes have been proposed to provide a fuller description of helicon discharges over a wide span of operating conditions and gas types [1]. These plasma modes could be of vital importance to the VASIMR engine. They depend on a radial density gradient and appear to operate over a range of frequencies inaccessible to traditional helicon discharges. Our work focuses on confirming experimentally the existence and properties of these helicon modes in Argon, Helium, and Hydrogen. We investigate the density profile, power deposition, wavefields, and dispersion relation of the new helicon modes which differ substantially from the properties of the traditional helicon plasma. We are using a set of dual half-turn helical antennas driven at 13.56 MHz. Our diagnostics includes a system for monitoring the plasma impedance, a set of Langmuir probes, a set of magnetic probes, as well as sensors for monitoring the pressure and DC magnetic field. *Work supported in part by Advanced Space Propulsion Lab, Johnson Space Center, NASA [1] B. N. Breizman and A. V. Arefiev, Phys. Rev. 84, 3863 (2000)

  2. Leaf Spectra and Weight of Species in Canopy, Subcanopy, and Understory Layers in a Venezuelan Andean Cloud Forest

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Miguel F.; Ataroff, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the leaf spectra of tree species of an Andean cloud forest in Venezuela, grouped according to position in canopy, subcanopy and understory. We measured leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in the 400–750 nm range using a high-resolution spectrometer. Both signals were subtracted from unity to calculate the absorbance signal. Nine spectral variables were calculated for each signal, three based on wide-bands and six based on features. We measured leaf mass per unit area of all species, and calculated efficiency of absorbance, as ratio of absorbance in photosynthetic range over leaf mass. Differences among groups were significant for several absorbance and transmittance variables, leaf mass, and efficiency of absorbance. The clearest differences are between canopy and understory species. There is strong correlation for at least one pair of band variables for each signal, and each band variable is strongly correlated with at least one feature variable for most signals. High canonical correlations are obtained between pairs of the three canonical axes for bands and the first three canonical axes for features. Absorbance variables produce species clusters having the closest correspondence to the species groups. Linear discriminant analysis shows that species groups can be sorted by all signals, particularly absorbance. PMID:24278746

  3. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  4. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    SciTech Connect

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  5. Nanoparticle manipulation by thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method was proposed to manipulate nanoparticles through a thermal gradient. The motion of a fullerene molecule enclosed inside a (10, 10) carbon nanotube with a thermal gradient was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We created a one-dimensional potential valley by imposing a symmetrical thermal gradient inside the nanotube. When the temperature gradient was large enough, the fullerene sank into the valley and became trapped. The escaping velocities of the fullerene were evaluated based on the relationship between thermal gradient and thermophoretic force. We then introduced a new way to manipulate the position of nanoparticles by translating the position of thermostats with desirable thermal gradients. Compared to nanomanipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope or an atomic force microscope, our method for nanomanipulation has a great advantage by not requiring a direct contact between the probe and the object. PMID:22364240

  6. Step-gradient capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, M R; Gilligan, D; Johnson, C M; Bartle, K D

    1997-10-01

    The analytical benefits of using a step-gradient in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are demonstrated. The application of step-gradient CEC to the analysis of six diuretics of widely differing lipophilicities was evaluated and shown to result in a marked reduction in the analysis time and an improvement in the peak shape for later-eluting lipophilic components. When the step-gradient approach was performed in an automated mode, the retention time RSD for repeated injections was below 1%.

  7. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Mast, Christof B; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-05-14

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10(600) compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers.

  8. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Christof B.; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10600 compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers. PMID:23630280

  9. Gradient forests: calculating importance gradients on physical predictors.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Nick; Smith, Stephen J; Pitcher, C Roland

    2012-01-01

    In ecological analyses of species and community distributions there is interest in the nature of their responses to environmental gradients and in identifying the most important environmental variables, which may be used for predicting patterns of biodiversity. Methods such as random forests already exist to assess predictor importance for individual species and to indicate where along gradients abundance changes. However, there is a need to extend these methods to whole assemblages, to establish where along the range of these gradients the important compositional changes occur, and to identify any important thresholds or change points. We develop such a method, called "gradient forest," which is an extension of the random forest approach. By synthesizing the cross-validated R2 and accuracy importance measures from univariate random forest analyses across multiple species, sampling devices, and surveys, gradient forest obtains a monotonic function of each predictor that represents the compositional turnover along the gradient of the predictor. When applied to a synthetic data set, the method correctly identified the important predictors and delineated where the compositional change points occurred along these gradients. Application of gradient forest to a real data set from part of the Great Barrier Reef identified mud fraction of the sediment as the most important predictor, with highest compositional turnover occurring at mud fraction values around 25%, and provided similar information for other predictors. Such refined information allows for more accurate capturing of biodiversity patterns for the purposes of bioregionalization, delineation of protected areas, or designing of biodiversity surveys.

  10. Density Gradients in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines experiments in which a density gradient might be used to advantage. A density gradient consists of a column of liquid, the composition and density of which varies along its length. The procedure can be used in analysis of solutions and mixtures and in density measures of solids. (Author/TS)

  11. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  12. Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R

    2006-08-16

    Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators are vacuum insulating structures composed of thin, alternating layers of dielectric and metal. They are currently being developed for application to high-current accelerators and related pulsed power systems. This paper describes some of the High-Gradient Insulator research currently being conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  13. Effects of degree correlation on scale-free gradient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Gui-Jun; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Wei-Chuan; Luo, Yi-Hui; Huang, Zhong-Bing

    2010-05-01

    We have studied the effects of degree correlation on congestion pressure in scale-free gradient networks. It is observed that the jamming coefficient J is insensitive to the degree correlation coefficient r for assortative and strongly disassortative scale-free networks, and J markedly decreases with an increase in r for weakly disassortative scale-free networks. We have also investigated the effects of degree correlation on the topology structure of scale-free gradient networks, and discussed the relation between the topology structure properties and transport efficiency of gradient networks.

  14. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  15. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  16. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  18. Parameter-exploring policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Sehnke, Frank; Osendorfer, Christian; Rückstiess, Thomas; Graves, Alex; Peters, Jan; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    We present a model-free reinforcement learning method for partially observable Markov decision problems. Our method estimates a likelihood gradient by sampling directly in parameter space, which leads to lower variance gradient estimates than obtained by regular policy gradient methods. We show that for several complex control tasks, including robust standing with a humanoid robot, this method outperforms well-known algorithms from the fields of standard policy gradients, finite difference methods and population based heuristics. We also show that the improvement is largest when the parameter samples are drawn symmetrically. Lastly we analyse the importance of the individual components of our method by incrementally incorporating them into the other algorithms, and measuring the gain in performance after each step.

  19. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA <1.0 cm(2)) consistent with severe AS but a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) consistent with non-severe AS. The management of this subset of patients is particularly challenging because the AVA-gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS.

  20. Gradient expansion, curvature perturbations, and magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra

    2011-04-15

    The properties of magnetized plasmas are always investigated under the hypothesis that the relativistic inhomogeneities stemming from the fluid sources and from the geometry itself are sufficiently small to allow for a perturbative description prior to photon decoupling. The latter assumption is hereby relaxed and predecoupling plasmas are described within a suitable expansion where the inhomogeneities are treated to a given order in the spatial gradients. It is argued that the (general relativistic) gradient expansion shares the same features of the drift approximation, customarily employed in the description of cold plasmas, so that the two schemes are physically complementary in the large-scale limit and for the low-frequency branch of the spectrum of plasma modes. The two-fluid description, as well as the magnetohydrodynamical reduction, is derived and studied in the presence of the spatial gradients of the geometry. Various solutions of the coupled system of evolution equations in the anti-Newtonian regime and in the quasi-isotropic approximation are presented. The relation of this analysis to the so-called separate universe paradigm is outlined. The evolution of the magnetized curvature perturbations in the nonlinear regime is addressed for the magnetized adiabatic mode in the plasma frame.

  1. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Japan; Functionally Gradient Materials Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Reaction Method 48 Research on Si3N4-M0 Ceramic With Gradient Composition 54 Research on FGM Thermal Property Evaluation Technique 62 Research on FGM...high strength and good reliability. In solid state bonding the most important factor which reduces these properties is the edge effect. In this area...cooling is also important. Recently the active brazing alloys used in Si3NA joining can present some brittle properties which can lower the interface

  2. Reconstructing global overturning from meridional density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E. D.; Oliver, K. I. C.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.; Mecking, J. V.

    2016-04-01

    Despite the complexity of the global ocean system, numerous attempts have been made to scale the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), principally in the North Atlantic, with large-scale, basin-wide hydrographic properties. In particular, various approaches to scaling the MOC with meridional density gradients have been proposed, but the success of these has only been demonstrated under limited conditions. Here we present a scaling relationship linking overturning to twice vertically-integrated meridional density gradients via the hydrostatic equation and a "rotated" form of the geostrophic equation. This provides a meridional overturning streamfunction as a function of depth for each basin. Using a series of periodically forced experiments in a global, coarse resolution configuration of the general circulation model NEMO, we explore the timescales over which this scaling is temporally valid. We find that the scaling holds well in the upper Atlantic cell (at 1000 m) for multi-decadal (and longer) timescales, accurately reconstructing the relative magnitude of the response for different frequencies and explaining over 85 % of overturning variance on timescales of 64-2048 years. Despite the highly nonlinear response of the Antarctic cell in the abyssal Atlantic, between 76 and 94 % of the observed variability at 4000 m is reconstructed on timescales of 32 years (and longer). The scaling law is also applied in the Indo-Pacific. This analysis is extended to a higher resolution, stochastically forced simulation for which correlations of between 0.79 and 0.99 are obtained with upper Atlantic MOC variability on timescales >25 years. These results indicate that meridional density gradients and overturning are linked via meridional pressure gradients, and that both the strength and structure of the MOC can be reconstructed from hydrography on multi-decadal and longer timescales provided that the link is made in this way.

  3. Predicting global overturning from meridional density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Edward; Oliver, Kevin; Hirschi, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to scale the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), principally in the North Atlantic, with large-scale, basin-wide hydrographic properties. In particular, various approaches to scaling the MOC with meridional density gradients have been proposed, but the success of these has only been demonstrated under limited conditions. Here we present a scaling relationship linking overturning to twice vertically-integrated meridional density gradients via the hydrostatic equation and a "rotated" form of the geostrophic equation. This provides a meridional overturning streamfunction as a function of depth for each basin. Using a series of periodically forced experiments in a global, coarse resolution configuration of the general circulation model NEMO, we explore the timescales over which this scaling is temporally valid. We find that the scaling holds well in the upper Atlantic cell (at 1000m) on decadal and longer timescales, explaining at least 94% of overturning variance for timescales of 128 to 2048 years and accurately predicting the relative magnitude of the response for different frequencies. Despite the highly nonlinear response of the Antarctic cell in the abyssal Atlantic, over 77% of the observed variability at 4000m is predicted on timescales of 32 years and longer. The scaling law is also successful in the Indo-Pacific, thus demonstrating its generality. This analysis is extended to a higher resolution, stochastically forced simulation for which correlations of at least 0.79 are obtained with upper Atlantic MOC variance on all timescales greater than 25 years. These results demonstrate that meridional density gradients and overturning are linked via meridional pressure gradients, and that both the strength and structure of the MOC can be predicted from hydrography on multi-decadal and longer timescales provided that the link is made in this way.

  4. Learning from nature: synthesis and characterization of longitudinal polymer gradient materials inspired by mussel byssus threads.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Kai U; Giesa, Reiner; Scheibel, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2012-02-13

    Marine mussels use their threads for attachment to any substratum and these biopolymer gradient fibers show an excellent combination of stiff and soft mechanical properties. A straightforward approach for the preparation of macroscopic longitudinal polymer gradient materials on the centimeter scale based on a poly(dimethyl siloxane) system is presented. Compositional gradients are realized by using three syringe pumps feeding different prepolymers capable to undergo thermal cross-linking. Within the gradient samples, the stiffness between the hard and soft part can be varied up to a factor of four. The gradients are analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as compressive and tensile modulus testing.

  5. Effect of neglecting geothermal gradient on calculated oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Majid; Sedighi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Reduced recovery rate with time is a common challenge for most of the oil producing reservoirs. Water flooding is one of the most common methods used for enhanced oil recovery. Simulating water-flooding process is sometimes carried out without considering the effect of geothermal gradient, and an average temperature is assumed for all the grid blocks. However, the gradient plays a significant role on the reservoir fluid properties. So neglecting its effect might result in a large error in the calculated oil recovery results, especially for the thick reservoirs, which in theory can show significant variations in temperature with depth. In this paper, first, advancing the waterfront during injection into a geothermal oil reservoir is discussed. Then, the performance of considering either an average temperature or gradient temperature, are considered and compared with each other. The results suggest that assuming a fixed average reservoir temperature with no geothermal gradient, can lead to a pronounced error for calculated oil recovery.

  6. Estimation of coastal density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. J.; Palmer, M. R.; Polton, J. A.; O'Neill, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    Density gradients in coastal regions with significant freshwater input are large and variable and are a major control of nearshore circulation. However their measurement is difficult, especially where the gradients are largest close to the coast, with significant uncertainties because of a variety of factors - spatial and time scales are small, tidal currents are strong and water depths shallow. Whilst temperature measurements are relatively straightforward, measurements of salinity (the dominant control of spatial variability) can be less reliable in turbid coastal waters. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing and receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey, Ribble and Conwy estuaries, each with different catchment influences. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The water column stratifies intermittently. A Coastal Observatory has been operational since 2002 with regular (quasi monthly) CTD surveys on a 9 km grid, an situ station, an instrumented ferry travelling between Birkenhead and Dublin and a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves. These measurements are complementary, each having different space-time characteristics. For coastal gradients the ferry is particularly useful since measurements are made right from the mouth of Mersey. From measurements at the in situ site alone density gradients can only be estimated from the tidal excursion. A suite of coupled physical, wave and ecological models are run in association with these measurements. The models, here on a 1.8 km grid, enable detailed estimation of nearshore density gradients, provided appropriate river run-off data are available. Examples are presented of the density gradients estimated from the different measurements and models, together with accuracies and uncertainties, showing that systematic time series measurements within a few kilometres of the coast are a high priority. (Here gliders are an exciting prospect for

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  11. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  12. Ants of three adjacent habitats of a transition region between the cerrado and caatinga biomes: the effects of heterogeneity and variation in canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Neves, F S; Queiroz-Dantas, K S; da Rocha, W D; Delabie, J H C

    2013-06-01

    Habitat heterogeneity and complexity associated with variations in climatic conditions are important factors determining the structure of ant communities in different terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to describe the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of the ant community associated with three adjacent habitats in a transition area between the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes at the Pandeiros River, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the richness and composition of ant species and functional group structure changes between different habitats and strata; (2) habitats with higher tree species richness and density support higher ant species richness; and (3) habitats with lower variation in canopy cover support higher ant species richness. Sampling was conducted in three adjacent habitats and at three vertical strata. Ant species richness was significantly different among vertical strata. Ant species composition was different among both habitats and vertical strata and functional group structure was divergent among habitats. Partitioning of the diversity revealed that the diversity for the three components was statistically different from the one expected by the null model; α and β 2 were higher and β 1 was lower than the values expected by chance. Tree density and variation in canopy cover negatively affected ant species richness. The occurrence of different species and the changing of functional group structures in different habitats and strata suggest an ecological-evolutionary relationship between ants and their habitats and emphasize the need to implement local conservation strategies in the ecotones between biomes.

  13. Conjugate gradient method - Electromagnetism applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosig, Juan R.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a brief but rigorous description of the conjugate gradient technique as applied to the solution of algebraic linear systems with complex coefficients. The relationships between conjugate gradient techniques and other commonly used methods are established. A normalized algorithm is introduced which optimally exploits the computer capabilities. Its performance is compared with that of Gaussian elimination by numerical tests on Hilbert matrices of more than a thousand unknowns. As a practical application, the problem of electrostatic screening by a finite ground plane has been solved with this technique.

  14. Templating Surfaces with Gradient Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Genzer,J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most versatile and widely used methods of forming surfaces with position-dependent wettability is that conceived by Chaudhury and Whitesides more than a decade ago. In this paper we review several projects that utilize this gradient-forming methodology for: controlled of deposition of self-assembled monolayers on surfaces, generating arrays of nanoparticles with number density gradients, probing the mushroom-to-brush transition in surface-anchored polymers, and controlling the speed of moving liquid droplets on surfaces.

  15. Multilayer High-Gradient Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Anaya, R M; Blackfield, D; Chen, Y -; Falabella, S; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Paul, A C; Sampayan, S; Sanders, D M; Watson, J A; Caporaso, G J; Krogh, M

    2006-11-15

    High voltage systems operated in vacuum require insulating materials to maintain spacing between conductors held at different potentials, and may be used to maintain a nonconductive vacuum boundary. Traditional vacuum insulators generally consist of a single material, but insulating structures composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal can also be built. These ''High-Gradient Insulators'' have been experimentally shown to withstand higher voltage gradients than comparable conventional insulators. As a result, they have application to a wide range of high-voltage vacuum systems where compact size is important. This paper describes ongoing research on these structures, as well as the current theoretical understanding driving this work.

  16. Antiresonant guiding photonic crystal fibers for distributed temperature gradient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, R.; Zeng, J.; Kandel, M.; Fam, A. T.; Cartwright, A. N.; Litchinitser, N. M.

    2011-11-01

    We propose, design, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, distributed refractometric measurement technique based on unique spectral properties of antiresonant-guiding photonic crystal fibers for measuring temperature gradients. We use a simple and accurate analytical model and numerical simulations to guide our experiments. The proposed technique may find applications for monitoring and control of chemical and biological reactions in microfluidic systems.

  17. Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-14

    Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms

  18. Geothermal gradients in Mississippi embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Treat, N.L.

    1983-09-01

    A statistical analysis of bottom-hole temperatures from oil and gas wells in the northern Mississippi embayment suggests that the geothermal gradient below a depth of 1 km is low (22.2/sup 0/C/km) and for the New Madrid seismic zone, it is even lower (15.7/sup 0/C/km). These data support the tentative conclusion of Swanberg et al that ground-water convection is the source of near-surface heat in shallow water wells of the region. Research by Mitchell et al had suggested a high geothermal gradient in the crust and upper mantel beneath the New Madrid seismic zone as a plausible explanation for the lower than average compressional wave velocities observed there. Warmer than normal wells in the northern Mississippi embayment are scattered at random and may be attributed to random error in the data. Deep wells in the southern Mississippi embayment are substantially hotter than wells at a comparable depth farther north. The regional geothermal gradient below a depth of 1 km from northern Louisiana to central Mississippi is 26.9/sup 0/C/km. From central Mississippi to central Alabama, the geothermal gradient (23.1/sup 0/C/km) is comparable to that of the northern Mississippi embayment.

  19. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  20. Influence of Groundwater Hydraulic Gradient on Bank Storage Metrics.

    PubMed

    Welch, Chani; Harrington, Glenn A; Cook, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic gradient between aquifers and rivers is one of the most variable properties in a river/aquifer system. Detailed process understanding of bank storage under hydraulic gradients is obtained from a two-dimensional numerical model of a variably saturated aquifer slice perpendicular to a river. Exchange between the river and the aquifer occurs first at the interface with the unsaturated zone. The proportion of total water exchanged through the river bank compared to the river bed is a function of aquifer hydraulic conductivity, partial penetration, and hydraulic gradient. Total exchange may be estimated to within 50% using existing analytical solutions provided that unsaturated zone processes do not strongly influence exchange. Model-calculated bank storage is at a maximum when no hydraulic gradient is present and increases as the hydraulic conductivity increases. However, in the presence of a hydraulic gradient, the largest exchange flux or distance of penetration does not necessarily correspond to the highest hydraulic conductivity, as high hydraulic conductivity increases the components of exchange both into and out of an aquifer. Flood wave characteristics do not influence ambient groundwater discharge, and so in large floods, hydraulic gradients must be high to reduce the volume of bank storage. Practical measurement of bank storage metrics is problematic due to the limitations of available measurement technologies and the nested processes of exchange that occur at the river-aquifer interface. Proxies, such as time series concentration data in rivers and groundwater, require further development to be representative and quantitative.

  1. Quantitative results for square gradient models of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling-Ti; Vriesinga, Dan; Denniston, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Square gradient models for fluids are extensively used because they are believed to provide a good qualitative understanding of the essential physics. However, unlike elasticity theory for solids, there are few quantitative results for specific (as opposed to generic) fluids. Indeed the only numerical value of the square gradient coefficients for specific fluids have been inferred from attempts to match macroscopic properties such as surface tensions rather than from direct measurement. We employ all-atom molecular dynamics, using the TIP3P and OPLS force fields, to directly measure the coefficients of the density gradient expansion for several real fluids. For all liquids measured, including water, we find that the square gradient coefficient is negative, suggesting the need for some regularization of a model including only the square gradient, but only at wavelengths comparable to the molecular separation of molecules. The implications for liquid-gas interfaces are also examined. Remarkably, the square gradient model is found to give a reasonably accurate description of density fluctuations in the liquid state down to wavelengths close to atomic size.

  2. A new convergent conjugate gradient method under the exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are widely used for unconstrained optimization problems, especially large scale problems. That is, for its simplicity, low memory requirement, and global convergence properties. In this paper, we study the global convergence properties of a new conjugate gradient method under the exact line search. Under some assumptions, the proofs of the sufficient descent property and the global convergence are given. The numerical results show that our new method is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  3. Single-Image Vignetting Correction from Gradient Distribution Symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Lin, Stephen; Kang, Sing Bing; Xiao, Rui; Gee, James C.; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    We present novel techniques for single-image vignetting correction based on symmetries of two forms of image gradients: semicircular tangential gradients (SCTG) and radial gradients (RG). For a given image pixel, an SCTG is an image gradient along the tangential direction of a circle centered at the presumed optical center and passing through the pixel. An RG is an image gradient along the radial direction with respect to the optical center. We observe that the symmetry properties of SCTG and RG distributions are closely related to the vignetting in the image. Based on these symmetry properties we develop an automatic optical center estimation algorithm by minimizing the asymmetry of SCTG distributions, and also present two methods for vignetting estimation based on minimizing the asymmetry of RG distributions. In comparison to prior approaches to single-image vignetting correction, our methods do not rely on image segmentation and they produce more accurate results. Experiments show our techniques to work well for a wide range of images while achieving a speed-up of 3-5 times compared to a state-of-the-art method. PMID:23599060

  4. Single-image vignetting correction from gradient distribution symmetries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Lin, Stephen; Kang, Sing Bing; Xiao, Rui; Gee, James C; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    We present novel techniques for single-image vignetting correction based on symmetries of two forms of image gradients: semicircular tangential gradients (SCTG) and radial gradients (RG). For a given image pixel, an SCTG is an image gradient along the tangential direction of a circle centered at the presumed optical center and passing through the pixel. An RG is an image gradient along the radial direction with respect to the optical center. We observe that the symmetry properties of SCTG and RG distributions are closely related to the vignetting in the image. Based on these symmetry properties, we develop an automatic optical center estimation algorithm by minimizing the asymmetry of SCTG distributions, and also present two methods for vignetting estimation based on minimizing the asymmetry of RG distributions. In comparison to prior approaches to single-image vignetting correction, our methods do not rely on image segmentation and they produce more accurate results. Experiments show our techniques to work well for a wide range of images while achieving a speed-up of 3-5 times compared to a state-of-the-art method.

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    While the types of cases reported in this year's chapter are essentially the same as those reported in last year's, the number of certain types of cases have changed--in some instances significantly. For example, the number of cases raising constitutional issues in the areas of school construction, location, and property use have declined. On the…

  13. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha; Huang, Jinyang; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  14. Preparation and characterization of gradient polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gradient polymers are multicomponent polymers whose chemical constitution varies with depth in the sample. Although these polymers may possess unique mechanical, optical, and barrier properties they remain relatively unexplored. This work is a study of the preparation of gradient polymers by sequential exposure of films to a diffusing monomer followed by electron beam irradiation. Initial experiments involved immersion of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films in styrene or n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) for various time periods followed by irradiation with 1 or 10 megarads of accelerated electrons. A significant amount of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) formed in PVC/BMA systems, but little polystyrene could be found in the PVC/styrene films. A second set of experiments involved immersion of PVC and polyethylene (PE) films in BMA for 20, 40, 60, and 720 minutes followed by irradiation with 10 megarads of electrons. These films were then characterized using optical microscopy, quantitative transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a depth profiling procedure based on quantitative attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR. It was concluded that the mechanism of PBMA formation in the polyethylene films was a result of events immediately following irradiation. Atmospheric oxygen diffusing into irradiated films trapped free radicals at the film surfaces. This was followed by storage in an evacuated desiccator where unintentional exposure to BMA vapor took place. This BMA reacted with free radicals that remained within the film cores, polymerizing to PBMA.

  15. Gradient navigation model for pedestrian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Felix; Köster, Gerta

    2014-06-01

    We present a microscopic ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based model for pedestrian dynamics: the gradient navigation model. The model uses a superposition of gradients of distance functions to directly change the direction of the velocity vector. The velocity is then integrated to obtain the location. The approach differs fundamentally from force-based models needing only three equations to derive the ODE system, as opposed to four in, e.g., the social force model. Also, as a result, pedestrians are no longer subject to inertia. Several other advantages ensue: Model-induced oscillations are avoided completely since no actual forces are present. The derivatives in the equations of motion are smooth and therefore allow the use of fast and accurate high-order numerical integrators. At the same time, the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the ODE system follow almost directly from the smoothness properties. In addition, we introduce a method to calibrate parameters by theoretical arguments based on empirically validated assumptions rather than by numerical tests. These parameters, combined with the accurate integration, yield simulation results with no collisions of pedestrians. Several empirically observed system phenomena emerge without the need to recalibrate the parameter set for each scenario: obstacle avoidance, lane formation, stop-and-go waves, and congestion at bottlenecks. The density evolution in the latter is shown to be quantitatively close to controlled experiments. Likewise, we observe a dependence of the crowd velocity on the local density that compares well with benchmark fundamental diagrams.

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of functionally gradient materials with leaky Rayleigh wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Awaji, Hideo; Nishikawa, Tadahiro

    1999-12-02

    Young's modulus of functionally gradient Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni ceramics, which was formed by centrifugal casting and has gradient of the elastic properties along a particular direction on the surface, is estimated by velocity measurement of the leaky Rayleigh and longitudinal waves. Those velocities were measured every 1mm with a line focused PVDF transducer, of which central frequency, focal length and width are 36MHz, 5mm and 8mm. Thus measured Young's modulus varies from 370GPa (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich side) to 200GPa (Ni rich side)

  17. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  18. Carbon and Oxygen Galactic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carigi, L.; Peimbert, M.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.

    2006-06-01

    A chemical evolution model of the Galaxy has been computed to reproduce the O/H gradients from Galactic HII regions. This model solves the C enrichment problem because it fits the C/H and C/O gradients and the C and O histories of the solar vicinity. The model is based on C yields dependent on metallicity (Z) owing to stellar winds. The C yields of massive stars (MS) increase with Z and those of low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) decrease with Z. An important result is that the fraction of carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) due to MS and LIMS is strongly dependent on Z of the ISM, therefore, that fraction depends on time and on the Galactocentric distance. At present and in the solar vicinity about half of the C in the interstellar medium has been produced by MS and half by LIMS.

  19. THE GRADIENT OF VASCULAR PERMEABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Frederick; Rous, Peyton

    1931-01-01

    A mounting gradient of permeability exists along the capillaries of frog muscle. In chicken muscle on the other hand none has been demonstrated; but the close-knit vascularization is arranged in duplicate in such manner that the blood runs in opposite directions through the capillaries of nearly adjacent fibres. In a flight muscle of the pigeon there exists in addition to this artifice what appears to be a special collecting system of venous capillaries. In the mammalian diaphragm indications of such a system are also to be found, and a gradient of capillary permeability like that in the other skeletal muscles is probably present. These vascular conditions are briefly considered in terms of function. PMID:19869836

  20. Programming the gradient projection algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargrove, A.

    1983-01-01

    The gradient projection method of numerical optimization which is applied to problems having linear constraints but nonlinear objective functions is described and analyzed. The algorithm is found to be efficient and thorough for small systems, but requires the addition of auxiliary methods and programming for large scale systems with severe nonlinearities. In order to verify the theoretical results a digital computer is used to simulate the algorithm.

  1. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  2. Stellar Population Gradients in WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Mendoza, H.; Holtzman, J.

    2001-12-01

    WLM is one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Group. From archival HST frames, we look for population gradients using star count ratios from distinct regions of the Color-Magnitude diagram. We find clear evidence for a central concentration of the younger stars. This scenario supports the two-component disk/halo-like structure suggested for dwarf irregular galaxies (Martinez-Delgado, Gallart & Aparicio, 1999).

  3. Future of gradient index optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank

    2001-11-01

    First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.

  4. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1) βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  5. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1)βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. PMID:26502409

  6. A shift from arbuscular mycorrhizal to dark septate endophytic colonization in Deschampsia flexuosa roots occurs along primary successional gradient.

    PubMed

    Huusko, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Markkola, A M

    2017-02-01

    Soil fungal community and dominant mycorrhizal types are known to shift along with plant community changes during primary succession. However, it is not well understood how and why root fungal symbionts and colonization types vary within the plant host when the host species is able to thrive both at young and at old successional stages with different light and nutrient resource availability. We asked (i) how root fungal colonization of Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) changes along a postglacial primary successional land uplift gradient. As neighboring vegetation may play a role in root fungal colonization, we also asked (ii) whether removal of the dominant neighbor, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum (Ericaceae), affects root fungal colonization of Deschampsia. We also studied whether (iii) foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration of Deschampsia is related to successional changes along a land uplift gradient. AM colonization decreased (-50 %), DSE colonization increased (+200 %), and foliar C declined in Deschampsia along with increasing successional age, whereas foliar N was not affected. Empetrum removal did not affect AM colonization but increased DSE sclerotial colonization especially at older successional stages. The observed decrease in foliar C coincides with an increase in canopy closure along with increasing successional age. We suggest that the shift from an AM-dominated to a DSE-dominated root fungal community in Deschampsia along a land uplift successional gradient may be related to different nutritional benefits gained through these root fungal groups.

  7. Gradient networks on uncorrelated random scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Gui-Jun; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Zhong-Bing; Ma, Wei-Chuan

    2011-03-01

    Uncorrelated random scale-free (URSF) networks are useful null models for checking the effects of scale-free topology on network-based dynamical processes. Here, we present a comparative study of the jamming level of gradient networks based on URSF networks and Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks. We find that the URSF networks are less congested than ER random networks for the average degree langkrang>kc (kc ≈ 2 denotes a critical connectivity). In addition, by investigating the topological properties of the two kinds of gradient networks, we discuss the relations between the topological structure and the transport efficiency of the gradient networks. These findings show that the uncorrelated scale-free structure might allow more efficient transport than the random structure.

  8. Exploring chemical space with discrete, gradient, and hybrid optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, D; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2008-11-07

    Discrete, gradient, and hybrid optimization methods are applied to the challenge of discovering molecules with optimized properties. The cost and performance of the approaches were studied using a tight-binding model to maximize the static first electronic hyperpolarizability of molecules. Our analysis shows that discrete branch and bound methods provide robust strategies for inverse chemical design involving diverse chemical structures. Based on the linear combination of atomic potentials, a hybrid discrete-gradient optimization strategy significantly improves the performance of the gradient methods. The hybrid method performs better than dead-end elimination and competes with branch and bound and genetic algorithms. The branch and bound methods for these model Hamiltonians are more cost effective than genetic algorithms for moderate-sized molecular optimization.

  9. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  10. A magnetic gradient induced force in NMR restricted diffusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadirian, Bahman; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Castillo, Reynaldo; Price, William S.

    2014-03-28

    We predict that the phase cancellation of a precessing magnetisation field carried by a diffusing species in a bounded geometry under certain nuclear magnetic resonance pulsed magnetic field gradient sequences results in a small force over typically micrometre length scales. Our calculations reveal that the total magnetisation energy in a pore under the influence of a pulsed gradient will be distance-dependent thus resulting in a force acting on the boundary. It is shown that this effect of the magnetisation of diffusing particles will appear as either an attractive or repulsive force depending on the geometry of the pore and magnetic properties of the material. A detailed analysis is performed for the case of a pulsed gradient spin-echo experiment on parallel planes. It is shown that the force decays exponentially in terms of the spin-spin relaxation. The proof is based on classical electrodynamics. An application of this effect to soft matter is suggested.

  11. Spatially-distributed pulsed gradient spin echo NMR using single-wire proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Paul T.; Stepisnik, Janez

    1995-12-01

    NMR microimaging may be used to observe the effect of molecular diffusion in the vicinity of a thin wire subjected to current pulses. By this means the pulsed gradient spin echo technique can utilize very large pulsed magnetic field gradients, on the order of 100 T m-1. The quadratic dependence of gradient amplitude on distance from the wire leads to large dynamic range while the distribution of local gradient vectors makes it possible to image anisotropic diffusion. We demonstrate these properties in measurements on polymer solutions and liquid crystals.

  12. Cell, isoform, and environment factors shape gradients and modulate chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chang, S Laura; Cavnar, Stephen P; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine gradient formation requires multiple processes that include ligand secretion and diffusion, receptor binding and internalization, and immobilization of ligand to surfaces. To understand how these events dynamically shape gradients and influence ensuing cell chemotaxis, we built a multi-scale hybrid agent-based model linking gradient formation, cell responses, and receptor-level information. The CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 signaling axis is highly implicated in metastasis of many cancers. We model CXCL12 gradient formation as it is impacted by CXCR4 and CXCR7, with particular focus on the three most highly expressed isoforms of CXCL12. We trained and validated our model using data from an in vitro microfluidic source-sink device. Our simulations demonstrate how isoform differences on the molecular level affect gradient formation and cell responses. We determine that ligand properties specific to CXCL12 isoforms (binding to the migration surface and to CXCR4) significantly impact migration and explain differences in in vitro chemotaxis data. We extend our model to analyze CXCL12 gradient formation in a tumor environment and find that short distance, steep gradients characteristic of the CXCL12-γ isoform are effective at driving chemotaxis. We highlight the importance of CXCL12-γ in cancer cell migration: its high effective affinity for both extracellular surface sites and CXCR4 strongly promote CXCR4+ cell migration. CXCL12-γ is also more difficult to inhibit, and we predict that co-inhibition of CXCR4 and CXCR7 is necessary to effectively hinder CXCL12-γ-induced migration. These findings support the growing importance of understanding differences in protein isoforms, and in particular their implications for cancer treatment.

  13. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health.

  14. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity. PMID:26831107

  15. New Langevin and gradient thermostats for rigid body dynamics.

    PubMed

    Davidchack, R L; Ouldridge, T E; Tretyakov, M V

    2015-04-14

    We introduce two new thermostats, one of Langevin type and one of gradient (Brownian) type, for rigid body dynamics. We formulate rotation using the quaternion representation of angular coordinates; both thermostats preserve the unit length of quaternions. The Langevin thermostat also ensures that the conjugate angular momenta stay within the tangent space of the quaternion coordinates, as required by the Hamiltonian dynamics of rigid bodies. We have constructed three geometric numerical integrators for the Langevin thermostat and one for the gradient thermostat. The numerical integrators reflect key properties of the thermostats themselves. Namely, they all preserve the unit length of quaternions, automatically, without the need of a projection onto the unit sphere. The Langevin integrators also ensure that the angular momenta remain within the tangent space of the quaternion coordinates. The Langevin integrators are quasi-symplectic and of weak order two. The numerical method for the gradient thermostat is of weak order one. Its construction exploits ideas of Lie-group type integrators for differential equations on manifolds. We numerically compare the discretization errors of the Langevin integrators, as well as the efficiency of the gradient integrator compared to the Langevin ones when used in the simulation of rigid TIP4P water model with smoothly truncated electrostatic interactions. We observe that the gradient integrator is computationally less efficient than the Langevin integrators. We also compare the relative accuracy of the Langevin integrators in evaluating various static quantities and give recommendations as to the choice of an appropriate integrator.

  16. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  17. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  18. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  19. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  20. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  1. Autonomous pump against concentration gradient

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2016-01-01

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, we have studied the molecular transport in asymmetric nanochannels. The efficiency of the molecular pump depends on the angle and apertures of the asymmetric channel, the environmental temperature and average concentration of the particles. The pumping effect can be explained as the competition between the molecular force field and the thermal disturbance. Our results provide a green approach for pumping fluid particles against the concentration gradient through asymmetric nanoscale thin films without any external forces. It indicates that pumping vacuum can be a spontaneous process. PMID:26996204

  2. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-11-24

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.

  4. Cytokinin Import Rate as a Signal for Photosynthetic Acclimation to Canopy Light Gradients1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Boonman, Alex; Prinsen, Els; Gilmer, Frank; Schurr, Ulrich; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; Pons, Thijs L.

    2007-01-01

    Plants growing in dense canopies are exposed to vertical light gradients and show photosynthetic acclimation at the whole-plant level, resulting in efficient photosynthetic carbon gain. We studied the role of cytokinins transported through the transpiration stream as one of probably multiple signals for photosynthetic acclimation to light gradients using both tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that substantial variation in leaf transpiration parallels the light gradient in tobacco canopies and experimental reduction of the transpiration rate of a leaf, independent of light, is sufficient to reduce photosynthetic capacity in both species, as well as transcript levels of the small subunit of Rubisco (rbcS) gene in Arabidopsis. Mass spectrometric analysis of xylem sap collected from intact, transpiring tobacco plants revealed that shaded leaves import less cytokinin than leaves exposed to high light. In Arabidopsis, reduced transpiration rate of a leaf in the light is associated with lower cytokinin concentrations, including the bioactive trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside, as well as reduced expression of the cytokinin-responsive genes ARR7 and ARR16. External application of cytokinin to shaded leaves rescued multiple shade effects, including rbcS transcript levels in both species, as did locally induced cytokinin overproduction in transgenic tobacco plants. From these data, we conclude that light gradients over the foliage of a plant result in reduced cytokinin activity in shaded leaves as a consequence of reduced import through the xylem and that cytokinin is involved in the regulation of whole-plant photosynthetic acclimation to light gradients in canopies. PMID:17277095

  5. Solution of the Eshelby problem in gradient elasticity for multilayer spherical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov-Bogorodskii, D. B.; Lurie, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider gradient models of elasticity which permit taking into account the characteristic scale parameters of the material. We prove the Papkovich-Neuber theorems, which determine the general form of the gradient solution and the structure of scale effects. We derive the Eshelby integral formula for the gradient moduli of elasticity, which plays the role of the closing equation in the self-consistent three-phase method. In the gradient theory of deformations, we consider the fundamental Eshelby-Christensen problem of determining the effective elastic properties of dispersed composites with spherical inclusions; the exact solution of this problem for classical models was obtained in 1976. This paper is the first to present the exact analytical solution of the Eshelby-Christensen problem for the gradient theory, which permits estimating the influence of scale effects on the stress state and the effective properties of the dispersed composites under study.We also analyze the influence of scale factors.

  6. Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Revathi; Zhang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.

  7. Bicrystals with strain gradient effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, J.Y.

    1997-01-09

    Boundary between two perfectly bonded single crystals plays an important role in determining the deformation of the bicrystals. This work addresses the role of the grain boundary by considering the elevated hardening of a slip system due to a slip gradient. The slip gradients are associated with geometrically necessary dislocations and their effects become pronounced when a representative length scale of the deformation field is comparable to the dominant microstructural length scale of a material. A new rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory is presented and has been implemented within the finite element method framework. A planar bicrystal under uniform in-plane loading is studied using the new crystal theory. The strain is found to be continuous but nonuniform within a boundary layer around the interface. The lattice rotation is also nonuniform within the boundary layer. The width of the layer is determined by the misorientation of the grains, the hardening of slip systems, and most importantly by the characteristic material length scales. The overall yield strength of the bicrystal is also obtained. A significant grain-size dependence of the yield strength, the Hall- Petch effect is predicted.

  8. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.

    1997-05-02

    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

  9. Gradient-Modulated PETRA MRI.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Goerke, Ute; Wang, Luning; Ellermann, Jutta; Metzger, Gregory J; Garwood, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T 2(*) signal decay is a common issue in radial ultrashort echo time MRI sequences. One solution is to use a higher readout bandwidth, but this may be impractical for some techniques like pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA), which is a hybrid method of zero echo time and single point imaging techniques. Specifically, PETRA has severe specific absorption rate (SAR) and radiofrequency (RF) pulse peak power limitations when using higher bandwidths in human measurements. In this study, we introduce gradient modulation (GM) to PETRA to reduce image blurring artifacts while keeping SAR and RF peak power low. Tolerance of GM-PETRA to image blurring was evaluated in simulations and experiments by comparing with the conventional PETRA technique. We performed inner ear imaging of a healthy subject at 7T. GM-PETRA showed significantly less image blurring due to off-resonance and fast T2(*) signal decay compared to PETRA. In in vivo imaging, GM-PETRA nicely captured complex structures of the inner ear such as the cochlea and semicircular canals. Gradient modulation can improve the PETRA image quality and mitigate SAR and RF peak power limitations without special hardware modification in clinical scanners.

  10. Extraordinary strain hardening by gradient structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, XiaoLei; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Liu; Yuan, Fuping; Zhu, Yuntian T

    2014-05-20

    Gradient structures have evolved over millions of years through natural selection and optimization in many biological systems such as bones and plant stems, where the structures change gradually from the surface to interior. The advantage of gradient structures is their maximization of physical and mechanical performance while minimizing material cost. Here we report that the gradient structure in engineering materials such as metals renders a unique extra strain hardening, which leads to high ductility. The grain-size gradient under uniaxial tension induces a macroscopic strain gradient and converts the applied uniaxial stress to multiaxial stresses due to the evolution of incompatible deformation along the gradient depth. Thereby the accumulation and interaction of dislocations are promoted, resulting in an extra strain hardening and an obvious strain hardening rate up-turn. Such extraordinary strain hardening, which is inherent to gradient structures and does not exist in homogeneous materials, provides a hitherto unknown strategy to develop strong and ductile materials by architecting heterogeneous nanostructures.

  11. Interhemispheric thermal gradient and tropical Pacific climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John C. H.; Fang, Yue; Chang, P.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the impact of interhemispheric thermal gradients forcing on the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere climate in an intermediate coupled model. The equatorial zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient strengthens with an increased northward interhemispheric thermal gradient, the increase arising from earlier onset and later retreat of the seasonal cold tongue, and intensification during the peak cold season. When the mean interhemispheric thermal gradient is reversed, the central equatorial Pacific SST annual cycle abruptly reverses in phase, with its cold season in Mar-May rather than Sep-Nov. While startling, this response is consistent with a prevailing hypothesis that ties the cold tongue SST annual cycle phase to the hemispheric mean asymmetry of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. El Niño-Southern Oscillation activity is also sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal gradient, with peak activity occurring when the mean gradient is small, reducing rapidly as the mean gradient increases in either direction.

  12. Biomolecular gradients in cell culture systems

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomolecule gradients have been shown to play roles in a wide range of biological processes including development, inflammation, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Elucidation of these phenomena requires the ability to expose cells to biomolecule gradients that are quantifiable, controllable, and mimic those that are present in vivo. Here we review the major biological phenomena in which biomolecule gradients are employed, traditional in vitro gradient-generating methods developed over the past 50 years, and new microfluidic devices for generating gradients. Microfluidic gradient generators offer greater levels of precision, quantitation, and spatiotemporal gradient control than traditional methods, and may greatly enhance our understanding of many biological phenomena. For each method, we outline the salient features, capabilities, and applications. PMID:18094760

  13. Compositional gradients in photopolymer films utilizing kinetic driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clinton John

    Independent control of the surface and bulk properties is advantageous for many applications such as adhesives, release coatings, and antimicrobial films. Traditional methods for achieving independent control typically require multiple processing steps such as wet-on-wet or wet-on-dry coating methods. Independent control over the surface properties can achieved in a single step utilizing the temporal and spatial control inherent to photopolymerization. Specifically, a co-photopolymerization of monomers with different reactivities in the presence of a light gradient is capable of producing a polymer film with a surface chemistry that differs from the bulk chemistry. The light gradient, produced via the concentration of photoinitiator in the formulation, results in a reaction gradient through the film with the higher rates of reaction occurring in the high light intensity regions of the film. The preferentially reacting monomer adds at a greater rate in the high light intensity regions resulting in non-uniform consumption yielding a concentration gradient. Consequently, diffusion of the preferentially reacting monomer from the bulk to the surface of the film and a counter-diffusion of the other monomer from the surface to the bulk of the film occurs from the non-uniform monomer consumption thus producing a film with a concentration gradient through the depth of the film with the preferentially reacting monomer enriching the high light intensity regions. A variety of kinetic differences capable of producing a stratified film will be presented including inherent monomer reactivity, number of functional groups per monomer, oxygen inhibition, thiol-ene chemistry, and Norrish type two initiation. Additionally, parameters that control the degree of stratification, such as methods of varying polymerization rate and the light gradient, will be examined. Changes in surface properties (such as contact angle, surface hardness, adhesion) and bulk properties (such as mechanical

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of uniform and gradient density epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Domeier, L.A.; Skala, D.M.; Goods, S.H.

    1997-11-01

    Filled epoxy materials which vary in density in a designed manner have been fabricated and their mechanical properties evaluated. Density variations were produced by incorporating different volume fractions of either glass microballoons (GMB) or alumina. Several different sample types were evaluated including uniform density (0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}) samples and gradient density samples (GMB only, 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 1.2 g/cm{sup 3}). The uniform density specimens were evaluated for the effects of filler type and concentration on modulus and toughness. Results indicated that addition of alumina filler significantly increased the resulting modulus while addition of GMB had little measurable effect. These differences could be understood in terms of the differing moduli of the additives relative to that of the epoxy matrix. In the former case the alumina particulates had a modulus much greater than that of the epoxy while in the latter case, the modulus of the GMB additive was only slightly greater than that of the matrix. Addition of either filler significantly degraded the toughness of the composite specimens and precluded the use of gradients to enhance toughness performance. Discontinuous {open_quotes}block{close_quotes} gradients used for testing were fabricated by simple sequential pours of formulations with different GMB loadings and were evaluated for modulus, strength and ductility. Continuous gradients were fabricated in process studies by programmed shifts in the peristaltic pumping/mixing ratio of epoxies filled with either alumina or GMB. None of the continuous gradient materials were mechanically tested. These results suggest that applications utilizing gradient materials containing alumina and similar high modulus fillers to provide designed stiffness rather than improved toughness are the most appropriate targets for future investigation.

  15. Combinational concentration gradient confinement through stagnation flow.

    PubMed

    Alicia, Toh G G; Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhiping; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-21

    Concentration gradient generation in microfluidics is typically constrained by two conflicting mass transport requirements: short characteristic times (τ) for precise temporal control of concentration gradients but at the expense of high flow rates and hence, high flow shear stresses (σ). To decouple the limitations from these parameters, here we propose the use of stagnation flows to confine concentration gradients within large velocity gradients that surround the stagnation point. We developed a modified cross-slot (MCS) device capable of feeding binary and combinational concentration sources in stagnation flows. We show that across the velocity well, source-sink pairs can form permanent concentration gradients. As source-sink concentration pairs are continuously supplied to the MCS, a permanently stable concentration gradient can be generated. Tuning the flow rates directly controls the velocity gradients, and hence the stagnation point location, allowing the confined concentration gradient to be focused. In addition, the flow rate ratio within the MCS rapidly controls (τ ∼ 50 ms) the location of the stagnation point and the confined combinational concentration gradients at low flow shear (0.2 Pa < σ < 2.9 Pa). The MCS device described in this study establishes the method for using stagnation flows to rapidly generate and position low shear combinational concentration gradients for shear sensitive biological assays.

  16. Strength gradient enhances fatigue resistance of steels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongtao; Wei, Yujie; Gao, Huajian

    2016-01-01

    Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially enhances the fatigue life of the material. Pre-notched samples with negative strength gradients in front of the notch’s tip endure many more fatigue cycles than do samples with positive strength gradients during the crack initiation stage, and samples with either type of gradient perform better than do gradient-free samples with the same average yield strength. However, as a crack grows, samples with positive strength gradients exhibit better resistance to fatigue crack propagation than do samples with negative gradients or no gradient. This study demonstrates a simple and promising strategy for using gradient structures to enhance the fatigue resistance of materials and complements related studies of strength and ductility. PMID:26907708

  17. Gradient scaling for nonuniform meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, L.G.; Ruppel, H.M.; Demuth, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of nonuniform meshes on the accuracy of finite-difference calculations of fluid flow. In particular, when a simple shock propagates through a nonuniform mesh, one may fail to model the jump conditions across the shock even when the equations are differenced in manifestly conservative fashion. We develop an approximate dispersion analysis of the numerical equations and identify the source of the mesh dependency with the form of the artificial viscosity. We then derive an algebraic correction to the numerical equations - a scaling factor for the pressure gradient - to essentially eliminate the mesh dependency. We present several calculations to illustrate our theory. We conclude with an alternate interpretation of our results. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A new conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent without any line search for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Amani, Zahrahtul

    2015-02-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are one of the most used methods for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially of large scale. Their wide applications are due to their simplicity and low memory requirement. The sufficient descent property is an important issue in the analyses and implementations of conjugate gradient methods. In this paper, a new conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization problems. The theoretical analysis shows that the directions generated by the new method are always satisfy the sufficient descent property, and this property is independent of the line search used. Furthermore, a numerical experiment based on comparing the new method with other known conjugate gradient methods shows that the new is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  19. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-08-01

    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators.

  20. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project, which include physically motivated models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disk, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disk, drive strong outflows, and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  1. Testing the limits of gradient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lakhani, Vinal

    2017-01-01

    The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis) or grow (chemotropism) towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0.1 nM/μm. Noise reduction mechanisms, such as time-averaging and the internalization of pheromone molecules, have been proposed to explain how yeast cells filter fluctuations and detect shallow gradients. Here, we use a Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion model of ligand-receptor dynamics to test the effectiveness of these mechanisms and to determine the limits of gradient sensing. In particular, we develop novel simulation methods for establishing chemical gradients that not only allow us to study gradient sensing under steady-state conditions, but also take into account transient effects as the gradient forms. Based on reported measurements of reaction rates, our results indicate neither time-averaging nor receptor endocytosis significantly improves the cell’s accuracy in detecting gradients over time scales associated with the initiation of polarized growth. Additionally, our results demonstrate the physical barrier of the cell membrane sharpens chemical gradients across the cell. While our studies are motivated by the mating response of yeast, we believe our results and simulation methods will find applications in many different contexts. PMID:28207738

  2. Morpheus unbound: reimagining the morphogen gradient.

    PubMed

    Lander, Arthur D

    2007-01-26

    The theory that the spatial organization of cell fate is orchestrated by gradients of diffusing molecules was a major contribution to 20th century developmental biology. Although the existence of morphogens is no longer in doubt, studies on the formation and function of their gradients have yielded far more puzzles than answers. On close inspection, every morphogen gradient seems to use a rich array of regulatory mechanisms, suggesting that the tasks carried out by such systems are far more extensive than previously thought.

  3. Microfluidic chip containing porous gradient for chemotaxis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abboodi, Aswan; Tjeung, Ricky; Doran, Pauline; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Chan, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new porous gradient microfluidic device based on in situ Gtn-HPA/CMC-Tyr hydrogel that comprises gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate and carboxymethyl cellulose tyramine (CMC-Tyr) conjugate. The device is fabricated using a soft lithographic technique, in which microstructures were patterned on a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a polymeric mold. Human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) were employed as invasive cancer cell model. Porosity gradients were generated by flowing pore etching fluid in the gradient generator network. Results suggested that spatial control of the porosity can be obtained, which mimics the 3-dimensional microenvironment in vivo for cell-based screening applications including real time chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, and continuous drug-response monitoring. A chemoattractant gradient is then generated and cell migration is monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. The viability of cells was evaluated using calcien AM stain. Herein, we successfully monitored the chemotactic responses of cancer cells, confirmed the validity of using in situ porous hydrogels as a construction material for a microchemotaxis device, and demonstrated the potential of the hydrogel with tunable porosity based microfluidic device in biological experiments. This device will also be practical in controlling the chemical and mechanical properties of the surroundings during the formation of tissue engineered constructs.

  4. Wettability-gradient-driven micropump for transporting discrete liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardaweel, Hamzeh K.; Zamuruyev, Konstantin; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report our efforts toward building a microelectromechanical system-based micropump. The micropump is driven by a wettability gradient and used to transport discrete drops. The gradient in wettability is distributed axisymmetrically, with hydrophobicity of the micropump surface decreasing radially toward the center. Both physical and chemical properties of the surface are altered to obtain the wettability gradient needed for driving the drops. The surface of the micropump is, first, patterned with pre-designed micro-features that define the roughness of the surface and, then, coated with a low-energy interface film. Results show that drops deposited on the surface of the micropump move, in a directional way, along the wettability gradient. The average velocity of the deposited drops is 5 mm s-1. Measured contact angles decrease gradually from 157.0° to 124.2° toward the center of the micropump surface. Maximum driving force exerted by the solid surface on the drops is 12.82 µN. The average size of the drops transported on the surface of the micropump is 2 µL.

  5. Directional motion of evaporating droplets on gradient surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuhuai; Xu, Li; Li, Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    Droplet evaporation on surfaces has various applications in drying problems such as ink-jet printing, pesticide spraying, chemical or biological detection, and DNA microarray spotting technology. Controlling evaporating droplets via substrate morphology and/or wetting properties allows for efficient deposition of sample molecules in these applications. In this work, evaporation of sessile water droplets on surfaces with wettability gradients was studied. The wettability gradient was generated by fabricating non-uniformly distributed cylindrical micropillars on silicon surfaces. During the evaporation, it was found, along the wettability gradient, that the contact line on one side was strongly pinned, while the contact line on the other side depinned and gradually receded, making the center of mass of the droplet move either in or against the direction the wettability gradient, depending on the configuration of the micropillars. The theoretical criterion predicting the moving direction was derived based on the excess free energy and the energy barrier during the evaporation. The theoretical predications agreed well with the experimental observations. The results provide a parametric design basis to control the contact line dynamics and directional transport of evaporating droplets. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under General Research Fund (Grant No. 621110).

  6. Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David

    2014-10-08

    In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.

  7. A second gradient formulation for a 2D fabric sheet with inextensible fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, Luca; Greco, Leopoldo; Bucci, Sara; Turco, Emilio; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-10-01

    We present numerical simulations of rectangular woven fabrics made of two, initially orthogonal, families of inextensible fibres. We consider an energy functional which includes both first and second gradients of the displacement. The energy density is expressed in terms of the angles between the fibres directions, using trigonometric functions and their gradients. In particular, we focus on an energy density depending on the squared tangent of the shear angle, which automatically satisfies some natural properties of the energy. The numerical results show that final configurations obtained by the second gradient energies are smoother than the first gradient ones. Moreover, we show that if a second gradient energy is considered, the shear energy is better uniformly distributed.

  8. Fibrillar adhesion with no clusterisation: Functional significance of material gradient along adhesive setae of insects.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Stanislav N; Filippov, Alexander E

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that adhesive tarsal setae of beetles possess material gradients along their length. These gradients presumably represent an evolutionary optimization enhancing the adaptation to rough surfaces while simultaneously preventing clusterisation of the setae by lateral collapse. The numerical experiment of the present study has clearly demonstrated that gradient-bearing fibers with short soft tips and stiff bases have greater advantage in maximizing adhesion and minimizing clusterisation in multiple attachment-detachment cycles, if compared to the fibers with longer soft tips on the stiff bases and fibers with stiff tips on the soft bases. This study not only manifests the crucial role of gradients in material properties along the setae in beetle fibrillar adhesive system, but predicts that similar gradients must have been convergently evolved in various lineages of arthropods.

  9. Electron transfer across a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Galen T.

    2016-01-01

    Charge transfer is a fundamental process that underlies a multitude of phenomena in chemistry and biology. Recent advances in observing and manipulating charge and heat transport at the nanoscale, and recently developed techniques for monitoring temperature at high temporal and spatial resolution, imply the need for considering electron transfer across thermal gradients. Here, a theory is developed for the rate of electron transfer and the associated heat transport between donor–acceptor pairs located at sites of different temperatures. To this end, through application of a generalized multidimensional transition state theory, the traditional Arrhenius picture of activation energy as a single point on a free energy surface is replaced with a bithermal property that is derived from statistical weighting over all configurations where the reactant and product states are equienergetic. The flow of energy associated with the electron transfer process is also examined, leading to relations between the rate of heat exchange among the donor and acceptor sites as functions of the temperature difference and the electronic driving bias. In particular, we find that an open electron transfer channel contributes to enhanced heat transport between sites even when they are in electronic equilibrium. The presented results provide a unified theory for charge transport and the associated heat conduction between sites at different temperatures. PMID:27450086

  10. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  11. Algorithm for ion beam figuring of low-gradient mirrors.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui

    2009-07-20

    Ion beam figuring technology for low-gradient mirrors is discussed. Ion beam figuring is a noncontact machining technique in which a beam of high-energy ions is directed toward a target workpiece to remove material in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Owing to this noncontact mode of material removal, problems associated with tool wear and edge effects, which are common in conventional contact polishing processes, are avoided. Based on the Bayesian principle, an iterative dwell time algorithm for planar mirrors is deduced from the computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) principle. With the properties of the removal function, the shaping process of low-gradient mirrors can be approximated by the linear model for planar mirrors. With these discussions, the error surface figuring technology for low-gradient mirrors with a linear path is set up. With the near-Gaussian property of the removal function, the figuring process with a spiral path can be described by the conventional linear CCOS principle, and a Bayesian-based iterative algorithm can be used to deconvolute the dwell time. Moreover, the selection criterion of the spiral parameter is given. Ion beam figuring technology with a spiral scan path based on these methods can be used to figure mirrors with non-axis-symmetrical errors. Experiments on SiC chemical vapor deposition planar and Zerodur paraboloid samples are made, and the final surface errors are all below 1/100 lambda.

  12. Role of gradients in vocal fold elastic modulus on phonation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Kelleher, Jordan E.; Siegmund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    New studies show that the elastic properties of the vocal folds (VFs) vary locally. In particular strong gradients exist in the distribution of elastic modulus along the length of the VF ligament, which is an important load-bearing constituent of the VF tissue. There is further evidence that changes in VF health are associated with alterations in modulus gradients. The role of VF modulus gradation on VF vibration and phonation remains unexplored. In this study the magnitude of the gradient in VF elastic modulus is varied, and sophisticated computational simulations are performed of the self-oscillation of three-dimensional VFs with realistic modeling of airflow physical properties. Results highlight that phonation frequency, characteristic modes of deformation and phase differences, glottal airflow rate, spectral-width of vocal output, and glottal jet dynamics are dependent on the magnitude of VF elastic modulus gradation. The results advance the understanding of how VF functional gradation can lead to perceptible changes in speech quality. PMID:26159059

  13. Computation of the gravity field and its gradient: Some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, C. P.; Tiwari, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    New measuring instruments of Earth's gravity gradient tensors (GGT) have offered a fresh impetus to gravimetry and its application in subsurface exploration. Several efforts have been made to provide a thorough understanding of the complex properties of the gravity gradient tensor and its mathematical formulations to compute GGT. However, there is not much open source software available. Understanding of the tensor properties leads to important guidelines in the development of real three dimensional geological models. We present a MATLAB computational algorithm to calculate the gravity field and full gravity gradient tensor for an undulated surface followed by regular geometries like an infinite horizontal slab, a vertical sheet, a solid sphere, a vertical cylinder, a normal fault model and a rectangular lamina or conglomerations of such bodies and the results are compared with responses using professional software based on different computational schemes. Real subsurface geometries of complex geological structures of interest are approximated through arrangements of vertical rectangular laminas. The geological application of this algorithm is demonstrated over a horst-type structure of Oklahoma Aulacogen, USA and Vredefort Dome, South Africa, where measured GGT data are available.

  14. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  15. Geothermal gradient map of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, A.; Heiken, G.

    1980-01-01

    A geothermal gradient map is needed in order to determine the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource of the United States. Based on published and unpublished data (including new measurements) the HDR program will produce updated gradient maps annually, to be used as a tool for resource evaluation and exploration. The 1980 version of this map is presented.

  16. The gradient deformation criterion for brittle fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliev, V. D.; Morozov, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    A new fracture criterion based on the assumption that brittle fracture occurs when the strain gradient reaches its limiting value is formulated. The presence of a strain gradient at the boundary of a body's temperature drop is shown analytically. The results of an experiment with specimens under an abrupt change in temperature are presented.

  17. Calculation of exit gradients at drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seepage gradients play an important role in the detachment of soil particles from the side walls of stream channels and drainage ditches. Most seepage studies have focused on water losses. Relatively few have addressed the determination of these gradients as causes of soil loss and incipient gully d...

  18. SDSS-IV MaNGA: stellar population gradients as a function of galaxy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2017-02-01

    We study the internal radial gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re and analyse the impact of galaxy environment. We use a representative sample of 721 galaxies with masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV survey MaNGA. We split this sample by morphology into early-type and late-type galaxies. Using the full spectral fitting code FIREFLY, we derive the light and mass-weighted stellar population properties, age and metallicity, and calculate the gradients of these properties. We use three independent methods to quantify galaxy environment, namely the Nth nearest neighbour, the tidal strength parameter Q and distinguish between central and satellite galaxies. In our analysis, we find that early-type galaxies generally exhibit shallow light-weighted age gradients in agreement with the literature and mass-weighted median age gradients tend to be slightly positive. Late-type galaxies, instead, have negative light-weighted age gradients. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies that correlate with galaxy mass, with the gradients being steeper and the correlation with mass being stronger in late-types. We find, however, that stellar population gradients, for both morphological classifications, have no significant correlation with galaxy environment for all three characterizations of environment. Our results suggest that galaxy mass is the main driver of stellar population gradients in both early and late-type galaxies, and any environmental dependence, if present at all, must be very subtle.

  19. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  20. A new family of conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhen-Jun; Guo, Jinhua

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we develop a new class of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization problems. A new nonmonotone line search technique is proposed to guarantee the global convergence of these conjugate gradient methods under some mild conditions. In particular, Polak-Ribiére-Polyak and Liu-Storey conjugate gradient methods are special cases of the new class of conjugate gradient methods. By estimating the local Lipschitz constant of the derivative of objective functions, we can find an adequate step size and substantially decrease the function evaluations at each iteration. Numerical results show that these new conjugate gradient methods are effective in minimizing large-scale non-convex non-quadratic functions.

  1. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  2. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-11-01

    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  3. Stratospheric Balloon Gradient Geomagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Sergey; Tsvetkov, Yury

    The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth's crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). One of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN during already about 20 years. This system consists of three instrumental con-tainers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the geomagnetic field along the whole flight trajectory and so one's name is -stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Data trans-mission is carried out by Globalstar satellite link. The obtained data are used in solving the problems of deep sounding of the Earth's crust magnetic structure -an extraction of magnetic anomalies, determination of a depth of bedding of magnetoactive rocks and others. The developed launching technology, deployment in flight, assembly, data processing, transfer and landing the containers with the equipment can be used for other similar problems of monitoring and sounding an environment. Useful flight weights of each instrumental container may be reaching 50 kg. More than ten testing flights (1986-2009) at stratospheric altitudes (20-30 km) have proven the reliability of this system.

  4. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

  5. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha; Huang, Jinyang; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing "reaction zones" during sedimentation of the colloids.

  6. Developing gradient metal alloys through radial deposition additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-06-19

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.

  7. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradient sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.

  8. Nonchaotic stagnant motion in a marginal quasiperiodic gradient system.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takahito

    2008-08-01

    A one-dimensional dynamical system with a marginal quasiperiodic gradient is presented as a mathematical extension of a nonuniform oscillator. The system exhibits a nonchaotic stagnant motion, which is reminiscent of intermittent chaos. In fact, the density function of residence times near stagnation points obeys an inverse-square law, due to a mechanism similar to type-I intermittency. However, unlike intermittent chaos, in which the alternation between long stagnant phases and rapid moving phases occurs in a random manner, here the alternation occurs in a quasiperiodic manner. In particular, in the case of a gradient with the golden ratio, the renewal of the largest residence time occurs at positions corresponding to the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, the asymptotic long-time behavior, in the form of a nested logarithm, is theoretically derived. Compared with the Pomeau-Manneville intermittency, a significant difference in the relaxation property of the long-time average of the dynamical variable is found.

  9. Acupuncture needles and the Seebeck effect: do temperature gradients produce electrostimulation?

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Kwok, G; Cosic, I

    1997-01-01

    Acupuncture may act through modifying bioelectric events and this may occur through different mechanisms including the application of external currents. According to the Seebeck effect which produces a potential difference when a temperature gradient is placed across a conductor, the physical properties of acupuncture needles may produce internal currents due to the temperature gradient across the needle when placed insitu. Such currents were detected when needles were differentially heated and these currents were found to be in the range capable of producing biological effects. The traditional design of acupuncture needles and traditional needle manipulations seem to maintain a temperature gradient across the needle and thus enhance the Seebeck effect.

  10. Strong solutions and instability for the fitness gradient system in evolutionary games between two populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiuju; Belmonte, Andrew; deForest, Russ; Liu, Chun; Tan, Zhong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study a fitness gradient system for two populations interacting via a symmetric game. The population dynamics are governed by a conservation law, with a spatial migration flux determined by the fitness. By applying the Galerkin method, we establish the existence, regularity and uniqueness of global solutions to an approximate system, which retains most of the interesting mathematical properties of the original fitness gradient system. Furthermore, we show that a Turing instability occurs for equilibrium states of the fitness gradient system, and its approximations.

  11. Novel concepts in weld metal science: Role of gradients and composite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, D.K.; Olson, D.L.

    1991-12-01

    The effects of compositional and microstructural gradients on weld metal properties are being investigated. Crack propagation is solidified alloy structures is being characterized as to solidification orientation and the profile of the compositional variations. The effects of compositional gradients, are considered based on a thermodynamic analysis, referred to as the Cahn-Hillard analysis, which describes the degree to which a local surface energy is modified by the presence of a compositional gradient. The analysis predicts that both ductile and brittle fracture mechanisms are enhanced by the presence of a composition gradient. Special techniques to produce laboratory samples with microstructures which simulate the composition and microstructure gradients in solidified weld metal are used, along with appropriate mathematical models, to evaluate the properties of the composite weld metals. The composite modeling techniques are being applied to describe the effects of compositional and microstructural gradients on weld metal properties in Ni-Cu alloys. The development of metal matrix composition weld deposits on austenitic stainless steels has been studied. The particulate metal matrix composites were produced with ceramic or refractory metal powder filled cored wire, which was gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welded.

  12. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth’s mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets. PMID:26864314

  13. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel

    2016-02-11

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth's mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets.

  14. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Feng; Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  15. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  16. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere were reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  17. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers.

  18. SW New Mexico BHT geothermal gradient calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Shari Kelley

    2015-07-24

    This file contains a compilation of BHT data from oil wells in southwestern New Mexico. Surface temperature is calculated using the collar elevation. An estimate of geothermal gradient is calculated using the estimated surface temperature and the uncorrected BHT data.

  19. Coreless Concept for High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2008-01-07

    An induction linac cell for a high gradient is discussed. The proposed solid state coreless approach for the induction linac topology (SLIM{reg_sign}) is based on nanosecond mode operation. This mode may have an acceleration gradient comparable with gradients of rf- accelerator structures. The discussed induction system has the high electric efficiency. The key elements are a solid state semiconductor switch and a high electric density dielectric with a thin section length. The energy in the induction system is storied in the magnetic field. The nanosecond current break-up produces the high voltage. The induced voltage is used for acceleration. This manner of an operation allows the use of low voltage elements in the booster part and achieves a high accelerating gradient. The proposed topology was tested in POP (proof of principle) experiments.

  20. Stability of gradient semigroups under perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragão-Costa, E. R.; Caraballo, T.; Carvalho, A. N.; Langa, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we prove that gradient-like semigroups (in the sense of Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) are gradient semigroups (possess a Lyapunov function). This is primarily done to provide conditions under which gradient semigroups, in a general metric space, are stable under perturbation exploiting the known fact (see Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) that gradient-like semigroups are stable under perturbation. The results presented here were motivated by the work carried out in Conley (1978 Isolated Invariant Sets and the Morse Index (CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics vol 38) (RI: American Mathematical Society Providence)) for groups in compact metric spaces (see also Rybakowski (1987 The Homotopy Index and Partial Differential Equations (Universitext) (Berlin: Springer)) for the Morse decomposition of an invariant set for a semigroup on a compact metric space).

  1. Gradient systems on coupled cell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoel, Miriam; Roberts, Mark

    2015-10-01

    For networks of coupled dynamical systems we characterize admissible functions, that is, functions whose gradient is an admissible vector field. The schematic representation of a gradient network dynamical system is of an undirected cell graph, and we use tools from graph theory to deduce the general form of such functions, relating it to the topological structure of the graph defining the network. The coupling of pairs of dynamical systems cells is represented by edges of the graph, and from spectral graph theory we detect the existence and nature of equilibria of the gradient system from the critical points of the coupling function. In particular, we study fully synchronous and 2-state patterns of equilibria on regular graphs. These are two special types of equilibrium configurations for gradient networks. We also investigate equilibrium configurations of {{\\mathbf{S}}1} -invariant admissible functions on a ring of cells.

  2. Fast Deconvolution with Color Constraints on Gradients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    deconvolution approach for color images that combines a sparse regularization cost on the magnitudes of gradients with constraints on their direction in color...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS computer vision, deblurring, spatio-spectral image model Ayan...approach for color images that combines a sparse regularization cost on the magnitudes of gradients with constraints on their direction in color space. We

  3. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Daniel M.; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Simon, M. Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm3) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1–6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets. PMID:27486245

  4. Bragg interferometer for gravity gradient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, G.; Borselli, F.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Prevedelli, M.; Rosi, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the characterization of a dual cloud atom interferometer for gravity gradient measurements using third-order Bragg diffraction as atom optical elements. We study the dependence of the contrast and the gradiometer phase angle against the relevant experimental parameters and characterize the instrument sensitivity. We achieve a sensitivity to gravity gradient measurements of 2.6 ×10-8s-2 (26 E) after 2000 s of integration time.

  5. Gradient fiber electrospinning of layered scaffolds using controlled transitions in fiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Grey, Casey P; Newton, Scott T; Bowlin, Gary L; Haas, Thomas W; Simpson, David G

    2013-07-01

    We characterize layered, delamination resistant, tissue engineering scaffolds produced by gradient electrospinning using computational fluid dynamics, measurements of fiber diameter with respect to dynamic changes in polymer concentration, SEM analysis, and materials testing. Gradient electrospinning delivers a continuously variable concentration of polymer to the electrospinning jet, resulting in scaffolds that exhibit controlled transitions in fiber diameter across the Z-axis. This makes it possible to produce scaffolds that exhibit very different fiber sizes and material properties on opposing surfaces while eliminating the boundary layers that lead to delamination failures. In materials testing bi-layered laminated electrospun scaffolds (layer 1 = <250 nm, layer 2 = 1000 nm diameter polycaprolactone fibers) exhibit ductile properties and undergo multiphasic failure. In contrast, scaffolds, produced by gradient electrospinning fabricated with fibers of this type on opposing surfaces fracture and fail as unified, and mechanically integrated, structures. Gradient electrospinning also eliminates the anisotropic strain properties observed in scaffolds composed of highly aligned fibers. In burst testing, scaffolds composed of aligned fibers produced using gradient electrospinning exhibit superior material properties with respect to scaffolds composed of random or aligned fibers produced from a single polymer concentration or as bi-layered, laminated structures.

  6. Density gradient electrophoresis of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Giranda, V.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ground based confirmation of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of human embryonic kidney cell cultures, the general characterization of their electrophoretic migration, and observations on the general properties of cultures derived from electrophoretic subpopulations were studied. Cell migration in a density gradient electrophoresis column and cell electrophoretic mobility was determined. The mobility and heterogeneity of cultured human embryonic kidney cells with those of fixed rat erythrocytes as model test particle was compared. Electrophoretically separated cell subpopulations with respect to size, viability, and culture characteristics were examined.

  7. Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.

  8. Star formation rates and abundance gradients in disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Analytic models for the evolution of disk galaxies are presented, placing special emphasis on the radial properties. These models are straightforward extensions of the original Schmidt (1959, 1963) models, with a dependence of star formation rate on gas density. The models provide successful descriptions of several measures of galactic disk evolution, including solar neighborhood chemical evolution, the presence and amplitude of metallicity and color gradients in disk galaxies, and the global rates of star formation in disk galaxies, and aid in the understanding of the apparent connection between young and old stellar populations in spiral galaxies.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the effects of biofunctional and physical gradients on cell behavior in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turturro, Michael

    The continued enhancement of tissue engineered scaffolds relies on their ability to stimulate the formation of a stable microvascular network within the biomaterial. In vivo, the spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The overall goals of this thesis are to develop a technique for the generation of gradients of physical properties and incorporated biofunctionality within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) scaffolds and to investigate the effects of these gradients on 3D cell invasion and neovascularization. To this end, a novel photopolymerization technique for generating spatial variations in matrix properties and incorporated biofunctionality within synthetic PEGDA hydrogels, perfusion-based frontal polymerization (PBFP), was developed. This technique relies on the controlled perfusion of a photoinitiator to a reaction chamber containing a precursor solution and results in the propagation of a polymer reaction front that travels through the monomer solution creating a gradient in hydrogel crosslinking. Manipulation of the magnitude of the gradient can be achieved through alterations in the polymerization conditions. Scaffolds with embedded gradients were designed and optimized based on a range of properties shown to support 2D cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3D vascular cell invasion in bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with homogeneous properties. An in vitro model of neovascularization was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Sprout invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the

  10. Bioactive polyacrylamide hydrogels with gradients in mechanical stiffness.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Vincent E G; Studer, Peter; Kern, Anita; Lattuada, Marco; Storti, Giuseppe; Sharma, Ram I; Snedeker, Jess G; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2013-05-01

    We propose a novel, single step method for the production of polyacrylamide hydrogels with a gradient in mechanical properties. In contrast to already existing techniques such as UV photo-polymerization with photomasks (limited penetration depth) or microfluidic gradient mixers (complex microfluidic chip), this technique is not suffering such limitations. Young's modulus of the hydrogels was varied by changing the total monomer concentration of the hydrogel precursor solution. Using programmable syringe pumps, the total monomer concentration in the solution fed to the hydrogel mold was varied from 16 wt% down to 5 wt% over the feeding time to obtain a gradient in compliance ranging from 150 kPa down to 20 kPa over a length of 10 mm down to 2.5 mm. Polymerization was achieved with the dual initiation system composed of ammonium persulfate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine, which were both fed through separate capillaries to avoid premature polymerization. Functionalized with the model ligand collagen I, the substrates were bioactive and supported the attachment of human foreskin fibroblasts (around 30% of the cells seeded attached after 1 h). A kinetic morphology study on homogeneous hydrogels of different stiffness's indicated that fibroblasts tend to spread to their final size within 2 h on stiff substrates, while the spreading time was much longer (ca. 4-5 h) on soft substrates. These trends were confirmed on hydrogels with compliance gradients, showing well spread fibroblasts on the stiff end of the hydrogel after 2 h, while the cells on the soft end still had small area and rounded morphology.

  11. Nonlinear Interaction of Shear Alfven Waves with Gradient Driven Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, David William

    An experimental study of the interactions between gradient-driven instabilities (GDI) and beat waves driven between two Alfven waves is presented. A cylindrical density depletion is imposed on the otherwise uniform plasma in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) by selectively blocking the electron beam that produces the plasma. Coherent, single mode fluctuations in density, temperature, plasma potential, and magnetic field are observed to be unstable on the gradient. Measurements of the relative cross-phase between the density and potential fluctuations indicate that the fluctuations are not likely to drive significant cross field transport. Comparisons of the properties of the modes to theoretical predictions for Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and drift wave modes indicate that the fluctuations are likely to be a hybrid of the two instabilities. Analytic eigenmode solutions to the linearized Braginskii fluid equations using the experimentally measured gradient profiles support the conclusion that both instabilities are active. A beat wave between two driven Alfven waves is broadcast into the gradient region using a pair of loop antennas with independently controlled frequency and power. This beat wave is observed to resonantly drive the unstable mode, as well as a second otherwise stable mode slightly higher in frequency and azimuthal mode number. During the drive of the secondary stable mode, the growth of the primary instability is suppressed. The broadcast of the Alfven waves and the beat wave is also observed to drive other fluctuations in the plasma at frequencies higher than either the spontaneous instability or the second, stable mode. Both the resonant drive of the modes and the control of the mode number are observed to have non-linear threshold and saturation behavior.

  12. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  13. Global convergence analysis of a new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with strong Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, Awad; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Omer, Osman

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) methods are the most important method for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Many studies and modifications have been conducted recently to improve this method. In this paper, a new class of conjugate gradient coefficients (βk ) with a new parameter m =‖gk ‖ /‖gk -1 ‖ that possess global convergence properties is presented. The global convergence and sufficient decent property result is established using inexact line searches to determine the (αk>0 ) is a step size of CG methods. Numerical result shows that the new formula is superior and more efficient when compared to other CG coefficients.

  14. Characterization and simulation on antireflective coating of amorphous silicon oxide thin films with gradient refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Qi; Qu, Xingling; Jin, Jing; Jiang, Chaochao; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    The optical reflective properties of silicon oxide (SixOy) thin films with gradient refractive index are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are widely used in photovoltaic as antireflective coatings (ARCs). An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized reflection spectra corresponding to structure of SixOy ARCs with gradient refractive index. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with gradient refractive index distribution. The gradient refractive index of SixOy ARCs can be obtained in adjustment of SiH4 to N2O ratio by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The optimized reflection spectra measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that simulated by FDTD method.

  15. Stiffness gradient of the beetle penis facilitates propulsion in the spiraled female spermathecal duct.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Alexander E; Matsumura, Yoko; Kovalev, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-06-23

    It is well known that sexual selection is the main driving force of substantial diversity of genitalia found in animals. However, how it facilitates the diversity is still largely unknown, because genital morpho/physical features and motions/functional morphology of the structures in sexual intercourse are not linked for the vast majority of organisms. Here we showed the presence of material gradient and numerically studied an effect of stiffness gradient of the beetle penis during its propulsion through the female duct. We found that stiffness gradient on the penis essentially affects its propulsion. Microscopic investigation suggests the possibility that the tip of the hyper-elongated penis is softer than the rest of it, and our numerical model confirms that this type of distribution of stiffness gradient aids in faster propulsion than other types. This result indicates that previously ignored physical properties of genital materials are of crucial importance in evolutionary studies of genitalia.

  16. Microsphere-based gradient implants for osteochondral regeneration: a long-term study in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banu Priya; Mellott, Adam J; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Galbraith, Richard A; Key, Vincent H; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The microfracture technique for cartilage repair has limited ability to regenerate hyaline cartilage. Aim: The current study made a direct comparison between microfracture and an osteochondral approach with microsphere-based gradient plugs. Materials & methods: The PLGA-based scaffolds had opposing gradients of chondroitin sulfate and β-tricalcium phosphate. A 1-year repair study in sheep was conducted. Results: The repair tissues in the microfracture were mostly fibrous and had scattered fissures with degenerative changes. Cartilage regenerated with the gradient plugs had equal or superior mechanical properties; had lacunated cells and stable matrix as in hyaline cartilage. Conclusion: This first report of gradient scaffolds in a long-term, large animal, osteochondral defect demonstrated potential for equal or better cartilage repair than microfracture. PMID:26418471

  17. Strategies and applications for incorporating physical and chemical signal gradients in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory; Detamore, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field-biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering-by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell-protein-biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue-like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery

  18. Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal

  19. Perspectives in flow-based microfluidic gradient generators for characterizing bacterial chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Christopher J.; Rubloff, Gary W.; Luo, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a phenomenon which enables cells to sense concentrations of certain chemical species in their microenvironment and move towards chemically favorable regions. Recent advances in microbiology have engineered the chemotactic properties of bacteria to perform novel functions, but traditional methods of characterizing chemotaxis do not fully capture the associated cell motion, making it difficult to infer mechanisms that link the motion to the microbiology which induces it. Microfluidics offers a potential solution in the form of gradient generators. Many of the gradient generators studied to date for this application are flow-based, where a chemical species diffuses across the laminar flow interface between two solutions moving through a microchannel. Despite significant research efforts, flow-based gradient generators have achieved mixed success at accurately capturing the highly subtle chemotactic responses exhibited by bacteria. Here we present an analysis encompassing previously published versions of flow-based gradient generators, the theories that govern their gradient-generating properties, and new, more practical considerations that result from experimental factors. We conclude that flow-based gradient generators present a challenge inherent to their design in that the residence time and gradient decay must be finely balanced, and that this significantly narrows the window for reliable observation and quantification of chemotactic motion. This challenge is compounded by the effects of shear on an ellipsoidal bacterium that causes it to preferentially align with the direction of flow and subsequently suppresses the cross-flow chemotactic response. These problems suggest that a static, non-flowing gradient generator may be a more suitable platform for chemotaxis studies in the long run, despite posing greater difficulties in design and fabrication. PMID:27917249

  20. Importance of Ionospheric Gradients for error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravula, Ramprasad

    Importance of Ionospheric Gradients for error Correction R. Ram Prasad1, P.Nagasekhar2 1Sai Spurthi Institute of Technology-JNTU Hyderabad,2Sai Spurthi Institute of Technology-JNTU Hyderabad Email ID:rams.ravula@gmail.com In India, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has established with an objective to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. To cater to the needs of civil aviation applications, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system is being jointly implemented along with Airports Authority of India (AAI) over the Indian region. The most predominant parameter affecting the navigation accuracy of GAGAN is ionospheric delay which is a function of total number of electrons present in one square meter cylindrical cross sectional area in the line of site direction between the satellite and the user on the earth i.e. Total Electron Content (TEC).The irregular distribution of electron densities i.e. rate of TEC variation, causes Ionospheric gradients such as spatial gradients (Expressed in TECu/km) and temporal gradients (Expressed in TECu /minute). Among the satellite signals arriving to the earth in multiple directions, the signals which suffer from severe ionospheric gradients can be estimated i.e. Rate of TEC Index (ROTI) and Rate of TEC (ROT). These aspects which contribute to errors can be treated for improving GAGAN positional accuracy.

  1. Polarisation effects in gradient nano-optics

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, N S; Shvartsburg, A B; Zueva, Yu M

    2013-09-30

    The spectra of reflection of s- and p-polarised waves from gradient nanocoatings at arbitrary angles of incidence are found within the framework of two exactly solvable models of such coatings. To use the detected spectra in the visible and IR ranges, for different frequencies and coating thicknesses we present the wave reflection coefficients as functions of dimensionless frequencies related to the refractive index gradient of the coating material. It is shown that reflection from the gradient coatings in question is an order of magnitude weaker than reflection from uniform coatings, other parameters of radiation and the reflection system being equal. We report a new exactly solvable model illustrating the specific effect of gradient film optics – the possibility of non-reflective propagation of an s-wave through such a film (an analogue of the Brewster effect). The prospects are shown for the use of gradient nanostructures with different refractive index profiles to fabricate broadband non-reflective coatings. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  2. Population Gradients in Stellar Halos from GHOSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Ghosts Survey

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent results from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey, an HST ACS+WFC3 imaging survey to study stellar populations in and around 16 nearby spiral galaxies. By using HST resolution to resolve the stellar halos into individual red giant branch (RGB) stars, we are able to detect distinct stellar populations at several points throughout the halo of the half dozen massive highly-inclined galaxies in the sample. In approximately half of these galaxies, we detect a gradient in the color of the RGB; which we interpret as a metallicity gradient. Stellar halo formation models predict a wide variety of metallicity gradients: those in which the halos are dominated by stars formed in situ predict stronger gradients than we observe, while accretion-dominated halo models predict weaker or nonexistent gradients. Our measurements therefore provide a useful discriminator between stellar halo models, and at first look appear most consistent with the accretion-based model of Cooper et al. (2010).

  3. Color gradients in the coma of P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Some important information relevant to the understanding of the gas/dust dynamics near the surface of a comet nucleus concerns knowledge of the grain composition and scattering properties as well as the particle size distribution of dust in the coma. Ground based measurements of light scattered from the dust comae can provide some information about the physical grain properties, in particular about the mean optically dominant grain size. Optical spectra of continua of nine comets presented by Jewitt and Meech, 1986, show that all of the scattered light is reddened with respect to the Sun. There is significant scatter in the amount of reddening seen for different comets. In the near IF regions, the reddening decreases until near 2 to 3 micrometers where the reflectivity is nearly neutral. It is of particular interest to see if there are any observable changes in the grain size distribution during outburst. Although no coma colar changes were observed during the Nov. 1985 outbursts, a color gradient within the coma has been observed in Halley. Radial color gradients in J, H, and K images of Halley as reported by Campins have not been observed by the author.

  4. A circuit for gradient climbing in C. elegans chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Larsch, Johannes; Flavell, Steven W.; Liu, Qiang; Gordus, Andrew; Albrecht, Dirk R.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have a remarkable ability to track dynamic sensory information. For example, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can locate a diacetyl odor source across a 100,000-fold concentration range. Here, we relate neuronal properties, circuit implementation, and behavioral strategies underlying this robust navigation. Diacetyl responses in AWA olfactory neurons are concentration- and history-dependent; AWA integrates over time at low odor concentrations, but as concentrations rise it desensitizes rapidly through a process requiring cilia transport. After desensitization, AWA retains sensitivity to small odor increases. The downstream AIA interneuron amplifies weak odor inputs and desensitizes further, resulting in a stereotyped response to odor increases over three orders of magnitude. The AWA-AIA circuit drives asymmetric behavioral responses to odor increases that facilitate gradient climbing. The adaptation-based circuit motif embodied by AWA and AIA shares computational properties with bacterial chemotaxis and the vertebrate retina, each providing a solution for maintaining sensitivity across a dynamic range. PMID:26365196

  5. Tubing-Electrospinning: A One-Step Process for Fabricating Fibrous Matrices with Spatial, Chemical, and Mechanical Gradients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Suk; Im, Byung Gee; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-08-31

    Guiding newly generated tissues in a gradient pattern, thereby precisely mimicking inherent tissue morphology and subsequently arranging the intimate networks between adjacent tissues, is essential to raise the technical levels of tissue engineering and facilitate its transition into the clinic. In this study, a straightforward electrospinning method (the tubing-electrospinning technique) was developed to create fibrous matrices readily with diverse gradient patterns and to induce patterned cellular responses. Gradient fibrous matrices can be produced simply by installing a series of polymer-containing lengths of tubing into an electrospinning circuit and sequentially processing polymers without a time lag. The loading of polymer samples with different characteristics, including concentration, wettability, and mechanical properties, into the tubing system enabled unique features in fibrous matrices, such as longitudinal gradients in fiber density, surface properties, and mechanical stiffness. The resulting fibrous gradients were shown to arrange cellular migration and residence in a gradient manner, thereby offering efficient cues to mediate patterned tissue formation. The one-step process using tubing-electrospinning apparatus can be used without significant modifications regardless of the type of fibrous gradient. Hence, the tubing-electrospinning system can serve as a platform that can be readily used by a wide-range of users to induce patterned tissue formation in a gradient manner, which will ultimately improve the functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds.

  6. Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Ryne, R.D.; Yu, S.S. ); Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W. ); Haimson, J.; Mecklen

    1990-09-05

    Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. We have learned how to overcome or previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power.

  7. Image restoration by matching gradient distributions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Taeg Sang; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Joshi, Neel; Kang, Sing Bing; Szeliski, Richard; Freeman, William T

    2012-04-01

    The restoration of a blurry or noisy image is commonly performed with a MAP estimator, which maximizes a posterior probability to reconstruct a clean image from a degraded image. A MAP estimator, when used with a sparse gradient image prior, reconstructs piecewise smooth images and typically removes textures that are important for visual realism. We present an alternative deconvolution method called iterative distribution reweighting (IDR) which imposes a global constraint on gradients so that a reconstructed image should have a gradient distribution similar to a reference distribution. In natural images, a reference distribution not only varies from one image to another, but also within an image depending on texture. We estimate a reference distribution directly from an input image for each texture segment. Our algorithm is able to restore rich mid-frequency textures. A large-scale user study supports the conclusion that our algorithm improves the visual realism of reconstructed images compared to those of MAP estimators.

  8. Preparation of gradient polyacrylate brushes in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongyeol; Youm, Sang Gil; Song, Yeari; Yi, Whikum; Sohn, Daewon

    2012-05-01

    Gradient poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) confined within a microfluidic system on a silicon wafer. For ATRP, surface initiator, 11-((2-bromo, 2-methyl) propionyloxy) undecyltrichlorosilane (BUC), was synthesized, and allowed to self-assemble in a monolayer on the Si wafer, as analyzed by XPS to confirm the presence of an ester group of BUC. A solution containing 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, Cu catalyst, and bipyridin was allowed to flow in a microchannel and polymerize, resulting in the brushes with a gradient of thickness on the Si wafer. Using ellipsometry and ATR-IR, we verified the gradients of well established brushes on the Si wafer. AFM and contact angle data showed that wettability of the brushes did not exhibit a linear relationship with hydrophilicity.

  9. Texturing of REBCO using temperature gradient.

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, K.; Athur, S. P.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Houston

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal melt texturing is currently a well-established technique for manufacturing superconducting materials with high trapped magnetic field and levitation forces. For conductor applications, however, a temperature gradient needs to be employed in order to align the oriented domains with the a-b planes where the current will be flowing over long lengths. Melt-textured Y-123 bars of length 100 mm with Jc values of 70,000 A/cm2 at 77 K in self-field have been routinely manufactured by directional solidification. The presence of temperature gradient also lends itself to faster texturing rates. Recently, Ag-clad Yb-123 tapes made by the powder-in-tube process were successfully melt textured in the presence of a temperature gradient and controlled oxygen partial pressure. These tapes exhibit the potential to be an alternative to BSCCO tapes, for relatively high temperature and magnetic field applications.

  10. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  11. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  12. Motion Driven by Strain Gradient Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the strain gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by strain gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces. PMID:26323603

  13. Gradients of signalling in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Wolpert, Lewis; Tickle, Cheryll

    2012-04-01

    The developing limb is one of the first systems where it was proposed that a signalling gradient is involved in pattern formation. This gradient for specifying positional information across the antero-posterior axis is based on Sonic hedgehog signalling from the polarizing region. Recent evidence suggests that Sonic hedgehog signalling also specifies positional information across the antero-posterior axis by a timing mechanism acting in parallel with graded signalling. The progress zone model for specifying proximo-distal pattern, involving timing to provide cells with positional information, continues to be challenged, and there is further evidence that graded signalling by retinoic acid specifies the proximal part of the limb. Other recent papers present the first evidence that gradients of signalling by Wnt5a and FGFs govern cell behaviour involved in outgrowth and morphogenesis of the developing limb.

  14. Efficient gradient calibration based on diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; Maguire, Mahon L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To propose a method for calibrating gradient systems and correcting gradient nonlinearities based on diffusion MRI measurements. Methods The gradient scaling in x, y, and z were first offset by up to 5% from precalibrated values to simulate a poorly calibrated system. Diffusion MRI data were acquired in a phantom filled with cyclooctane, and corrections for gradient scaling errors and nonlinearity were determined. The calibration was assessed with diffusion tensor imaging and independently validated with high resolution anatomical MRI of a second structured phantom. Results The errors in apparent diffusion coefficients along orthogonal axes ranged from −9.2% ± 0.4% to + 8.8% ± 0.7% before calibration and −0.5% ± 0.4% to + 0.8% ± 0.3% after calibration. Concurrently, fractional anisotropy decreased from 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.03 ± 0.01. Errors in geometric measurements in x, y and z ranged from −5.5% to + 4.5% precalibration and were likewise reduced to −0.97% to + 0.23% postcalibration. Image distortions from gradient nonlinearity were markedly reduced. Conclusion Periodic gradient calibration is an integral part of quality assurance in MRI. The proposed approach is both accurate and efficient, can be setup with readily available materials, and improves accuracy in both anatomical and diffusion MRI to within ±1%. Magn Reson Med 77:170–179, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:26749277

  15. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  16. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cells with carrier concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiaxiong

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of carrier concentration gradient on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin-film solar cells, the properties of CZTS solar cells were studied by numerical method. The photovoltaic performances of carrier concentration gradient CZTS solar cells were calculated by the solutions of Poisson's equation, continuity equation, and current density equation using AFors-Het v2.4 program. The carrier concentration gradient was changed to analyze its effect. Compared with CZTS solar cells without carrier concentration gradient, the photovoltaic performances of CZTS solar cells can be enhanced by using carrier concentration gradient absorber. The carrier concentration gradient can extend the distribution region of built-in electric field, which is beneficial to the drift of photo-generated carriers. However, the carrier concentration gradient also affects the recombination and series resistances of solar cells. When the defect density of CZTS layer is high, the photo-generated carriers are affected significantly by recombination, resulting in slight effect of carrier concentration gradient. Therefore, the defect density should be reduced to enhance the effect of carrier concentration gradient on improving conversion efficiency of CZTS thin-film solar cells.

  17. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

    1993-01-01

    CARS is an effective non-intrusive technique for measuring gas temperature in combustion environments. In regions of high temperature gradient, however, the CARS signal is complicated by contributions from gas at different temperature. This paper examines theoretically the uncertainty associated with CARS thermometry in steep temperature gradients. In addition, the work compares the temperature predicted from CARS with the adiabatic mixed temperature of the gas resident in the measurement volume. This comparison helps indicate the maximum sample volume size allowed for accurate temperature measurements.

  19. The effect of density gradients on hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Martti; Sillanpää, Sampo

    2003-05-01

    Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer calibration system. In the tests, the method was found reliable. However, the reliability depends on the available information on the hydrometer dimensions and density gradients.

  20. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  1. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli

    2014-01-01

    The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752

  2. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G.; Sakaji, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  3. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  4. Enhancement of chest radiographs with gradient operators.

    PubMed

    Daponte, J S; Fox, M D

    1988-01-01

    Reference is made to the Sobel and Roberts gradient operators used to enhance image edges. Overall, the Sobel operator was found to be superior to the Roberts operator in edge enhancement. A theoretical explanation for the superior performance of the Sobel operator was developed based on the concept of analyzing the x and y Sobel masks as linear filters. By applying pill-box, Gaussian, or median filtering prior to applying a gradient operator, noise was reduced. The pill-box and Gaussian filters were more computationally efficient than the median filter with approximately equal effectiveness in noise reduction.

  5. Design of objectives consisting of cemented radial gradient-index lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greisukh, Grigoriy I.; Ezhov, Evgeniy G.; Stepanov, Sergei A.

    1999-08-01

    Aberration properties and correction capabilities of objectives containing two or three cemented radial gradient- index lenses are analyzed. It is shown that the simplest radial gradient-index system, which can be corrected for all third-order monochromatic aberrations, is the cemented doublet with flat external and spherical cemented surfaces. Aberration properties of the cemented component made of two different inhomogeneous materials and having only four flat surfaces are analogous. It is also shown that the simplest radial gradient-index system, which can be simultaneously corrected for all third- and fifth-order monochromatic aberrations, is the cemented triplet made of three different inhomogeneous materials and having spherical surfaces. The methods and examples of aberrations-free objectives design are given.

  6. A transient FGM interlayer based approach to joining ceramics. [Functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, A.M.; Shalz, M.L.; Dalgleish, B.J.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    In most cases, functionally gradient materials have been designed to produce a desirable property gradient in a material or in a joint region. In this paper, the concept of a transient gradient structure is introduced. The function of the intentional property discontinuities in these multilayer interlayers is to facilitate processing of assemblies and materials combinations that would be difficult to process using conventional bonding approaches. Specifically, the methods make use of a thin or partial layer of a low melting point transient liquid phase to facilitate bonding via brazing, yet produce refractory joints. Several mechanisms for consuming the transient liquid former are outlined, and examples of interlayer designs that exploit these mechanisms are presented. Specific results from experiments joining alumina to alumina via Cu/Pt/Cu, Cu/Ni/Cu, Cu/Nb/Cu and Sn/Nb/Sn interlayers are presented.

  7. Gradient Calculation Methods on Arbitrary Polyhedral Unstructured Meshes for Cell-Centered CFD Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2014-01-01

    A survey of gradient reconstruction methods for cell-centered data on unstructured meshes is conducted within the scope of accuracy assessment. Formal order of accuracy, as well as error magnitudes for each of the studied methods, are evaluated on a complex mesh of various cell types through consecutive local scaling of an analytical test function. The tests highlighted several gradient operator choices that can consistently achieve 1st order accuracy regardless of cell type and shape. The tests further offered error comparisons for given cell types, leading to the observation that the "ideal" gradient operator choice is not universal. Practical implications of the results are explored via CFD solutions of a 2D inviscid standing vortex, portraying the discretization error properties. A relatively naive, yet largely unexplored, approach of local curvilinear stencil transformation exhibited surprisingly favorable properties

  8. A seismological determination of the temperature gradient in D″ beneath the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Chen, Chin-Wu

    2005-05-01

    The temperature gradient of the thermal boundary layer in the D″ region is one of the basic properties of the mantle that remains difficult to evaluate. We characterize this quantity for a region in the western Pacific using gradient-sensitive seismological probes. First, both the amplitudes and travel times of the diffracted P and S phases (Pdiff, Sdiff) were analyzed to constrain the regional-scale vertical gradients of VP and VS. Acceptable models were grid-searched using synthetic waveforms for trial models that employ only one velocity gradient zone in D″. The VS models were searched over the parameter space of the thickness (H) and the gradient. Solutions show negative deviation from Preliminary Reference Earth Model and a trade-off between gradient and H from -0.00088 s-1, for190 km to -0.00049 s-1, for 240 km with a typical error of ±0.00015 s-1. Rather than pinning down the best solution, we consider two sets of solutions for VS with H = 190 and 240 km. For these two H values, the gradients of VP were determined solely by amplitude to be -0.00032 s-1 for 190 km and 0.00015 s-1 for 240 km, shrouded in relatively large errors of 0.0002-0.0003 s-1. We derive the temperature gradient from the resolved velocity gradients using the seismological-thermodynamic equation of Doornbos et al. (1986) and arrive at 9.0 ± 5.8 K/km and 5.7 ± 4.1 K/km over 190 and 240 km, respectively. The difference in gradient between these two models is statistically significant at the 99% confidence level, and the odds that the apparent steeper gradient is caused by squeezing energy of diffracted waves into a thinner zone can also be rejected with high confidence. The combination of the two models is thus consistent with a nonlinear temperature profile that steepens toward the core-mantle boundary. Both models detect the superadiabatic gradient of temperature in the lowermost mantle.

  9. Nonisothermal flow of a polymeric liquid under a pulsating pressure gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'man, Z.P.; Khusid, B.M.; Shabunina, Z.A.

    1987-03-01

    Increasing flow rates is a major problem in transporting petroleum as well as polymer solutions and melts. Industrial methods are often directed to reducing the effective viscosity: heating and pulsation. The latter is related to the nonlinearity in the properties. This paper studies the effects of pressure-gradient pulsations on the nonisothermal flow of a nonlinear liquid with memory in an annular channel.

  10. Gradient-index microlenses: numerical investigation of different spherical index profiles with the wave propagation method.

    PubMed

    Singer, W; Testorf, M; Brenner, K H

    1995-05-01

    Ion-exchange microlenses are available with different gradient-index profiles. We investigate the dependence of the imaging properties on the steepness of the index profiles. Therefore we model the index distribution by the Fermi function as radial distribution with spherical symmetry. The results are compared to index profiles according to the Doremus model.

  11. HOT PRESSING WITH A TEMPERATURE GRADIENT

    DOEpatents

    Hausner, H.H.

    1958-05-20

    A method is described for producing powder metal compacts with a high length to width ratio, which are of substantially uniform density. The process consists in arranging a heating coil around the die and providing a temperature gradient along the length of the die with the highest temperature at the point of the compact farthest away from the ram or plunger.

  12. The microfluidic lighthouse: an omnidirectional gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, A; Ishida, M; Fujimori, T; Wakamoto, Y; Sawai, S

    2016-11-01

    Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in graded profiles that are sufficiently stable and precise to test theoretical predictions regarding the accuracy and efficiency of chemotaxis and the underlying mechanism of stimulus perception. However, because the gradient is fixed in a direction orthogonal to the laminar flow and thus the chamber geometry, conventional devices are limited for the study of cell re-orientation to gradients that move or change directions. Here, we describe the development of a simple radially symmetric microfluidics device that can deliver laminar flow in 360°. A stimulant introduced either from the central inlet or by photo uncaging is focused into the laminar flow in a direction determined by the relative rate of regulated flow from multiple side channels. Schemes for flow regulation and an extended duplexed device were designed to generate and move gradients in desired orientations and speed, and then tested to steer cell migration of Dictyostelium and neutrophil-like HL60 cells. The device provided a high degree of freedom in the positioning and orientation of attractant gradients, and thus may serve as a versatile platform for studying cell migration, re-orientation, and steering.

  13. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  14. Gradient mechanism in a communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Satyam; Gupte, Neelima

    2008-03-01

    We study the efficiency of the gradient mechanism of message transfer in a two-dimensional communication network of regular nodes and randomly distributed hubs. Each hub on the network is assigned some randomly chosen capacity and hubs with lower capacities are connected to the hubs with maximum capacity. The average travel times of single messages traveling on the lattice decrease rapidly as the number of hubs increase. The functional dependence of the average travel times on the hub density shows q -exponential behavior with a power-law tail. We also study the relaxation behavior of the network when a large number of messages are created simultaneously at random locations and travel on the network toward their designated destinations. For this situation, in the absence of the gradient mechanism, the network can show congestion effects due to the formation of transport traps. We show that if hubs of high betweenness centrality are connected by the gradient mechanism, efficient decongestion can be achieved. The gradient mechanism is less prone to the formation of traps than other decongestion schemes. We also study the spatial configurations of transport traps and propose minimal strategies for their elimination.

  15. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere have been reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  16. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump.

  17. Consideration of Gravity Gradient Stabilization for Orion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    generating devices are necessary to auiment the gravityN aradient effect. Control moment gyros, reaction wheels , and magnetic torquers will be...generating devices are necessary to augment the gravity gradient effect. Control moment gyros, reaction wheels , and magnetic torquers will be investi...32 a. Reaction wheels ...................................... 33 3. C M G (s

  18. Marine submicron aerosol gradients, sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceburnis, Darius; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Martucci, Giovanni; Giulianelli, Lara; O'Dowd, Colin D.

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol principal sources and sinks over eastern North Atlantic waters were studied through the deployment of an aerosol chemistry gradient sampling system. The chemical gradients of primary and secondary aerosol components - specifically, sea salt (SS), water-insoluble organic matter (WIOM), water-soluble organic matter (WSOM), nitrate, ammonium, oxalate, amines, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) - were examined in great detail. Sea salt fluxes were estimated by the boundary layer box model and ranged from 0.3 to 3.5 ng m-2 s-1 over the wind speed range of 5-12 m s-1 and compared well with the derived fluxes from existing sea salt source parameterisations. The observed seasonal pattern of sea salt gradients was mainly driven by wind stress in addition to the yet unquantified effect of marine OM modifying fractional contributions of SS and OM in sea spray. WIOM gradients were a complex combination of rising and waning biological activity, especially in the flux footprint area, and wind-driven primary sea spray production supporting the coupling of recently developed sea spray and marine OM parameterisations.

  19. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Seeholzer, Glenn F; Harvey, Michael G; Cuervo, Andrés M; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-04-01

    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns.

  20. On-chip temperature gradient interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yang; Xie, Jun; He, Qing; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2006-04-14

    This paper reports the first integrated microelectromechanical system (MEMS) HPLC chip that consists of a parylene high-pressure LC column, an electrochemical sensor, a resistive heater and a thermal-isolation structure for on-chip temperature gradient interaction chromatography application. The separation column was 8 mm long, 100 microm wide, 25 microm high and was packed with 5 microm sized, C18-coated beads using conventional slurry-packing technique. A novel parylene-enhanced, air-gap thermal isolation technology was used to reduce heater power consumption by 58% and to reduce temperature rise in the off-column area by 67%. The fabricated chip consumed 400 mW when operated at 100 degrees C. To test the chromatography performance of the fabricated system, a mixture of derivatized amino acids was chosen for separation. A temporal temperature gradient scanning from 25 to 65 degrees C with a ramping rate of 3.6 degrees C/min was applied to the column during separation. Successful chromatographic separation of derivatized amino acids was carried out using our chip. Compared with conventional temperature gradient HPLC system which incorporates "macro oven" to generate temporal temperature gradient on the column, our chip's thermal performance, i.e., power consumption and thermal response, is greatly improved without sacrificing chromatography quality.

  1. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2015-03-01

    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = q⋅x generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(q⋅x){sup 2}/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  2. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-03-01

    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = qṡx generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(qṡx)2/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  3. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOEpatents

    Maurer, William C.; Medley, Jr., George H.; McDonald, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  4. Plant reproduction: GABA gradient, guidance and growth.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong

    2003-10-28

    How a pollen tube manages to navigate through the female tissues during plant reproduction has been a mystery. A new analysis of an Arabidopsis mutant has provided the strongest evidence yet that a GABA gradient may be a critical signal for correct targeting of the pollen tube.

  5. Magnetic Control of Concentration Gradient in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2005-01-01

    A report describes a technique for rapidly establishing a fluid-concentration gradient that can serve as an initial condition for an experiment on solutal instabilities associated with crystal growth in microgravity. The technique involves exploitation of the slight attractive or repulsive forces exerted on most fluids by a magnetic-field gradient. Although small, these forces can dominate in microgravity and therefore can be used to hold fluids in position in preparation for an experiment. The magnetic field is applied to a test cell, while a fluid mixture containing a concentration gradient is prepared by introducing an undiluted solution into a diluting solution in a mixing chamber. The test cell is then filled with the fluid mixture. Given the magnetic susceptibilities of the undiluted and diluting solutions, the magnetic-field gradient must be large enough that the magnetic force exceeds both (1) forces associated with the flow of the fluid mixture during filling of the test cell and (2) forces imposed by any residual gravitation and fluctuations thereof. Once the test cell has been filled with the fluid mixture, the magnetic field is switched off so that the experiment can proceed, starting from the proper initial conditions.

  6. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  7. Which processes shape stellar population gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to better constrain still uncertain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  8. On the Radial Abundance Gradients of Europium and Oxygen of Stars Inside the Disk of a Simulated Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rocha, Krystal; Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Studies of galaxy evolution and formation through simulations and observations have yielded valuable insight into the life of stars. Abundance gradients, in particular, provide useful information about the element assembly history in the Milky Way. To study these gradients we use data from a simulation titled Eris which has been constructed with the goal of reproducing the properties of the Milky Way, to find the gradients of stars located in the disk that have been enriched by Supernovae and Neutron Star Mergers. We compare these gradients to the observations acquired from looking at Cepheids and field stars in the disk of our Milky Way. We also aim to understand whether radial metallicity gradients can be used to differentiate between Neutron Star Merger versus Type II Supernovae enrichment.

  9. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  10. The gradient index lens of the eye: an opto-biological synchrony.

    PubMed

    Pierscionek, Barbara K; Regini, Justyn W

    2012-07-01

    The refractive power of a lens is determined largely by its surface curvatures and the refractive index of its medium. These properties can also be used to control the sharpness of focus and hence the image quality. One of the most effective ways of doing this is with a gradient index. Eye lenses of all species, thus far, measured, are gradient index (GRIN) structures. The index gradation is one that increases from the periphery of the lens to its centre but the steepness of the gradient and the magnitudes of the refractive index vary so that the optics of the lens accords with visual demands. The structural proteins, the crystallins, which create the index gradient, also vary from species to species, in type and relative distribution across the tissue. The crystallin classes do not contribute equally to the refractive index, and this may be related to their structure and amino acid content. This article compares GRIN forms in eye lenses of varying species, the relevance of these forms to visual requirements, and the relationship between refractive index and the structural proteins. Consideration is given to the dynamics of a living lens, potential variations in the GRIN form with physiological changes and the possible link between discontinuities in the gradient and growth. Finally, the property of birefringence and the characteristic polarisation patterns seen in highly ordered crystals that have also been observed in specially prepared eye lenses are described and discussed.

  11. Gradient twinned 304 stainless steels for high strength and high ductility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Aiying; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Y. Morris

    2016-04-23

    Gradient materials often have attractive mechanical properties that outperform uniform microstructure counterparts. It remains a difficult task to investigate and compare the performance of various gradient microstructures due to the difficulty of fabrication, the wide range of length scales involved, and their respective volume percentage variations. We have investigated four types of gradient microstructures in 304 stainless steels that utilize submicrotwins, nanotwins, nanocrystalline-, ultrafine- and coarse-grains as building blocks. Tensile tests reveal that the gradient microstructure consisting of submicrotwins and nanotwins has a persistent and stable work hardening rate and yields an impressive combination of high strength and high ductility, leading to a toughness that is nearly 50% higher than that of the coarse-grained counterpart. Ex- and in-situ transmission electron microscopy indicates that nanoscale and submicroscale twins help to suppress and limit martensitic phase transformation via the confinement of martensite within the twin lamellar. Twinning and detwinning remain active during tensile deformation and contribute to the work hardening behavior. We discuss the advantageous properties of using submicrotwins as the main load carrier and nanotwins as the strengthening layers over those coarse and nanocrystalline grains. Furthermore, our work uncovers a new gradient design strategy to help metals and alloys achieve high strength and high ductility.

  12. Gradient twinned 304 stainless steels for high strength and high ductility

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Aiying; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao; ...

    2016-04-23

    Gradient materials often have attractive mechanical properties that outperform uniform microstructure counterparts. It remains a difficult task to investigate and compare the performance of various gradient microstructures due to the difficulty of fabrication, the wide range of length scales involved, and their respective volume percentage variations. We have investigated four types of gradient microstructures in 304 stainless steels that utilize submicrotwins, nanotwins, nanocrystalline-, ultrafine- and coarse-grains as building blocks. Tensile tests reveal that the gradient microstructure consisting of submicrotwins and nanotwins has a persistent and stable work hardening rate and yields an impressive combination of high strength and high ductility,more » leading to a toughness that is nearly 50% higher than that of the coarse-grained counterpart. Ex- and in-situ transmission electron microscopy indicates that nanoscale and submicroscale twins help to suppress and limit martensitic phase transformation via the confinement of martensite within the twin lamellar. Twinning and detwinning remain active during tensile deformation and contribute to the work hardening behavior. We discuss the advantageous properties of using submicrotwins as the main load carrier and nanotwins as the strengthening layers over those coarse and nanocrystalline grains. Furthermore, our work uncovers a new gradient design strategy to help metals and alloys achieve high strength and high ductility.« less

  13. Shadowgraph Study of Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David; Nikolaenko, Gennady; Giglio, Marzio; Vailati, Alberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Meyer, William

    2002-01-01

    A fluid or fluid mixture, subjected to a vertical temperature and/or concentration gradient in a gravitational field, exhibits greatly enhanced light scattering at small angles. This effect is caused by coupling between the vertical velocity fluctuations due to thermal energy and the vertically varying refractive index. Physically, small upward or downward moving regions will be displaced into fluid having a refractive index different from that of the moving region, thus giving rise to the enhanced scattering. The scattered intensity is predicted to vary with scattering wave vector q, as q(sup -4), for sufficiently large q, but the divergence is quenched by gravity at small q. In the absence of gravity, the long wavelength fluctuations responsible for the enhanced scattering are predicted to grow until limited by the sample dimensions. It is thus of interest to measure the mean-squared amplitude of such fluctuations in the microgravity environment for comparison with existing theory and ground based measurements. The relevant wave vectors are extremely small, making traditional low-angle light scattering difficult or impossible because of stray elastically scattered light generated by optical surfaces. An alternative technique is offered by the shadowgraph method, which is normally used to visualize fluid flows, but which can also serve as a quantitative tool to measure fluctuations. A somewhat novel shadowgraph apparatus and the necessary data analysis methods will be described. The apparatus uses a spatially coherent, but temporally incoherent, light source consisting of a super-luminescent diode coupled to a single-mode optical fiber in order to achieve extremely high spatial resolution, while avoiding effects caused by interference of light reflected from the various optical surfaces that are present when using laser sources. Results obtained for a critical mixture of aniline and cyclohexane subjected to a vertical temperature gradient will be presented. The

  14. Growth of lithium triborate single crystals from molten salt solution under various temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guretskii, S. A.; Ges, A. P.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Ignatenko, A. A.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Luginets, A. M.; Milovanov, A. S.; Molchan, P. V.

    1995-12-01

    Single crystals of lithium triborate LiB 3O 5 (LBO) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method with B 2O 3 as a solvent using different temperature gradients in the zone of crystallization. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LBO single crystals have been investigated. The influence of post-growth thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere on the optical properties has been studied.

  15. The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients in massive galaxies at large radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davé, Romeel; Oser, Ludwig; Karabal, Emin

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of stellar population gradients from z = 2 to 0 in massive galaxies at large radii (r > 2Reff) using 10 cosmological zoom simulations of haloes with 6 × 1012 M⊙ < Mhalo < 2 × 1013 M⊙. The simulations follow metal cooling and enrichment from SNII, SNIa and asymptotic giant branch winds. We explore the differential impact of an empirical model for galactic winds that reproduces the mass-metallicity relation and its evolution with redshift. At larger radii the galaxies, for both models, become more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. In the wind model, fewer stars are accreted, but they are significantly more metal-poor resulting in steep global metallicity (<∇Zstars> = -0.35 dex dex-1) and colour (e.g. <∇g - r> = -0.13 dex dex-1) gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, colour and metallicity gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Age gradients are in general mildly positive at z = 0 (<∇Agestars> = 0.04 dex dex-1) with significant differences between the models at higher redshift. We demonstrate that for the wind model, stellar accretion is steepening existing in situ metallicity gradients by about 0.2 dex by the present day and helps to match observed gradients of massive early-type galaxies at large radii. Colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. The effect of stellar migration of in situ formed stars to large radii is discussed. This study highlights the importance of stellar accretion for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii, which can provide important constraints for formation models.

  16. Local Stellar Kinematics from RAVE data—VII. Metallicity Gradients from Red Clump Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önal Taş, Ö.; Bilir, S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Karaali, S.; Ak, S.; Ak, T.; Bostancı, Z. F.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the Milky Way Galaxy's radial and vertical metallicity gradients using a sample of 47 406 red clump stars from the RAdial Velocity Experiment Data Release 4. Distances are calculated by adopting Ks -band absolute magnitude as -1.54±0.04 mag for the sample. The metallicity gradients are calculated with their current orbital positions (R gc and Z) and with their orbital properties (R m and z max): d[Fe/H]/dR gc = -0.047±0.003 dex kpc-1 for |Z| ≤ 0.5 kpc and d[Fe/H]/dR m = -0.025±0.002 dex kpc-1 for z max ≤ 0.5 kpc. This reaffirms the radial metallicity gradient in the thin disc but highlights that gradients are sensitive to the selection effects caused by the difference between R gc and R m. The radial gradient is flat in the distance interval 0.5-1 kpc from the plane and then becomes positive greater than 1 kpc from the plane. The radial metallicity gradients are also eccentricity dependent. We showed that d[Fe/H]/dR m = -0.089±0.010, -0.073±0.007, -0.053±0.004 and -0.044±0.002 dex kpc-1 for e p ≤ 0.05, e p ≤ 0.07, e p ≤ 0.10 and e p ≤ 0.20 sub-samples, respectively, in the distance interval z max ≤ 0.5 kpc. Similar trend is found for vertical metallicity gradients. Both the radial and vertical metallicity gradients are found to become shallower as the eccentricity of the sample increases. These findings can be used to constrain different formation scenarios of the thick and thin discs.

  17. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  18. Stellar population gradients in galaxy discs from the CALIFA survey. The influence of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galazzi, A.; García Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Jungwiert, B.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2014-10-01

    While studies of gas-phase metallicity gradients in disc galaxies are common, very little has been done towards the acquisition of stellar abundance gradients in the same regions. We present here a comparative study of the stellar metallicity and age distributions in a sample of 62 nearly face-on, spiral galaxies with and without bars, using data from the CALIFA survey. We measure the slopes of the gradients and study their relation with other properties of the galaxies. We find that the mean stellar age and metallicity gradients in the disc are shallow and negative. Furthermore, when normalized to the effective radius of the disc, the slope of the stellar population gradients does not correlate with the mass or with the morphological type of the galaxies. In contrast to this, the values of both age and metallicity at ~2.5 scale lengths correlate with the central velocity dispersion in a similar manner to the central values of the bulges, although bulges show, on average, older ages and higher metallicities than the discs. One of the goals of the present paper is to test the theoretical prediction that non-linear coupling between the bar and the spiral arms is an efficient mechanism for producing radial migrations across significant distances within discs. The process of radial migration should flatten the stellar metallicity gradient with time and, therefore, we would expect flatter stellar metallicity gradients in barred galaxies. However, we do not find any difference in the metallicity or age gradients between galaxies with and without bars. We discuss possible scenarios that can lead to this lack of difference. Tables 1-3 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  20. Tomographic image reconstruction via estimation of sparse unidirectional gradients.

    PubMed

    Polak, Adam G; Mroczka, Janusz; Wysoczański, Dariusz

    2017-02-01

    Since computed tomography (CT) was developed over 35 years ago, new mathematical ideas and computational algorithms have been continuingly elaborated to improve the quality of reconstructed images. In recent years, a considerable effort can be noticed to apply the sparse solution of underdetermined system theory to the reconstruction of CT images from undersampled data. Its significance stems from the possibility of obtaining good quality CT images from low dose projections. Among diverse approaches, total variation (TV) minimizing 2D gradients of an image, seems to be the most popular method. In this paper, a new method for CT image reconstruction via sparse gradients estimation (SGE), is proposed. It consists in estimating 1D gradients specified in four directions using the iterative reweighting algorithm. To investigate its properties and to compare it with TV and other related methods, numerical simulations were performed according to the Monte Carlo scheme, using the Shepp-Logan and more realistic brain phantoms scanned at 9-60 directions in the range from 0 to 179°, with measurement data disturbed by additive Gaussians noise characterized by the relative level of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%. The accuracy of image reconstruction was assessed in terms of the relative root-mean-square (RMS) error. The results show that the proposed SGE algorithm has returned more accurate images than TV for the cases fulfilling the sparsity conditions. Particularly, it preserves sharp edges of regions representing different tissues or organs and yields images of much better quality reconstructed from a small number of projections disturbed by relatively low measurement noise.

  1. Tracing magnetic fields and identifying star formation with velocity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alex; Gonzalez Casanova, Diego; Yuen, Ka Ho

    2017-01-01

    We are presenting a new technique of tracing magnetic fields utilizing Doppler broadened spectral lines. We demonstrate that for subAlfvenic turbulence, i.e. for regions with turbulence velocities less than Alfven speed, the velocity gradients (VGs) are well aligned with magnetic fields both in 3D data cubes and in synthetic observations. For the latter case the VGs are calculated using velocity centroids and their alignment with the projected magnetic field is studied. We demonstraed this by comparing the HI data with the PLANCK polarization maps. We conclude that velocity gradients present a new promissing way of studying magnetic fields in diffuse media. We also explored the properties of VGs in dense gas and found that starting with a particular density threshold value the VGs tend to be perpendicular to magnetic fields. We also compare the alignment of VGs and the density gradients (DGs) and find that these measures are well aligned in the absense of self-gravity, although in diffuse regions the VGs trace magnetic field better than the DGs. The advantage of VGs for tracing magnetic fields gets more obvious as the Mach number increases. Self-gravity acts differently on the VGs and the DGs. For self-gravitating regions the VGs and the DGs tend to get orthogonal to each other, revealing the the regions of ongoing star formation. This misalignment of the VGs and DGs is also evident in synthetic observations. We conclude that the VGs present(a) a new promising way of tracing magnetic field in diffuse media, (b) in combination with polarimety they reveal shocked gas,(c) in combination with the DGs they reveal star forming regions.

  2. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Terrence Lee

    2000-05-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  3. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of size and age at reproductive maturity to population dynamics, this information on counter-gradient growth will improve our ability to understand and predict the consequences of dam operations for downstream turtle populations.

  4. Iterative Method for Predistortion of MRI Gradient Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, Kevin D.; Does, Mark D.; Grissom, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to correct for transient gradient waveform errors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether from eddy currents, group delay, or gradient amplifier nonlinearities, which are known to affect image quality. An iterative method is proposed to minimize error between desired and measured gradient waveforms, whose success does not depend on accurate knowledge of the gradient system impulse response. The method was applied to half-pulse excitation for 2-D ultra-short echo time (UTE) imaging on a small animal MRI system and to spiral 2-D excitation on a human 7T MRI system. Predistorted gradient waveforms reduced temporal signal variation caused by excitation gradient trajectory errors in 2-D UTE, and improved the quality of excitation patterns produced by spiral excitation pulses. Iterative gradient predistortion is useful for minimizing transient gradient errors without requiring accurate characterization of the gradient system impulse response. PMID:24801945

  5. Gradient sensing in defined chemotactic fields

    PubMed Central

    Skoge, Monica; Adler, Micha; Groisman, Alex; Levine, Herbert; Loomis, William F.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Cells respond to a variety of secreted molecules by modifying their physiology, growth patterns, and behavior. Motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells can sense extracellular chemoattractants and chemorepellents and alter their movement. In this way fibroblasts and leukocytes can find their ways to sites of injury and cancer cells can home in on sites that are releasing growth factors. Social amoebae such as Dictyostelium are chemotactic to cAMP which they secrete several hours after they have initiated development. These eukaryotic cells are known to be able to sense extremely shallow gradients but the processes underlying their exquisite sensitivity are still largely unknown. In this study we determine the responses of developed cells of Dictyostelium discoideum to stable linear gradients of cAMP of varying steepness generated in 2 μm deep gradient chambers of microfluidic devices. The gradients are generated by molecular diffusion between two 50 μm deep flow-through channels, one of which is perfused with a solution of cAMP and the other with buffer, serving as continuously replenished source and sink. These low ceiling gradient chambers constrained the cells in the vertical dimension, facilitating confocal imaging, such that subcellular localization of fluorescently tagged proteins could be followed for up to 30 minutes without noticeable phototoxicity. Chemotactic cells enter these low ceiling chambers by flattening and elongating and then move almost as rapidly as unconstrained cells. By following the localization of activated Ras (RasGTP) using a Ras Binding Domain fused to Green Fluorescent Protein (RBD-GFP), we observed the rapid appearance of membrane associated patches at the tips of pseudopods. These patches remained associated with pseudopods while they continued to extend but were rapidly disassembled when pseudopods stalled and the cell moved past them. Likewise, fluorescence associated with localized RasGTP rapidly disappeared when the gradient was

  6. Dynamic designing of microstructures by chemical gradient-mediated growth

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Tae Soup; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Shape is one of the most important determinants of the properties of microstructures. Despite of a recent progress on microfabrication techniques, production of three-dimensional micro-objects are yet to be fully achieved. Nature uses reaction–diffusion process during bottom-up self-assembly to create functional shapes and patterns with high complexity. Here we report a method to produce polymeric microstructures by using a dynamic reaction–diffusion process during top-down photolithography, providing unprecedented control over shape and composition. In radical polymerization, oxygen inhibits reaction, and therefore diffusion of oxygen significantly alters spatial distribution of growth rate. Therefore, growth pathways of the microstructures can be controlled by engineering a concentration gradient of oxygen. Moreover, stepwise control of chemical gradients enables the creation of highly complex microstructures. The ease of use and high controllability of this technology provide new opportunities for microfabrication and for fundamental studies on the relationships between shape and function for the materials. PMID:25766762

  7. Second strain gradient elasticity of nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Nicolas M.; Forest, Samuel; Busso, Esteban P.

    2016-12-01

    Mindlin's second strain gradient continuum theory for isotropic linear elastic materials is used to model two different kinds of size-dependent surface effects observed in the mechanical behaviour of nano-objects. First, the existence of an initial higher order stress represented by Mindlin's cohesion parameter, b0, makes it possible to account for the relaxation behaviour of traction-free surfaces. Second, the higher order elastic moduli, ci, coupling the strain tensor and its second gradient are shown to significantly affect the apparent elastic properties of nano-beams and nano-films under uni-axial loading. These two effects are independent from each other and allow for separated identification of the corresponding material parameters. Analytical results are provided for the size-dependent apparent shear modulus of a nano-thin strip under shear. Finite element simulations are then performed to derive the dependence of the apparent Young modulus and Poisson ratio of nano-films with respect to their thickness, and to illustrate hole free surface relaxation in a periodic nano-porous material.

  8. Local ultraviolet laser irradiation for gradients on biocompatible polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nottrodt, Nadine; Leonhäuser, Dorothea; Bongard, Yvonne; Bremus-Köbberling, Elke; Gillner, Arnold

    2014-04-01

    Generation of supporting structures, which guide cell growth, is a challenging task in the field of tissue engineering. Cell guidance properties of a scaffold are important in the field of neuronal regeneration. Those guiding structures can provide guidance just by mechanical stimulus or by chemical stimuli like cell signaling molecules. For an enhanced guidance, chemical gradients are under investigation. With this study, we show that ultraviolet laser irradiation is a useful tool to activate polymer surfaces with a high temporal and spatial resolution. We demonstrated that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) can be locally activated and functionalized with amine groups that can be used for immobilization of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. The immobilized RGD was detected by neuronal B35 cells. By defined pulse accumulation functionalization density on the surface can be varied for the generation of gradients. We demonstrated that PMMA and PCL have different process windows for functionalization. Although PMMA has a very small process window for activation, PCL allows the generation of stepwise functionalization. The presented technology can help to develop assays for the analysis of cell migration and neuronal regeneration due to flexible patterning easily realized by changing the irradiation parameters.

  9. Accretion, radial flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Fraternali, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The metal-poor gas continuously accreting on to the discs of spiral galaxies is unlikely to arrive from the intergalactic medium (IGM) with exactly the same rotation velocity as the galaxy itself and even a small angular momentum mismatch inevitably drives radial gas flows within the disc, with significant consequences to galaxy evolution. Here, we provide some general analytic tools to compute accretion profiles, radial gas flows and abundance gradients in spiral galaxies as a function of the angular momentum of the accreting material. We generalize existing solutions for the decomposition of the gas flows, required to reproduce the structural properties of galaxy discs, into direct accretion from the IGM and a radial mass flux within the disc. We then solve the equation of metallicity evolution in the presence of radial gas flows with a novel method, based on characteristic lines, which greatly reduces the numerical demand on the computation and sheds light on the crucial role of boundary conditions on the abundance profiles predicted by theoretical models. We also discuss how structural and chemical constraints can be combined to disentangle the contributions of inside-out growth and radial flows in the development of abundance gradients in spiral galaxies. Illustrative examples are provided throughout with parameters plausible for the Milky Way. We find that the material accreting on the Milky Way should rotate at 70-80 per cent of the rotational velocity of the disc, in agreement with previous estimates.

  10. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  11. Pore and grain boundary migration under a temperature gradient: A phase-field model study

    DOE PAGES

    Biner, S. B.

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the collective migration behavior of pores and grain boundaries under a temperature gradient is studied for simple single crystal, bi-crystal and polycrystal configurations with a phase-field model formulism. For simulation of the microstructure of solids, composed of pores and grain boundaries, the results indicate that not only the volume fraction of pores, but also its spatial partitioning between the grain boundary junctions and the grain boundary segments appears to be important. In addition to various physical properties, the evolution kinetics, under given temperature gradients, will be strongly influenced with the initial morphology of a poly-crystalline microstructure.

  12. A Generalization of Onsager's Reciprocity Relations to Gradient Flows with Nonlinear Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Alexander; Renger, D. R. Michiel; Peletier, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    Onsager's 1931 "reciprocity relations" result connects microscopic time reversibility with a symmetry property of corresponding macroscopic evolution equations. Among the many consequences is a variational characterization of the macroscopic evolution equation as a gradient-flow, steepest ascent, or maximal entropy production equation. Onsager's original theorem is limited to close-to-equilibrium situations, with a Gaussian-invariant measure and a linear macroscopic evolution. In this paper, we generalize this result beyond these limitations and show how the microscopic time reversibility leads to natural generalized symmetry conditions, which take the form of generalized gradient flows.

  13. Theoretical and experimental optical studies of cholesteric liquid crystal films with thermally induced pitch gradients.

    PubMed

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Kriezis, Emmanouil E; Mitov, Michel; Binet, Corinne

    2006-06-01

    The reflection properties of cholesteric films with thermally induced pitch gradients are theoretically and experimentally studied. It is shown that the optical behavior of such films corresponds to the averaged contribution of a number of stochastic pitch variation profiles, due to the transversal and longitudinal nonuniformities that develop in the helical structure of such samples. Depending on the annealing time, both narrow-band and broadband behavior can be selectively achieved. The influence of the pitch profile gradient on the broadband reflection performance of cholesteric samples is theoretically analyzed, and a multi-slab structure for achieving optimum efficiency is proposed.

  14. Gradient-based optimum aerodynamic design using adjoint methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei

    2002-09-01

    Continuous adjoint methods and optimal control theory are applied to a pressure-matching inverse design problem of quasi 1-D nozzle flows. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is used to derive the adjoint system and the reduced gradient of the cost functional. The properties of adjoint variables at the sonic throat and the shock location are studied, revealing a log-arithmic singularity at the sonic throat and continuity at the shock location. A numerical method, based on the Steger-Warming flux-vector-splitting scheme, is proposed to solve the adjoint equations. This scheme can finely resolve the singularity at the sonic throat. A non-uniform grid, with points clustered near the throat region, can resolve it even better. The analytical solutions to the adjoint equations are also constructed via Green's function approach for the purpose of comparing the numerical results. The pressure-matching inverse design is then conducted for a nozzle parameterized by a single geometric parameter. In the second part, the adjoint methods are applied to the problem of minimizing drag coefficient, at fixed lift coefficient, for 2-D transonic airfoil flows. Reduced gradients of several functionals are derived through application of a Lagrange Multiplier Theorem. The adjoint system is carefully studied including the adjoint characteristic boundary conditions at the far-field boundary. A super-reduced design formulation is also explored by treating the angle of attack as an additional state; super-reduced gradients can be constructed either by solving adjoint equations with non-local boundary conditions or by a direct Lagrange multiplier method. In this way, the constrained optimization reduces to an unconstrained design problem. Numerical methods based on Jameson's finite volume scheme are employed to solve the adjoint equations. The same grid system generated from an efficient hyperbolic grid generator are adopted in both the Euler flow solver and the adjoint solver. Several

  15. Some new luminance-gradient effects.

    PubMed

    Zavagno, D

    1999-01-01

    Three compelling luminance-gradient effects are described. The first effect concerns a brightness enhancement and a luminous mist spreading out from a central area having the same luminance as the white background and surrounded by four rectangular inducers shaded with a linear luminance gradient. The second effect is perceived with a photographically reversed configuration, and concerns what may be considered a brightness reduction or the enhancement of a darkness quality of a target area of the visual scene. The third effect concerns the perception of a self-luminous disk inside a somewhat foggy medium. The effects are worthy of further examination because they challenge current theories of luminosity perception and brightness perception in general.

  16. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    SciTech Connect

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H.J.; Nelson, W.J.; Brick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-05-15

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over 1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale.

  17. Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.

  18. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over ???1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  19. A mesh gradient technique for numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A class of successive-improvement optimization methods in which directions of descent are defined in the state space along each trial trajectory are considered. The given problem is first decomposed into two discrete levels by imposing mesh points. Level 1 consists of running optimal subarcs between each successive pair of mesh points. For normal systems, these optimal two-point boundary value problems can be solved by following a routine prescription if the mesh spacing is sufficiently close. A spacing criterion is given. Under appropriate conditions, the criterion value depends only on the coordinates of the mesh points, and its gradient with respect to those coordinates may be defined by interpreting the adjoint variables as partial derivatives of the criterion value function. In level 2, the gradient data is used to generate improvement steps or search directions in the state space which satisfy the boundary values and constraints of the given problem.

  20. Temperature gradient driven lasing and stimulated cooling.

    PubMed

    Sandner, K; Ritsch, H

    2012-11-09

    A laser can be understood as a thermodynamic engine converting heat to a coherent single mode field close to Carnot efficiency. To achieve lasing, spectral shaping of the excitation light is used to generate a higher effective temperature on the pump than on the gain transition. Here, using a toy model of a quantum well structure with two suitably designed tunnel-coupled wells kept at different temperatures, we predict that lasing can also occur on an actual spatial temperature gradient between the pump and gain regions. Gain and narrow band laser emission require a sufficiently large temperature gradient and resonator quality. Lasing appears concurrent with amplified heat flow between the reservoirs and points to a new form of stimulated solid state cooling. In addition, such a mechanism could reduce intrinsic heating and thus extend the operating regime of quantum cascade lasers by substituting phonon emission driven injection by a phonon absorption step.

  1. Opinion formation models on a gradient.

    PubMed

    Gastner, Michael T; Markou, Nikolitsa; Pruessner, Gunnar; Draief, Moez

    2014-01-01

    Statistical physicists have become interested in models of collective social behavior such as opinion formation, where individuals change their inherently preferred opinion if their friends disagree. Real preferences often depend on regional cultural differences, which we model here as a spatial gradient g in the initial opinion. The gradient does not only add reality to the model. It can also reveal that opinion clusters in two dimensions are typically in the standard (i.e., independent) percolation universality class, thus settling a recent controversy about a non-consensus model. However, using analytical and numerical tools, we also present a model where the width of the transition between opinions scales proportional g(-1/4), not proportional g(-4/7) as in independent percolation, and the cluster size distribution is consistent with first-order percolation.

  2. Enhanced gradient for training restricted Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyunghyun; Raiko, Tapani; Ilin, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are often used as building blocks in greedy learning of deep networks. However, training this simple model can be laborious. Traditional learning algorithms often converge only with the right choice of metaparameters that specify, for example, learning rate scheduling and the scale of the initial weights. They are also sensitive to specific data representation. An equivalent RBM can be obtained by flipping some bits and changing the weights and biases accordingly, but traditional learning rules are not invariant to such transformations. Without careful tuning of these training settings, traditional algorithms can easily get stuck or even diverge. In this letter, we present an enhanced gradient that is derived to be invariant to bit-flipping transformations. We experimentally show that the enhanced gradient yields more stable training of RBMs both when used with a fixed learning rate and an adaptive one.

  3. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentation between different animal species.

  4. Pressure-gradient fiber laser hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Faxiang; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang

    2009-10-01

    A pressure-gradient fiber laser hydrophone (FLH) is demonstrated. Two brass diaphragms are installed at the end of a metal cylinder as the sensing element. There are two orifices at the middle of the cylinder. This structure can work as a pressure-gradient microphone in the acoustic field. Thus the DFB fiber laser fixed at the center of the two diaphragms is elongated or shortened due to the acoustic wave. Theoretical analysis is given based on the electro-acoustic theory. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the hydrophone. A sensitivity of 100 nm/MPa has been achieved. Furthermore, the hydrostatic pressure is self-compensated and a ultra-thin dimension is achieved based on the proposed structure.

  5. Voltammetry under a Controlled Temperature Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Krejci, Jan; Sajdlova, Zuzana; Krejci, Jan; Marvanek, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements are generally done under isothermal conditions. Here we report on the application of a controlled temperature gradient between the working electrode surface and the solution. Using electrochemical sensors prepared on ceramic materials with extremely high specific heat conductivity, the temperature gradient between the electrode and solution was applied here as a second driving force. This application of the Soret phenomenon increases the mass transfer in the Nernst layer and enables more accurate control of the electrode response enhancement by a combination of diffusion and thermal diffusion. We have thus studied the effect of Soret phenomenon by cyclic voltammetry measurements in ferro/ferricyanide. The time dependence of sensor response disappears when applying the Soret phenomenon, and the complicated shape of the cyclic voltammogram is replaced by a simple exponential curve. We have derived the Cotrell-Soret equation describing the steady-state response with an applied temperature difference. PMID:22163578

  6. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  7. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  8. Gradient Optimization for SC CW Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, William; Kneisel, Peter; Rode, Claus

    2003-05-01

    The proposed rare isotope accelerator (RIA) design consists of a normally conducting radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) section, a superconducting (SC) drift tube cavity section, a SC elliptical multi-cell cavity section and two charge strippers with associated charge state selection and beam matching optics. The SC elliptical section uses two or three multi-cell beta cavity types installed into cryomodules to span the energy region of about 84.5 MeV/nucleon up to 400 MeV/nucleon. This paper focuses on the gradient optimization of these SC elliptical cavities that provide a significant portion of the total acceleration to the beam. The choice of gradient coupled with the cavity quality factor has a strong affect on the overall cost of the accelerator. The paper describes the optimization of the capital and operating cost associated with the RIA elliptical cavity cryomodules.

  9. Geothermal temperature gradient core drill, Santiam Pass

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    DOE is proposing to share in the cost of drilling a 3000-ft core hole to evaluate temperature gradients, subsurface geology and the geothermal potential of an area in the Cascade Mountains. The proposed core hole will be located in the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, near Santiam Pass. The proposed action has been described in the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Geothermal Temperature Gradient Core Drill Santiam Pass Area (No. OR-050-9-51) prepared by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). DOE has determined that the BLM EA adequately addresses the impacts of the proposal and is hereby adopting the EA in partial fulfillment of its NEPA responsibilities. Based upon a review of the EA and an independent analysis, DOE has concluded that the proposed corehole drilling project does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, an environmental impact statement will not be prepared.

  10. Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Smith, S. P.; White, A. E.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Holland, C.; McKee, G. R.

    2012-08-15

    Electron profile stiffness was studied in DIII-D L-mode discharges by systematically varying the heat flux in a narrow region with electron cyclotron heating and measuring the local change produced in {nabla}T{sub e}. Electron stiffness was found to slowly increase with toroidal rotation velocity. A critical inverse temperature gradient scale length 1/L{sub C} {approx} 3 m{sup -1} was identified at {rho}=0.6 and found to be independent of rotation. Both the heat pulse diffusivity and the power balance diffusivity, the latter determined by integrating the measured dependence of the heat pulse diffusivity on -{nabla}T{sub e}, were fit reasonably well by a model containing a critical inverse temperature gradient scale length and varying linearly with 1/L{sub T} above the threshold.

  11. Cosmic ray intensity gradients in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibben, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Recent progress in the determination of cosmic-ray intensity gradients is reviewed. Direct satellite measurements of the integral gradient are described together with various types of indirect measurements, including measurements of the Ar-37/Ar-39 ratio in samples from the Lost City meteorite, studies of anisotropies in neutron-monitor counting rates, and analysis of the sidereal diurnal anisotropy observed at a single point on earth. Nucleonic radial gradients and electron gradients measured by satellites in differential energy windows are discussed, and theoretical studies of the physical processes involved in these gradients are summarized. Observations of intensity gradients in heliographic latitude are reported.

  12. Quantized Concentration Gradient in Picoliter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jong Wook

    2010-10-01

    Generation of concentration gradient is of paramount importance in the success of reactions for cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, drug-discovery, chemotaxis, cell culture, biomaterials synthesis, and tissue engineering. In conventional method of conducting reactions, the concentration gradients is achieved by using pipettes, test tubes, 96-well assay plates, and robotic systems. Conventional methods require milliliter or microliter volumes of samples for typical experiments with multiple and sequential reactions. It is a challenge to carry out experiments with precious samples that have strict limitations with the amount of samples or the price to pay for the amount. In order to overcome this challenge faced by the conventional methods, fluidic devices with micrometer scale channels have been developed. These devices, however, cause restrictions on changing the concentration due to the fixed gradient set based on fixed fluidic channels.ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Duin, E. C.; Kim, S-K.; Hong, J. W., Determination of Kinetic Parameters, KM and kcat, with a Single Experiment on a Chip. textitAnalytical Chemistry, 81, (9), 3239-3245, 2009.^,ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Hong, J. W., Lorenz-like Chatotic System on a Chip In The 14th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS), The Netherlands, October, 2010. Here, we present a unique microfluidic system that can generate quantized concentration gradient by using series of droplets generated by a mechanical valve based injection method.ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Rho, H.; Hong, J., Fluidic Circuit based Predictive Model of Microdroplet Generation through Mechanical Cutting. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, October, 2009.^,ootnotetextLee, W.; Jambovane, S.; Kim, D.; Hong, J., Predictive Model on Micro Droplet Generation through Mechanical Cutting. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 7, (3), 431-438, 2009

  13. Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microspheres with Structural Color Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Jongkook; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jung H; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-02-06

    Photonic Janus particles are created by alternately sputtering silica and titania on microspheres in order to obtain a structural color gradient. In addition, the microspheres are rendered magnetoresponsive. The Janus microspheres with optical and magnetic anisotropy enable on-demand control over orientation and structural color through manipulation of an external magnetic field, thereby being useful as active color pigments for reflection-mode displays.

  14. M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L.

    1983-01-01

    Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving sparse symmetric and positive finite systems of linear equations are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when these preconditioners can be used and an analysis of their effectiveness is given. Efficient computer implementations of these methods are discussed and results on the CYBER 203 and the Finite Element Machine under construction at NASA Langley Research Center are included.

  15. Exploration of very high gradient cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory

    2011-07-01

    Several of the 9-cell ILC cavities processed at Jlab within ongoing ILC R&D program have shown interesting behavior at high fields, such as mode mixing and sudden field emission turn-on during quench. Equipped with thermometry and oscillating superleak transducer (OST) system for quench detection, we couple our RF measurements with local dissipation measurements. In this contribution we report on our findings with high gradient SRF cavities.

  16. DC CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH GRADIENT MULTILAYER INSULATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S E; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M L

    2005-05-26

    We have developed a novel insulator concept that involves the use of alternating layers of conductors and insulators with periods less than 1 mm. We have demonstrated that these structures perform 2 to 5 times better than conventional insulators in long pulse, short pulse, and alternating polarity applications. We present new testing results showing exceptional behavior at DC, with gradients in excess of 110kV/cm in vacuum.

  17. Discontinuity of cortical gradients reflects sensory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Tal, Zohar; Itshayek, Eyal; Amedi, Amir; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Topographic maps and their continuity constitute a fundamental principle of brain organization. In the somatosensory system, whole-body sensory impairment may be reflected either in cortical signal reduction or disorganization of the somatotopic map, such as disturbed continuity. Here we investigated the role of continuity in pathological states. We studied whole-body cortical representations in response to continuous sensory stimulation under functional MRI (fMRI) in two unique patient populations—patients with cervical sensory Brown-Séquard syndrome (injury to one side of the spinal cord) and patients before and after surgical repair of cervical disk protrusion—enabling us to compare whole-body representations in the same study subjects. We quantified the spatial gradient of cortical activation and evaluated the divergence from a continuous pattern. Gradient continuity was found to be disturbed at the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), in both patient populations: contralateral to the disturbed body side in the Brown-Séquard group and before repair in the surgical group, which was further improved after intervention. Results corresponding to the nondisturbed body side and after surgical repair were comparable with control subjects. No difference was found in the fMRI signal power between the different conditions in the two groups, as well as with respect to control subjects. These results suggest that decreased sensation in our patients is related to gradient discontinuity rather than signal reduction. Gradient continuity may be crucial for somatotopic and other topographical organization, and its disruption may characterize pathological processing. PMID:26655739

  18. Gradient Boosting for Conditional Random Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-23

    Information Processing Systems 26 ( NIPS ’13), pages 647–655. 2013. [4] J. Friedman. Greedy function approximation: a gradient boosting machine. Annals of...and phrases and their compositionality. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 ( NIPS ’13), pages 3111–3119. 2013. [15] A. Quattoni, M...Collins, and T. Darrell. Conditional random fields for object recognition. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 17 ( NIPS ’04), pages

  19. Dropwise condensation on a cold gradient substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Distributions of drops that arise from dropwise condensation evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence of drops. An understanding of how surface-energy gradients applied to the substrate affect drop growth and coalescence is needed for design of effective surfaces for large-scale dropwise condensation. Transient dropwise condensation from a vapor phase onto a cold and chemically treated surface is reported. The surfaces were treated to deliver either a uniform contact-angle or a gradient of contact-angles by silanization. The time evolution of drop-size and number-density distributions is reported. For a typical condensation experiment, the drop distributions advance through two stages: an increase in drop density as a result of nucleation and a decrease in drop density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Because the experiment is transient in nature, the shape of the distribution can be used to predict the number of drop generations and their stage of development. Preliminary results for gradient surfaces will be discussed and compared against observations of behavior on uniformly coated surfaces. NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  20. Collective Chemotaxis through Noisy Multicellular Gradient Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment and while the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells polarization to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimal cluster size for most efficient migration. We discuss how our model could be validated using simple, phenomenological experiments.

  1. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  2. PLETHORA gradient formation mechanism separates auxin responses

    PubMed Central

    Siligato, Riccardo; Smetana, Ondřej; Díaz-Triviño, Sara; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wachsman, Guy; Prasad, Kalika; Heidstra, Renze; Scheres, Ben

    2015-01-01

    During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation, thus generating three distinct developmental zones: the meristem, elongation zone and differentiation zone1. Simultaneously, plants display tropisms, rapid adjustments of their direction of growth to adapt to environmental conditions. It is unclear how stable zonation is maintained during transient adjustments in growth direction. In Arabidopsis roots, many aspects of zonation are controlled by the phytohormone auxin and auxin-induced PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors, both of which display a graded distribution with a maximum near the root tip2-12. In addition, auxin is also pivotal for tropic responses13,14. Here, using an iterative experimental and computational approach, we show how an interplay between auxin and PLTs controls zonation and gravitropism. We find that the PLT gradient is not a direct, proportionate readout of the auxin gradient. Rather, prolonged high auxin levels generate a narrow PLT transcription domain from which a gradient of PLT protein is subsequently generated through slow growth dilution and cell-to-cell movement. The resulting PLT levels define the location of developmental zones. In addition to slowly promoting PLT transcription, auxin also rapidly influences division, expansion and differentiation rates. We demonstrate how this specific regulatory design in which auxin cooperates with PLTs through different mechanisms and on different timescales enables both the fast tropic environmental responses and stable zonation dynamics necessary for coordinated cell differentiation. PMID:25156253

  3. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  4. Light gradients in spherical photosynthetic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Paillotin, G; Leibl, W; Gapiński, J; Breton, J; Dobek, A

    1998-07-01

    Light-gradient photovoltage measurements were performed on EDTA-treated thylakoids and on osmotically swollen thylakoids (blebs), both of spherical symmetry but of different sizes. In the case of EDTA vesicles, a negative polarity (due to the normal light gradient) was observed in the blue range of the absorption spectrum, and a positive polarity, corresponding to an inverse light gradient, was observed at lambda = 530 and lambda = 682 nm. The sign of the photovoltage polarity measured in large blebs (swollen thylakoids) is the same as that obtained for whole chloroplasts, although differences in the amplitudes are observed. An approach based on the use of polar coordinates was adapted for a theoretical description of these membrane systems of spherical symmetry. The light intensity distribution and the photovoltage in such systems were calculated. Fits to the photovoltage amplitudes, measured as a function of light wavelength, made it possible to derive the values of the dielectric constant of the protein, epsilons = 3, and the refractive index of the photosynthetic membrane for light propagating perpendicular and parallel to the membrane surface, nt = 1.42 and nn = 1.60, respectively. The latter two values determine the birefringence of the biological membrane, Deltan = nn - nt = 0.18.

  5. SPEAR3 Gradient Dipole Core Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nanyang

    2003-07-29

    Traditional means of core fabrication are to glue the laminations or weld them to form the yoke structure. These means result in good yoke assemblies for shorter (<0.6m) magnets. However, because of weld distortions or mechanical strength limitations, welding and/or gluing techniques are difficult to gain high mechanical precision for longer cores. The SPEAR3 gradient dipoles are up to 1.45m long and require distortions of <0.05mm. Therefore, the SPEAR3 gradient dipole core design incorporated an assembly technique, originally devised for the PEPII insertion quadrupoles and later adapted for the ALS gradient magnets. This technique involved fabricating a rigid frame for the core, precisely stacking and compressing the laminations using hydraulic jacks and granite surfaces and straight edges, and fixing the laminations in the frame by filling the grooves between the laminations and frame using steel loaded epoxy. Although this technique has been used in the past, it has never been fully described and published. This paper is written to provide a detailed description of the procedure and to present measurement data demonstrating the mechanical precision and stiffness of the resulting product.

  6. Latitudinal gradients in biotic niche breadth vary across ecosystem types.

    PubMed

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2015-11-22

    Several properties of food webs-the networks of feeding links between species-are known to vary systematically with the species richness of the underlying community. Under the 'latitude-niche breadth hypothesis', which predicts that species in the tropics will tend to evolve narrower niches, one might expect that these scaling relationships could also be affected by latitude. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the scaling relationships between species richness and average generality, vulnerability and links per species across a set of 196 empirical food webs. In estuarine, marine and terrestrial food webs there was no effect of latitude on any scaling relationship, suggesting constant niche breadth in these habitats. In freshwater communities, on the other hand, there were strong effects of latitude on scaling relationships, supporting the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis. These contrasting findings indicate that it may be more important to account for habitat than latitude when exploring gradients in food-web structure.

  7. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    DOE PAGES

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; ...

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradientmore » sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.« less

  8. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Gradient nanostructures (GNSs) have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed. PMID:28382244

  9. Confining individual DNA molecules in an axisymmetric entropy gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2010-03-01

    Many asymmetric and discontinuous confining environments have been used to study the properties of confined DNA. We have developed a unique method for studying DNA in micropipettes, resulting in a confining environment that is axisymmetric with a continuously changing entropy gradient. An applied electric field forces the chain into sub-micron confinement and fluorescence microscopy is used to track the effect of confinement on the entropy of individual DNA chains. Releasing the electric field, we probe the dynamics of the DNA chain in a continuously changing confinement, yielding a comprehensive study of the entropic force. This technique provides a novel method for studying the effect of polymer chain architecture on entropy. These architectures include knots in polymer chains, cyclic chains, or the presence of histones amongst DNA molecules.

  10. Microstructured gradient-index lenses for THz photoconductive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brincker, Mads; Karlsen, Peter; Skovsen, Esben; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A new type of substrate lens for photoconductive antennas (PCA's) based on sub-wavelength microstructuring is presented and studied theoretically by the use of Greens function integral equation methods (GFIEM's). By etching sub-wavelength trenches into a flat substrate, the effective dielectric constant can be designed to function like a gradient index (GRIN) lens. The proposed GRIN substrate lenses have sub-mm dimension, which is smaller than the dimensions of a typical hyper-hemispherical substrate lens (HSL), and could enable fabrication of arrays of closely packed PCA's with individual lenses integrated directly into the PCA substrate. The performance of different GRIN lenses is compared to a HSL and shown to be comparable with regards to the terahertz radiation extraction efficiency, and it is shown that the collimating properties of these GRIN lenses can be tailored by changing the parameters used for microstructuring.

  11. Fabricating gradient hydrogel scaffolds for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Young, Marian F; Simon, Carl G

    2011-05-01

    Optimizing cell-material interactions is critical for maximizing regeneration in tissue engineering. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods can be used to systematically screen tissue scaffolds to identify optimal biomaterial properties. Previous CHT platforms in tissue engineering have involved a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture format where cells were cultured on material surfaces. However, these platforms are inadequate to predict cellular response in a three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffold. We have developed a simple CHT platform to screen cell-material interactions in 3D culture format that can be applied to screen hydrogel scaffolds. Herein we provide detailed instructions on a method to prepare gradients in elastic modulus of photopolymerizable hydrogels.

  12. Vibroacoustic optimization of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels with gradient geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mostafa; Boldrin, Luca; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Neild, Simon; Patsias, Sophoclis

    2016-05-01

    The work describes the vibroacoustic behavior of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal gradient sandwich panels using homogenized finite element models to determine the mechanical properties of the auxetic structures, the natural frequencies and radiated sound power level of sandwich panels made by the auxetic cores. The mechanical properties and the vibroacoustic behavior of auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels are investigated as a benchmark. The radiated sound power level of the structure over the frequency range of 0-1000 Hz is minimized by modifying the core geometry of the gradient auxetic sandwich panels. Several excitation cases are considered. First-order and random optimization methods are used for the minimization of radiated sound power level of the structures. The results of this study present significant insights into the design of auxetic structures with respect to their vibroacoustical properties.

  13. Semiconductor apparatus utilizing gradient freeze and liquid-solid techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry F. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alexander (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Transition metals of Group VIII (Co, Rh and Ir) have been prepared as semiconductor compounds with the general formula TSb.sub.3. The skutterudite-type crystal lattice structure of these semiconductor compounds and their enhanced thermoelectric properties results in semiconductor materials which may be used in the fabrication of thermoelectric elements to substantially improve the efficiency of the resulting thermoelectric device. Semiconductor materials having the desired skutterudite-type crystal lattice structure may be prepared in accordance with the present invention by using vertical gradient freezing techniques and/or liquid phase sintering techniques. Measurements of electrical and thermal transport properties of selected semiconductor materials prepared in accordance with the present invention, demonstrated high Hall mobilities (up to 1200 cm.sup.2.V.sup.-1.s.sup.-1) and good Seebeck coefficients (up to 150 .mu.VK.sup.-1 between 300.degree. C. and 700.degree. C.). Optimizing the transport properties of semiconductor materials prepared from elemental mixtures Co, Rh, Ir and Sb resulted in a substantial increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at temperatures as high as 400.degree. C. for thermoelectric elements fabricated from such semiconductor materials.

  14. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  15. Separation of mitochondria from contaminating subcellular structures utilizing silica sol gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C; Dench, J E; Hall, D O; Moore, A L

    1979-07-01

    Discontinuous Percoll density gradients have been developed for the purification of mitochondria, permitting rapid separation under isosmotic and low viscosity conditions. Mitochondria from several etiolated tissues have been successfully separated from contaminating subcellular structures by this method. For potato tuber the ratio of washed to purified mitochondrial protein was 2.6, similar to the increase in specific activity of cytochrome c oxidase following separation. The purification of mitochondria from green leaf tissues on Percoll gradients has reduced chlorophyll contamination of spinach mitochondria from about 70 micrograms chlorophyll per milligram protein to approximately 8 micrograms chlorophyll per milligram protein.The ratio of protein content of the washed mitochondria compared to that in the purified preparation was 7 for spinach and respiratory activity was retained. The physiological integrity and oxidative properties of washed and gradient mitochondria are compared.

  16. Atom Transfer Radical Copolymerization of Gradient Copolymers of HEMA/DMAEMA with Arbitrary Composition Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallow, Keith; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2009-03-01

    Gradient copolymers represent a new class of statistical copolymers where a non-uniform composition profile is controllably introduced along the length of the polymer chain. Gradient copolymers have thermal and mechanical properties that are different from random or block copolymers having the same average composition. Due to synthetic limitations, however, the introduction of arbitrary composition profiles remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the ability to controllably introduce arbitrary composition profiles along copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by atom transfer radical copolymerization in a semi-batch reactor. Using gas chromatography to monitor monomer consumption, we have constructed a kinetic model which we use as a basis to synthesize copolymers with linear and parabolic composition profiles. The overall DMAEMA content and molecular weight of these gradient copolymers were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography, respectively, and both show good agreement with our model's predictions.

  17. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  18. Analysis of 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Lee, Jong Min; Ahrberg, Christian D; Chung, Bong Geun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) simple multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator to create molecular gradients on the centimeter scale with a wide range of flow rates. To create the concentration gradients, a main channel (MC) was orthogonally intersected with vertical side microchannel (SC) in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic device. Through sequential dilution from the SC, a spatial gradient was generated in the MC. Two theoretical models were created to assist in the design of the 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator and to compare its performance against a two-dimensional equivalent. A first mass balance model was used to predict the steady-state concentrations reached, while a second computational fluid dynamic model was employed to predict spatial development of the gradient by considering convective as well as diffusive mass transport. Furthermore, the theoretical simulations were verified through experiments to create molecular gradients in a 3D multi-layer microfluidic gradient generator.

  19. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data using SL0 sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaohai

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method dedicated to the interpretation of full gravity gradient tensor data, based on SL0 sparse recovery inversion. The SL0 sparse recovery method aims to find out the minimum value of the objective function to fit the data function and to solve the non-zero solution to the objective function. Based on continuous iteration, we can easily obtain the final global minimum (namely the property and space attribute of the inversion target). We consider which type of tensor data combination produces the best inversion results based on the inversion results of different full gravity gradient tensor data combinations (separate tensor data and combined tensor data). We compare the recovered models obtained by inverting the different combinations of different gravity gradient tensor components to understand how different component combinations contribute to the resolution of the recovered model. Based on the comparison between the SL0 sparse recovery inversion results and the smoothest and focusing inversion results of the full gravity gradient tensor data, we show that SL0 sparse recovery inversion can obtain more stable and efficient inversion results with relatively sharp edge information, and that this method can also produce a stable solution of the inverse problem for complex geological structures. This new method to resolve very large full gravity gradient tensor datasets has the considerable advantage of being highly efficient; the full gravity gradient tensor inversion requires very little time. This new method is very effective in explaining the full gravity tensor which is very sensitive to small changes in local anomaly. The numerical simulation and inversion results of the compositional model indicates that including multiple components for inversion increases the resolution of the recovered density model and improves the structure delineation. We apply our inversion method to invert the gravity gradient tensor survey data from the Vinton salt

  20. Evolution of the Specific Surface Area of Snow in a High Temperature Gradient Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Baker, I.

    2014-12-01

    The structural evolution of low-density snow under a high temperature gradient over a short period usually takes place in the surface layers during diurnal recrystallization or on a clear, cold night. To relate snow microstructures with their thermal properties, we combined X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) observations with numerical simulations. Different types of snow were tested over a large range of TGs (100 K m-1- 500 K m-1). The Specific Surface Area (SSA) was used to characterize the temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM). The magnitude of the temperature gradient and the initial snow type both influence the evolution of SSA. The SSA evolution under TGM was dominated by grain growth and the formation of complex surfaces. Fresh snow experienced a logarithmic decrease of SSA with time, a feature been observed previously by others [Calonne et al., 2014; Schneebeli and Sokratov, 2004; Taillandier et al., 2007]. However, for initial rounded and connected snow structures, the SSA will increase during TGM. Understanding the SSA increase is important in order to predict the enhanced uptake of chemical species by snow or increase in snow albedo. Calonne, N., F. Flin, C. Geindreau, B. Lesaffre, and S. Rolland du Roscoat (2014), Study of a temperature gradient metamorphism of snow from 3-D images: time evolution of microstructures, physical properties and their associated anisotropy, The Cryosphere Discussions, 8, 1407-1451, doi:10.5194/tcd-8-1407-2014. Schneebeli, M., and S. A. Sokratov (2004), Tomography of temperature gradient metamorphism of snow and associated changes in heat conductivity, Hydrological Processes, 18(18), 3655-3665, doi:10.1002/hyp.5800. Taillandier, A. S., F. Domine, W. R. Simpson, M. Sturm, and T. A. Douglas (2007), Rate of decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow: Isothermal and temperature gradient conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 112(F3), doi: 10.1029/2006JF000514.

  1. Engineering mechanical gradients in next generation biomaterials - Lessons learned from medical textile design.

    PubMed

    Ng, Joanna L; Collins, Ciara E; Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2017-03-06

    Nonwoven and textile membranes have been applied both externally and internally to prescribe boundary conditions for medical conditions as diverse as oedema and tissue defects. Incorporation of mechanical gradients in next generation medical membrane design offers great potential to enhance function in a dynamic, physiological context. Yet the gradient properties and resulting mechanical performance of current membranes are not well described. To bridge this knowledge gap, we tested and compared the mechanical properties of bounding membranes used in both external (compression sleeves for oedema, exercise bands) and internal (surgical membranes) physiological contexts. We showed that anisotropic compression garment textiles, isotropic exercise bands and surgical membranes exhibit similar ranges of resistance to tension under physiologic strains. However, their mechanical gradients and resulting stress-strain relationships show differences in work capacity and energy expenditure. Exercise bands' moduli of elasticity and respective thicknesses allow for controlled, incremental increases in loading to facilitate healing as injured tissues return to normal structure and function. In contrast, the gradients intrinsic to compression sleeve design exhibit gaps in the middle range (1-5N) of physiological strains and also inconsistencies along the length of the sleeve, resulting in less than optimal performance of these devices. These current shortcomings in compression textile and garment design may be addressed in the future through implementation of novel approaches. For example, patterns, fibre compositions, and fibre anisotropy can be incorporated into biomaterial design to achieve seamless mechanical gradients in structure and resulting dynamic function, which would be particularly useful in physiological contexts. These concepts can be applied further to biomaterial design to deliver pressure gradients during movement of oedematous limbs (compression garments) and

  2. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-03-03

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  3. A fiber-bridging model with stress gradient effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Sun; Tao, Li

    2000-05-01

    A fiber-bridging model with stress gradient effects is proposed for unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites. The stress gradient terms are introduced by solving a micromechanical model under a non-uniform stress loading. It is shown that the stress gradient effect is significant on both the fiber-bridging stress distribution and the value of the critical load of fiber failure.

  4. DRDC Starfish Acoustic Sentinel and Phase Gradient Histogram Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    exponential filters, with the frequency-domain algorithm using parallel filters in each frequency bin. A Phase Gradient bearing estimation algorithm is...algorithm and the Phase Gradient bearing estimation algorithm with Histogram Tracking. Significance for defence and security For the Force ASW project, the...1 2 Frequency-domain acoustic sentinel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 Phase Gradient bearing estimation algorithm

  5. Biogeochemistry of a temperate forest nitrogen gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Sinkhorn, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Wide natural gradients of soil nitrogen (N) can be used to examine fundamental relationships between plant–soil–microbial N cycling and hydrologic N loss, and to test N-saturation theory as a general framework for understanding ecosystem N dynamics. We characterized plant production, N uptake and return in litterfall, soil gross and net N mineralization rates, and hydrologic N losses of nine Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests across a wide soil N gradient in the Oregon Coast Range (USA). Surface mineral soil N (0–10 cm) ranged nearly three-fold from 0.29% to 0.78% N, and in contrast to predictions of N-saturation theory, was linearly related to 10-fold variation in net N mineralization, from 8 to 82 kg N·ha−1·yr−1. Net N mineralization was unrelated to soil C:N, soil texture, precipitation, and temperature differences among sites. Net nitrification was negatively related to soil pH, and accounted for −1·yr−1. Aboveground net primary production per unit net N mineralization varied inversely with soil N, suggesting progressive saturation of plant N demands at high soil N. Hydrologic N losses were dominated by dissolved organic N at low-N sites, with increased nitrate loss causing a shift to dominance by nitrate at high-N sites, particularly where net nitrification exceeded plant N demands. With the exception of N mineralization patterns, our results broadly support the application of the N-saturation model developed from studies of anthropogenic N deposition to understand N cycling and saturation of plant and microbial sinks along natural soil N gradients. This convergence of behavior in unpolluted and polluted forest N cycles suggests that where future reductions in deposition to polluted sites do occur, symptoms of N saturation are most likely to persist where soil N content remains elevated.

  6. Theory of resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity driven turbulence, which evolves from linear rippling instabilities, is presented. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is identified both analytically and numerically. Saturation occurs when the turbulent diffusion of the resistivity is large enough so that dissipation due to parallel electron thermal conduction balances the nonlinearly modified resistivity gradient driving term. The levels of potential, resistivity, and density fluctuations at saturation are calculated. A combination of computational modeling and analytic treatment is used in this investigation.

  7. Temperature Gradient Field Theory of Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Ain, W. Q.; Azhari, A.; Prasada Rao, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    According to the proposed theory, ceramic particles present in molten metal, lose heat at a slower rate than the metallic liquid during cooling. Such condition results in the formation of a spherical thermal gradient field (TGF) around each particle. Hence, the interstitials (low temperature) of such TGFs are the regions to reach the nucleation temperature first, owing to low energy barrier than the liquid-particle interface (higher temperature). Analytics also indicate that the nucleation rate is higher at the TGF interstitials, than at the liquid-particle interface. Such TGF network results in simultaneous nucleation throughout the system, resulting in grain refinement.

  8. Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.

    2000-12-01

    We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.

  9. Smoothed Analysis for the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Govind; Trogdon, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish bounds on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient algorithm when the underlying matrix is a random positive definite perturbation of a deterministic positive definite matrix. We estimate all finite moments of a natural halting time when the random perturbation is drawn from the Laguerre unitary ensemble in a critical scaling regime explored in Deift et al. (2016). These estimates are used to analyze the expected iteration count in the framework of smoothed analysis, introduced by Spielman and Teng (2001). The rigorous results are compared with numerical calculations in several cases of interest.

  10. Laser pulse shaping for high gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Galletti, M.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Moreno, M.; Petrarca, M.; Pompili, R.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2016-09-01

    In many high gradient accelerator schemes, i.e. with plasma or dielectric wakefield induced by particles, many electron pulses are required to drive the acceleration of one of them. Those electron bunches, that generally should have very short duration and low emittance, can be generated in photoinjectors driven by a train of laser pulses coming inside the same RF bucket. We present the system used to shape and characterize the laser pulses used in multibunch operations at Sparc_lab. Our system gives us control over the main parameter useful to produce a train of up to five high brightness bunches with tailored intensity and time distribution.

  11. 3D Electromagnetic inversion using conjugate gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    In large scale 3D EM inverse problems it may not be possible to directly invert a full least-squares system matrix involving model sensitivity elements. Thus iterative methods must be employed. For the inverse problem, we favor either a linear or non-linear (NL) CG scheme, depending on the application. In a NL CG scheme, the gradient of the objective function is required at each relaxation step along with a univariate line search needed to determine the optimum model update. Solution examples based on both approaches will be presented.

  12. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  13. Biogeochemistry of a temperate forest nitrogen gradient.

    PubMed

    Perakis, Steven S; Sinkhorn, Emily R

    2011-07-01

    Wide natural gradients of soil nitrogen (N) can be used to examine fundamental relationships between plant-soil-microbial N cycling and hydrologic N loss, and to test N-saturation theory as a general framework for understanding ecosystem N dynamics. We characterized plant production, N uptake and return in litterfall, soil gross and net N mineralization rates, and hydrologic N losses of nine Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests across a wide soil N gradient in the Oregon Coast Range (U.S.A.). Surface mineral soil N (0-10 cm) ranged nearly three-fold from 0.29% to 0.78% N, and in contrast to predictions of N-saturation theory, was linearly related to 10-fold variation in net N mineralization, from 8 to 82 kg N.ha(-1) x yr(-1). Net N mineralization was unrelated to soil C:N, soil texture, precipitation, and temperature differences among sites. Net nitrification was negatively related to soil pH, and accounted for <20% of net N mineralization at low-N sites, increasing to 85-100% of net N mineralization at intermediate- and high-N sites. The ratio of net: gross N mineralization and nitrification increased along the gradient, indicating progressive saturation of microbial N demands at high soil N. Aboveground N uptake by plants increased asymptotically with net N mineralization to a peak of approximately 35 kg N.ha(-1) x yr(-1). Aboveground net primary production per unit net N mineralization varied inversely with soil N, suggesting progressive saturation of plant N demands at high soil N. Hydrologic N losses were dominated by dissolved organic N at low-N sites, with increased nitrate loss causing a shift to dominance by nitrate at high-N sites, particularly where net nitrification exceeded plant N demands. With the exception of N mineralization patterns, our results broadly support the application of the N-saturation model developed from studies of anthropogenic N deposition to understand N cycling and saturation of plant and microbial sinks along natural soil

  14. Microinstrument gradient-force optical trap.

    PubMed

    Collins, S D; Baskin, R J; Howitt, D G

    1999-10-01

    A micromachined fiber-optic trap is presented. The trap consists of four single-mode, 1064-nm optical intersection. The beam fibers mounted in a micromachined silicon and glass housing. Micromachining provides the necessary precision to align the four optical fibers so that the outputs have a common intersection forms a strong three-dimensional gradient-force trap with trapping forces comparable with that of optical tweezers. Characterization of the multibeam fiber trap is illustrated for capture of polystyrene microspheres, computer simulations of the trap stiffness, and experimental determination of the trapping forces.

  15. Grass-Shrub Associations over a Precipitation Gradient and Their Implications for Restoration in the Great Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Holthuijzen, Maike F; Veblen, Kari E

    2015-01-01

    As environmental stress increases positive (facilitative) plant interactions often predominate. Plant-plant associations (or lack thereof) can indicate whether certain plant species favor particular types of microsites (e.g., shrub canopies or plant-free interspaces) and can provide valuable insights into whether "nurse plants" will contribute to seeding or planting success during ecological restoration. It can be difficult, however, to anticipate how relationships between nurse plants and plants used for restoration may change over large-ranging, regional stress gradients. We investigated associations between the shrub, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), and three common native grasses (Poa secunda, Elymus elymoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata), representing short-, medium-, and deep-rooted growth forms, respectively, across an annual rainfall gradient (220-350 mm) in the Great Basin, USA. We hypothesized that positive shrub-grass relationships would become more frequent at lower rainfall levels, as indicated by greater cover of grasses in shrub canopies than vegetation-free interspaces. We sampled aerial cover, density, height, basal width, grazing status, and reproductive status of perennial grasses in canopies and interspaces of 25-33 sagebrush individuals at 32 sites along a rainfall gradient. We found that aerial cover of the shallow rooted grass, P. secunda, was higher in sagebrush canopy than interspace microsites at lower levels of rainfall. Cover and density of the medium-rooted grass, E. elymoides were higher in sagebrush canopies than interspaces at all but the highest rainfall levels. Neither annual rainfall nor sagebrush canopy microsite significantly affected P. spicata cover. E. elymoides and P. spicata plants were taller, narrower, and less likely to be grazed in shrub canopy microsites than interspaces. Our results suggest that exploring sagebrush canopy microsites for restoration of native perennial grasses might

  16. Grass-Shrub Associations over a Precipitation Gradient and Their Implications for Restoration in the Great Basin, USA

    PubMed Central

    Holthuijzen, Maike F.; Veblen, Kari E.

    2015-01-01

    As environmental stress increases positive (facilitative) plant interactions often predominate. Plant-plant associations (or lack thereof) can indicate whether certain plant species favor particular types of microsites (e.g., shrub canopies or plant-free interspaces) and can provide valuable insights into whether “nurse plants” will contribute to seeding or planting success during ecological restoration. It can be difficult, however, to anticipate how relationships between nurse plants and plants used for restoration may change over large-ranging, regional stress gradients. We investigated associations between the shrub, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), and three common native grasses (Poa secunda, Elymus elymoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata), representing short-, medium-, and deep-rooted growth forms, respectively, across an annual rainfall gradient (220–350 mm) in the Great Basin, USA. We hypothesized that positive shrub-grass relationships would become more frequent at lower rainfall levels, as indicated by greater cover of grasses in shrub canopies than vegetation-free interspaces. We sampled aerial cover, density, height, basal width, grazing status, and reproductive status of perennial grasses in canopies and interspaces of 25–33 sagebrush individuals at 32 sites along a rainfall gradient. We found that aerial cover of the shallow rooted grass, P. secunda, was higher in sagebrush canopy than interspace microsites at lower levels of rainfall. Cover and density of the medium-rooted grass, E. elymoides were higher in sagebrush canopies than interspaces at all but the highest rainfall levels. Neither annual rainfall nor sagebrush canopy microsite significantly affected P. spicata cover. E. elymoides and P. spicata plants were taller, narrower, and less likely to be grazed in shrub canopy microsites than interspaces. Our results suggest that exploring sagebrush canopy microsites for restoration of native perennial grasses

  17. Isotopic Fractionation of 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne in a Simulated Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, B.; Dominguez, G.

    2014-12-01

    Computer simulations allow for the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of systems which are difficult or impossible to do experimentally. Isotopic fractionation in thermal gradients is an example of a system which is not fully understood but could provide background for understanding variations in fractionations like those observed for noble gases in terrestrial and extraterrestrial material. Using a recently developed molecular dynamics simulation focused on the accuracy of the simulated physics, the isotopic fractionation of Neon in a thermal gradient was analyzed in order to provide a correlation between the fractionation and the experimental system's properties. Various ratios of isotopes 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne were simulated in a thermal gradient ranging from 218 K to 233 K for a variety of time scales. Data was collected for various configurations including box sizes on the order of 1 nm to 100 μm. The simulated thermal conductivity was determined and compared with known values. The analysis indicates that the dimensions of the box heavily influence the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation in the thermal gradient.

  18. Gradient nonlinearity calibration and correction for a compact, asymmetric magnetic resonance imaging gradient system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S.; Trzasko, J. D.; Gunter, J. L.; Weavers, P. T.; Shu, Y.; Huston, J., III; Lee, S. K.; Tan, E. T.; Bernstein, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to engineering limitations, the spatial encoding gradient fields in conventional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be perfectly linear and always contain higher-order, nonlinear components. If ignored during image reconstruction, gradient nonlinearity (GNL) manifests as image geometric distortion. Given an estimate of the GNL field, this distortion can be corrected to a degree proportional to the accuracy of the field estimate. The GNL of a gradient system is typically characterized using a spherical harmonic polynomial model with model coefficients obtained from electromagnetic simulation. Conventional whole-body gradient systems are symmetric in design; typically, only odd-order terms up to the 5th-order are required for GNL modeling. Recently, a high-performance, asymmetric gradient system was developed, which exhibits more complex GNL that requires higher-order terms including both odd- and even-orders for accurate modeling. This work characterizes the GNL of this system using an iterative calibration method and a fiducial phantom used in ADNI (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). The phantom was scanned at different locations inside the 26 cm diameter-spherical-volume of this gradient, and the positions of fiducials in the phantom were estimated. An iterative calibration procedure was utilized to identify the model coefficients that minimize the mean-squared-error between the true fiducial positions and the positions estimated from images corrected using these coefficients. To examine the effect of higher-order and even-order terms, this calibration was performed using spherical harmonic polynomial of different orders up to the 10th-order including even- and odd-order terms, or odd-order only. The results showed that the model coefficients of this gradient can be successfully estimated. The residual root-mean-squared-error after correction using up to the 10th-order coefficients was reduced to 0.36 mm, yielding spatial accuracy comparable to

  19. Soil degradation factors along a Mediterranean pluviometric gradient in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Diaz, A. Romero

    2010-06-01

    The modifications to soil properties that resulted from changes in water availability along a pluviometric gradient from 240 to 1100 mm mean annual rainfall were investigated. The study was carried out at eight experimental sites in southern Spain and assessed the influence of a reduction in annual average rainfall along the pluviometric gradient on various physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the topsoil, and on the biotic characteristics of the environment. The aims were to assess the soil degradation status, and to determine if any of the soil variables studied could be used as soil degradation indicators. For each experimental site the relationships among a series of edaphic, hydrological and biological properties were investigated, and the principal factors affecting soil degradation were determined using principal component analysis. The properties included the clay, silt and sand content; organic matter; retained organic carbon; salinity; cation exchange capacity; structural stability; USLE K factor; bulk density; saturated hydraulic conductivity; soil moisture; the number of vegetal species; and vegetation cover. The results show that relationships among biotic and abiotic factors control soil degradation processes from wet to semiarid/arid conditions along the Mediterranean pluviometric gradient. A precipitation-based soil degradation threshold of approximately 500 mm year - 1 was established, as below this level the vegetation is no longer associated with the presence of greater soil moisture content, but adapts to degradation, as evidenced by the appearance of xerophytic species.

  20. The influence of substrate stiffness gradients on primary human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Isabel; Michelmore, Andrew; Smith, Louise E; Robinson, David E; Bachhuka, Akash; Mierczynska, Agnieszka; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-07-01

    Materials mechanical properties are known to be an important regulator of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and migration, and have seen increasing attention in recent years. At present, there are only few approaches where the mechanical properties of thin films can be controllably varied across an entire surface. In this work, we present a technique for controlled generation of gradients of surface elastic moduli involving a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) system of approximately 100 nm thickness and time dependent immersion in a solution of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as a crosslinking agent. Uniform surface chemistry across the gradient and wettability was provided by the addition of a 10 nm thick plasma polymer layer deposited from vapour of either allylamine or acrylic acid. We used the resultant stiffness gradients (0.5-110 MPa in hydrated state) to investigate the adhesion, morphology and proliferation on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We show that substrate mechanical properties strongly influence HDF cell fate. We also found that in the experimental range of surface properties used in this study, the surface stiffness was a stronger driving force to cells fate compared to chemistry and wettability.

  1. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  2. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  3. Dropwise Condensation on a Radial Gradient Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macner, Ashley; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul

    2013-11-01

    In transient dropwise condensation from steam onto a cool surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. This study examines how surface functionalization affects drop growth and coalescence. Surfaces are treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact-angle (hydrophilic, neutral, and hydrophobic) or a radial gradient of contact-angles. The time evolution of number-density and associated drop-size distributions are reported. For a typical condensation experiment on a uniform angle surface, the number-density curves show two regimes: an initial increase in number-density as a result of nucleation and a subsequent decrease in number-density as a result of larger scale coalescence events. Without a removal mechanism, the fractional coverage, regardless of treatment, approaches unity. For the same angle-surface, the associated drop-size distributions progress through four different shapes along the growth curve. In contrast, for a radial gradient surface where removal by sweeping occurs, the number-density increases and then levels off to a value close to the maximum number-density that is well below unity coverage and only two shapes of distributions are observed. Implications for heat transfer will be discussed. This work was supported by a NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  4. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  5. Sensitivity of magnetic field gradients over Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykiev, Eldar; Ebbing, Jörg; Brönner, Marco; Fabian, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields from forward calculations of global crustal or lithospheric models cannot be compared easily with spherical harmonic (SH) crustal field models derived from the satellite observations. The reason for this is, that the lithospheric field has a significant part in the low-degree spherical harmonics (n<14) that are dominated by the core field. These low-degree harmonics are commonly zeroed out to retrieve the lithospheric magnetic field. In addition, at satellite height far-field effects from sources outside a regional study affect the long-wavelength part of the magnetic field. Because magnetic field gradients are less sensitive to the long wavelength anomalies, they are also less affected by the far field. However, the gradients still contain information about deep lithospheric structures. We present sensitivity tests based on a synthetic model of the Fennoscandian lithosphere to validate the influence of induced and remanent magnetization in magnetic data at the height of airborne surveys and satellite missions. The use of airborne data and satellite data is complementary because, due to their different height, they are sensitive to different depth domains. To correctly account for global and local aspects of the lithospheric field, our analysis is based on surface discretization by tesseroids (spherical prisms).

  6. Pressure gradient induced generation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse bubbles possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy and industry. Here we provide with a detailed physical description of the bubble formation processes taking place in a type of flow where the liquid pressure gradient can be straightforwardly controlled. In our experiments, a gas flow rate discharges through a cylindrical needle into a pressurized chamber. The pressure gradient created from the exit of the injection needle towards the entrance of a extraction duct promotes the stretching of the gas ligament downstream. In our analysis, which is supported by an exhaustive experimental study in which the liquid viscosity is varied by three orders of magnitude, different regimes can be distinguished depending mainly on the Reynolds number. Through our physical modeling, we provide closed expressions for both the bubbling frequencies and for the bubble diameters as well as the conditions under which a monodisperse generation is obtained in all regimes found. The excellent agreement between our expressions and the experimental data fully validates our physical modeling.

  7. Spatial temperature gradients guide axonal outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Black, Bryan; Vishwakarma, Vivek; Dhakal, Kamal; Bhattarai, Samik; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Jain, Ankur; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-01-01

    Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue. Here, we report that this highly-effective at-a-distance guidance is the result of a temperature field produced by the near-infrared laser light absorption. Since light absorption by extracellular medium increases when the laser wavelength was red shifted, the threshold laser power for reliable guidance was significantly lower in the near-infrared as compared to the visible spectrum. The spatial temperature gradient caused by the near-infrared laser beam at-a-distance was found to activate temperature-sensitive membrane receptors, resulting in an influx of calcium. The repulsive guidance effect was significantly reduced when extracellular calcium was depleted or in the presence of TRPV1-antagonist. Further, direct heating using micro-heater confirmed that the axonal guidance is caused by shallow temperature-gradient, eliminating the role of any non-photothermal effects. PMID:27460512

  8. Spatial temperature gradients guide axonal outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Bryan; Vishwakarma, Vivek; Dhakal, Kamal; Bhattarai, Samik; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Jain, Ankur; Kim, Young-Tae; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-07-01

    Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue. Here, we report that this highly-effective at-a-distance guidance is the result of a temperature field produced by the near-infrared laser light absorption. Since light absorption by extracellular medium increases when the laser wavelength was red shifted, the threshold laser power for reliable guidance was significantly lower in the near-infrared as compared to the visible spectrum. The spatial temperature gradient caused by the near-infrared laser beam at-a-distance was found to activate temperature-sensitive membrane receptors, resulting in an influx of calcium. The repulsive guidance effect was significantly reduced when extracellular calcium was depleted or in the presence of TRPV1-antagonist. Further, direct heating using micro-heater confirmed that the axonal guidance is caused by shallow temperature-gradient, eliminating the role of any non-photothermal effects.

  9. Cortical thickness gradients in structural hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Wagstyl, Konrad; Ronan, Lisa; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    MRI, enabling in vivo analysis of cortical morphology, offers a powerful tool in the assessment of brain development and pathology. One of the most ubiquitous measures used—the thickness of the cortex—shows abnormalities in a number of diseases and conditions, but the functional and biological correlates of such alterations are unclear. If the functional connotations of structural MRI measures are to be understood, we must strive to clarify the relationship between measures such as cortical thickness and their cytoarchitectural determinants. We therefore sought to determine whether patterns of cortical thickness mirror a key motif of the cortex, specifically its structural hierarchical organisation. We delineated three sensory hierarchies (visual, somatosensory and auditory) in two species—macaque and human—and explored whether cortical thickness was correlated with specific cytoarchitectural characteristics. Importantly, we controlled for cortical folding which impacts upon thickness and may obscure regional differences. Our results suggest that an easily measurable macroscopic brain parameter, namely, cortical thickness, is systematically related to cytoarchitecture and to the structural hierarchical organisation of the cortex. We argue that the measurement of cortical thickness gradients may become an important way to develop our understanding of brain structure–function relationships. The identification of alterations in such gradients may complement the observation of regionally localised cortical thickness changes in our understanding of normal development and neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:25725468

  10. Functional evolution of a morphogenetic gradient

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Chun Wai; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie; Ferguson, Edwin L; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) pattern the dorsal-ventral axis of bilaterian embryos; however, their roles in the evolution of body plan are largely unknown. We examined their functional evolution in fly embryos. BMP signaling specifies two extraembryonic tissues, the serosa and amnion, in basal-branching flies such as Megaselia abdita, but only one, the amnioserosa, in Drosophila melanogaster. The BMP signaling dynamics are similar in both species until the beginning of gastrulation, when BMP signaling broadens and intensifies at the edge of the germ rudiment in Megaselia, while remaining static in Drosophila. Here we show that the differences in gradient dynamics and tissue specification result from evolutionary changes in the gene regulatory network that controls the activity of a positive feedback circuit on BMP signaling, involving the tumor necrosis factor alpha homolog eiger. These data illustrate an evolutionary mechanism by which spatiotemporal changes in morphogen gradients can guide tissue complexity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20894.001 PMID:28005004

  11. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children.

  12. The multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatebe, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (MGCG method), which uses the multigrid method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, is proposed. The multigrid method has inherent high parallelism and improves convergence of long wavelength components, which is important in iterative methods. By using this method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, an efficient method with high parallelism and fast convergence is obtained. First, it is considered a necessary condition of the multigrid preconditioner in order to satisfy requirements of a preconditioner of the PCG method. Next numerical experiments show a behavior of the MGCG method and that the MGCG method is superior to both the ICCG method and the multigrid method in point of fast convergence and high parallelism. This fast convergence is understood in terms of the eigenvalue analysis of the preconditioned matrix. From this observation of the multigrid preconditioner, it is realized that the MGCG method converges in very few iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method.

  13. Long gradient mode and large-scale structure observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.

    2017-03-01

    We extend the study of long-mode perturbations to other large-scale observables such as cosmic rulers, galaxy-number counts, and halo bias. The long mode is a pure gradient mode that is still outside an observer's horizon. We insist that gradient-mode effects on observables vanish. It is also crucial that the expressions for observables are relativistic. This allows us to show that the effects of a gradient mode on the large-scale observables vanish identically in a relativistic framework. To study the potential modulation effect of the gradient mode on halo bias, we derive a consistency condition to the first order in gradient expansion. We find that the matter variance at a fixed physical scale is not modulated by the long gradient mode perturbations when the consistency condition holds. This shows that the contribution of long gradient modes to bias vanishes in this framework.

  14. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  15. Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in

  16. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Mahfouz, Remi; Pan, Jun; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2013-05-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols - so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) - are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach.Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size

  17. Three gradients and the perception of flat and curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J E; Millard, R T

    1984-06-01

    Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as one looks from one's feet upward to the horizon. The present article explores three gradients--perspective, compression, and density--and the phenomenal impression of flat and curved surfaces. The perspective gradient is measured at right angles to the axis of tilt at any point in the optic array; that is, when looking down a hallway at the tiles of a floor receding in the distance, perspective is measured by the x-axis width of each tile projected on the image plane orthogonal to the line of sight. The compression gradient is the ratio of y/x axis measures on the projected plane. The density gradient is measured by the number of tiles per unit solid visual angle. For flat surfaces and many others, perspective and compression gradients decrease with distance, and the density gradient increases. We discuss the manner in which these gradients change for various types of surfaces. Each gradient is founded on a different assumption about textures on the surfaces around us. In Experiment 1, viewers assessed the three-dimensional character of projections of flat and curved surfaces receding in the distance. They made pairwise judgments of preference and of dissimilarity among eight stimuli in each of four sets. The presence of each gradient was manipulated orthogonally such that each stimulus had zero, one, two, or three gradients appropriate for either a flat surface or a curved surface. Judgments were made were made for surfaces with both regularly shaped and irregularly shaped textures scattered on them. All viewer assessment were then scaled in one dimension. Multiple correlation and regression on the scale values

  18. Regional Arctic observations of TEC gradients and scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Høeg, Per; Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been growing scientific interest in Arctic ionospheric properties and variations. However our understanding of the fundamental ionospheric processes present in this area is still incomplete. GNSS networks present in Greenland today make it possible to acquire near-real time observations of the state and variations of the high-latitude ionosphere. This data can be employed to obtain relevant geophysical variables and statistics. In our study GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) measurements have been complemented with amplitude scintillation indices (S4), and phase scintillation indices (σφ). The investigation of the relationship between these geophysical variables will likely lead to new ways to study the underlying physical processes and to build tools for monitoring and predicting large-scale patterns in Arctic TEC and scintillations. A number of specific ionosphere events will be presented and the underlying geophysical process will be identified and described. In particular, results will be presented where large-scale gradients in the regional TEC are compared with the growth of scintillations. The statistics of the scintillations will be investigated, with emphasis on how well the scintillations follow the Nakagami-m distribution. The spectra of both the intensities and phase will be calculated, and the corner frequency of these spectra will also be determined. These corner frequencies will be used to compute a number of important geophysical and ionospheric parameters. Furthermore, we will discuss how the spectral characteristics of the scintillations during large TEC gradients vary, and how values of the power spectra slopes change during increasing scintillations. These values will be validated against values found in prior studies. TEC and scintillation time-series and maps will also be presented over the Greenlandic region. We will show how the expansion of the auroral oval during geomagnetic storms can be detected from

  19. Mineral Density Volume Gradients in Normal and Diseased Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  20. Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to {approximately}0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE PAGES

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; ...

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  2. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  3. Development of high-gradient and open-gradient magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, E C

    1981-01-01

    This paper was prepared: to review the accomplishments in both high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) and open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) group during the past three years; to show, through the medium of motion pictures, the operation of the various separation methods and devices used and developed; to show qualitative results of the separation performed; and to make available, to those interested, detailed reports of the experimental procedures and the resulting data. The qualitative separation of pyritic sulfur and ash forming minerals from fine coal by high gradient magnetic separation has been demonstrated at feed rates up to one ton per hour, and in a machine that is commercially produced in sizes for feed rates up to several hundred tons per hour. The quantitative separation of pyritic sulfur and ash forming minerals from fine coal by free fall open gradient magnetic separation has been demonstrated at a laboratory scale and at 300 kg per hour in a solenoidal magnet configuration. A magnet modeling analysis has shown that an optimum magnet can be designed with practical physical constraints which can generate separating forces two to three times those of the existing solenoidal configuration and with a large processing capacity. The analytical predictions of the behavior of particles traversing these separating forces have been experimentally confirmed within 15% in existing magnets.

  4. Hierarchical Assembly of a Dual-responsive Macroscopic Insulated Molecular Wire Bundle in a Gradient System

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yujie; Chen, Qibin; Yao, Junyao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Honglai

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the hierarchical self-assembly of a cationic gemini amphiphile, Azo 1, in a composition gradient solution generated using solvent evaporation. As the gradient solution is formed, Azo 1 forms nanorods in the lower region of the solution. Depending on solvent composition, these nanorods can further develop into nanofibres, which can then intertwine to form double helices and other types of nanohelices in the upper region of the solution. Finally, a macroscopic wire bundle is formed via the fusion of nanohelices; this ribbon-like bundle exhibits elasticity and linear ohmic resistance properties. More intriguingly, this bundle exhibits photoresponsive properties that affect its deformation and conductivity, as well as a rapid electroresponse that affects its conductivity, indicating that it is feasible to control the charge pathway. PMID:25588881

  5. A new conjugate gradient method for unconstrained optimization with sufficient descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussoff, Nurul Hajar Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Mohd, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) methods represent an important computational innovation in solving large-scaled unconstrained optimization problems. There are many different versions of CG methods. Although some methods are equivalent to each other, their performances are quite different. This paper presents a new CG method based on modification of the original CG methods. The important criteria of this new CG method are its global convergence properties. Numerical result shows that this new CG method performs better than the original CG methods.

  6. Color Gradients and Stellar Population Gradients of Early-type Galaxies at z 2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, M.; Cassata, P.; Koekemoer, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of color gradients in massive (stellar mass M>1010 Msun) galaxies with low specific star formation rate (SSFR<10-11/yr) at redshift z 2. The galaxies are selected by means of SED fitting to spectral population synthesis models using the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) broad--band photometry, which spans the optical, near--IR and mid--IR windows, augmented by recent ultra--deep near--IR images obtained with HST WFC3. The estimated stellar mass and SSFR would place these galaxies among today's Hubble early types, while their rest--frame optical morphology, as shown by the WFC3 images, is consistent with that of spheroidal systems. The inner regions of these galaxies are found to have redder rest UV--optical colors than their outer parts. The slope of the color gradient has no obvious dependence on the redshift and stellar mass of the galaxies. It does depend, however, on the overall dust obscuration and rest-frame U-V color of the galaxies mildly, with more obscured or redder galaxies having steeper color gradient. The slope of the color gradient is generally steeper than that of local early-type galaxies. We find that the gradient of a single parameter (age, extinction or metallicity) cannot fully explain the observed color gradient. To study the physical implications of these color gradients, we fit spatially resolved HST seven--bands photometry from ACS and WFC3 images (BVizYJH) in concentric shells across the light profile of each galaxies, sampling the color gradients. Regardless of the assumed metallicity gradient, the redder inner regions always have slightly higher dust obscuration than the bluer outer regions, implying that a dust gradient may partly contribute to the observed color gradients. Because of the age--metallicity degeneracy, the derived age gradient is coupled with the assumed metallicity gradient. We discuss the plausibility and implication of each derived age gradient.

  7. The adaptation rate of a quantitative trait in an environmental gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, R.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial range of a species habitat is generally determined by the ability of the species to cope with biotic and abiotic variables that vary in space. Therefore, the species range is itself an evolvable property. Indeed, environmental gradients permit a mode of evolution in which range expansion and adaptation go hand in hand. This process can contribute to rapid evolution of drug resistant bacteria and viruses, because drug concentrations in humans and livestock treated with antibiotics are far from uniform. Here, we use a minimal stochastic model of discrete, interacting organisms evolving in continuous space to study how the rate of adaptation of a quantitative trait depends on the steepness of the gradient and various population parameters. We discuss analytical results for the mean-field limit as well as extensive stochastic simulations. These simulations were performed using an exact, event-driven simulation scheme that can deal with continuous time-, density- and coordinate-dependent reaction rates and could be used for a wide variety of stochastic systems. The results reveal two qualitative regimes. If the gradient is shallow, the rate of adaptation is limited by dispersion and increases linearly with the gradient slope. If the gradient is steep, the adaptation rate is limited by mutation. In this regime, the mean-field result is highly misleading: it predicts that the adaptation rate continues to increase with the gradient slope, whereas stochastic simulations show that it in fact decreases with the square root of the slope. This discrepancy underscores the importance of discreteness and stochasticity even at high population densities; mean-field results, including those routinely used in quantitative genetics, should be interpreted with care.

  8. Metallicity gradients in local Universe galaxies: Time evolution and effects of radial migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Coccato, Lodovico; Stanghellini, Letizia; Casasola, Viviana; Galli, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Context. Our knowledge of the shape of radial metallicity gradients in disc galaxies has recently improved. Conversely, the understanding of their time evolution is more complex, since it requires analysis of stellar populations with different ages or systematic studies of galaxies at different redshifts. In the local Universe, H ii regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) are important tools to investigate radial metallicity gradients in disc galaxies. Aims: We present an in-depth study of all nearby spiral galaxies (M33, M31, NGC 300, and M81) with direct-method nebular abundances of both populations, aiming at studying the evolution of their radial metallicity gradients. For the first time, we also evaluate the radial migration of PN populations. Methods: For the selected galaxies, we analysed H ii region and PN properties to: determine whether oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for past interstellar medium (ISM) composition; homogenise published datasets; estimate the migration of the oldest stellar populations; and determine the overall chemical enrichment and slope evolution. Results: We confirm that oxygen in PNe is a reliable tracer for past ISM metallicity. We find that PN gradients are flatter than or equal to those of H ii regions. When radial motions are negligible, this result provides a direct measurement of the time evolution of the gradient. For galaxies with dominant radial motions, we provide upper limits on the gradient evolution. Finally, the total metal content increases with time in all target galaxies, and early morphological types have a larger increment Δ(O/H) than late-type galaxies. Conclusions: Our findings provide important constraints to discriminate among different galactic evolutionary scenarios, favouring cosmological models with enhanced feedback from supernovae. The advent of extremely large telescopes allows us to include galaxies in a wider range of morphologies and environments, thus putting firmer constraints on galaxy formation

  9. The ecohydrological interaction of snow and vegetation type along a climate gradient in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Rimkus, S.; Caporali, E.; Burlando, P.

    2011-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the questions of sensitivity of snowpack dynamics, energy, or carbon fluxes with respect to different plant functional types (PFT) in a mountain ecosystem. They are hampered by the sharp microclimate gradients that occur across altitudinal zones and in conditions of complex topography. A mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris, is used to elucidate patterns of carbon and water fluxes across gradients of microclimates and PFTs (grass, deciduous and evergreen trees) typical of an Alpine system. The ecohydrological model is validated to reproduce snowpack dynamics for forested and open sites worldwide using the Snowmip-2 dataset. The model has also been confirmed to reproduce vegetation productivity and energy fluxes for several locations in an Alpine climate or similar conditions (Fluxnet dataset). Two synthetic climate gradients are used. One is representative of a dry alpine internal valley and the other one of a wet exposed mountain side. Synthetic climate gradients are constructed to represent variability of conditions with elevation using ground observations of the Meteo-Swiss network and an hourly weather generator, AWE-GEN. Specifically, observed data permit the parameterization of the weather generator and the simulation of co-variation among the principal climate drivers, i.e., precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and atmospheric pressure for elevation bands from 500 up to 3500 m a.s.l. Forced with different climate conditions, the three PFTs are allowed to evolve across the elevation gradient and for dry and wet conditions. The sensitivity of hydrological and carbon fluxes to the gradients of climate and vegetation types are addressed by simulating 30 years of ecohydrological dynamics. The representation of within canopy wind profile has been found of paramount importance in providing reliable results of vegetation-snow interaction. The approach allows one to infer

  10. Adaptive microfluidic gradient generator for quantitative chemotaxis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anielski, Alexander; Pfannes, Eva K. B.; Beta, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    Chemotactic motion in a chemical gradient is an essential cellular function that controls many processes in the living world. For a better understanding and more detailed modelling of the underlying mechanisms of chemotaxis, quantitative investigations in controlled environments are needed. We developed a setup that allows us to separately address the dependencies of the chemotactic motion on the average background concentration and on the gradient steepness of the chemoattractant. In particular, both the background concentration and the gradient steepness can be kept constant at the position of the cell while it moves along in the gradient direction. This is achieved by generating a well-defined chemoattractant gradient using flow photolysis. In this approach, the chemoattractant is released by a light-induced reaction from a caged precursor in a microfluidic flow chamber upstream of the cell. The flow photolysis approach is combined with an automated real-time cell tracker that determines changes in the cell position and triggers movement of the microscope stage such that the cell motion is compensated and the cell remains at the same position in the gradient profile. The gradient profile can be either determined experimentally using a caged fluorescent dye or may be alternatively determined by numerical solutions of the corresponding physical model. To demonstrate the function of this adaptive microfluidic gradient generator, we compare the chemotactic motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a static gradient and in a gradient that adapts to the position of the moving cell.

  11. Cardiac Imaging for Assessing Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Burwash, Ian G; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Up to 40% of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) harbor discordant Doppler-echocardiographic findings, the most common of which is the presence of a small aortic valve area (≤1.0 cm(2)) suggesting severe AS, but a low gradient (<40 mm Hg) suggesting nonsevere AS. The purpose of this paper is to present the role of multimodality imaging in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging entity referred to as low-gradient AS. Doppler-echocardiography is critical to determine the subtype of low-gradient AS: that is, classical low-flow, paradoxical low-flow, or normal-flow. Patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS generally have a worse prognosis compared with patients with high-gradient or with normal-flow, low-gradient AS. Patients with low-gradient AS and evidence of severe AS benefit from aortic valve replacement (AVR). However, confirmation of the presence of severe AS is particularly challenging in these patients and requires a multimodality imaging approach including low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography and aortic valve calcium scoring by multidetector computed tomography. Transcatheter AVR using a transfemoral approach may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS. Further studies are needed to confirm the best valve replacement procedure and prosthetic valve for each category of low-gradient AS and to identify patients with low-gradient AS in whom AVR is likely to be futile.

  12. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gerard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-04

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  13. Strain gradient plasticity theory applied to machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Raphaël; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gérard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high strain and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation strain-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.

  14. A fast, preconditioned conjugate gradient Toeplitz solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Victor; Schrieber, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A simple factorization is given of an arbitrary hermitian, positive definite matrix in which the factors are well-conditioned, hermitian, and positive definite. In fact, given knowledge of the extreme eigenvalues of the original matrix A, an optimal improvement can be achieved, making the condition numbers of each of the two factors equal to the square root of the condition number of A. This technique is to applied to the solution of hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz systems. Large linear systems with hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz matrices arise in some signal processing applications. A stable fast algorithm is given for solving these systems that is based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm exploits Toeplitz structure to reduce the cost of an iteration to O(n log n) by applying the fast Fourier Transform to compute matrix-vector products. Matrix factorization is used as a preconditioner.

  15. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A cavity structure having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

  16. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  17. Gradient zone erosion in seawater solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Hart, R.A.; Kleis, S.J.; Bannerot, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to examine the feasibility of using seawater solar ponds in mariculture operations along the Texas gulf coast to protect fish crops from the potentially lethal, cold temperatures experienced in outdoor ponds. Seawater solar ponds in the form of floating thermal refuge areas are proposed as a method for reducing the loss of heat from small sections of a pond. Gradient zone erosion under various ambient and operating conditions is examined. Comparisons with previous laboratory studies show a much lower entrainment rate in the natural environment. A simple (linear) correlation of entrainment rate with wind speed was found, for conditions which are typical of those encountered in mariculture pond operations.

  18. Magnon dark modes and gradient memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhu, Na; Marquardt, Florian; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2015-11-01

    Extensive efforts have been expended in developing hybrid quantum systems to overcome the short coherence time of superconducting circuits by introducing the naturally long-lived spin degree of freedom. Among all the possible materials, single-crystal yttrium iron garnet has shown up recently as a promising candidate for hybrid systems, and various highly coherent interactions, including strong and even ultrastrong coupling, have been demonstrated. One distinct advantage in these systems is that spins form well-defined magnon modes, which allows flexible and precise tuning. Here we demonstrate that by dissipation engineering, a non-Markovian interaction dynamics between the magnon and the microwave cavity photon can be achieved. Such a process enables us to build a magnon gradient memory to store information in the magnon dark modes, which decouple from the microwave cavity and thus preserve a long lifetime. Our findings provide a promising approach for developing long-lifetime, multimode quantum memories.

  19. Virulence reaction norms across a food gradient.

    PubMed Central

    Bedhomme, Stephanie; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions involve competition for nutritional resources between hosts and the parasites growing within them. Consuming part of a host's resources is one cause of a parasite's virulence, i.e. part of the fitness cost imposed on the host by the parasite. The influence of a host's nutritional conditions on the virulence of a parasite was experimentally tested using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis. A condition-dependent expression of virulence was found and a positive relation between virulence and transmissibility was established. Spore production was positively influenced by host food availability, indicating that the parasite's within-host growth is limited by host condition. We also investigated how the fitness of each partner varied across the nutritional gradient and demonstrated that the sign of the correlation between host fitness and parasite fitness depended on the amount of nutritional resources available to the host. PMID:15209108

  20. Radiation emitted by transverse-gradient undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Axel; Braun, Nils; Rodríguez, Verónica Afonso; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Widmann, Christina; Scheer, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Conventional undulators are used in synchrotron light sources to produce radiation with a narrow relative spectral width as compared to bending magnets or wigglers. The spectral width of the radiation produced by conventional undulators is determined by the number of undulator periods and by the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam. In more compact electron sources like for instance laser plasma accelerators the energy spread becomes the dominating factor. Due to this effect these electron sources cannot in general be used for high-gain free electron lasers (FELs). In order to overcome this limitation, modified undulator schemes, so-called transverse gradient undulators (TGUs), were proposed and a first superconducting TGU was built at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. In this paper simulations of the expected synchrotron radiation spectral distribution are presented. An experimental test with that device is under preparation at the laser wakefield accelerator at the JETI laser at the University of Jena, Germany.

  1. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dowle, E J; Morgan-Richards, M; Trewick, S A

    2013-01-01

    Species density is higher in the tropics (low latitude) than in temperate regions (high latitude) resulting in a latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). The LBG must be generated by differential rates of speciation and/or extinction and/or immigration among regions, but the role of each of these processes is still unclear. Recent studies examining differences in rates of molecular evolution have inferred a direct link between rate of molecular evolution and rate of speciation, and postulated these as important drivers of the LBG. Here we review the molecular genetic evidence and examine the factors that might be responsible for differences in rates of molecular evolution. Critical to this is the directionality of the relationship between speciation rates and rates of molecular evolution. PMID:23486082

  2. Optimization using the gradient and simplex methods.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Víctor; Cerdà, Juan Luis; Idris, Abubakr M

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally optimization of analytical methods has been conducted using a univariate method, varying each parameter one-by-one holding fixed the remaining. This means in many cases to reach only local minima and not get the real optimum. Among the various options for multivariate optimization, this paper highlights the gradient method, which involves the ability to perform the partial derivatives of a mathematical model, as well as the simplex method that does not require that condition. The advantages and disadvantages of those two multivariate optimization methods are discussed, indicating when they can be applied and the different forms that have been introduced. Different cases are described on the applications of these methods in analytical chemistry.

  3. Magnon dark modes and gradient memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhu, Na; Marquardt, Florian; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been expended in developing hybrid quantum systems to overcome the short coherence time of superconducting circuits by introducing the naturally long-lived spin degree of freedom. Among all the possible materials, single-crystal yttrium iron garnet has shown up recently as a promising candidate for hybrid systems, and various highly coherent interactions, including strong and even ultrastrong coupling, have been demonstrated. One distinct advantage in these systems is that spins form well-defined magnon modes, which allows flexible and precise tuning. Here we demonstrate that by dissipation engineering, a non-Markovian interaction dynamics between the magnon and the microwave cavity photon can be achieved. Such a process enables us to build a magnon gradient memory to store information in the magnon dark modes, which decouple from the microwave cavity and thus preserve a long lifetime. Our findings provide a promising approach for developing long-lifetime, multimode quantum memories. PMID:26568130

  4. Domain wall motion by localized temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Simone; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo; Lopez-Diaz, Luis

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic domain wall (DW) motion induced by a localized Gaussian temperature profile is studied in a Permalloy nanostrip within the framework of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The different contributions to thermally induced DW motion, entropic torque and magnonic spin transfer torque, are isolated and compared. The analysis of magnonic spin transfer torque includes a description of thermally excited magnons in the sample. A third driving force due to a thermally induced dipolar field is found and described. Finally, thermally induced DW motion is studied under realistic conditions by taking into account the edge roughness. The results give quantitative insights into the different mechanisms responsible for domain wall motion in temperature gradients and allow for comparison with experimental results.

  5. Quasi parton distributions and the gradient flow

    DOE PAGES

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2017-03-22

    We propose a new approach to determining quasi parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice quantum chromodynamics. By incorporating the gradient flow, this method guarantees that the lattice quasi PDFs are finite in the continuum limit and evades the thorny, and as yet unresolved, issue of the renormalization of quasi PDFs on the lattice. In the limit that the flow time is much smaller than the length scale set by the nucleon momentum, the moments of the smeared quasi PDF are proportional to those of the lightfront PDF. Finally, we use this relation to derive evolution equations for the matching kernelmore » that relates the smeared quasi PDF and the light-front PDF.« less

  6. Dual-rail optical gradient echo memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, D. B.; Geng, J.; Campbell, G. T.; Hosseini, M.; Cao, M. T.; Sparkes, B. M.; Bernu, J.; Robins, N. P.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a scheme for the parallel storage of frequency separated signals in an optical memory and demonstrate that this dual-rail storage is a suitable memory for high fidelity frequency qubits. The two signals are stored simultaneously in the Zeeman-split Raman absorption lines of a cold atom ensemble using gradient echo memory techniques. Analysis of the split-Zeeman storage shows that the memory can be configured to preserve the relative amplitude and phase of the frequency separated signals. In an experimental demonstration dual-frequency pulses are recalled with 35% efficiency, 82% interference fringe visibility, and 6 degrees phase stability. The fidelity of the frequency-qubit memory is limited by frequency-dependent polarisation rotation and ambient magnetic field fluctuations, our analysis describes how these can be addressed in an alternative configuration.

  7. Background field method in the gradient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In perturbative consideration of the Yang-Mills gradient flow, it is useful to introduce a gauge non-covariant term (“gauge-fixing term”) to the flow equation that gives rise to a Gaussian damping factor also for gauge degrees of freedom. In the present paper, we consider a modified form of the gauge-fixing term that manifestly preserves covariance under the background gauge transformation. It is shown that our gauge-fixing term does not affect gauge-invariant quantities as does the conventional gauge-fixing term. The formulation thus allows a background gauge covariant perturbative expansion of the flow equation that provides, in particular, a very efficient computational method of expansion coefficients in the small flow time expansion. The formulation can be generalized to systems containing fermions.

  8. Observation of temperature-gradient-induced magnetization

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dazhi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Iguchi, R.; Sato, K.; Vehstedt, E. K.; Uchida, K.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Applying magnetic fields has been the method of choice to magnetize non-magnetic materials, but they are difficult to focus. The magneto-electric effect and voltage-induced magnetization generate magnetization by applied electric fields, but only in special compounds or heterostructures. Here we demonstrate that a simple metal such as gold can be magnetized by a temperature gradient or magnetic resonance when in contact with a magnetic insulator by observing an anomalous Hall-like effect, which directly proves the breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Such Hall measurements give experimental access to the spectral spin Hall conductance of the host metal, which is closely related to other spin caloritronics phenomena such as the spin Nernst effect and serves as a reference for theoretical calculation. PMID:27457185

  9. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  10. Error Analysis of Stochastic Gradient Descent Ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2012-12-31

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  11. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  12. A matrix analysis of conjugate gradient algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Gutknecht, M.H.

    1993-04-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the conjugate gradient algorithms Orthodir, Orthomin, and Orthores. To facilitate this exploration, a matrix formulation for each algorithm is given. It is shown that Orthodir directly computes a Hessenberg matrix H{sub k} at step k. Orthores also computes a Hessenberg matrix, G{sub k}, which is similar to a Hessenberg matrix obtained from H{sub k} by perturbing its last column. (This perturbation vanishes at convergence.) Orthomin, on the other hand, computes a UL and LU factorization of the perturbed H{sub k} and G{sub k}, respectively. The breakdown of Orthomin and Orthores are interpreted in terms of these underlying matrix factorizations. A connection with Lanczos algorithms is also examined, as is the special case of B-normal(1) matrices (for which efficient three-term CG algorithms exist).

  13. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  14. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Carder, B.M.

    1998-05-26

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

  15. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  16. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be

  17. Variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities along an altitudinal gradient in rupestrian grasslands in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Etiene Silva; Fernandes, G Wilson; Berbara, Ricardo Luís Louro; Valério, Henrique Maia; Goto, Bruno Tomio

    2015-11-01

    Variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities is described for the first time in rupestrian grasslands in Brazil along an altitudinal gradient of 700 m (800 to 1400 m a.s.l.). Hypotheses tested were that soil properties influence the variation in AMF communities and that the frequency of the most common species of AMF is inversely influenced by the richness of other AMF. Field and laboratory data were collected on AMF community composition, richness, density, and frequency in the altitudinal gradient, and the relationships with several physical-chemical soil properties and altitude were evaluated. Fifty-one species of AMF were recorded, with 14 species being reported as possibly new to science and nine species representing new records for Brazil. This single elevation gradient alone contains 22% of the known world diversity of AMF. Soil properties and AMF community density and richness varied significantly along the elevation (p < 0.05). AMF density and richness were higher at the intermediate altitude, while AMF species composition differed statistically among the altitudes.

  18. Analytic Gradients for the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital Method.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S

    2016-10-11

    The analytic gradient for the Coulomb, polarization, exchange-repulsion, and dispersion terms of the fully integrated effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is derived and the implementation is discussed. The derivation of the EFMO analytic gradient is more complicated than that for the effective fragment potential (EFP) gradient, because the geometry of each EFP fragment is flexible (not rigid) in the EFMO approach. The accuracy of the gradient is demonstrated by comparing the EFMO analytic gradient with the numeric gradient for several systems, and by assessing the energy conservation during an EFMO NVE ensemble molecular dynamics simulation of water molecules. In addition to facilitating accurate EFMO geometry optimizations, this allows calculations with flexible EFP fragments to be performed.

  19. A Cellular System for Spatial Signal Decoding in Chemical Gradients.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Björn; Unger, Michael; Lee, Sung Sik; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; van den Heuvel, Jasmin; Pelet, Serge; Koeppl, Heinz; Peter, Matthias

    2015-11-23

    Directional cell growth requires that cells read and interpret shallow chemical gradients, but how the gradient directional information is identified remains elusive. We use single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to define the cellular gradient decoding network in yeast. Our results demonstrate that the spatial information of the gradient signal is read locally within the polarity site complex using double-positive feedback between the GTPase Cdc42 and trafficking of the receptor Ste2. Spatial decoding critically depends on low Cdc42 activity, which is maintained by the MAPK Fus3 through sequestration of the Cdc42 activator Cdc24. Deregulated Cdc42 or Ste2 trafficking prevents gradient decoding and leads to mis-oriented growth. Our work discovers how a conserved set of components assembles a network integrating signal intensity and directionality to decode the spatial information contained in chemical gradients.

  20. Thermoacoustic mixture separation with an axial temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Drew W; Swift, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    The theory of thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effect of a nonzero axial temperature gradient. The analysis yields a new term in the second-order mole flux that is proportional to the temperature gradient and to the square of the volumetric velocity and is independent of the phasing of the wave. Because of this new term, thermoacoustic separation stops at a critical temperature gradient and changes direction above that gradient. For a traveling wave, this gradient is somewhat higher than that predicted by a simple four-step model. An experiment tests the theory for temperature gradients from 0 to 416 K/m in 50-50 He-Ar mixtures.

  1. Optimal antenna topologies for spatial gradient detection in differential GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jing; Khanafseh, Samer; Langel, Steven; Chan, Fang-Cheng; Pervan, Boris

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes new methods to determine optimal reference antenna topologies for detection of spatial gradients in differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Such gradients can be caused by ionospheric fronts and orbit ephemeris faults, and if undetected, represent major threats to aircraft navigation integrity. Differential carrier phase measurements between ground antennas are highly sensitive to spatial gradients. Therefore, monitors using spatially separated ground antennas have recently attracted great interest. However, they cannot detect gradients of all sizes and directions due to the presence of integer ambiguities. These ambiguities cannot be resolved because the gradient magnitude is unknown a priori. Furthermore, the performance of such monitors is highly dependent on the spatial distribution of reference antennas. In this work, we introduce new methods to find optimized antenna topologies for spatial gradient detection.

  2. Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

  3. Fabrication of macromolecular gradients in aligned fiber scaffolds using a combination of in-line blending and air-gap electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kishan, Alysha P; Robbins, Andrew B; Mohiuddin, Sahar F; Jiang, Mingliang; Moreno, Michael R; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-22

    Although a variety of fabrication methods have been developed to generate electrospun meshes with gradient properties, no platform has yet to achieve fiber alignment in the direction of the gradient that mimics the native tendon-bone interface. In this study, we present a method combining in-line blending and air-gap electrospinning to address this limitation in the field. A custom collector with synced rotation permitted fiber collection with uniform mesh thickness and periodic copper wires were used to induce fiber alignment. Two poly(ester urethane ureas) with different hard segment contents (BPUR 50, BPUR 10) were used to generate compositional gradient meshes with and without fiber alignment. The compositional gradient across the length of the mesh was characterized using a fluorescent dye and the results indicated a continuous transition from the BPUR 50 to the BPUR 10. As expected, the fiber alignment of the gradient meshes induced a corresponding alignment of adherent cells in static culture. Tensile testing of the sectioned meshes confirmed a graded transition in mechanical properties and an increase in anisotropy with fiber alignment. Finite element modeling was utilized to illustrate the gradient mechanical properties across the full length of the mesh and lay the foundation for future computational development work. Overall, these results indicate that this electrospinning method permits the fabrication of macromolecular gradients in the direction of fiber alignment and demonstrate its potential for use in interfacial tissue engineering.

  4. Directional solidification at ultra-high thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Lee, D. S.; Neff, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A high gradient controlled solidification (HGC) furnace was designed and operated at gradients up to 1800 C/cm to continuously produce aluminum alloys. Rubber '0' rings for the water cooling chamber were eliminated, while still maintaining water cooling directly onto the solidified metal. An HGC unit for high temperature ferrous alloys was also designed. Successful runs were made with cast iron, at thermal gradients up to 500 C/cm.

  5. Gradient Driven Flow: Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and Measurement Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    03-200 1 Journal Article (refereed) 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Gradient Driven Flow : Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and...time regime, the collective motion exhibits an onset of oscillation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Diffusion; Fick’s Law; Gradient Driven Flow ; Lattice Gas 16...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 20010907 062 Gradient driven flow : lattice gas, diffusion equation and measurement scales R.B

  6. Numerical simulation of high-gradient magnetic filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, B. A.; Semenov, V. G.; Panchuk, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    We have reported on the results of a numerical simulation of high-gradient magnetic filtration of ultradisperse corrosion products from water coolants. These results have made it possible to establish optimal technical characteristics of high-gradient magnetic filters. The results have been used to develop test samples of high-gradient magnetic filters (HGMFs) with different magnetic systems to purify technological water media of atomic power plants from activated corrosion products.

  7. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Kai-hui; zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Dongliang; Zeng, Yu-Ping

    2011-04-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  8. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1972-01-01

    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.

  9. Functionally gradient hard carbon composites for improved adhesion and wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Roger Jagdish

    A new approach is proposed for fabricating biomedical devices that last longer and are more biocompatible than those presently available. In this approach, a bulk material is chosen that has desirable mechanical properties (low modulus, high strength, high ductility and high fatigue strength). This material is coated with corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, hard, and biocompatible hard carbon films. One of the many forms of carbon, tetrahedral amorphous carbon, consists mainly of sp3-bonded atoms. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon possesses properties close to diamond in terms of hardness, atomic smoothness, and inertness. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond films usually contain large amounts of compressive and sometimes tensile stresses; adhesive failure from these stresses has limited widespread use of these materials. This research involves processing, characterization and modeling of functionally gradient tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond composite films on metals (cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys) and polymers (polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene) used in biomedical applications. Multilayer discontinuous thin films of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum nitride, and tungsten carbide have been developed to control stresses and graphitization in diamond films. A morphology of randomly interconnected micron sized diamond crystallites provides increased toughness and stress reduction. Internal stresses in tetrahedral amorphous carbon were reduced via incorporation of carbide forming elements (silicon and titanium) and noncarbide forming elements (copper, platinum, and silver). These materials were produced using a novel target design during pulsed laser deposition. These alloying atoms reduce hardness and sp3-bonded carbon content, but increase adhesion and wear resistance. Silver and platinum provide the films with antimicrobial properties, and silicon provides bioactivity and aids bone formation. Bilayer coatings were created that couple

  10. Normalized full gradient of full tensor gravity gradient based on adaptive iterative Tikhonov regularization downward continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenna

    2015-07-01

    Normalized full gradient (NFG) method depends on the downward continuation of NFG values of gravity data. In this paper, I deduce an improved NFG method of full tensor gravity gradient (FTG) data by using x-, y- and z-directional analytic signals of FTG data. During the calculation, I introduce the adaptive iterative Tikhonov regularization downward continuation method in the calculation process to improve the stability of the NFG method. The new approach is tested on various model data with and without noise, and satisfactory results are obtained. It demonstrates that the new NFG method of FTG can improve the lateral resolution and describe the gravity bodies in more detail. In addition, the method is applied to a real field FTG data acquired over the Vinton Salt Dome, Louisiana, USA. All results demonstrate that the new method can accurately detect the depth of the geologic sources while providing enhanced information of the sources simultaneously.

  11. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

  12. A Fisher-gradient complexity in systems with spatio-temporal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbona, A.; Bona, C.; Massó, J.; Miñano, B.; Plastino, A.

    2016-04-01

    We define a benchmark for definitions of complexity in systems with spatio-temporal dynamics and employ it in the study of Collective Motion. We show that LMC's complexity displays interesting properties in such systems, while a statistical complexity model (SCM) based on autocorrelation reasonably meets our perception of complexity. However this SCM is not as general as desirable, as it does not merely depend on the system's Probability Distribution Function. Inspired by the notion of Fisher information, we develop a SCM candidate, which we call the Fisher-gradient complexity, which exhibits nice properties from the viewpoint of our benchmark.

  13. Finite Larmor radius effects on the coupled trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.

    2007-09-15

    The properties of the coupled trapped electron and toroidal ion temperature gradient modes are investigated using the standard reactive fluid model and taking rigorously into account the effects attributed to the ion polarization drift and to the drifts associated with the lowest-order finite ion Larmor radius effects. In the flat density regime, where the coupling between the modes is relatively weak, the properties of the unstable modes are slightly modified through these effects. For the peak density regions, where the coupling of the modes is rather strong, these second-order drifts determine the spectra of the unstable modes near the marginal conditions.

  14. Luminance gradient configuration determines perceived lightness in a simple geometric illusion

    PubMed Central

    Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate perception of surface reflectance poses a significant computational problem for the visual system. The amount of light reflected by a surface is affected by a combination of factors including the surface’s reflectance properties and illumination conditions. The latter are not limited by the strength of the illuminant but also include the relative placement of the light illuminating the surface, the orientation of the surface and its 3d shape, all of which result in a pattern of luminance gradients across the surface. In this study we explore how luminance gradients contribute to lightness perception. We introduce a novel, simple lightness illusion. It consists of six separate checks, organized in rows of two. Each check has a negative luminance gradient across it. The top and the bottom rows are the same: with the darker check on the left, and the lighter check on the right. Two checks in the middle row are identical; however, the check on the right appears darker than the check on the left. As there are no shared borders between the checks, simultaneous contrast cannot explain the effect. However, there are multiple possible explanations including spatial filtering (Blakeslee and McCourt, 2004) or some higher-order mechanism such as perceptual grouping or amodal completion. Here, we explore these possibilities by manipulating the luminance configurations and the gradient slopes of the checks. PMID:25538600

  15. Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-Reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Oglęcka, Kamila; Sanborn, Jeremy; Parikh, Atul N.; Kraut, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradients, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling events occur. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental giant unilamellar vesicles through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms to compensate for osmotic stress during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery. PMID:22586404

  16. Osmotic gradients induce bio-reminiscent morphological transformations in giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Oglęcka, Kamila; Sanborn, Jeremy; Parikh, Atul N; Kraut, Rachel S

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol over a range of compositions - both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradients, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling events occur. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental giant unilamellar vesicles through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms to compensate for osmotic stress during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

  17. Biomimetic gradient scaffold from ice-templating for self-seeding of cells with capillary effect

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hao; Wang, Dong; Delattre, Benjamin; Gao, Weiwei; De Coninck, Joöl; Li, Song; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in bone tissue engineering is the search for new materials and processing techniques to create novel scaffolds with 3-D porous structures. Although many properties such as biodegradability and porosity have been considered in designing bone scaffolds, very limited attention is paid to their capillary effect. In nature, capillary effect is ubiquitously used by plants and animals to constantly transport water and nutrients based on morphological and/or chemical gradient structures at multiple length-scales. In this work, we developed a modified freeze-casting technique to prepare ceramic scaffolds with gradient channel structures. The results show that our hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds have interconnected gradient channels that mimic the porous network of natural bone. More importantly, we demonstrate that such a scaffold has a very unique capillary behavior that promotes the self-seeding of cells when in contact with a cell solution due to spontaneous capillary flow generated from gradient channel structures. The strategy developed here provides new avenue for designing “smart” scaffolds with complex porous structures and biological functions that mimic natural tissues. PMID:25871536

  18. What shapes stellar metallicity gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar metallicity gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing sets of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic, stellar-driven winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Moreover, we discuss the impact of additional AGN feedback. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (e.g. MaNGA, CALIFA).

  19. Sequential annealing gradient Gamma-Knife radiosurgery optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ove, Roger; Popple, Richard

    2003-07-01

    Simulated annealing and gradient methods are commonly employed for inverse planning of radiotherapy delivery schemes. Annealing is effective in finding an approximation of the global solution, suffering from slow late convergence and in some cases poor dose homogeneity. Gradient methods converge well but not necessarily to the global minimum. We explored simulated annealing followed by gradient optimization to improve on either method alone, using radiosurgery as the model system. Simulated annealing and gradient inverse planning programs using the same objective function were adapted for radiosurgical optimization. The objective function chosen is a least-squares dose-matching function, with differential weighting of tissues. A simple test target allowing local minima in the objective function was evaluated. Two hundred trials using the gradient method were done. The gradient method approximated the global solution only 12% of the time, commonly finding a local minimum. The annealing-gradient technique converged to the global minimum in 78 out of 80 trials, more efficiently than annealing alone. Dose homogeneity was improved. In conclusion, sequential annealing-gradient optimization can improve on either method alone. The technique may be extensible to radiotherapy inverse planning in general, with benefit expected for problems characterized by slow gradient method convergence and local minima.

  20. Aggregation-fragmentation model of robust concentration gradient formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Timothy E.

    2015-02-01

    Concentration gradients of signaling molecules are essential for patterning during development and they have been observed in both unicellular and multicellular systems. In subcellular systems, clustering of the signaling molecule has been observed. We develop a theoretical model of cluster-mediated concentration gradient formation based on the Becker-Döring equations of aggregation-fragmentation processes. We show that such a mechanism produces robust concentration gradients on realistic time and spatial scales so long as the process of clustering does not significantly stabilize the signaling molecule. Finally, we demonstrate that such a model is applicable to the pom1p subcellular gradient in fission yeast.