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Sample records for properties novye sverkhtyazhelye

  1. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  2. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  3. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Piele, Philip K.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases related to school property. Cases involving citizen efforts to overturn school board decisions to close schools dominate the property chapter, and courts continue to uphold school board authority to close schools, transfer students, and sell or lease the buildings. Ten cases involving detachment and attachment of…

  4. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  5. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  6. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  7. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert D.; Zeller, Trisha A.

    A number of cases related to property issues involving institutions of higher education are examined in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as funding for property and equipment acquisition; opposition to building construction or demolition; zoning issues; building construction and equipment contracts; and lease agreements. Current…

  8. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    This chapter deals with 1981 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving the detachment and attachment of land continue to dominate the property chapter with 11 cases reported, the same number summarized in last year's chapter. One case involving school board referenda raised the interesting question of whether or not a state could…

  9. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  10. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  11. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  12. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  13. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  14. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  15. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  16. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes and analyze all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate…

  17. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    A review of cases involving higher education property matters shows that many are concerned with building construction, equipment installation, or repair contracts. A number of other cases involve routine conflicts between colleges or universities and other governmental entities over matters such as requests for special exceptions to zoning…

  18. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving school property. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In their discussion, the authors attempt to integrate related cases and to illuminate any unifying legal principles…

  19. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Reflecting widespread unhappiness with the growing tax burdens in this country, the most active area of litigation reported in the property chapter this year involves various attempts by taxpayers to prevent the construction or remodeling of public school facilities. While some taxpayers fought to keep schools from being built, others in New York…

  20. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The author notes that controversies over construction bids and contracts continue to represent the largest number of property cases reported in this year's chapter. Most of these cases are routine disputes between colleges or universities and contractors over such issues as the return of bid bonds, recovery of additional costs for construction…

  1. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Johnson, Margaret M.

    While the number of cases dealing with school property issues was significantly lower than in previous years, a significant number of cases involving the detachment and attachment of land to school districts arose. Eight of the eleven cases dealing with land detachment come from Illinois. The cases concerned requests from parents that their…

  2. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    While the types of cases reported in this year's chapter are essentially the same as those reported in last year's, the number of certain types of cases have changed--in some instances significantly. For example, the number of cases raising constitutional issues in the areas of school construction, location, and property use have declined. On the…

  3. Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  4. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  5. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    This chapter, one of seven in the 1973 Yearbook of School Law, reviews the status and development of the law governing school property during 1972. It is based primarily on an analysis of court decisions during that year. The cases divide into (1) those dealing with the acquisition, management, and disposition of school property; and (2) those…

  6. Intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Brown, W M

    2000-01-01

    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).

  7. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. The objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the fourth quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  8. Thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  9. School Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  10. Thermal properties

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The traditional question at the start of a class on thermal properties of wood is, “Does wood burn?” The students have all been warmed in front of a wood-burning fire before, so they are sure the answer is yes—but since the professor asked the question, there must be some hidden trick to the obvious answer. Going with their experience, their answer is “yes, wood burns...

  11. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute "electrical and electronic devices", such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  12. Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Bernd; Bach, Heinz-Gunter; Spitzer, Petra; Obrzut, Jan; Seitz, Steffen

    Electronic materials - conductors, insulators, semiconductors - play an important role in today's technology. They constitute electrical and electronic devices, such as radio, television, telephone, electric light, electromotors, computers, etc. From a materials science point of view, the electrical properties of materials characterize two basic processes: electrical energy conduction (and dissipation) and electrical energy storage. Electrical conductivity describes the ability of a material to transport charge through the process of conduction, normalized by geometry. Electrical dissipation comes as the result of charge transport or conduction. Dissipation or energy loss results from the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy (Joule heating) through momentum transfer during collisions as the charges move.

  13. Property Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  14. Property Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  15. Valuation of Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodley, Joanne H.; Goodenough, Linda

    This report describes property tax revenues and assessment rates for all 50 States during 1966. The following information is summarized by State and by class of property: (1) The total valuation and the taxable valuation of property subject to local general property taxation and the percent distribution of total valuation by class of property; (2)…

  16. GLOSSARY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A glossary of optical property indexing terms used by the Electronic Property Information Center is presented. Twenty eight primary optical property...descriptors and over 180 related terms are carefully defined. A detailed list of property cross references provides a complete index to the glossary .

  17. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  20. GLOSSARY OF ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A glossary of all electronic property indexing terms used by the Electronic Properties Information Center was prepared. In addition, definitions are...to the glossary and to the property term under which data has been indexed by the Center. (Author)...given for those terms subsumed under the main property entry term . A detailed list of cross-references and subsumed terms provides a complete index

  1. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  2. Nanocrystalline coatings properties forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch

    2017-06-01

    The paper considers various properties of nanocrystalline coatings. The methods of determining the surface tension of the deposited coating on the basis of the size dependence of their physical properties. It is shown that predict the mechanical properties of the coatings, their melting point, heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. It can be based on a theoretical evaluation of the surface tension.

  3. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  4. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by...

  5. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  6. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  8. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309... Definitions § 594.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  9. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  10. 31 CFR 588.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.307... General Definitions § 588.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  11. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308... Definitions § 543.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  12. 31 CFR 545.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 545.309... General Definitions § 545.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  13. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 570.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 570.309... Definitions § 570.309 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  15. 31 CFR 588.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 588.308... General Definitions § 588.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  16. 31 CFR 546.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 546.308... Definitions § 546.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  17. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307... Definitions § 551.307 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  18. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  19. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  20. 31 CFR 576.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 576.312... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  1. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  2. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  3. 31 CFR 515.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interests. 515.311... Definitions § 515.311 Property; property interests. (a) Except as defined in § 515.203(f) for the purposes of that section the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not...

  4. 31 CFR 541.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 541.308... Definitions § 541.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  5. 31 CFR 585.304 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 585.304... General Definitions § 585.304 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  6. 31 CFR 538.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 538.310... Definitions § 538.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  7. 31 CFR 537.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 537.315... Definitions § 537.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  8. 31 CFR 575.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 575.315... § 575.315 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not... whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or interest...

  9. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  10. 31 CFR 598.312 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 598.312... General Definitions § 598.312 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest..., contracts of any nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or...

  11. 31 CFR 535.311 - Property; property interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interests. 535.311... Definitions § 535.311 Property; property interests. Except as defined in § 535.203(f) for the purposes of that section, the terms property and property interest or property interests shall include, but not by way...

  12. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308... Definitions § 548.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  13. 31 CFR 595.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 595.310... Definitions § 595.310 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are... nature whatsoever, and any other property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or...

  14. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  15. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  16. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  17. 31 CFR 544.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 544.308... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  18. 31 CFR 540.311 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 540.311... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.311 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank deposits,...

  19. 31 CFR 586.314 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 586.314... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.314 Property; property interest. The terms property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion,...

  20. 31 CFR 547.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 547.308 Section 547.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.308 Property; property interest. The terms property and property...

  1. Molecular Outflows: Observed Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Lane, Adair P.

    Introduction Molecular Outflow Characteristics Recent Developments EHV CO Outflows Luminosity Dependence of Flow Properties and Statistics Optical and Near-IR Observations of Molecular Outflows Outflow Models

  2. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  3. Are mental properties supervenient on brain properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.

    2011-09-01

    The ``mind-brain supervenience'' conjecture suggests that all mental properties are derived from the physical properties of the brain. To address the question of whether the mind supervenes on the brain, we frame a supervenience hypothesis in rigorous statistical terms. Specifically, we propose a modified version of supervenience (called ɛ-supervenience) that is amenable to experimental investigation and statistical analysis. To illustrate this approach, we perform a thought experiment that illustrates how the probabilistic theory of pattern recognition can be used to make a one-sided determination of ɛ-supervenience. The physical property of the brain employed in this analysis is the graph describing brain connectivity (i.e., the brain-graph or connectome). ɛ-supervenience allows us to determine whether a particular mental property can be inferred from one's connectome to within any given positive misclassification rate, regardless of the relationship between the two. This may provide further motivation for cross-disciplinary research between neuroscientists and statisticians.

  4. Mechanical properties of aspen

    Treesearch

    R.P.A. Johnson

    1947-01-01

    The clear wood of aspen has inherent properties of merit. Several of these properties are familiar to a large proportion of the general public, for some of the common types of matches are made of this wood. The requirements of wood for matches are exacting in that the wood must combine straightness of grain, ease of splitting, ease of working, and toughness. To meet...

  5. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  6. Property Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George E., Ed.

    Nine experts examine the nature and administration of the property tax, analyzing its effects on educational opportunity, land use, racial residential patterns, central city finance, neighborhood deterioration, and low income housing. The so-called circuit-breaker, a form of property tax relief that has rapidly come into widespread use, is viewed…

  7. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  8. Tribological Properties Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1990-01-01

    Report reviews adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics - properties increasingly important as more ceramic materials used in bearings, seals, and gears in advanced engines and in cutting tools and extrusion dies. Report considers effects of contaminating surface films, temperature, and chemical interactions. Examines ceramics, in both monolithic and coating form, in contact with themselves, with other harder materials, and with metals.

  9. Mechanical properties of viruses.

    PubMed

    de Pablo, Pedro J; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology techniques have greatly contributed to unveil the relationships between structure, properties and functions of viruses. In recent years, classic structural approaches are being complemented by single-molecule techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers to study physical properties and functions of viral particles that are not accessible to classic structural techniques. Among these features are mechanical properties such as stiffness, intrinsic elasticity, tensile strength and material fatigue. The field of virus mechanics is contributing to materials science by investigating some physical parameters of "soft" biological matter and biological nano-objects. Virus mechanics studies are also starting to unveil the biological implications of physical properties of viruses. Growing evidence indicate that viruses are subjected to internal and external forces, and that they may have adapted to withstand and even use those forces. This chapter describes what is known on the mechanical properties of virus particles, their structural determinants, and possible biological implications, of which several examples are provided.

  10. Organs as inheritable property?

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan; Holm, Soren

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that organs should be treated as individual tradable property like other material possessions and assets, on the basis that this would promote individual freedom and increase efficiency in addressing the shortage of organs for transplantation. If organs are to be treated as property, should they be inheritable? This paper seeks to contribute to the idea of organs as inheritable property by providing a defence of a default of the family of a dead person as inheritors of transplantable organs. In the course of discussion, various succession rules for organs and their justifications will be suggested. We then consider two objections to organs as inheritable property. Our intention here is to provoke further thought on whether ownership of one's body parts should be assimilated to property ownership.

  11. Transport properties of ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, David

    1987-01-01

    The strong long-range interactions between (among) charged species require the inclusion of higher order contributions to the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion) of ionized gases than are required for neutral gases. These higher order contributions have been rewritten so that they are given in terms of universal functions which can be tabulated. Tables which provide for the rapid calculation of some higher order contributions to the transport properties of both ions and electrons are given. Some results which are useful for calculating the higher order contributions to the transport properties of mixtures of ions are also given. These results are applied to the ionic species in air at high temperatures.

  12. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  13. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  14. The Devron property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Max

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a criterion called the Devron property that a discrete dynamical system can possess. The Devron property is said to occur when a class of highly singular inputs of a mapping F are carried by some iterate of F-1 to a class of highly singular inputs of F-1. The inspiration for this definition is the discovery by R. Schwartz that the pentagram map exhibits this kind of behavior. We investigate occurrences of the Devron property in a number of different dynamical systems.

  15. Properties of nonaqueous electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. N.; Hanson, D. C.; Hon, J. F.; Keller, R.; Muirhead, J. S.

    1970-01-01

    Physical property measurements and structural studies conducted in aprotic solvents using various solutes are applicable to the further development of lithum batteries. Structural studies utilize nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques.

  16. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  17. The property 'instinct'.

    PubMed Central

    Stake, Jeffrey Evans

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory and empirical studies suggest that many animals, including humans, have a genetic predisposition to acquire and retain property. This is hardly surprising because survival is closely bound up with the acquisition of things: food, shelter, tools and territory. But the root of these general urges may also run to quite specific and detailed rules about property acquisition, retention and disposition. The great variation in property-related behaviours across species may mask some important commonalities grounded in adaptive utility. Experiments and observations in the field and laboratory suggest that the legal rules of temporal priority and possession are grounded in what were evolutionarily stable strategies in the ancestral environment. Moreover, the preferences that humans exhibit in disposing of their property on their deaths, both by dispositions made in wills and by the laws of intestacy, tend to advance reproductive success as a result of inclusive fitness pay-offs. PMID:15590617

  18. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  19. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aklonis, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties (stress-strain relationships) of polymers are reviewed, taking into account both time and temperature factors. Topics include modulus-temperature behavior of polymers, time dependence, time-temperature correspondence, and mechanical models. (JN)

  1. Higgs Boson Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, André Dührssen, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the measured properties of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Searches for deviations from the properties predicted by the standard theory are also summarised. The present status corresponds to the combined analysis of the full Run 1 data sets of collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  2. Properties of leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-12-01

    The properties of the electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos are reviewed. Three discrepancies in our understanding of those properties are discussed: the lifetime of orthopositronium, the mass spectra of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs produced in heavy ion collisions, and the 1-charged particle modes problem in tau decays. The review concludes with a discussion of what we need to learn about the tau and the consequent need for a tau-charm factory. 68 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  4. The Property Suffix Tree with Dynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelowitz, Tsvi

    Recently there has been much interest in the Property Indexing Problem ([1],[7],[8]), where one is interested to preprocess a text T of size n over alphabet Σ (which we assume is of constant size), and a set of intervals π over the text positions, such that give a query pattern P of size m we can report all of the occurrences of P in T which are completely contained within some interval from π. This type of matching is extremely helpful in scenarios in molecular biology where it has long been a practice to consider special areas in the genome by their structure.

  5. Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina; Bullmore, Daniel; Duran, Michael; Jacobs, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Different synthesizing methods are used to create various nanostructures of carbon; we are mainly interested in single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, (SWCNTs) and (MWCNTs) respectively. The properties of these tubes are related to their synthetic methods, chirality, and diameter. The extremely sturdy structure of CNTs, with their distinct thermal and electromagnetic properties, suggests a tremendous use of these tubes in electronics and medicines. Here, we analyze various physical properties of SWCNTs with a special emphasis on electromagnetic and chemical properties. By examining their electrical properties, we demonstrate the viability of discrete CNT based components. After considering the advantages of using CNTs over microstructures, we make a case for the advancement and development of nanostructures based electronics. As for current CNT applications, it's hard to overlook their use and functionality in the development of cancer treatment. Whether the tubes are involved in chemotherapeutic drug delivery, molecular imaging and targeting, or photodynamic therapy, we show that the remarkable properties of SWCNTs can be used in advantageous ways by many different industries.

  6. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  7. Thermophysical Properties Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a computer generated model of a ground based casting. The objective of the therophysical properties program is to measure thermal physical properties of commercial casting alloys for use in computer programs that predict soldification behavior. This could reduce trial and error in casting design and promote less scrap, sounder castings, and less weight. In order for the computer models to reliably simulate the details of industrial alloy solidification, the input thermophysical property data must be absolutely reliable. Recently Auburn University and TPRL Inc. formed a teaming relationship to establish reliable measurement techniques for the most critical properties of commercially important alloys: transformation temperatures, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, density, solid fraction evolution, surface tension, and viscosity. A new initiative with the American Foundrymens Society has been started to measure the thermophysical properties of commercial ferrous and non-ferrous casting alloys and make the thermophysical property data widely available. Development of casting processes for the new gamma titanium aluminide alloys as well as existing titanium alloys will remain a trial-and-error procedure until accurate thermophysical properties can be obtained. These molten alloys react with their containers on earth and change their composition - invalidating the measurements even while the data are being acquired in terrestrial laboratories. However, measurements on the molten alloys can be accomplished in space using freely floating droplets which are completely untouched by any container. These data are expected to be exceptionally precise because of the absence of impurity contamination and buoyancy convection effects. Although long duration orbital experiments will be required for the large scale industrial alloy measurement program that results from this research, short duration experiments on NASA's KC-135 low

  8. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-04-01

    In this research program, we have adopted the approach that by measuring fundamental properties (i.e, the complex refractive index, m) of the fly ash which participates in the radiation transfer, we can use well established theoretical principles (Mie theory) to compute the radiative properties of dispersions of fly ash as found in coal combustors. With this approach one can, understand the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of an ash dispersion and more confidently predict how variations in the characteristics of the ash dispersion cause variations in its radiative properties. An important criterion in this approach is that the fly ash particles be spherical, homogeneous, and isotropic. Fortunately, fly ash particles are formed at high temperatures at which most of them are molten, leading primarily to spherical particles. Furthermore, one should expect that molten particles will be reasonably homogeneous and isotropic. On cooling, most fly ash particles form glassy spheres which are homogeneous and isotropic. Some ash particles form hollow shells (cenospheres) while others form as particles with bubbles'' or voids, but most fly ash particles are well approximated as homogeneous isotropic spheres. In the following sections we review some of the underlying principles that affect the radiative properties of fly ash dispersions and report on progress that has been made during the past quarter.

  9. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  10. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  11. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  12. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  13. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  14. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  15. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Liu

    2003-02-14

    This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

  16. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet ‘hydrogel’. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. PMID:27877456

  17. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  18. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-12-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  19. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  20. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  1. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  2. Statement on Intellectual Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  3. An intellectual property primer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  4. Immunopharmacological properties of noopept.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Shipaeva, E V; Alekseeva, S V; Pronin, A V; Durnev, A D; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaja, R U; Seredenin, S B

    2007-07-01

    Noopept, a peptide analog of piracetam, enhanced phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages, stimulated humoral and cellular immune response to various antigens, and markedly increased spontaneous proliferative activity of splenocytes. In animals with secondary immune deficiency caused by cyclophosphamide, noopept exhibited immunocorrector properties.

  5. Thermophysical properties of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, A.

    1988-02-01

    The entire report consists of tables of thermodynamic properties (including sound velocity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Prandtl number, density) of argon at 86 to 400/degree/K, in the form of isobars over 0.9 to 100 bars. (DLC)

  6. Properties of Sulfur Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-06

    This report summarizes the state of the art of sulfur concrete . Sulfur concrete is created by mixing molten sulfur with aggregate and allowing the...and many organic compounds. It works well as a rapid runway repair material. Sulfur concrete also has unfavorable properties. It has poor durability

  7. Thermophysical properties of refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Platzer, B.; Maurer, G. ); Polt, A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book summarizes the extensive experimental results available for 16 pure and mixed halogenated hydrocarbons, important working media in organic Rankine cycles and refrigerant processes in industry. Properties like pressure-temperature-density relationship, vapour pressure, enthalphy etc. are correlated by the Bender equation of state for computerized calculations.

  8. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  9. Soot Optical Property Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K. T.; Hassan, M. I.; Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent past studies of soot reaction processes in laminar premixed and nonpremixed flames generally have used the intrusive technique of thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe soot structure and obtain important fundamental information about soot particle properties, such as soot primary particle diameters, the rate of change of soot primary particle diameter as a function of time (or rate of soot surface growth or oxidation), the amount of soot particle reactive surface area per unit volume, the number of primary soot particles per unit volume, and the rate of formation of primary soot particles (or the rate of soot primary particle nucleation). Given the soot volume per unit volume of the flame (or the soot volume fraction), all these properties are readily found from a measurement of the soot primary particle diameter (which usually is nearly a constant for each location within a laminar flame). This approach is not possible within freely propagating flames, however, because soot properties at given positions in such flames vary relatively rapidly as a function of time in the soot formation and oxidation regions compared to the relatively lengthy sampling times needed to accumulate adequate soot samples and to minimize effects of soot collected on the sampling grid as it moves to and from the sampling position through other portions of the flame. Thus, nonintrusive optical methods must be used to find the soot primary particle diameters needed to define the soot surface reaction properties mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, approximate nonintrusive methods used during early studies of soot reaction properties in flames, found from laser scattering and absorption measurements analyzed assuming either Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering from polydisperse effective soot particles having the same mass of soot as individual soot aggregates, have not been found to be an effective way to estimate the soot surface

  10. Mass, Mobility, and the Red Army’s Road to Operational Art, 1918-1936

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    34 associated with the Francophile approach to the teaching of applied tactics which N. N. Golovin championed, were removed thanks to the...germanii," in: Izbrannye proizvedeniia, II, pp. 233-239. 102. G. I. Isserson, Novye formy bor’by (Moscow: Gosvoenizdat, * . 1940 ). Isserson

  11. Antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Beeh, K M; Beier, J; Esperester, A; Paul, L D

    2008-12-03

    Ambroxol is frequently used as mucolytic agent in respiratory diseases associated with increased mucus production like acute or chronic bronchitis. Further, ambroxol is used topically (lozenges) for the treatment of sore throat and pharyngitis associated with common cold. In addition to the effects of ambroxol on mucus regulation and local anaesthetic effects, a wide range of pharmacological antiinflammatory properties of ambroxol have been described in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition or scavenging of oxidative and nitro?sative stress, increase of local defense molecules involved in respiratory virus replication, reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid meta?bolites, inflammatory cell chemotaxis, and lipid peroxidation of tissues. The present review summarizes the antiinflammatory effects of ambroxol and relates these properties to results from controlled clinical trials in targeted diseases such as chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sore throat.

  12. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  13. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  14. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  15. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references.

  16. Monitoring Properties of Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.; Gates, Ann Q.

    1997-01-01

    Development of complex systems requires interaction between a large group of people at various levels of software development, including the communication of properties of the system and the data to be manipulated. A natural idea is to maintain a centralized database of properties of the system to which all members of the development group have access, and to automate the process of checking for violations against this database. The focus of this paper is to discuss such an automated process, called integrity constraint checking. The paper defines the notion of an integrity constraint and discusses considerations for adding an automated checker to a programming language compiler or interpreter. Current work on the implementation of integrity constraint checking in a very high-level language called SequenceL is discussed, and future work in developing a similar checker in an imperative language is outlined.

  17. Optical properties of stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratap Chaudhary, Raghvendra; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-12-01

    Successful synthesis of graphene has created a runaway effect in the exploration of other similar two-dimensional materials. These materials are important as they provide large surface areas and have led to the exploration of new physical phenomena. Even though graphene has exotic electronic properties, its spin-orbit coupling is very weak. Tin, being one of the heaviest elements in this group, is expected to have enhanced spin-orbit coupling in addition to other exotic properties of graphene. Here we report optical signatures of free standing stanene obtained using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Raman measurements were performed on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid. Interlayer spacing, phonon frequencies and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function obtained using first principles methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. Occurrence of parallel bands suggests the possibility of the presence of excitonic effects in stanene.

  18. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  19. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  20. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  1. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  2. Semiconductor Properties Near Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    electron multi- plication with a scintillation counter. This detECtor , described in the appendix, provides very low background without sacrifice of...k ADA095 858 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES F/G 20/12I SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES NEAR INTERFACES.(U) JUL GO0 DB WITTRY. S Y YIN, F GUO...improvements in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer; in the course of the investioations in improved inn detector was developed and a microcomrnu*e

  3. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear wood...

  4. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  5. Thermal properties of nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Philip, John; Shima, P D

    2012-11-15

    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject.

  6. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  9. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1990-10-01

    The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Work is organized under four tasks: Characterization of Flyash: The chemical composition and size distribution of representative flyashes are being measured by appropriate microanalytical techniques; Measurements of the Optical Constants of Slags: Measurements of the infrared optical constants (i.e., the complex reflective index m = n {minus} ik) of synthetic slags are being made as a function of wavelength and temperature for controlled compositions. Particular attention will be given to the contribution of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and its valence state. The data is being reduced to yield formulae giving the complex refractive index over relevant ranges of wavelength and temperatures, as a function of the relevant metal oxide constituents; Sample Calculations of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This component comprises various calculations to guide and evaluate the experimental work under the other three tasks; and Measurement of the Radiant Properties of Flyash Dispersions: This bench-scale experiment is planned to compare the measured radiant properties of a dispersion of well-characterized ash with computations based on data developed under the first two tasks. Progress is described in all areas. 10 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Thermal Properties of Damocloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David; Fernandez, Yanga

    2005-06-01

    We propose to detect the thermal emission from 16 Damocloids. These are apparent asteroids on high-inclination and high-eccentricity orbits that are the dormant or extinct analogs to the Halley-Family (HF) and Long-Period (LP) comets. As such the Damocloids provide a way to study the physical properties of these cometary nuclei by proxy. Normally a HF or LP comet is active to very large heliocentric distances, thus making study of its nucleus problematic. So far we know fundamental properties of only a handful of these comets. Our primary goal is to sample the albedo and size distribution of the Damocloids by using complimentary visible-wavelength observations in concert with the proposed mid-IR program here. By sampling a large fraction of the entire known population of Damocloids, we will be able to make comparisons with the physical properties of both active and extinct Jupiter-family comets. We will look for differences that could be caused by the different evolutionary histories suffered by the two classes of comets. In addition we will search for indications of current and historical cometary activity. Deviations of the object's profile from a point source would indicate remnant low-level outgassing and dust ejection, while dust trails would suggest activity in the near past. Our program represents a first step in exploring this class of objects in the context of Solar System evolution.

  11. Elastic properties of pyrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Bridget; Bass, Jay D.; Rossman, George R.; Geiger, Charles A.; Langer, Klaus

    1991-03-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy was used to measure the single crystal elastic properties of a pure synthetic pyrope and a natural garnet containing 89.9 mol% of the pyrope end member (Mg3Al2Si3O12). The elastic moduli, c ij , of the two samples are entirely consistent and agree with previous estimates of the elastic properties of pyrope based upon the moduli of solid solutions. Our results indicate that the elastic moduli of pyrope end-member are c 11=296.2±0.5, c 12=111.1±0.6, c 44=91.6±0.3, Ks=172.8±0.3, μ=92.0±0.2, all in units of GPa. These results differ by several percent from those reported previously for synthetic pyrope, but are based upon a much larger data set. Although the hydrous components of the two samples from the present study are substantially different, representing both ‘dry’ and ‘saturated’ samples, we find no discernable effect of structurally bound water on the elastic properties. This is due to the small absolute solubility of water in pyrope, as compared with other garnets such as grossular.

  12. Surface properties working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. B.; Cain, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the Mars surface properties working group are described. The objectives were: (1) determine a simple reference surface that would adequately represent the shape of the planet for cartographic purposes; (2) monitor the topographic results and to assess the relative calibration and accuracies of these techniques, thereby leading to a composite topographic map of the planet; and (3) facilitate the exchange of data in closely connected disciplines. The shape, topography, and isobaric surface are discussed along with the gravity field, and crustal density model. It was found that there is no simple reference figure for the planetary surface, although an offset, triaxial ellipsoid is adequate for most purposes.

  13. Tribological properties of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The real area of contact between two solid surfaces is only a small portion of the apparent area. Deformation of these areas can result in solid state contact through surface films. For clean solid to solid contact strong adhesive bonding occurs across the interface. Under these conditions many properties of the solid such as the metallurgical and chemical nature of metals can influence adhesion, friction, and wear behavior. The presence of gases, liquids, and solid films on the surface of solids alter markedly tribological characteristics. These surface films can also considerably change the mechanical effects of solid state contact on bulk material behavior.

  14. Critical properties of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Divesh; Jasper, Ahren W; Schultz, Nathan E; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2006-04-05

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo calculations are performed using a validated embedded-atom potential to obtain the vapor-liquid coexistence curve for elemental aluminum in good agreement with available experimental data up to the boiling point. These calculations are then extended to make a reliable prediction of the critical temperature, pressure, and density of Al, which have previously been known only with very large uncertainties. This demonstrates the ability of modern simulations to predict fundamental physical properties that are extremely difficult to measure directly.

  15. Static Properties of Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Gregory S.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * CHIRAL FIELD THEORY * The Skyrme Lagrangian * Topological Solitons * Symmetries and Currents * THE SKYRMION * The Hedgehog * The Shape Function * The Rotating Soliton * QUANTIZATION * Quantization and Wave Functions * Matrix Elements * STATIC PROPERTIES * Masses * Sizes and Magnetic Moments * Electric and Magnetic Transition Elements * Axial Coupling and the Goldberger-Treiman Relation * More Results and Predictions * DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX A: NOTATION * APPENDIX B: PAULI MATRIX ALGEBRA * APPENDIX C: THE ADJOINT REPRESENTATION OF SU(2) * APPENDIX D: A FEW USEFUL FACTS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  16. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  17. Cosmology and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2008-12-15

    A brief review for particle physicists on the cosmological impact of neutrinos and on restrictions on neutrino properties from cosmology is given. The paper includes a discussion of upper bounds on neutrino mass and possible ways to relax them, methods to observe the cosmic-neutrino background, bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry which are strongly improved by neutrino oscillations, cosmological effects of breaking of the spin-statistics theorem for neutrinos, bounds on mixing parameters of active and possible sterile neutrinos with account of active-neutrino oscillations, bounds on right-handed currents and neutrino magnetic moments, and some more.

  18. Functional properties of vinegar.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgün H; Aykin, Elif; Seydim, Atif C; Greene, Annel K; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2014-05-01

    A variety of natural vinegar products are found in civilizations around the world. A review of research on these fermented products indicates numerous reports of health benefits derived by consumption of vinegar components. Therapeutic effects of vinegar arising from consuming the inherent bioactive components including acetic acid, gallic acid, catechin, ephicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid cause antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering responses. The aims of this article are to discuss vinegar history, production, varieties, acetic acid bacteria, and functional properties of vinegars. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Mohammad J; Fromm, Katharina M; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Rojo, Teofilo; Serpooshan, Vahid; Parak, Wolfgang J; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-10-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials.

  20. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements. DATES: Comments... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative Agreements. OMB Number: 0596-NEW. Type...

  1. Hydrogen technology survey: Thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic functions, transport properties, and physical properties of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen are presented. The low temperature regime is emphasized. The tabulation of the properties of normal hydrogen in both Si and engineering units is given along with the tabulation of parahydrogen.

  2. Land degradation and property regimes

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  3. NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Personal Property Disposal Manual is issued pursuant to Subchapters E and H of the Federal Property Management Regulations and the Space Act of 1958, as amended. It sets forth policy and procedural guidance for NASA personnel for the reporting, utilization, redistribution, and disposal of installation and contractor-held NASA excess and surplus personal property.

  4. Quasiparticle properties in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Euyheon

    2012-02-01

    The quasiparticle properties in both single layer and bilayer graphene are presented. We study the electron self-energy as well as the quasiparticle spectral function in graphene, taking into account electron-electron interaction in the leading order dynamically screened Coulomb coupling and electron-impurity interaction associated with quenched disorder. Our calculation of the self-energy provides the basis for calculating all one-electron properties of graphene. We provide analytical and numerical results for quasiparticle renormalization in graphene. Comparison with existing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements shows broad qualitative and semiquantitative agreement between theory and experiment, for both the momentum-distribution and energy-distribution curves in the measured spectra. We also present the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rate and the carrier mean free path for energetic hot electrons as a function of carrier energy, density, and temperature, including both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. Our results are directly applicable to device structures where ballistic transport is relevant with inelastic scattering dominating over elastic scattering.[4pt] S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407 (2011). [0pt] E. H. Hwang, Ben Yu-Kuang Hu, and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 76, 115434 (2007). [0pt] E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. B 77, 081412 (2008). [0pt] Rajdeep Sensarma, E. H. Hwang, and S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 84, 041408(R) (2011).

  5. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  6. Rhenium material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  7. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  8. Review of Particle Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Hikasa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanabashi, M.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Amsler, C.; Barnett, R. M.; Burchat, P. R.; Carone, C. D.; Caso, C.; Conforto, G.; Dahl, O.; Doser, M.; Eidelman, S.; Feng, J. L.; Gibbons, L.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Groom, D. E.; Gurtu, A.; Hayes, K. G.; Herna`Ndez-Rey, J. J.; Honscheid, K.; Kolda, C.; Mangano, M. L.; Manley, D. M.; Manohar, A. V.; March-Russell, J.; Masoni, A.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Navas, S.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Piepke, A.; Roos, M.; Terning, J.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Trippe, T. G.; Vogel, P.; Wohl, C. G.; Workman, R. L.; Yao, W.-M.; Armstrong, B.; Gee, P. S.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K. S.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cattai, A.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cousins, R. D.; Cowan, G.; Damour, T.; Desler, K.; Donahue, R. J.; Edwards, D. A.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fasso`, A.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Froidevaux, D.; Fukugita, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gilman, F. J.; Haber, H. E.; Hagmann, C.; Hewett, J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hogan, C. J.; Höhler, G.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knowles, I. G.; Kreitz, P.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Landua, R.; Langacker, P.; Littenberg, L.; Martin, A. D.; Nakada, T.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Quinn, H. R.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Razuvaev, E. A.; Renk, B.; Rolandi, L.; Ronan, M. T.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sanda, A. I.; Sarkar, S.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Srednicki, M.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Ward, D. R.; Webber, B. R.; Whalley, M.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Zenin, O. V.

    2002-07-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

  9. Rhenium material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Tensile data were obtained from four different types of rhenium at ambient and elevated temperatures. The four types of rhenium included chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and three powder metallurgy (PM) types, i.e., rolled sheet and pressed and sintered bars, with and without hot isostatic pressure (HIP) treatment. Results revealed a wide range of values with ultimate strengths at ambient temperatures varying from 663 MPa for CVD rhenium to 943 MPa for rolled sheet. A similar spread was also obtained for material tested at 1088 K and 1644 K. The wide variance observed with the different materials indicated that the rhenium manufacturing process, material composition and prior handling strongly dictated its properties. In addition to tensile properties, CVD, pressed and sintered material and HIP rhenium successfully completed 100 cycles of low cycle fatigue. Creep data were also obtained showing that CVD and pressed and sintered rhenium could sustain five hours of testing under a tension of 27.5 MPa at 1922 K.

  10. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  11. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  12. Properties of solid supports.

    PubMed

    Meldal, M

    1997-01-01

    Many supports including composite materials and functionalized surfaces are available for solid-phase synthesis. In the process of selecting the proper support it is important to consider the optimal performance during solid-phase synthesis. For most purposes the mechanically stable beaded gel resins are preferred. These resins are homogeneous, and the loading and physical and chemical properties can easily be varied. Optimal properties have been obtained by radical polymerization of end group acryloylated long-chain polyethylene glycols. However, polystyrene resins or amide bond free PEG-based resins may be more suited for general organic synthesis where reactivity of radicals, carbenes, carbanions, carbenium ions, or strong Lewis acids have to be considered. Loading of the resins can have a dramatic effect on the outcome of a synthesis and has to be considered separately for each synthesis. Synthesis of long peptides with 50-100 amino acids imposes completely different requirements on the performance, swelling, and loading than a large-scale synthesis of, for example, the pentapeptide enkephalin. Automated multiple synthesizers constructed for columns of beaded gel or composite supports are available from many suppliers. It is therefore expected that the optimization of support properties will continue in order to meet new synthetic challenges. In the synthesis for solid-phase screening of binding of biomolecules to ligands directly on the resin beads, it is an advantage if the resin is not permeable to the biomolecule so unbound molecules can easily be removed by washing. This is the case with polystyrene-based resins, but they do, however, often show nonspecific adhesion of proteins owing to the hydrophobic character of the polystyrene. Modification of the functional groups of polystyrene with polyethylene glycol as spacers for synthesis of the binding ligands can increase the available ligand concentration on the bead surface and eliminate most of the

  13. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  14. Properties of subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony; Jozsa, Richard; Benatti, Fabio

    2014-06-15

    Subentropy is an entropy-like quantity that arises in quantum information theory; for example, it provides a tight lower bound on the accessible information for pure state ensembles, dual to the von Neumann entropy upper bound in Holevo's theorem. Here we establish a series of properties of subentropy, paralleling the well-developed analogous theory for von Neumann entropy. Further, we show that subentropy is a lower bound for min-entropy. We introduce a notion of conditional subentropy and show that it can be used to provide an upper bound for the guessing probability of any classical-quantum state of two qubits; we conjecture that the bound applies also in higher dimensions. Finally, we give an operational interpretation of subentropy within classical information theory.

  15. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  16. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  17. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    This is the sixteenth quarterly report under DOE contract No. DE-AC22-87PC 79903 entitled Optical Properties of Flyash.'' Tasks 1 and 2 of this program were funded from September 15, 1987. Tasks 3 and 4 were funded from September 15, 1988. The general aims of this research are to provide a fundamental scientific basis for the physical understanding and reliable calculation of radiative heat transfer in coal combustion systems, particularly as it is influenced by the presence of inorganic constituents deriving from the mineral matter in coal. Some preliminary work in this area has been carried out at Stanford in the past several years with NSF support. The present program will greatly enlarge the scope of this work.

  18. Electronic properties of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.; Kittler, M.; Uebensee, H.; Pippel, E.; Haehnel, A.; Birner, S.

    2016-04-01

    Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase in the drain current of MOSFETs if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight-binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10 % or more—causes locally dramatic changes in the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas, single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.

  19. Electromagnetic properties of baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, T.; Pascalutsa, V.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Martin-Camalich, J.

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the chiral behavior of the nucleon and {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic properties within the framework of a SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our one-loop calculation is complete to the order p{sup 3} and p{sup 4}/{Delta} with {Delta} as the {Delta}(1232)-nucleon energy gap. We show that the magnetic moment of a resonance can be defined by the linear energy shift only when an additional relation between the involved masses and the applied magnetic field strength is fulfilled. Singularities and cusps in the pion mass dependence of the {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic moments reflect a non-fulfillment. We show results for the pion mass dependence of the nucleon iso-vector electromagnetic quantities and present preliminary results for finite volume effects on the iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart A.; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of transcription have recently been shown to play a central role in gene expression. However, a full physical characterization of this central biological process is lacking. In this Letter, we introduce a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation, and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The resulting framework describes the relative amount of RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling that occurs during RNA elongation. Asymptotic behavior is derived and can be used to experimentally extract unknown mechanical parameters of transcription. Mechanical limits to transcription are incorporated through the addition of a DNA supercoiling-dependent RNA polymerase velocity. This addition can lead to transcriptional stalling and resulting implications for gene expression, chromatin structure and genome organization are discussed.

  1. Computational modeling of properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Judy R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model was developed to calculate the electronic transport parameters in disordered semiconductors in strong scattered regime. The calculation is based on a Green function solution to Kubo equation for the energy-dependent conductivity. This solution together with a rigorous calculation of the temperature-dependent chemical potential allows the determination of the dc conductivity and the thermopower. For wise-gap semiconductors with single defect bands, these transport properties are investigated as a function of defect concentration, defect energy, Fermi level, and temperature. Under certain conditions the calculated conductivity is quite similar to the measured conductivity in liquid II-VI semiconductors in that two distinct temperature regimes are found. Under different conditions the conductivity is found to decrease with temperature; this result agrees with measurements in amorphous Si. Finally the calculated thermopower can be positive or negative and may change sign with temperature or defect concentration.

  2. Fundamental properties of resonances.

    PubMed

    Ceci, S; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Percan, A; Zauner, B

    2017-03-27

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own.

  3. [Nutraceutical properties of lycopene].

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Blasco, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, dietary recommendations have suggested an increase in the consumption of foods that contain phytochemicals that provide benefits to human health and play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. Lycopene -the carotenoid responsible for the red color of tomatoes- has attracted attention because of its physicochemical and biological properties in the prevention of chronic diseases in which oxidative stress is a major etiological factor, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and hypertension, among others. Antioxidants, including lycopene, interact with reactive oxygen species, can mitigate their damaging effects and play a significant role in preventing these diseases. This article presents a review of some epidemiological studies published in recent years on beneficial effects of lycopene in human health.

  4. My body, my property.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L B

    1986-10-01

    Two recent cases raise the question: Should the body be considered a form of property? Patients generally do not share in the profits derived from the applications of research on their body parts and products. Nor is their consent for research required so long as the body part is unidentified and is removed in the course of treatment. A market in body parts and products would require consent to all categories of research and ensure that patients are protected from coercion and given the chance to be paid fairly for their contributions. Such a market might force us to rethink our policies prohibiting organ sales. Donors, recipients, and society will benefit from a market in body parts so long as owners--and no one else--retain control over their bodies.

  5. Elastic properties of HMX.

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  7. Physical properties of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of asteroids were studied by telescopic observations and laboratory and theoretical work. Spectrophotometry from 0.3 to 1.1 microns and 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 micron photometry allow spectral-compositional classification of asteroids. Based on laboratory data and telescopic observations, it was found that infrared measurements at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 microns provide a relatively rapid and accurate method for the classification of minor planets and are important in comparing asteroids with meteorites. This technique was proven and employed in an expanded survey of Apollo-Amor-Aten and other unusual asteroids recently scanned by IRAS.

  8. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  9. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  10. Optical properties of flyash

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this task is to validate the whole approach adopted in this program. Specifically, this bench-scale experiment is intended to compare the measured optical/radiative properties of a dispersion of well characterized ash with those calculated on the basis of the known size/composition distribution using the correlation formulae relating the composition and complex refractive index resulting from measurements on bulk samples of synthetic slag. Considerable thought has been given to the various possible approaches to satisfying the objectives of this task. Several experiments were done to guide our design of an apparatus for measuring the scattering and absorption properties of dispersions of flyash. As a result of these experiments, and from extensive prior experience in connection with research on electrostatic precipitation, it has been determined that there is no satisfactory way to satisfy the aims of this task using a gaseous dispersion of flyash because it is not possible to adequately disperse and deagglomerate flyash into a gas stream. Unless the ash is adequately dispersed, as it exists in the radiant boiler of a pulverized coal-fired combustion system, one cannot expect calculations, based on Mie calculations for a dispersion of spheres to properly agree with laboratory measurements. For these reasons, our design efforts are based on making measurements on a dispersion of flyash in liquid, for which our experience shows we can obtain stable, well-deagglomerated dispersions of ash. Because there is not single liquid which is adequately transparent over the wavelength range 1--12 {mu}m, we plan to use a combination of three liquids, C Cl{sub 4}, C S{sub 2} and bromoform to cover the full range. Windows of BaF{sub 2} will be used to contain the liquid suspension in an absorption/scattering cell.

  11. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  12. Dielectric property measurements in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Bussell, Kerri; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to measure the dielectric properties of various materials has been developed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory (EPML) of the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB). Two measurement techniques which have been implemented in the EPML to characterize materials are the dielectric probe and waveguide techniques. Several materials, including some for which the dielectric properties are well known, have been measured in an attempt to establish the capabilities of the EPML in determining dielectric properties. Brief descriptions of the two techniques are presented in this report, along with representative results obtained during these measurements.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmenter, Kelly E.; Milstein, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels' mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels' mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests. Moreover, before the mechanical response

  14. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.

  15. Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    thermal strain for polysilicon (data points) compared with bulk silicon (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Volume 13, Y. S. Touloukian , Editor...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-76 Final Technical Report March 2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS Johns Hopkins University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEMS MATERIALS 6. AUTHOR(S) W. N. Sharpe, Jr., K. J. Hemker - Dept of Mechanical Engineering R. L

  16. Profiling property criminals in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Içli, Tülin Günsen; Seydioğullari, Ibrahim; Tatlidil, Hüseyin; Coban, Sevgi; Sever, Hanifi; Süeroğlu, Unal

    2010-08-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a profile of a thief. Through a comprehensive survey of property crime suspects arrested in the city of Ankara between 2004 and 2005, the authors have attempted to determine the socioeconomic qualities of those involved in these forms of property crimes. Results of the study show that property crimes are a consequence of low education, lack of occupational skills, and alcohol and drug addiction on the part of the offenders. Because of these factors, theft becomes a way of life for offenders after their first act of property crime.

  17. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  18. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  19. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  20. Grepafloxacin: microbiological properties.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Michael S.

    1998-03-01

    Grepafloxacin is a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone characterized by having a methyl-substituted piperazine at the 7 position. It is a water-soluble racemate with both stereoisomers having the same activity. Its mode of action involves inhibition of topoisomerases II and IV. Grepafloxacin is not recognized by the NorA efflux mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus and, thus, some strains of Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to other fluoroquinolones remain susceptible to grepafloxacin. Grepafloxacin has potent in vitro activity against streptococci and staphylococci, respiratory Gram-negative pathogens, atypical respiratory pathogens and sexually transmitted disease pathogens. It combines the positive properties of the beta-lactams against conventional Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory pathogens with the activity of the macrolides against the atypical pathogens. Unlike macrolides, it is bactericidal at concentrations close to the MIC. Its in vitro activity has been reflected in animal models of respiratory tract infections. Concentrations above MICs are maintained throughout nearly all of the 24-h dosing interval. Grepafloxacin provides important improvements over older quinolones and over other classes of antibiotics.

  1. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    PubMed Central

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at −20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism. PMID:27188748

  2. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Ait Mou, Younss; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study.

  3. Exploring cardiac biophysical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Younss Ait; Bollensdorff, Christian; Cazorla, Olivier; Magdi, Yacoub; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is subject to multiple sources of stress. To maintain its normal function, and successfully overcome these stresses, heart muscle is equipped with fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are inherent within the myocardium itself and are known as intrinsic mechanisms. Over a century ago, Otto Frank and Ernest Starling described an intrinsic mechanism by which the heart, even ex vivo, regulates its function on a beat-to-beat basis. According to this phenomenon, the higher the ventricular filling is, the bigger the stroke volume. Thus, the Frank-Starling law establishes a direct relationship between the diastolic and systolic function of the heart. To observe this biophysical phenomenon and to investigate it, technologic development has been a pre-requisite to scientific knowledge. It allowed for example to observe, at the cellular level, a Frank-Starling like mechanism and has been termed: Length Dependent Activation (LDA). In this review, we summarize some experimental systems that have been developed and are currently still in use to investigate cardiac biophysical properties from the whole heart down to the single myofibril. As a scientific support, investigation of the Frank-Starling mechanism will be used as a case study. PMID:26779498

  4. Magnetic Properties of Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraldo, John

    2007-10-01

    The recent development of the superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP) technique has enabled the fabrication of complex molecular-electronic circuits at unprecedented densities. In this project, we explore the possibility of extending this technique to generate comparably dense arrays of nanoscale giant magnetoresistive (GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) devices. My primary contribution to this project has focused on using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), as well as a superconducting interference device (SQUID) magnetometer to monitor the magnetic properties of the devices as they are processed from thin 2D films into nanostructure arrays. This investigation allows us to investigate both fundamental and technological aspects of the nanopatterning process. For example, the effects of changing surface to volume ratios on the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and the role of various patterning techniques in determining surface chemistry and oxidation of the final nanostructures, respectively. Additionally I have worked on simulations of the materials using NIST's OOMF program, allowing me to compare actual results with theoretical expectations. I am also designing a magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) detector, which will allow faster approximations of magnetic behavior.

  5. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  6. The Properties of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruccio, Frank T.

    Scientists and engineers concerned with the environmental aspects of groundwater frequently require a comprehensive reference text that provides an overview of the pertinent problem, appropriate decision making criteria and a guide to relevant references. The Properties of Groundwater, translated from the German by John C. Harvey, is a welcome addition to the select books currently available in this field. The book occupies the niche that lies between Hem's classic Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water (U.S.G.S., Water Supply Pap. 1473, 363, pp., 1970), Stumm and Morgan's Aquatic Chemistry (John Wiley, New York, 780 pp., 1970), and Freeze and Cherry's Groundwater (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 604 pp., 1979). The level of presentation, coupled with the cost, may limit the use of the book to advanced seminar courses and, more appropriately, as a solid reference text for scientists and researchers concerned with water and water quality. The table of contents is well indexed and is structured to allow the reader to review effectively the subject matter.

  7. Opiomelanins synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Rosei, M A

    2001-07-01

    Opiomelanins represent a new class of synthetic pigments produced by the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of opioid peptides and other tyrosine aminoterminal peptides. In contrast with dopamelanin, these polymers are fully soluble in hydrophilic media, due to the presence of the peptide moiety. Opiomelanins show paramagnetism as demonstrated by the EPR spectrum identical to that of dopamelanin. The presence of the aminoacidic chain linked to the melaninic moiety, influences the electron transfer properties of opiomelanins i.e. the ability to oxidize NADH. Like dopamelanin Tyr-Gly-melanin exhibits this behaviour whereas leuenkmelanin does not show any oxidizing potential. Opiomelanins UV-Vis spectrum is characterized by an absorption band at 330 nm which disappears upon acid hydrolysis, H2O2 treatment and under simulated solar illumination. Opiomelanins exhibit a fluorescence emission peaked at 440 and 520 nm if excited at 330 nm. These fluorescence bands are due to the oligomeric units and high molecular weight units, respectively. When opioid peptides are allowed to react with tyrosinase in the presence of an excess of cysteine, cysteinyldopaenkephalins are synthesized. These peptides are furtherly oxidized giving rise to pheoopiomelanins. Reactive oxygen species also are able to oxidize non enzymatically both enkephalins and cysteinyldopaenkephalins, producing the corresponding melanin pigments.

  8. Superparamagnetic Properties of Hemozoin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyushin, M.; Kucheryavih, Yu.; Kucheryavih, L.; Rojas, L.; Khmelinskii, I.; Makarov, V.

    2016-05-01

    We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at ‑20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of the diffusion separation of natural hemozoin nanocrystals in the magnetic field gradient, with μ = 6783 exceeding the value obtained in direct measurements by the factor of 1.8. This difference is interpreted in terms of structural differences between the synthetic and natural hemozoin. The ab initio analysis of the hemozoin elementary cell showed that the Fe3+ ion is in the high-spin state (S = 5/2), while the exchange interaction between Fe3+ electron-spin states was much stronger than kBT at room temperature. Thus, the spin dynamics of the neighboring Fe3+ ions are strongly correlated, lending support to the superparamagnetism.

  9. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  10. Healthy properties of proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Rocío; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Boqué, Noemí; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also named condensed tannins, are the result of flavanols condensation. Oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins can widely be found in the plant kingdom, as in fruits and berries, seeds, flowers, and leaves. They have a putative role as antioxidants, and they affect the inflammatory process via calcium-dependent release of nitric oxide and protect against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation. They also demonstrated a role in cardiovascular diseases via vessel relaxation and LDL oxidation inhibition. These condensed tannins have also shown activities that improve diabetic complications, such as neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy, including a decrease in serum glucose and advanced glycation end products. Furthermore, proanthocyanidins have evidenced anticancer properties by mitigating tumor development through induction of apoptosis or inhibition of cell proliferation. Finally, they are able to produce antiadhesive actions against bacteria in urinary and dental infections, including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. Hence, proanthocyanidins are considered as beneficial molecules in preventing or treating many diseases and pathological conditions. Therefore, finding out more about condensed tannins bioavailability, and understanding the regulatory genes and pathways involved in their effects should be aimed in future research.

  11. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  12. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET ADLEE INVENTORY Physical Properties Data for Rock salt N DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION DJsbTRIuT10IN STATEMENT A DISTRIUTION...Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt )ata Book (see block 18) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. 167RCORGRN NUMBER(n) SH. H. Li, R. A...Chemical properties -Electrical properties --- : Mechanical properties --Optical properties --Magnetic properties -- .1Theruophysical properties -Geological

  13. 31 CFR 593.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 593.308 Section 593.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  14. 31 CFR 542.315 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.315 Section 542.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 542.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 542.308 Section 542.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 548.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 548.308 Section 548.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 549.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 549.308 Section 549.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  3. 31 CFR 543.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 543.308 Section 543.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 558.308 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 558.308 Section 558.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 594.309 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 594.309 Section 594.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 536.310 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property; property interest. 536.310 Section 536.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  12. 31 CFR 552.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 552.307 Section 552.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  13. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  14. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  15. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  16. 31 CFR 510.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 510.307 Section 510.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  17. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 551.307 - Property; property interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Property; property interest. 551.307 Section 551.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. Nuclear properties of mendelevium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The heavy Fm isotopes (/sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm) so far appear to be unique in exhibiting very symmetric mass distributions and anomolously high fragment total kinetic energies. This effect appears to be associated with the Z = 100 proton configuration of the fissioning nuclide which can fission symmetrically into two fragments having the Z = 50 closed-proton shell configuration; /sup 256/Cf which has the same number of neutrons but only 98 protons does not exhibit these fission properties. Furthermore, /sup 259/Md, also having 158 neutrons but with 101 protons, fissions symmetrically but with a normal total kinetic energy. However, the total kinetic-energy distribution is extremely broad, indicating a range of fragment shapes at scission from spherical to highly distorted. It is extremely important to check more nuclides with Z greater than 100 and N greater than or equal to 158 to check the relative importance of the fragement proton and neutron shells. New methods are needed for measurements of half lives of ms or less and for providing positive identification of the Z and A of the fissioning species. Recent experiments indicate that /sup 259/Fm is produced with a 10 to 15 nb cross section in bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 18/O and that therefore extreme caution must be exercised in making assignments. However, transfer or deep inelastic reactions of this kind would appear to offer a good possibility for making the heavier isotopes of Md or Lr for study by bombarding Bk or Es targets with /sup 18/O.

  1. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tye, C.; Neumann, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    Our principal accomplishments in the physical property studies of low-rank coals are the determination of their: (A) relative amounts of tightly and loosely bound moisture, (B) porosity and pore size distribution, (C) mechanical and thermal friabilities, and (D) surface areas. The occurrence of moisture in low-rank coals involves at least two fundamentally different mechanisms for binding the water to the coal matrix. The first type of moisture behaves as if it were ''free''; the vapor pressure versus temperature behavior is similar to that of pure water. The second type occurs at sites where it is bound more tightly, resulting in a lowering of the corresponding vapor pressure. A dielectric-relaxation-spectroscopic investigation of a North Dakota lignite and a subbituminous coal provides direct evidence for the existence of the two types of moisture. Lignite incorporates 80% of its moisture in a loosely-bound form which freezes to ice and the remaining 20% is present possibly chemically bound to inorganic moieties. The subbituminous coal contains only the latter type of bound moisture. Small angle scattering has proven to be a useful and convenient method of studying the pore structure of coal, and yields information related to pore size, pore size distribution, specific surface area and specific volume. Calculation of values for these parameters must be made in terms of some model; a pore model developed at the University of Missouri has proven to be quite useful. The objective in friability studies is to determine the shift in particle size distribution as a result of tumbling or heating. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  3. Who Owns Faculty Intellectual Property?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines definitions of ownership relevant to faculty's intellectual property. Highlights exclusive rights that copyright owners hold under Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act. Notes university initiatives looking into the question of intellectual property. Provides examples of "significant" resources which in the case of public…

  4. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  5. Annealing properties of rice starch.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal properties of starch can be modified by annealing, i.e., a pre-treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below the gelatinization temperatures. This treatment is known to improve the crystalline properties, and is a useful tool to gain a better control of the functional proper...

  6. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Lukashenko, G.M.; Polotskaya, R.I.

    1986-11-01

    The authors determine the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, formation heat, and other thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide by measuring the electromotive force in the 830-960 K temperature range in electrolytes consisting of molten tin and various chlorides. The relationship of these properties to crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  7. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  8. 76 FR 50186 - Surplus Properties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Department of the Army Surplus Properties AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This amended notice provides information regarding the properties that have been determined surplus to the..., 2011, by updating the acreage and contact information as indicated below for the following surplus...

  9. Microbial properties database editor tutorial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbialrelevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pathogens. Physical prop...

  10. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  11. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by…

  12. ICT and Educational Property Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    An international PEB seminar on "Information and Communications Technology and Educational Property Management" was held in Montreal, Canada, from 31 October to 3 November 2004. The aim of this seminar was to examine how information and communications technology (ICT) can be incorporated into educational property management by…

  13. The Structures & Properties of Carbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Olivia M.; Lisensky, George C.; Ehrlich, Jennifer; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    The four main forms of carbon--diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--are an excellent vehicle for teaching fundamental principles of chemical bonding, material structure, and properties. Carbon atoms form a variety of structures that are intrinsically connected to the properties they exhibit. Educators can take advantage of…

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  15. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  16. The Structures & Properties of Carbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellini, Olivia M.; Lisensky, George C.; Ehrlich, Jennifer; Zenner, Greta M.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    The four main forms of carbon--diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--are an excellent vehicle for teaching fundamental principles of chemical bonding, material structure, and properties. Carbon atoms form a variety of structures that are intrinsically connected to the properties they exhibit. Educators can take advantage of…

  17. Property attribution in combined concepts.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2015-05-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns (baby ducks have webbed feet) is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns (ducks have webbed feet). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit properties from their constituent concepts. Experiments 1 and 2 replicate this effect and demonstrate a reversed modification effect with false properties. That is, false properties are judged more likely with modification (e.g., purple candles have teeth is judged more likely than candles have teeth). These experiments also show that properties that are neither generically true nor false are unaffected by modification. Experiments 3 and 4 manipulate participants' expectation of contrast by showing modified and unmodified nouns that either match or mismatch in terms of a property and show that the judged likelihood of properties depends on the expectations of contrast set up by the manipulation. These results show that the modification effect is primarily driven by participants' understanding of the relation of subcategories to categories, rather than by the features of the concepts being combined, suggesting that the process of property attribution in combined concepts is strongly affected by pragmatic factors and is less strongly dependent on conceptual content than most theories of conceptual combination would suggest. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Transport properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the transport properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, measurements of thermal diffusivity and emissivity have been made. In addition to incorporating this new data, new equations have been derived to fit the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity data. This analysis is consistent with the analysis of enthalpy and heat capacity. A new form of equation for the emissivity is also given. The present report comprises the transport part of the UO/sub 2/ portion of section A of the planned complete revision of Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis.

  19. Materials properties data base computerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, R. G.; Donthnier, M. L.; Moran, M. C.; Mortman, I.; Pinter, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Material property data plays a key role in the design of jet engine components. Consistency, accuracy and efficient use of material property data is of prime importance to the engineering community. The system conception, development, implementation, and future plans for computer software that captures the Material Properties Handbook into a scientific data base are described. The engineering community is given access to raw data and property curves, display of multiple curves for material evaluation and selection, direct access by design analysis computer programs, display of the material specification, and a historical repository for the material evolution. The impact of this activity includes significant productivity gains and cost reductions; all users have access to the same information nd provides consistent, rapid response to the needs of the engineering community. Future plans include incorporating the materials properties data base into a network environment to access information from other data bases and download information to engineering work stations.

  20. New steam properties are coming

    SciTech Connect

    Bellows, J.C.; Sewell, J.B.; Friend, D.G.; Harvey, A.H.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.; Parry, W.T.; Sengers, J.V.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The IFC-67 Formulation for Industrial Use for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam (familiar to many from its implementation in the ASME Steam Tables) has served as the international steam property standard for contractual and design calculations in the power industry for 30 years, but is showing its age. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has developed and adopted the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 (IAPWS-IF97) as the successor to IFC-67. While the new property formulation will be a significant improvement, the changeover to IAPWS-IF97 will present major challenges for some users. In particular, there could be large economic impacts on manufacturers and buyers of boilers and turbines if they do not properly account for the new property calculations. This article, in addition to describing the structure and advantages of the new formulation, provides guidance for how to make this changeover as painless as possible.

  1. Distinguishing internal property from external property in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    What determines the ownership of human body parts? In this paper, I argue that this question can be informed by an exploration of the cognitive distinction between property external to the human body such as houses, cars or land, and internal property such as organs that are located within anatomical body confines. Each type of property has distinct brain representations and possibly different effects on the sense of self. This distinction may help explain the divergence in post-donation outcomes seen in different kidney donor populations. Poor outcomes in some types of kidney donors may be due not only to a failure in their proper selection by standard medical testing or post-donation care but may also be a manifestation of differing effects on sense of self resulting from transfer of their internal property. Because a kidney is internal property, a hypothesis worth exploring is that those who experience good outcomes post-donation experience dopaminergic activation and a feeling of reward, while those experiencing bad outcomes are instead overcoming cortisol or adrenergic-based stress or fear responses without a corresponding feeling of reward, disrupting of their sense of self. Discussions about the rules for internal property transfer must be based not only on values and laws designed to govern external property but also on cognitive science-based facts, values and judgments that discussions of external property do not presently accommodate. Any future system of rules for governing organ distribution requires a framework different from that of external property to prevent harm to living kidney donors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dynamic Properties of Polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, George H.

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the dynamic behavior of polyurea at rates of loading that is outside the reach of plate impact and split-Hopkinson bar experiments. This was motivated by the desire to design polyurea-based armors against hypervelocity impacts such as those arising from shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles with speeds in the range of 9,000 to 30,000 ft/s. By employing the laser-induced stress waves, the tensile strength and fracture energy of polyurea were measured at peak strain rate of 10 7s-1. Tensile strength of 93.1 ±5 MPa and fracture energy values of 6.75 (± 0.5) J/m2 were measured. It was also shown that the Time Temperature Superposition Principle holds for polyurea even at strain rates as high as 105s-1. This strain rate is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported recently by the Caltech group (Zhao, et al.). This important finding suggests that blast simulations of large-scale structures and those of armors involving polyurea can be based on constitutive data gathered under quasi-static conditions. This is quite powerful. With a view towards future reach, preliminary experiments were performed to inquire how polyurca behaves in the presence of other armor materials when subjected to impacts in the nanoseconds timeframe. That is, does it synergistically add its intrinsic impact-mitigating properties to other known defeat mechanisms? To this end, sections in which I to 2 mm thick polyurea layers were sandwiched between glass, acrylic, polyurethane, Al, Steel, and PMMA plates were subjected to laser-generated stress waves. The sections were evaluated based on the amplitude and time profile of the stress wave that exited the sections. Both metal plates resulted in a significant reduction in the transmitted stress wave amplitude. This was due to the large impedance mismatch between the polyurea and the metal which essentially resulted in trapping of the stress wave within the incident substrate. An unexpected

  3. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  4. Dielectric properties of battery electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An effort was made to determine the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the terminal properties of electrochemical cells. Various constituents of the battery were measured to determine basic electromagnetic properties. These properties were used to predict how much radiation would be absorbed by a battery in a particular field configuration. The frequency range covered from 0 to 40 GHz with the greatest emphasis on the microwave range from 2.6 to 40 GHz. The measurements were made on NiCd, AgZn, and Pb acid cells. Results from observation show nothing which suggested any interaction between radiation and cells, and no incidence of any peaks of energy absorption was observed.

  5. Mechanical properties of nanophase metals

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.

    1994-11-01

    Nanophase metals have grain-size dependent mechanical properties that are significantly different than those of their coarse-grained counterparts. Pure metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional ones; intermetallics are also strengthened, but they tend toward increased ductility at the smallest grain sizes. These property changes are primarily related to grain size limitations, but they are also affected by the large percentage of atoms in grain boundaries and other microstructural features. Strengthening appears to result from a limitation of dislocation activity, while increased ductility probably relates to grain boundary sliding. A brief overview of our present understanding of the mechanical properties of nanophase metals is presented.

  6. The Mechanical Properties of Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiliang; Shan, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Applications of nanowires into future generation nanodevices require a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the nanowires. A great research effort has been made in the past two decades to understand the deformation physics and mechanical behaviors of nanowires, and to interpret the discrepancies between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. This review focused on the characterization and understanding of the mechanical properties of nanowires, including elasticity, plasticity, anelasticity and strength. As the results from the previous literature in this area appear inconsistent, a critical evaluation of the characterization techniques and methodologies were presented. In particular, the size effects of nanowires on the mechanical properties and their deformation mechanisms were discussed. PMID:28435775

  7. Top properties at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarelli, G.; The CDF Collaboration

    1997-05-01

    We present the latest results associated with top properties at the Tevatron. The large data set collected in four years of running has allowed, after top discovery, the study of various top properties. The results presented here include the measurement of the CKM matrix element {vert_bar}V{sub if}{vert_bar}, the search for top FCNC, the study of properties of W in t decays and the search for heavy states decaying to tt pairs. Future measurements in top physics at the Tevatron are briefly discussed.

  8. Program Supplies Properties Of Parahydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards Parahydrogen Properties Database (NBS+_PH2) computer program developed to provide selected thermal and transport properties of parahydrogen matching 1981 parahydrogen data of National Bureau of Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology). Created to be linked with propulsion-simulation programs, which require mathematical model of parahydrogen covering wide range of pressures and temperatures. Provides data on parahydrogen for pressures from 10 kPa to 16 MPa and temperatures from 20 to 104 K. Provides following properties: density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, Prandtl number, enthalpy, specific heat, and speed of sound. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. Thermometric Property of a Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Fred W.; Woodruff, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple way to implement the thermometric property of a semiconductor diode to produce a thermometer with a nearly linear dependence upon temperature over a wide range of temperatures. (JRH)

  10. Program calculation of thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Walter; Filho, Fernando Fachini; Ribeirodeoliveira, Ronaldo

    1986-12-01

    The determination of the thermodynamic properties are examined through the basic equations such as: state equation (Beattie-Bridgeman Form), saturation pressure equation, specific heat constant pressure or constant volume equation, and specific volume or density of liquid equation.

  11. Microstructure and properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamano, K.

    1984-01-01

    The history of research into the microstructure and properties of ceramic ware is discussed; methods of producing ceramics with particular characteristics are investigated. Bubbles, sintering, cracks, and electron microscopy are discussed.

  12. Thermoelectric Properties of Selenides Spinels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G.; Caillat, T.; Fleurial, J-P.

    2000-01-01

    Many compounds with the spinel structure type have been analyzed for their thermoelectric properties. Published data was used to augment experimental results presented here to select promising thermoelectric spinels.

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WROUGHT TUNGSTEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Mechanical properties of wrought tungsten vol. II. Creep rupture test data from 1500 to 5000 F, and tensile test data from room temperature to 5000 F at various strain rates for tungsten sheet material.

  14. Thermometric Property of a Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Fred W.; Woodruff, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple way to implement the thermometric property of a semiconductor diode to produce a thermometer with a nearly linear dependence upon temperature over a wide range of temperatures. (JRH)

  15. Updated, expanded, fluid properties handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Osugi, J. T.; Sherman, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Revised handbook presents quantitative data, in the form of graphs and charts, pertaining to thermodynamic properties of specific cryogenic fluids and several metals. References to sources of data are cited.

  16. Mechanical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.

    1993-01-01

    A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).

  17. 36 CFR 1002.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning property. (2) Leaving...

  18. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain, preserve...

  19. 36 CFR 261.9 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 261.9 Section 261.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.9 Property. The following are prohibited: (a) Damaging any natural feature or other property...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property. 1207.31 Section 1207.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1207.31 Real property. (a) Title...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1240 - Unattended property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended property. 13.1240 Section 13.1240 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1240 Unattended property. Leaving property, other than motorboats and planes, unattended...

  2. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  3. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which...

  4. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which meets...

  5. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with Federal... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which meets...

  6. 36 CFR 72.40 - Historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic properties. 72.40 Section 72.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN... and Innovation § 72.40 Historic properties. Properties listed in or determined eligible for listing in...

  7. 36 CFR 1207.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 1207.31 Section 1207.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1207.31 Real property. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning property. (2)...

  9. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property abandonment. 767.51 Section 767.51... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Property Abandonment and Personal Property Removal § 767.51 Property abandonment. The Agency will take actions necessary to secure, maintain,...

  10. 28 CFR 70.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 70.32 Section 70.32...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.32 Real property. (a) Title to real property will vest in the recipient subject to the condition that the recipient use the real property...

  11. Thermomechanical properties of Stripa granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L.

    1982-09-01

    The Stripa material properties testing program was initiated to study, by laboratory testing, the thermomechanical behavior of the Stripa rock mass and to provide material properties for input into numerical programs for simulation of the in situ heater experiments at Stripa. Measurement of elastic moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion of dry, intact samples of Stripa granite was completed in fiscal year 1980. A summary of the most significant findings resulting from tests on six samples are presented.

  12. Know your intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Khan, A

    1999-03-01

    Dismissing intellectual property rights as someone else's responsibility may not be prudent. It can jeopardize a company's future business because any new product could be unprotected, or even worse, belong to someone else. This article explains how a little strategic planning and due diligence can help prevent unnecessary legal costs. Much of a company's value can be tied up in intangible assets such as patents, trademarks and copyright, and an intellectual property audit helps assess its true worth.

  13. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    PubMed

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel.

  14. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  15. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of Federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of Federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  16. Acoustical Properties of Mud Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    of the late William Carey and Its objective was to develop a model for the interaction of clay mineral platelets based on fundamental physical...each solid component, a thin platelet of clay minerals with an electric charge distribution due to its chemical, electrical, and material properties...in mud. D. Sediment physical and geoacoustical properties provide estimates of compressional sound speeds versus porosity for eight clay or silty

  17. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  18. Legal ramifications of intellectual property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent government policy changes that have resulted in encouraging or requiring increased intellectual property rights of federally funded research and development activities are examined. The reasons for these changes are discussed, including considerations related to technology transfer, patent rights, copyrights, trade secrets, and computer software issues. The effect of these changes on traditional approaches to the dissemination of federally funded scientific and technical information is considered and predictions concerning future trends in intellectual property rights are given.

  19. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Hui

    2009-01-01

    The 2000–05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications. PMID:20161617

  20. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  1. Dielectric properties of body tissues.

    PubMed

    Pethig, R

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the dielectric properties of various mammalian tissues and biological fluids for the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 GHz. The properties considered are the frequency variations of the relative permittivity and electrical conductivity. An attempt has been made to present data which can be considered to be the most typical for each material. The dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of amino-acids, polypeptides, proteins, and then cells, are first outlined in order to lay the groundwork for the understanding of the properties of tissues. The electrical characteristics of various tissues and blood are presented in tabular and graphical form, and the differences between normal and cancerous tissue is also discussed. The effects of necrosis and temperature changes are described and the important contribution that water makes to the overall properties is emphasised. An insight into some of the dominant physiological and biophysical processes responsible for the dielectric properties of biological materials is also attempted, since this should aid further developments of both the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiofrequency and microwave radiation. Such information is also relevant to an understanding of the possible biological hazards of such radiation. The ways in which dielectric studies can aid an understanding at the molecular level of the basic physiological differences between normal and cancerous tissue, as well as of the physico-chemical state of biological water, are also described.

  2. Mangold Property Management, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mangold Property Management, Inc. (the Company) is located in Monterey, California. The settlement involves the lease of properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Salinas and Monterey, California.

  3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Industry and Agency Concerns Over Intellectual Property Rights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    march in” and grant a license to a third party to use the patent. This action may also be taken to alleviate health and safety concerns . While “march-in...General Accounting Office GAO For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m. Friday, May 10, 2002 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Industry and Agency Concerns Over...Page Report Date 10MAY2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Industry and Agency Concerns Over

  4. 41 CFR 302-3.419 - For what property will my agency pay property management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what property will my agency pay property management services? 302-3.419 Section 302-3.419 Public Contracts and Property....419 For what property will my agency pay property management services? Your agency will only pay for...

  5. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  7. Mechanical properties of graphene papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yilun; Xie, Bo; Zhang, Zhong; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping

    2012-04-01

    Graphene-based paper materials attract particular interests recently owing to their outstanding properties, the key of which is their layer-by-layer hierarchical structures similar to many biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre, combining intralayer strong sp2 bonds and interlayer crosslinks for efficient load transfer. Here we firstly study the mechanical properties of various interlayer and intralayer crosslinks through first-principles calculations, and then perform continuum model analysis for the overall mechanical properties of graphene-based paper materials. We find that there is a characteristic length scale l0, defined as √{Dh0/4G}, where D is the stiffness of the graphene sheet, h0 and G are height of interlayer crosslink and shear modulus respectively. When the size of the graphene sheets exceeds 3l0, the tension-shear (TS) chain model, which is widely used for nanocomposites, fails to predict the overall mechanical properties of the graphene-based papers. Instead we proposed here a deformable tension-shear (DTS) model by considering elastic deformation of graphene sheets, also the interlayer and intralayer crosslinks. The DTS is then applied to predict the mechanical properties of graphene papers under tensile loading. According to the results we thus obtain, optimal design strategies are proposed for graphene papers with ultrahigh stiffness, strength and toughness.

  8. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Wise, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Controlled impact methods have been employed to obtain dynamic response properties of armor materials. Experimental data have been obtained for high-strength ceramics. Continued analysis of time-resolved velocity interferometer measurements has produced systematic material-property data for Hugoniot and release response, initial and post-yield strength, pressure-induced phase transformation, and dynamic fracture strength. A new technique has been developed to measure hydrodynamic properties of ceramic through shock-wave experiments on metal-ceramic composites and data obtained for silicon carbide. Additional data on several titanium diboride ceramics and high-quality aluminum oxide ceramic have been acquired, and issues regarding the influence of microstructure on dynamic properties have emerged. Comparison of dynamic (Hugoniot elastic limit) strength and indentation hardness data has been performed and important correlations revealed. Innovative impact experiments on confined and unconfined alumina rods using axial and transverse VISAR diagnostics have been demonstrated which permit acquisition of multiaxial dynamic response data. Dynamic failure properties of a high-density aluminosilicate glass, similar in composition to the intergranular glassy phase of some aluminas, have been investigated with regard to yield, spall, and failure-wave propagation.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  10. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches.

  11. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution.

  12. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson's ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson's ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  13. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson`s ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson`s ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  14. Property law: a cognitive turn.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2010-04-01

    Despite more than a century of research by psychologists on issues relating to the law, most such research has focused on a small subset of topics relevant to the legal system. Here, I review several legal topics amenable to psychological research that fall under the broad umbrella of property law: (1) how the concepts of property and ownership are represented cognitively; (2) the relationship between wealth and happiness, consumer behavior, and the priming effect of money concepts; (3) animal and child development in cognition about and behavior toward property and ownership; and (4) the relevance of psychological research on home to legal policy. These and other areas provide potential research agendas for cognitive and social cognitive psychologists. After noting the importance of such research for legal doctrine, theory, and policy, I close with suggestions for effectively communicating empirical findings to the legal community.

  15. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Advanced working fluids: Thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Gering, Kevin L.

    1990-10-01

    Electrolytes are used as working fluids in gas fired heat pump chiller engine cycles. To find out which molecular parameters of the electrolytes impact on cycle performance, a molecular theory is developed for calculating solution properties, enthalpies, vapor-liquid equilibria, and engine cycle performance. Aqueous and ammoniac single and mixed salt solutions in single and multisolvent systems are investigated. An accurate correlation is developed to evaluate properties for concentrated electrolyte solutions. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine the impact of molecular parameters on the thermodynamic properties and cycle performance. The preferred electrolytes are of 1-1 valence type, small ion size, high molecular weight, and in strongly colligative cosolvent. The operating windows are determined for a number of absorption fluids of industrial importance.

  17. Viscoelastic Properties of Vitreous Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirouz Kavehpour, H.; Sharif-Kashani, Pooria

    2010-11-01

    We studied the rheological properties of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer. All experiments were performed in a closed environment at body temperature to mimic in-vivo conditions. We modeled the creep deformation using a two-element retardation spectrum model. By associating each element of the model to an individual biopolymeric system in the vitreous gel, a separate response to the applied stress was obtained from each component. The short time scale was associated with the collagen structure, while the longer time scale was related to the microfibrilis and hyaluronan network. We were able to distinguish the role of each main component from the overall rheological properties. Knowledge of this correlation enables us to relate the physical properties of vitreous to its pathology, as well as optimize surgical procedures such as vitrectomy.

  18. Mechanical properties of nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize new materials under controlled conditions with constituent structures on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm). These novel nanophase materials have grain-size dependent mechanical properties significantly different than those of their coarser-grained counterparts. For example, nanophase metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional metals, while nanophase ceramics are more ductile and more easily formed than conventional ceramics. The observed mechanical property changes are related to grain size limitations and/or the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments; they can also be affected by such features as flaw populations, strains and impurity levels that can result from differing synthesis and processing methods. An overview of what is presently known about the mechanical properties of nanophase materials, including both metals and ceramics, is presented. Some possible atomic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior in these materials are considered in light of their unique structures.

  19. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered.

  20. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of defect chalcopyrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chhama; Sharma, Ramesh; Sharma, Yamini

    2017-05-01

    The electronic structure and transport properties of the XIn2Te4 (X=Zn, Cd) compounds using the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method and the semi-classical Boltzmann theory are presented in this paper. The ternary chalcogenides ZnIn2Te4 and CdIn2Te4 are direct band gap semiconductors with a band gap of 1.08 and 1.03 eV respectively. Although the optical properties are very similar, the transport properties of these chalcopyrites differ. From the calculated Hall coefficient, it is found that the tellurides are p-type materials with electron concentration of 8.09×1019 and 4.80×1019 cm-3 respectively. The figure of merit shows variation with temperature in CdIn2Te4, whereas it is nearly constant over the entire temperature range (10-800 K) in ZnIn2Te4.

  2. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  3. Thermal properties of fluorinated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Srinivasan, S. Goverapet; Neek-Amal, M.; Costamagna, S.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-03-01

    Large-scale atomistic simulations using the reactive force field approach are implemented to investigate the thermomechanical properties of fluorinated graphene (FG). A set of parameters for the reactive force field potential optimized to reproduce key quantum mechanical properties of relevant carbon-fluorine cluster systems are presented. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the thermal rippling behavior of FG and its mechanical properties and compare them with graphene, graphane and a sheet of boron nitride. The mean square value of the height fluctuations

    and the height-height correlation function H(q) for different system sizes and temperatures show that FG is an unrippled system in contrast to the thermal rippling behavior of graphene. The effective Young's modulus of a flake of fluorinated graphene is obtained to be 273 N/m and 250 N/m for a flake of FG under uniaxial strain along armchair and zigzag directions, respectively.

  4. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  5. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  6. The optical properties of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T. ); Callcott, T.A.; Chang, Yun-ching Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01

    We review the published data on the optical properties of beryllium for the spectral region from 0.03 to 300 eV. In the visible and infrared spectral regions, where published data from various authors show very large variations, we have performed experiments that identify the most probable sources of error, and use this information to select the best data from published sources. The effects of surface oxide overlayers have also been studied. In the far infrared spectral region, where only normal incidence reflectance data are available, and in the extreme ultraviolet, where only transmission data are available, there is insufficient information to fully determine the optical properties at each photon energy. Between 0.06 and 26 eV, however, a normal incidence reflectance curve is fully determined. This curve has been used for a Kramers{endash}Kronig analysis to determine the optical properties in this spectral range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  8. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  9. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  10. Defining the Flora Family: Orbital properties, reflectance properties and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence; Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g., the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance complicates the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS), color information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and albedo information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to obtain the median orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the median Flora SDSS colors to be a∗ = 0.126 ± 0.007 and i -z =-0.037±0.007 ; the median Flora albedo is pV = 0.291 ± 0.012. These properties allow us to define ranges for the Flora family in orbital and reflectance properties, as required for a detailed dynamical study. We use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 950-170+200 My, with the uncertainty dominated by the uncertainty in the material properties of the family members (e.g., density and surface thermal properties). We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: (1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and (2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change this age

  11. Review: functional properties of kefir.

    PubMed

    Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B; Kok-Tas, Tugba; Greene, Annel K; Seydim, Atif C

    2011-03-01

    Kefir is a unique cultured dairy product due to combined lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of lactose in milk. Kefir is produced by microbial activity of "kefir grains" which have a relatively stable and specific balance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Due to the claimed health benefits of kefir which include reduction of lactose intolerance symptoms, stimulation of the immune system, lowering cholesterol, and antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties, kefir has become an important functional dairy food and consequently, research on kefir has increased in the past decade. In the following review, recent studies on the functional properties of kefir are reviewed.

  12. Glycolipids: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Otto

    This chapter focuses on the occurrence and the physicochemical properties of glycolipids in Nature. Owing to space limitations, the presented overview must be incomplete, and, thus, mainly publications of the past 15 years are included. However, all review articles cited herein inform the interested reader about earlier work. Although lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoarabinomannan (LAM), lipomannan, lipoglycans, and lipoteichoic acids are not understood as glycolipids per definition, their occurrence and properties are also described in this chapter. GPI-anchored lipids is a main topic of Chap. 7.4.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of chlorophyll f.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Cai, Zheng-Li; Chen, Min

    2013-09-26

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorophyll f (newly discovered in 2010) have been measured in acetone and methanol at different temperatures. The spectral analysis and assignment are compared with the spectra of chlorophyll a and d under the same experimental conditions. The spectroscopic properties of these chlorophylls have further been studied by the aid of density functional CAM-B3LYP and high-level symmetric adapted coupled-cluster configuration interaction calculations. The main Q and Soret bands and possible sidebands of chlorophylls have been determined. The photophysical properties of chlorophyll f are discussed.

  14. Quantum Control of Molecular Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, I. R.; Gonzalez-Vazquez, J.; Santamaria, J.; Malinovsky, V. S.; Chang, B. Y.

    2007-12-26

    A general scheme is presented for controlling different molecular properties under strong pulse sequences working in the adiabatic regime. The strong laser pulses create laser induced potentials (LIP). The design of adiabatic schemes allows to move the wave function to the desired LIP. Manipulation of the structure of these LIPs and the starting energy of the wave function in the LIP, allows to control such different properties as bond lengths, vibrational motions, and intramolecular couplings. This work reviews some recent results under a unified frame and explores future applications.

  15. Transport Properties in Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Donald; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-09-01

    At the base of the inner crust of neutron stars, where matter is near the nuclear saturation density, nuclear matter arranges itself into exotic shapes such as cylinders and slabs, called `nuclear pasta.' Lepton scattering from these structures may govern the transport properties of the inner crust; electron scattering from protons in the pasta determines the thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as the shear viscosity of the inner crust. These properties may vary in pasta structures which form at various densities, temperatures, and proton fractions. In this talk, we report on our calculations of lepton transport in nuclear pasta and the implication for neutron star observables.

  16. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Mooney, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers. PMID:22125349

  17. Statistical Properties of Online Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Alireza; Schadschneider, Andreas

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of online auctions run on eBay. Both stationary and dynamic properties, like distributions of prices, number of bids etc., as well as relations between these quantities are studied. The analysis of the data reveals surprisingly simple distributions and relations, typically of power-law form. Based on these findings we introduce a simple method to identify suspicious auctions that could be influenced by a form of fraud known as shill bidding. Furthermore the influence of bidding strategies is discussed. The results indicate that the observed behavior is related to a mixture of agents using a variety of strategies.

  18. Getting smart about intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    Intellectual Property, particularly a patent portfolio, is a critical part of many companies' assets. Yet many of these companies act dumb when it comes to Intellectual Property. Blundering forward without a plan or a manager, the company may throw money at a patent attorney pursuing a patent of little value; it may fool itself into thinking it has protection with a "provisional patent" it may fail to act in a timely fashion and lose its rights to a valuable patent. This paper highlights some of the mistakes some companies make so that you can avoid falling into the same pitfalls.

  19. General properties of nonsignaling theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masanes, Ll.; Acin, A.; Gisin, N.

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies a series of properties common to all theories that do not allow for superluminal signaling and predict the violation of Bell inequalities. Intrinsic randomness, uncertainty due to the incompatibility of two observables, monogamy of correlations, impossibility of perfect cloning, privacy of correlations, bounds in the shareability of some states; all these phenomena are solely a consequence of the no-signaling principle and nonlocality. In particular, it is shown that for any distribution, the properties of (i) nonlocal, (ii) no arbitrarily shareable, and (iii) positive secrecy content are equivalent.

  20. 48 CFR 53.245 - Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property. 53.245 Section 53.245 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... property and in accounting for this property: (a) SF 120 (GSA), Report of Excess Personal Property, and...

  1. 28 CFR 551.118 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 551.118 Section 551.118... Pretrial Inmates § 551.118 Property. (a) A pretrial inmate may retain personal property as authorized for... store the pretrial inmate's unauthorized personal property until the individual is released, transferred...

  2. 2 CFR 215.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real property. 215.32 Section 215.32 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.32 Real property. Each... real property acquired in whole or in part under awards. Unless otherwise provided by statute, such...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intangible property. 2543.36 Section 2543.36... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.36 Intangible property. (a) The recipient may... commercial organizations. (e) Title to intangible property and debt instruments acquired under an award or...

  4. 32 CFR 37.1345 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 37.1345 Section 37.1345 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1345 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless stated otherwise. ...

  5. 29 CFR 1470.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property. 1470.31 Section 1470.31 Labor Regulations... Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1470.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest...

  6. 24 CFR 257.108 - Eligible properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible properties. 257.108... properties. (a) A mortgage may be insured under the H4H program only if the property that is to be the security for the mortgage is a one-to-four unit residence. (b) The following property types are eligible to...

  7. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which is...

  8. 24 CFR 206.45 - Eligible properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible properties. 206.45 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Properties § 206.45 Eligible properties. (a... specify other acceptable forms of title evidence in lieu of title insurance. (b) Type of property. The...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 2543.32 Section 2543.32 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.32 Real property. Each Federal awarding agency shall prescribe requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired...

  10. 24 CFR 8.31 - Historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historic properties. 8.31 Section 8... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.31 Historic properties. If historic properties become... the UDAG program the requirements of 36 CFR part 801 shall apply. Accessibility to historic properties...

  11. 20 CFR 435.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property. 435.32 Section 435.32... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.32 Real property. SSA will prescribe requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired in whole or in part under...

  12. 13 CFR 143.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real property. 143.31 Section 143..., Property, and Subawards § 143.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon...

  13. 45 CFR 2541.310 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 2541.310 Section 2541.310 Public... Changes, Property and Subawards § 2541.310 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest...

  14. 24 CFR 203.42 - Rental properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental properties. 203.42 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Properties § 203.42 Rental properties. (a) A mortgage on property upon which there is a dwelling to be rented by the...

  15. 24 CFR 84.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property. 84.32 Section 84.32... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 84.32 Real property. HUD prescribes the following requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property...

  16. 10 CFR 603.1315 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property. 603.1315 Section 603.1315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1315 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless...

  17. 43 CFR 12.71 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 12.71 Section 12.71 Public... to State and Local Governments Changes, Property, and Subawards § 12.71 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under...

  18. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property...

  19. 36 CFR 2.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 2.22 Section 2.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Abandoning...

  20. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  1. 48 CFR 970.5245-1 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... property management system in accordance with paragraph (i)(1) of this clause. (ii) If, after an initial... this contract. (i) Property Management—(1) Property Management System. (i) The Contractor shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property....

  2. 32 CFR 32.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.32 Real property. Each DoD... compensates the Federal Government for that percentage of the current fair market value of the property... of the current fair market value of the property attributable to the Federal participation in the...

  3. 38 CFR 49.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.32 Real property. Each... compensates the Federal Government for that percentage of the current fair market value of the property... percentage of the current fair market value of the property attributable to the Federal participation in the...

  4. 15 CFR 24.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purchase to the fair market value of the property. However, in those situations where a grantee or... directed to sell property, sales procedures shall be followed that provide for competition to the extent... purchase of the real property to the current fair market value of the property....

  5. 10 CFR 603.1315 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Property. 603.1315 Section 603.1315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1315 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless...

  6. 10 CFR 603.1315 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Property. 603.1315 Section 603.1315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1315 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless...

  7. 10 CFR 603.1315 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Property. 603.1315 Section 603.1315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1315 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless...

  8. 10 CFR 603.1315 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property. 603.1315 Section 603.1315 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1315 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless...

  9. 49 CFR 19.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intangible property. 19.36 Section 19.36... Requirements Property Standards § 19.36 Intangible property. (a) The recipient may copyright any work that is... intangible property and debt instruments acquired under an award or subaward vests upon acquisition in...

  10. 45 CFR 74.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Real property. 74.32 Section 74.32 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.32 Real property. (a) Title to real property shall vest in the recipient subject to the condition that the recipient shall use the...

  11. 49 CFR 19.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Real property. 19.32 Section 19.32 Transportation... Requirements Property Standards § 19.32 Real property. Each Federal awarding agency shall prescribe requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired in whole or in...

  12. 24 CFR 203.42 - Rental properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rental properties. 203.42 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Properties § 203.42 Rental properties. (a) A mortgage on property upon which there is a dwelling to be rented by...

  13. 28 CFR 551.118 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property. 551.118 Section 551.118... Pretrial Inmates § 551.118 Property. (a) A pretrial inmate may retain personal property as authorized for... store the pretrial inmate's unauthorized personal property until the individual is released,...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intangible property. 1210.36 Section 1210.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  15. 36 CFR 1210.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 1210.32 Section 1210.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  16. 22 CFR 518.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Intangible property. 518.36 Section 518.36... Requirements Property Standards § 518.36 Intangible property. (a) The recipient may copyright any work that is..., reproduce, publish, or otherwise use such data for Federal purposes. (d) Title to intangible property...

  17. 36 CFR 2.22 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property. 2.22 Section 2.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.22 Property. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  18. 45 CFR 92.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Real property. 92.31 Section 92.31 Public Welfare..., Property, and Subawards § 92.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest...

  19. 28 CFR 70.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intangible property. 70.36 Section 70.36...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.36 Intangible property. (a) The...) Title to intangible property and debt instruments acquired under an award or subaward vests...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5245-1 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property. 970.5245-1... and Operating Contracts 970.5245-1 Property. As prescribed in 970.4501-1(a), insert the following clause: Property (DEC 2000) (a) Furnishing of Government property. The Government reserves the right...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.132 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Real property. 1260.132 Section 1260.132..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.132 Real property. Unless otherwise provided by statute, the requirements concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired in...

  2. 32 CFR 37.1345 - Property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property. 37.1345 Section 37.1345 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1345 Property. Real property, equipment, supplies, and intellectual property, unless stated otherwise....

  3. 45 CFR 74.36 - Intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intangible property. 74.36 Section 74.36 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.36 Intangible property... commercial organizations. (e) Title to intangible property and debt instruments purchased or...

  4. 24 CFR 257.108 - Eligible properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible properties. 257.108... properties. (a) A mortgage may be insured under the H4H program only if the property that is to be the security for the mortgage is a one-to-four unit residence. (b) The following property types are eligible...

  5. 24 CFR 206.45 - Eligible properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible properties. 206.45 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Properties § 206.45 Eligible properties. (a... specify other acceptable forms of title evidence in lieu of title insurance. (b) Type of property....

  6. 22 CFR 518.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Real property. 518.32 Section 518.32 Foreign... Property Standards § 518.32 Real property. Each Federal awarding agency shall prescribe requirements for recipients concerning the use and disposition of real property acquired in whole or in part under...

  7. 7 CFR 3016.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real property. 3016.31 Section 3016.31 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 3016.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired...

  8. 7 CFR 3015.163 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real property. 3015.163 Section 3015.163 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Property § 3015.163 Real property. Except as stated otherwise by Federal statutes, real property applicable to this subpart shall be subject to the...

  9. 24 CFR 882.401 - Eligible properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible properties. 882.401...-Basic Policies § 882.401 Eligible properties. (a) Eligible properties. Except as provided in paragraph...) Ineligible properties. (1) Nursing homes, units within the grounds of penal, reformatory, medical, mental...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.254 - Property standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property standards. 3565.254 Section 3565.254... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.254 Property standards. (a) Housing quality and site and neighborhood standards. The property must meet the site and...

  11. 43 CFR 12.71 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Real property. 12.71 Section 12.71 Public... to State and Local Governments Changes, Property, and Subawards § 12.71 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired...

  12. 7 CFR 3565.251 - Eligible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible property. 3565.251 Section 3565.251... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.251 Eligible property. To be eligible for a guaranteed loan, a property must be used primarily for residential dwelling purposes...

  13. 20 CFR 435.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.32 Real property. SSA will prescribe requirements... will not encumber the property without approval of SSA. (b) Use in other projects. The recipient must obtain written approval by SSA for the use of real property in other federally-sponsored projects when...

  14. 20 CFR 435.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.32 Real property. SSA will prescribe requirements... will not encumber the property without approval of SSA. (b) Use in other projects. The recipient must obtain written approval by SSA for the use of real property in other federally-sponsored projects when...

  15. 20 CFR 435.32 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.32 Real property. SSA will prescribe requirements... will not encumber the property without approval of SSA. (b) Use in other projects. The recipient must obtain written approval by SSA for the use of real property in other federally-sponsored projects when...

  16. Transport properties in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biolsi, L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program used to obtain transport properties for the Hulburt-Hirschfelder potential was tested. Transport properties for the C-C interaction were calculated. Rough estimates for transport properties for the important ablation species were obtained as well as estimates of transport properties for some of the species associated with photochemical smog. The results are discussed.

  17. Surface properties of ocean fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, P. M.; Hubert, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Background information on oceanic fronts is presented and the results of several models which were developed to study the dynamics of oceanic fronts and their effects on various surface properties are described. The details of the four numerical models used in these studies are given in separate appendices which contain all of the physical equations, program documentation and running instructions for the models.

  18. Phosphorene: Fabrication, properties, and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Kou, Liangzhi; Chen, Changfeng; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-06-24

    Phosphorene, the single- or few-layer form of black phosphorus, was recently rediscovered as a two-dimensional layered material holding great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Research into its fundamental properties and device applications has since seen exponential growth. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in phosphorene research, touching upon topics on fabrication, properties, and applications; we also discuss challenges and future research directions. We highlight the intrinsically anisotropic electronic, transport, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties of phosphorene resulting from its puckered structure in contrast to those of graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides. The facile fabrication and novel properties ofmore » phosphorene have inspired design and demonstration of new nanodevices; however, further progress hinges on resolutions to technical obstructions like surface degradation effects and nonscalable fabrication techniques. We also briefly describe the latest developments of more sophisticated design concepts and implementation schemes that address some of the challenges in phosphorene research. As a result, it is expected that this fascinating material will continue to offer tremendous opportunities for research and development for the foreseeable future.« less

  19. Phosphorene: Fabrication, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Liangzhi; Chen, Changfeng; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-06-24

    Phosphorene, the single- or few-layer form of black phosphorus, was recently rediscovered as a two-dimensional layered material holding great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Research into its fundamental properties and device applications has since seen exponential growth. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in phosphorene research, touching upon topics on fabrication, properties, and applications; we also discuss challenges and future research directions. We highlight the intrinsically anisotropic electronic, transport, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties of phosphorene resulting from its puckered structure in contrast to those of graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides. The facile fabrication and novel properties of phosphorene have inspired design and demonstration of new nanodevices; however, further progress hinges on resolutions to technical obstructions like surface degradation effects and nonscalable fabrication techniques. We also briefly describe the latest developments of more sophisticated design concepts and implementation schemes that address some of the challenges in phosphorene research. As a result, it is expected that this fascinating material will continue to offer tremendous opportunities for research and development for the foreseeable future.

  20. Multimedia and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Julian

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns that various sectors involved in the multimedia industry have concerning intellectual property rights. Issues affecting copyright owners, hardware manufacturers, and producers are discussed, including user fees, licensing agreements, quality assurances, pricing, copyright ownership, and the control of distribution and marketing.…

  1. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Treesearch

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  2. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  3. Polygon Properties: What Is Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Paulette R.; Robichaux, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorting shapes and solving riddles develop and advance children's geometric thinking and understanding while promoting mathematical communication, cooperative learning, and numerous representations. This article presents a brief summary of how children develop an understanding of the properties of geometric shapes as well as a description of the…

  4. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  5. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  6. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    Treesearch

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Anand R. Sanadi; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Lei Shang; Ulrik B. Henriksen

    2011-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical conversion process improving the handling, storage and combustion properties of wood. To save storage space and transportation costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density. The resulting pellets are relatively resistant to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small...

  7. Polygon Properties: What Is Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Paulette R.; Robichaux, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorting shapes and solving riddles develop and advance children's geometric thinking and understanding while promoting mathematical communication, cooperative learning, and numerous representations. This article presents a brief summary of how children develop an understanding of the properties of geometric shapes as well as a description of the…

  8. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  9. Higgs Boson Discovery and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, Peter C.

    2003-06-02

    We outline issues examined and progress made by the Light Higgs Snowmass 1996 working group regarding discovering Higgs bosons and measuring their detailed properties. We focused primarily on what could be learned at LEP2, the Tevatron (after upgrade), the LHC, a next linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and a {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider.

  10. Duralumin, its properties and uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R

    1924-01-01

    A historical sketch of duralumin is presented, especially in regards to its manufacture by various countries. The properties of duralumin are discussed and strength characteristics listed. Increasing the hardness of duralumin by tempering is discussed as well as the uses of the metal.

  11. Multimedia and Intellectual Property Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Julian

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns that various sectors involved in the multimedia industry have concerning intellectual property rights. Issues affecting copyright owners, hardware manufacturers, and producers are discussed, including user fees, licensing agreements, quality assurances, pricing, copyright ownership, and the control of distribution and marketing.…

  12. Surface properties of HMX crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, R. Y.; Adicoff, A.; Dibble, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The surface properties of Beta-HMX crystals were studied. The surface energies of three principal crystal faces were obtained by measuring contact angles with several reference liquids. The surface energies and polarity of the three crystal faces are found to be different.

  13. Optical Properties of Biological Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    in the near zone, so that no simplifying approximation applies. For instan e, theapproximations devised by Johnson and by Bobbert and Vlieger5 have...properties of a sphere inthe vi inity of a plane surfa e," J. Opt. So . Am. A 14, 1505{1514 (1997).17 5. P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, \\Light s

  14. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  15. Foaming properties of wheat gliadin.

    PubMed

    Thewissen, Bert G; Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2011-02-23

    We studied gliadin solubility, surface tension and foam behavior, and the presence of different gliadin types in gliadin aqueous solutions and foams as a function of pH. Gliadin has excellent foaming properties only at neutral and alkaline pH. Its solubility is minimal near neutral pH, while almost complete at acidic and alkaline pH. Surface tensions of gliadin solutions are minimal around neutral pH, higher at alkaline pH, and highest at acidic pH, which corresponds well with their respective foaming properties. Foams at acidic and alkaline pH values are enriched in γ-gliadin, while foams at pH 8.0 have a similar distribution of α- and γ-gliadins. Thus, γ-gliadin predominantly contributes to the foaming properties of gliadin. The poor foaming properties of gliadin at pH 2.0 improve in the presence of 0.25 and 1.0% NaCl. It follows that the presence of positively charged amino acid residues hinders the formation of stable foam at acidic pH.

  16. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  17. [The antidepressive properties of anaprilin].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, E B; Beĭer, E V

    1992-10-01

    After chronic administration of propranolol (1 and 5 mg/kg, 14 days) to rats time-course of forced swimming changed with the decrease of rhythmical index of depression. The drug attenuated depressogenic properties of reserpine and clonidine. Propranolol antidepressive activity is attributed to blockade cerebral adrenoreceptors.

  18. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Déliot, Frédéric; Hadley, Nicholas; Parke, Stephen; Schwarz, Tom

    2014-10-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed in this article.

  19. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  20. Environmental Suitability for Leasing Property

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Defense, regarding the procedures to determine environmental suitability for leasing property available as a result of a base closure or realignment.

  1. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  2. Thermodynamical Properties of 56Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Tavukcu, E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Voinov, A; Younes, W

    2002-08-30

    Average nuclear level densities close to the nuclear binding energy in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe are extracted from primary {gamma}-ray spectra. Thermal properties of {sup 56}Fe are studied within the statistical canonical ensemble. The experimental heat capacity is compared with the theoretical heat capacity calculated within the shell model Monte Carlo approach.

  3. Property Attribution in Combined Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Thomas L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns ("baby ducks have webbed feet") is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns ("ducks have webbed feet"). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit…

  4. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  5. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  6. Quantum properties of exponential states

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-05-15

    The use of Renyi entropy as an uncertainty measure alternative to variance leads to the study of states with quantum fluctuations below the levels established by Gaussian states, which are the position-momentum minimum uncertainty states according to variance. We examine the quantum properties of states with exponential wave functions, which combine reduced fluctuations with practical feasibility.

  7. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  8. Thermodynamic and Properties of Nanophases

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn}

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of today s research deals with nanophases of various types. The materials engineer, chemist, or physicist, however, when dealing with applications of nanophases is often unaware of the effect of the small size on structure and properties. The smallest nanophases reach the limit of phase definitions by approaching atomic dimensions. There, the required homogeneity of a phase is lost and undue property fluctuations destroy the usefulness of thermodynamic functions. In fact, itwas not expected that a definite nanophasewould exist belowthe size of a microphase.Aneffort ismadein this reviewto identify macrophases, microphases, and nanophases. It is shown that nanophases should contain no bulk matter as defined by macrophases and also found in microphases. The structure and properties of nanophases, thus, must be different from macrophases and microphases. These changes may include different crystal and amorphous structures, and phase transitions of higher or of lower temperature. The phase properties are changing continuously when going from one surface to the opposite one. The discussion makes use of results from structure determination, calorimetry, molecular motion evaluations, and molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Property Attribution in Combined Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Thomas L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns ("baby ducks have webbed feet") is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns ("ducks have webbed feet"). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit…

  10. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  11. Single Scattering Properties for Hydrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, P.; Mukherjee, L.; Hu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Light scattering properties of hydrosols are among the primary factors that determine the underwater radiation field, which in turn has tremendous influences on the ocean biological studies and remote sensing of the ocean optical properties. Traditionally the ocean optics community has been focused on the in-situ measurement of the single scattering properties of hydrosols. The theoretical simulations are mostly limited to the Lorenz Mie theory, which assumes the spherical shape of the scattering particles. This is however not sufficient for understanding and interpreting the polarized radiation signals measured from ocean waters. This is an important issue because one of the important techniques which improves the current ocean color remote sensing theory relies on polarimetry. The prediction and interpretation of the polarized radiation field in ocean waters needs better representation of the Mueller matrix for hydrosols. In this work we explore the impact of the non-sphericity to the single scattering properties for hydrosol particles. The Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA) is used to calculate various hydrosols with different index of refraction and geometric shape. The whole 4 by 4 Mueller matrix will be presented to study the impacts of particle non-sphericity to both active and passive remote sensing techniques.

  12. Phosphoinositides alter lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Hobart, E. Ashley; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which constitutes ∼1% of the plasma membrane phospholipid, plays a key role in membrane-delimited signaling. PIP2 regulates structurally and functionally diverse membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, inwardly rectifying ion channels, transporters, and receptors. In some cases, the regulation is known to involve specific lipid–protein interactions, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 regulates many of its various targets remain to be fully elucidated. Because many PIP2 targets are membrane-spanning proteins, we explored whether the phosphoinositides might alter bilayer physical properties such as curvature and elasticity, which would alter the equilibrium between membrane protein conformational states—and thereby protein function. Taking advantage of the gramicidin A (gA) channels’ sensitivity to changes in lipid bilayer properties, we used gA-based fluorescence quenching and single-channel assays to examine the effects of long-chain PIP2s (brain PIP2, which is predominantly 1-stearyl-2-arachidonyl-PIP2, and dioleoyl-PIP2) on bilayer properties. When premixed with dioleoyl-phosphocholine at 2 mol %, both long-chain PIP2s produced similar changes in gA channel function (bilayer properties); when applied through the aqueous solution, however, brain PIP2 was a more potent modifier than dioleoyl-PIP2. Given the widespread use of short-chain dioctanoyl-phosphoinositides, we also examined the effects of diC8-phosphoinositol (PI), PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. The diC8 phosphoinositides, except for PI(3,5)P2, altered bilayer properties with potencies that decreased with increasing head group charge. Nonphosphoinositide diC8 phospholipids generally were more potent bilayer modifiers than the polyphosphoinositides. These results show that physiological increases or decreases in plasma membrane PIP2 levels, as a result of activation of PI kinases or phosphatases, are likely

  13. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.

    2010-02-19

    This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4

  14. Interpreting the Properties of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Alberto

    Galaxies exhibit a wide range of physical properties (e.g., luminosities, colors, velocity widths, star formation, gas and stellar content) and the evolutionary processes responsible for these properties are numerous and complex. Understanding which processes shape the observable properties of galaxies and which others play only a minor role, inherently requires a large sample of galaxies. Moreover, if we want to understand why galaxies have the properties they do, we need a theory of galaxy formation. The standard paradigm of galaxy formation assumes that most of the matter is dark and dissipationless and that, under the influence of gravity, structures on galactic and larger scales grow hierarchically (from Gaussian initial conditions) with smaller objects forming first. Gas, moving under the gravitational influence of the dark component, dissipates and collapses at the center of the potential wells provided by the dark matter. In this picture the internal structure of the dark matter clumps and their formation history regulate the global properties of galaxies. However, these properties must also depend on how gas cools to form the dense clouds that seed star formation and how star formation affects the surrounding medium with the injection of energy and heavy elements. I show how simple, ``semi-analytic'' parameterizations are used to describe the highly non-linear aforementioned processes and to predict a wide range of properties of the galaxy population for any specific cosmogony. I then present a simple and flexible framework to extract from the numerous observable properties of disk galaxies that semi-analytic models predict, only those that are needed to characterize the sample as a whole. This framework makes use of the well-know statistical technique of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Moreover, I correlate the semi-analytic assumptions with the PCA findings and determine which, among our theoretical assumptions, shape the observable galaxies

  15. [Mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Bai, Yu-xing; Zhang, Kun-ya

    2010-09-14

    To investigate the mechanical properties of various brands of thermoplastic materials under different test conditions so as to analyze their influencing factors so as to provide a reference for improving the effect of invisible orthodontics. Three brands of thermoplastic materials, DR, Biolon and Erkodent, were selected. They were tested by Instron testing machine to measure their maximal stress and modulus under different processing modes, including pre-thermoforming, post-thermoforming and dipped in artificial saliva for two weeks after thermoforming. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Analyzed the mechanical properties change-trend under each test condition. The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of control group were significantly higher than those of thermoforming group (DR: 9.63±0.68 vs 7.85±0.61, 267±8 vs 199±6; Erkodent: 8.28±0.28 vs 7.59±0.45, 226±6 vs 199±6; Biolon: 8.85±0.41 vs 7.07±0.22, 237±6 vs 169±7, all P<0.05). The modulus (MPa) and maximum stress (MPa) of thermoforming group were significantly lower than those of saliva immersion group (DR: 7.85±0.61 vs 9.14±0.41, 199±6 vs 243±7; Erkodent: 7.59 ± 0.45 vs 8.38±0.29, 199±6 vs 212±7; Biolon: 7.07±0.22 vs 7.90±0.31, 169±7 vs 197±5, all P<0.05). The different brands of thermoplastic materials have different mechanical properties. The different processing modes influence the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials. The mechanical properties decrease after thermoforming and increase after saliva immersion.

  16. Mechanical properties of metal dihydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter A.; Snow, Clark S.

    2016-02-04

    First-principles calculations are used to characterize the bulk elastic properties of cubic and tetragonal phase metal dihydrides, $\\text{M}{{\\text{H}}_{2}}$ {$\\text{M}$ = Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, lanthanides} to gain insight into the mechanical properties that govern the aging behavior of rare-earth di-tritides as the constituent 3H, tritium, decays into 3He. As tritium decays, helium is inserted in the lattice, the helium migrates and collects into bubbles, that then can ultimately create sufficient internal pressure to rupture the material. The elastic properties of the materials are needed to construct effective mesoscale models of the process of bubble growth and fracture. Dihydrides of the scandium column and most of the rare-earths crystalize into a cubic phase, while dihydrides from the next column, Ti, Zr, and Hf, distort instead into the tetragonal phase, indicating incipient instabilities in the phase and potentially significant changes in elastic properties. We report the computed elastic properties of these dihydrides, and also investigate the off-stoichiometric phases as He or vacancies accumulate. As helium builds up in the cubic phase, the shear moduli greatly soften, converting to the tetragonal phase. Conversely, the tetragonal phases convert very quickly to cubic with the removal of H from the lattice, while the cubic phases show little change with removal of H. Finally, the source and magnitude of the numerical and physical uncertainties in the modeling are analyzed and quantified to establish the level of confidence that can be placed in the computational results, and this quantified confidence is used to justify using the results to augment and even supplant experimental measurements.

  17. Mechanical properties of metal dihydrides

    DOE PAGES

    Schultz, Peter A.; Snow, Clark S.

    2016-02-04

    First-principles calculations are used to characterize the bulk elastic properties of cubic and tetragonal phase metal dihydrides,more » $$\\text{M}{{\\text{H}}_{2}}$$ {$$\\text{M}$$ = Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, lanthanides} to gain insight into the mechanical properties that govern the aging behavior of rare-earth di-tritides as the constituent 3H, tritium, decays into 3He. As tritium decays, helium is inserted in the lattice, the helium migrates and collects into bubbles, that then can ultimately create sufficient internal pressure to rupture the material. The elastic properties of the materials are needed to construct effective mesoscale models of the process of bubble growth and fracture. Dihydrides of the scandium column and most of the rare-earths crystalize into a cubic phase, while dihydrides from the next column, Ti, Zr, and Hf, distort instead into the tetragonal phase, indicating incipient instabilities in the phase and potentially significant changes in elastic properties. We report the computed elastic properties of these dihydrides, and also investigate the off-stoichiometric phases as He or vacancies accumulate. As helium builds up in the cubic phase, the shear moduli greatly soften, converting to the tetragonal phase. Conversely, the tetragonal phases convert very quickly to cubic with the removal of H from the lattice, while the cubic phases show little change with removal of H. Finally, the source and magnitude of the numerical and physical uncertainties in the modeling are analyzed and quantified to establish the level of confidence that can be placed in the computational results, and this quantified confidence is used to justify using the results to augment and even supplant experimental measurements.« less

  18. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  19. [Multifractal cloud properties data assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Lavallee, D.; Frouin, R.; Lubin, D.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.

    1992-05-06

    Our group has been very active over the last year, analyzing a number of data sets to characterize multifractal cloud properties and assess the effects of clouds on surface radiation properties (spectral and broadband). The data sets analyzed include: AVHRR observations of clouds over the ocean, SPOT observations of clouds over the ocean, SSM/I observations of clouds over the ocean, pyranometer data with all-sky photographs, pyrgeometer data all-sky photographs, and spectral surface irradiance all-sky photographs. A number of radiative transfer computations have been performed to help in the interpretation of these observations or provide theoretical guidance for their analysis. Finally 4 number of radiative transfer models have been acquired and tested to prepare for the interpretation of ARM/CART data.

  20. Vesta surface thermal properties map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Tosi, F.; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Zambon, F; Fonte, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; Titus, T.N.; Schroder, S.E.; Toplis, M.J.; Liu, J.Y.; Combe, J.-P.; Raymond, C.A.; Russell, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The first ever regional thermal properties map of Vesta has been derived from the temperatures retrieved by infrared data by the mission Dawn. The low average value of thermal inertia, 30 ± 10 J m−2 s−0.5 K−1, indicates a surface covered by a fine regolith. A range of thermal inertia values suggesting terrains with different physical properties has been determined. The lower thermal inertia of the regions north of the equator suggests that they are covered by an older, more processed surface. A few specific areas have higher than average thermal inertia values, indicative of a more compact material. The highest thermal inertia value has been determined on the Marcia crater, known for its pitted terrain and the presence of hydroxyl in the ejecta. Our results suggest that this type of terrain can be the result of soil compaction following the degassing of a local subsurface reservoir of volatiles.

  1. Obstructions to Sampling Qualitative Properties

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Arne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sampling methods have proven to be a very efficient and intuitive method to understand properties of complicated spaces that cannot easily be computed using deterministic methods. Therefore, sampling methods became a popular tool in the applied sciences. Results Here, we show that sampling methods are not an appropriate tool to analyze qualitative properties of complicated spaces unless RP = NP. We illustrate these results on the example of the thermodynamically feasible flux space of genome-scale metabolic networks and show that with artificial centering hit and run (ACHR) not all reactions that can have variable flux rates are sampled with variables flux rates. In particular a uniform sample of the flux space would not sample the flux variabilities completely. Conclusion We conclude that unless theoretical convergence results exist, qualitative results obtained from sampling methods should be considered with caution and if possible double checked using a deterministic method. PMID:26287384

  2. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  3. Challenges ahead on property front.

    PubMed

    Lea, Graham

    2013-03-01

    As the dissolution of the PCTs draws closer, and the assets and buildings formerly owned by them transfer, at the start of April, to the new NHS Property Services Company (see also HEJ - February 2013), there remains a considerable amount to be done by those involved in the real estate aspects of the NHS reorganisation. So says Graham Lea, a partner, and the national head of the company's real estate team, at law firm, Hempsons. He explains that, for NHS estates personnel, occupiers, developers, and investors, there are still a number of key issues to clarify, not least how property development decisions will be taken, and the prospects for investment in an ageing estate.

  4. Properties of dynamical electromagnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Willie J.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials consist of two or three dimensional arrays of tailored metallic and/or dielectric inclusions and provide unprecedented sub-wavelength control over light-matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and may be treated as effective media, described by effective optical constants {μ }{{eff}} and {{ɛ }}{{eff}}, and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. An inductive-capacitive unit cell geometry provides enhanced values of optical constants, as well as the ability to dynamically control the novel responses exhibited by electromagnetic metamaterials. The ability of metamaterials to achieve real-time dynamic properties has realized novel applications and has made them relevant for the next revolution in advanced materials and related devices.

  5. Tuning graphene properties by shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Cheng, Shengfeng; Covaci, Lucian; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-03-01

    Graphene being the thinnest possible membrane made out of carbon atoms is prone to deformations under slight external forcing. Here, we take advantage of this proneness to deformations to manipulate transport properties of graphene ribbons. We analyze the effect on conductance and LDOS of the spontaneous pattern produced when a wide ribbon is subject to shear. The deformation of the ribbon produces pseudo-magnetic fields, scalar potentials, and Fermi velocity renormalization resulting in the modification of transmission properties without the need of an external gate potential. Our proposal paves the way for producing electronic waveguides by using an elastic instability that spans from the nano to macro-scales. AC was partially supported by Conicyt PAI 79112004 and Fondecyt iniciacion 11130075. LC acknowledges individual support from FWO-Vlaanderen.

  6. Molecular similarity and property similarity.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Frédérique; Horvath, Dragos

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the main efforts undertaken up to date in order to understand, rationalize and apply the similarity principle (similar compounds=>similar properties) as a computational tool in modern drug discovery. The best suited mathematical expression of this classical working hypothesis of medicinal chemistry needs to be carefully chosen (out of the virtually infinite possible implementations in terms of molecular descriptors and molecular similarity metrics), in order to achieve an optimal validation of the hypothesis that molecules that are neighbors in the Structural Space will also display similar properties. This overview will show why no single "absolute" measure of molecular similarity can be conceived, and why molecular similarity scores should be considered tunable tools that need to be adapted to each problem to solve.

  7. Generic properties of layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A wide variety of layered materials have been found to be superconducting. Among these are graphite intercalation donor compounds, transition metal dichalcogenides, intercalated transition metal dichalcogenides, organic layered superconductors, artificial superlattices, and the cuprates. The normal state properties of all of these compounds are very similar, due to the fact that they all have well-defined Fermi surfaces, and quasi-linear in-plane resistivities at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, charge- or spin-density waves are common in these systems. With the exception of the graphite intercalation compounds, all of the fayered superconductors are type-II, and generally highly anisotropic in their superconducting properties. Dimensional crossover from anisotropic bulk to thin film behavior is common to many of these materials.

  8. Physical properties of asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, J.; DeMeo, F.; Kasuga, T.; Parker, A.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroid families are created when a parent body undergoes a cratering or collisional disruption event, forming a population of smaller asteroids that initially have orbital elements similar to the parent. Members of asteroid families should also show a compositional similarity indicative of their lineage. This can be observed by comparing colors, spectra, and albedos of family members to each other and to the background population, and can be used to improve family associations by rejecting background objects and extending the search space. In this talk, we review the new data that has become available over the last decade from large-scale surveys of asteroid physical properties, recent work using these datasets to investigate family properties, and how this wealth of information has expanded our understanding of the formation and evolution of asteroid families. This work will be detailed in an upcoming chapter of the ''Asteroids IV'' book in 2015.

  9. Some Properties of Topological Geons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugajska, Krystyna

    1987-07-01

    We investigate the Finkelstein-Misner geons for a non-simply-connected space-time manifold ( M, g 0). We use relations between different Lorentzian structures unequivalent to g 0 and topological properties of M given by the Morse theory. It implies that to some pieces of geons we have to associate Wheeler's “worm-holes.” Geons that correspond to time-orientable Lorentz structures are related to g 0 by Morse functions that describe the attaching of a handle of index one. In the case of geons associated to time-nonorientable Lorentzian structures, appropriate handles are related to loops along which the notion of time reverses. If we assume electromagnetic properties of geons, then only four species, “ v”, “ e”, “ p”, “ m”, of different geons can exist and geon “ m” has to decay according to “ m”→“ v”+“ p”+“ e”.

  10. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.

  11. Rheological properties of synovial fluids.

    PubMed

    Fam, H; Bryant, J T; Kontopoulou, M

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is the joint lubricant and shock absorber [Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2002), 10-37] as well as the source of nutrition for articular cartilage. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the rheological properties of synovial fluid as they relate to its chemical composition. Given its importance in the rheology of synovial fluid, an overview of the structure and rheology of HA (hyaluronic acid) is presented first. The rheology of synovial fluids is discussed in detail, with a focus on the possible diagnosis of joint pathology based on the observed differences in rheological parameters and trends. The deterioration of viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in pathological states due to effects of HA concentration and molecular weight is further described. Recent findings pertaining to the composition and rheology of periprosthetic fluid, the fluid that bathes prosthetic joints in vivo are reported.

  12. [Multifractal cloud properties data assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Lavallee, D. ); Frouin, R.; Lubin, D. ); Lovejoy, S. ); Schertzer, D. )

    1992-05-06

    Our group has been very active over the last year, analyzing a number of data sets to characterize multifractal cloud properties and assess the effects of clouds on surface radiation properties (spectral and broadband). The data sets analyzed include: AVHRR observations of clouds over the ocean, SPOT observations of clouds over the ocean, SSM/I observations of clouds over the ocean, pyranometer data with all-sky photographs, pyrgeometer data all-sky photographs, and spectral surface irradiance all-sky photographs. A number of radiative transfer computations have been performed to help in the interpretation of these observations or provide theoretical guidance for their analysis. Finally 4 number of radiative transfer models have been acquired and tested to prepare for the interpretation of ARM/CART data.

  13. Bodily rights and property rights.

    PubMed

    Björkman, B; Hansson, S O

    2006-04-01

    Whereas previous discussions on ownership of biological material have been much informed by the natural rights tradition, insufficient attention has been paid to the strand in liberal political theory represented by Felix Cohen, Tony Honoré, and others, which treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights. In accordance with that tradition, we propose that the primary normative issue is what combination of rights a person should have to a particular item of biological material. Whether that bundle qualifies to be called "property" or "ownership" is a secondary, terminological issue. We suggest five principles of bodily rights and show how they can be applied to the construction of ethically appropriate bundles of rights to biological material.

  14. Active properties of neuronal dendrites.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D; Magee, J C; Colbert, C M; Cristie, B R

    1996-01-01

    Dendrites of neurons in the central nervous system are the principal sites for excitatory synaptic input. Although little is known about their function, two disparate perspectives have arisen to describe the activity patterns inherent to these diverse tree-like structures. Dendrites are thus considered either passive or active in their role in integrating synaptic inputs. This review follows the history of dendritic research from before the turn of the century to the present, with a primary focus on the hippocampus. A number of recent techniques, including high-speed fluorescence imaging and dendritic patch clamping, have provided new information and perspectives about the active properties of dendrites. The results support previous notions about the dendritic propagation of action potentials and also indicate which types of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are expressed and functionally active in dendrites. Possible roles for the active properties of dendrites in synaptic plasticity and integration are also discussed.

  15. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  16. Optical properties of thylakoid stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Shibaev, Petr

    2012-02-01

    Optical properties of grana are simulated by means of 4x4 matrix approach (Berreman method). The results of calculations lead to a conclusion that even small degree of chirality, that may be present in a granum structure, results in the dramatic changes of its optical properties. Depending on the birefringence and degree of chirality in granum organization the reflection of left or right handed circularly polarized light can be greatly suppressed. This can explain the light induced difference in the growth of pea and lentil shoots irradiated by left and right handed circularly polarized light [1]. [4pt] [1] Pavel P. Shibayev, R.G. Pergolizzi, The effect of circularly polarized light on the growth of plants, International journal of botany, 7, 113 (2011)

  17. [Fluoroquinolones: Non-antibacterial properties].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Ramos, S; Hernández-López, H

    2017-02-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a class of well-established chemotherapeutic agents with a potent biological activity being the structure of 4-quinolone-3-carboxilic acids privileged because it contains different sites for functionalization allowing expand its use in clinical practice for their antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. Quinolones structural changes have resulted in a first, second, third and fourth generation of drugs so it is advisable to continue modifying existing structures in new ways to generate compounds with desirable biological and pharmacological properties.

  18. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  19. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  20. Hadron Properties with FLIC Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    James Zanotti; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Williams; J Zhang

    2003-07-01

    The Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action provides a new form of nonperturbative O(a)-improvement in lattice fermion actions offering near continuum results at finite lattice spacing. It provides computationally inexpensive access to the light quark mass regime of QCD where chiral nonanalytic behavior associated with Goldstone bosons is revealed. The motivation and formulation of FLIC fermions, its excellent scaling properties and its low-lying hadron mass phenomenology are presented.

  1. Toughness Properties of Nodular Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Walter L.

    1985-01-01

    The German government recently certified ductile iron for construction of nuclear waste transport containers. This approved use of ductile iron for such a critical application represents the culmination of ten years worth of research bringing to light the surprising toughness of ductile iron. This article explains how modern fracture mechanics and microstructure/property relationships have altered the stereotype of ductile iron as a low toughness material.

  2. Meander properties of Venusian channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, G.; Baker, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    Venusian lava channels have meander dimensions that relate to their mode of formation. Their meander properties generally follow terrestrial river trends of wavelength (L) to width (W) ratios, suggesting an equilibrium adjustment of channel form. Slightly higher L/W for many Venusian channels in comparison to terrestrial rivers may relate to nonaqueous flow processes. The unusually low L/W values for some Venusian and lunar sinuous rilles probably indicate modification of original meander patterns by lava-erosional channel widening.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Irradiated Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, Boris A.

    1983-05-01

    The effect of ionising radiation on the specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and density of partially crystalline (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoro-ethylene) and of amorphous polymers (polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate)) is discussed. Analytical models of the mechanism of heat conduction, and the development of anisotropic thermal conductivity in amorphous polymers, are examined. The influence of ionising radiation on the thermophysical properties of composite materials is analysed. 79 references.

  4. Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    AD-A130 745 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES(U) /; UNIVERSIDAD AUfONOMA DE MADRID (SPAIN) DEPT DE FISICA DEL ESTADO SOLIDO F FLORES...J.Sfinchez-Dehesa 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Departamento de Fisica del...resistance (Esaki and Chang 1974). A SL which has received a great deal of attention is GaAs- AlxGa Ix as grown by molecular -beam-epitaxy. Several

  5. Surface properties of thermionic electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickney, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    A quasi-equilibrium model which provides semiquantitative predictions of the oxygen reaction with refractory metals was developed at high temperature and low pressure. Extensive experimental data was obtained on adsorption and work function properties for a wide variety of adsorbates (Cs, K, Na, I, Br, Cl, and O) on several refractory metals (W, Ta, Mo, and Re). Conclusions and recommendations for research on alkali metal adsorption, oxygen adsorption, and adsorption of cesium - oxygen mixtures are included.

  6. Luminescent Properties of Semiconductor Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    This zone is treated as being " dead " to luminescence...KEY WORDS (CeniJnwo on severee aide If ,.c.eewy ad Identity by block n0mbor) photoluminescence, electroluminescence, dead -layer model, cadmium...Background 20 B. The Dead -Layer Model 21 C. Applications of the Dead -Layer Model to PEC’s 25 IV. General EL Properties 36 A. Background 36 B. EL From

  7. Compressive Properties of Extruded Polytetrafluoroethylene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    annealing process employed does not exceed the melt temperature of PTFE and is aimed at reducing the material’s anisotropy. Increasing the...experience complex, non -static loads. Correspond- ingly, the mechanical properties at high strain rates are of increasing importance in these...placed on the processing history of the material prior to testing [4e11]. However, the processing route used to prepare the PTFE can greatly affect the

  8. Electrical Properties of Cu Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    attributed to the surface and size effects based on the further demonstrative analysis . I. INTRODUCTION Electrical properties of metallic nanowires...Walter, R. M. Penner, H. Liu, K. H. Ng, M. P. Zach, and F. Favier, "Sensors from electrodeposited metal nanowires," Surface And Interface Analysis , vol...and G. Dumpich, "Influence of the electron beam on electromigration measurements within a scanning electron microscope," Applied Physics Letters

  9. Properties of southern pine needles

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1973-01-01

    To investigate properties that might be related to utilization, needles were sampled on one tree of each of the four major species. Tensile strength was measured on loblolly needles only; it ranged from 4,630 to 6,980 psi. Maximum load averaged 4.1 pounds per needle, with a modulus of elasticity of 220,000 psi. Specific gravity (ovendry weight, green volume of...

  10. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  11. The properties of radio ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Disney, M. J.; Wall, J. V.; Rodgers, A. W.

    1984-03-01

    The authors present optical and additional radio data for the bright galaxies of the Disney & Wall survey. These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas.

  12. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of β-D-fructofuranose units with β(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  13. Tribological properties of coal slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1987-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

  14. Characteristics of biochar: Microchemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Joseph, Stephen

    2009-03-13

    Biochars, being derived from a variety of biological feedstocks that have been thermally degraded under a range of conditions, exhibit a correspondingly large range in composition and chemistry. Due in part to the somewhat chaotic nature of the thermal process itself, this chemical heterogeneity extends to the microscopic scale even within a single biochar. Thus, in the strictest sense, each biochar made under a particular feedstock/process combination presents a unique mixture of phases and microenvironments that gives rise to a unique set of chemical properties. In some respects, the chemical complexity of biochars rivals that of incipient soils. In this chapter we focus on the chemical complexity of biochar as manifested primarily at a microscopic and molecular scale. We start by describing the biochar-formation process and how this influences the composition and nature of the solid phases, entrained oils, and their organization at the microscopic level. We then proceed to discuss the range of surface chemistries exhibited by biochars in terms of functional groups and electrochemical properties. We conclude with a discussion of the influence of these properties on the sorption of aqueous species at biochar surfaces.

  15. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.

  16. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  17. Photophysical properties of porphyrin photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadeko, A. V.; Murav'eva, T. D.; Starodubtsev, A. M.; Gorelov, S. I.; Dobrun, M. V.; Kris'ko, T. K.; Bagrov, I. V.; Belousova, I. M.; Ponomarev, G. V.

    2015-10-01

    The photodynamic properties of a new photosensitizer—dimegin (disodium salt of 2,4-di(1- methoxyethyl)-deuteroporphyrin-IX)—are studied in comparison with the properties of photosensitizers used in medical practice, namely, Photoditazine (dimethylglucamine salt of chlorin e6) and Radachlorin (trisodium salt of chlorin e6). The spectral characteristics, singlet oxygen generation ability, luminescence efficiency, and photostability of these photosensitizers are studied upon irradiation by light-emitting diode arrays in different spectral ranges. The ability of photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen was estimated with the use of tryptophan as a chemical trap. The photostability was estimated by a change in the optical density of solutions in the Soret band after irradiation. It is shown that the photodynamic properties are related to the specific features of the optical absorption spectrum of the material. The results of this work testify to the possibility of using the Dimegin photosensitizer as an efficient drug for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics. Comparative studies of luminescence, singlet oxygen generation, and photostability have shown that Dimegin surpasses Photoditazine and Radachlorin in many characteristics. In the future, these studies will help to choose the most efficient irradiation sources for photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostic.

  18. Database of Properties of Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Rob; Anthea, Coster

    2006-01-01

    A database of properties of meteors, and software that provides access to the database, are being developed as a contribution to continuing efforts to model the characteristics of meteors with increasing accuracy. Such modeling is necessary for evaluation of the risk of penetration of spacecraft by meteors. For each meteor in the database, the record will include an identification, date and time, radiant properties, ballistic coefficient, radar cross section, size, density, and orbital elements. The property of primary interest in the present case is density, and one of the primary goals in this case is to derive densities of meteors from their atmospheric decelerations. The database and software are expected to be valid anywhere in the solar system. The database will incorporate new data plus results of meteoroid analyses that, heretofore, have not been readily available to the aerospace community. Taken together, the database and software constitute a model that is expected to provide improved estimates of densities and to result in improved risk analyses for interplanetary spacecraft. It is planned to distribute the database and software on a compact disk.

  19. Vibrational properties of hierarchical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, W. P.; Ceccatto, H. A.; Huberman, B. A.

    1988-11-01

    The vibrational properties of one-dimensional hierarchical systems are investigated and results are obtained for both their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Two cases are considered, the first one with a hierarchy of spring constants and the latter with a hierarchy in the masses. In both cases the eigenspectrum is found to be a zero-measure, two-scale Cantor set with a fractal dimension between 0 and 1. The scaling properties of the spectra are calculated using renormalization group techniques and are verified by extensive numerical work. The low-frequency density of states and low-temperature specific heat are calculated and a singularity is found in the scaling behavior. The eigenvectors are found to be either extended or critical and self-similar. A transfer matrix formalism is introduced to calculate the scaling properties of the envelope of the critical eigenvectors. Furthermore, a connection is established between the hierarchical vibration and diffusion problems, as well as to the same problems in random systems, thus showing the universality of the observed features.

  20. Dynamic properties of force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitalini, F.; Mey, A. S. J. S.; Noé, F.; Keller, B. G.

    2015-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are increasingly used to study dynamic properties of biological systems. With this development, the ability of force fields to successfully predict relaxation timescales and the associated conformational exchange processes moves into focus. We assess to what extent the dynamic properties of model peptides (Ac-A-NHMe, Ac-V-NHMe, AVAVA, A10) differ when simulated with different force fields (AMBER ff99SB-ILDN, AMBER ff03, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM27, and GROMOS43a1). The dynamic properties are extracted using Markov state models. For single-residue models (Ac-A-NHMe, Ac-V-NHMe), the slow conformational exchange processes are similar in all force fields, but the associated relaxation timescales differ by up to an order of magnitude. For the peptide systems, not only the relaxation timescales, but also the conformational exchange processes differ considerably across force fields. This finding calls the significance of dynamic interpretations of molecular-dynamics simulations into question.

  1. Property rights in genetic information.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The primary theme of this paper is the normative case against ownership of one's genetic information along with the source of that information (usually human tissues samples). The argument presented here against such "upstream" property rights is based primarily on utilitarian grounds. This issue has new salience thanks to the Human Genome Project and "bio-prospecting" initiatives based on the aggregation of genetic information, such as the one being managed by deCODE Genetics in Iceland. The rationale for ownership is twofold: ownership will protect the basic human rights of privacy and autonomy and it will enable the data subjects to share in the tangible benefits of the genetic research. Proponents of this viewpoint often cite the principle of genetic exceptionalism, which asserts that genetic information needs a higher level of protection than other kinds of personal information such as financial data. We argue, however, that the recognition of such ownership rights would lead to inefficiency along with the disutility of genetic discoveries. Biomedical research will be hampered if property rights in genes and genetic material are too extensive. We contend that other mechanisms such as informed consent and strict confidentiality rules can accomplish the same result as a property right without the liabilities of an exclusive entitlement.

  2. Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property.

    PubMed

    Li, Baobin; Peng, Lizhong

    2011-05-01

    Balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property are discussed in this paper. This kind of multiwavelets can have a sampling property like Shannon's sampling theorem. It has been shown that the corresponding matrix-valued refinable mask has special structure, and an orthogonal multifilter bank {H(z),G(z)} can be reduced to a scalar valued conjugate quadrature filter (CQF) a(z) . But it does not mean that any scalar CQF can form a "good" multifilter bank which can generate a vector-valued refinable function with some degree of smoothness. In the context of balanced multiwavelets, we give the definition of transferring balance order, which a scalar CQF a(z) satisfies, to guarantee that the multiwavelet Ψ generated is balanced. On the basis of the parametrization of a scalar CQF with any length and conditions of transferring balance order, parametrization of multifilter banks which can generate interpolatory multiwavelet and interpolatory scaling function, is gotten. Moreover, some balanced interpolatory multiwavelets have been constructed. Interpolatory analysis-ready multiwavelets (armlets) are also discussed in this paper. It is known that conditions of armlets are easy to validate, compared with balanced multiwavelets. But it will be present that if the corresponding scaling function Φ is interpolatory, the multiwavelet Ψ is balanced of order n if and only if it is an armlet of order n. Finally, the application of balanced multiwavelets with interpolatory property in image processing is also discussed.

  3. Chromatic properties of polydiacetylene films

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, M.; Atkinson, G.H. )

    1989-08-02

    The thermochromic and proposed visible photochromic properties of PDA-12,8 are examined by resonance Raman (RR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The chromatic properties are derived from the conversion of a blue-colored PDA-12,8 material (produced upon ultraviolet-induced polymerization) to a red-colored material. Experiments are performed under well-controlled thermal conditions which aid in separating the ultraviolet polymerization used to generate the blue-colored polymeric material from its well-known thermochromic process and from photochromism proposed to be induced by visible radiation. For example, irradiation at 532 nm of water-cooled (0.5{degree}C) samples of the blue-colored material produces no chromatic changes. A chromatic change to the red-colored material is induced by 532-nm radiation, however, when the PDA-12,8 is not cooled. No evidence supported a visible photochromic change in PDA-12,8 is found, and it is proposed that the previously reported chromatic properties derive from thermal effects. RR and FTIR data are presented which demonstrate that separate structural changes in the polydiacetylene backbone and in the hydrocarbon side chains of DPA-12,8 accompany the chromatic changes. RR results also show that no change occurs in the distribution of electron density along the PDA-12,8 backbone when chromatic effects are induced.

  4. Disentanglement of Electromagnetic Baryon Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivan, Daniel; Doring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Through recent advances in experimental techniques, the precise extraction of the spectrum of baryonic resonances and their properties becomes possible. Helicity couplings at the resonance pole are fundamental parameters describing the electromagnetic properties of resonances and enabling the comparison of theoretical models with data. We have extracted them from experiments carried out at Jefferson Lab and other facilities using a multipole analysis within the Julich-Bonn framework. Special attention has been paid to the uncertainties and correlations of helicity couplings. Using the world data on the reaction γp -> ηp , we have calculated, for the first time, the covariance matrix. Our results are useful in several ways. They quantify uncertainties but also correlations of helicity couplings. Second, they can tell us quantitatively how useful a given polarization measurement is. Third, they can tell us how the measurement of a new observable would constrain and disentangle the resonance properties which could be helpful in the design of new experiments. Finally, on the subject of the missing resonance problem, model selection techniques and statistical tests allow us to quantify the significance of whether a resonance exists. Supported by NSF CAREER Grant No. PHY-1452055, NSF PIF Grant No. 1415459, by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by Research Center Julich through the HPC grant jikp07.

  5. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  6. Thermophysical properties of liquid niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, R. S.; Winkler, M. A.

    Thermophysical properties of most liquid metals are difficult to measure because of the very high temperatures and pressures required, but they are important for several reasons. These include understanding the fundamental physics of liquid metals and experimental modeling and design of exploding wires, foils and fuses. The melting points of all but a few metals are at high temperatures, with many exceeding 2000 K. The critical points of most metals exceed temperatures and pressures that may be easily achieved in static high-pressure systems. Because of the limitations on temperatures that may be reached in static high-pressure experiments, various dynamic techniques have been developed to study liquid metals. We use a resistive pule heating method in which a cylindrical wire-shaped sample is made to expand along a isobaric path. During an experiment the sample is heated, made to melt, and enthalpy, temperature, and specific volume are measured. After the liquid end state is reached, a single sound speed measurement per experiment is made. From these fundamental properties, other properties such as thermal expansion coefficient bulk modulii, and compressibilities may be calculated. Here we report measurements that we have recently made on liquid niobium.

  7. Cryogenic properties of several copolyesters

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, O.; Kimoto, A.; Yamaoka, H.

    1997-06-01

    Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate(PET) and polyethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate(PEN) with composition of PET/PEN= 100/0, 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 10/90, 0/100 were prepared. The mechanical properties of uniaxial-drawn films were examined at 83 K and 296 K. PET/PEN=90/10 copolymer film possessed especially excellent cryogenic properties. It was found to withstand elongations in excess of 40% at stress levels of about 400 MPa at 83 K for PET/PEN=90/10 film uniaxial-drawn 5 times. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) curves of samples before and after tensile test at 83 K were compared for PET/PEN=90/10 film uniaxial-drawn 5 times. After tensile test at 83 K, the peak position of cold-crystallization shifted and the peak area between the curve and a baseline decreased, indicating that crystallization is allowed to take place during tensile test at 83 K. Dielectric loss tangent was measured in the temperature range from 18 K to the glass transition temperature. The relaxation below 100 K of PET and its copolymers was observed to be dependent on the morphology of samples. On the basis of the results obtained, relationship between the structure of polymers and their cryogenic properties has been discussed.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Keller, Dennis J.; Nathal, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The thermophysical properties and electrical resistivity of GRCop-84 (Cu - 8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) were measured from cryogenic temperatures to near its melting point. The data were analyzed using weighted regression to determine the properties as a function of temperature and assign appropriate confidence intervals. The results showed that the thermal expansion of GRCop-84 was significantly lower than NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt. % Ag-0.5 wt. % Zr), the currently used thrust cell liner material. The lower thermal expansion is expected to translate into lower thermally induced stresses and increases in thrust cell liner lives between 2X and 41X over NARloy-Z. The somewhat lower thermal conductivity of GRCop-84 can be offset by redesigning the liners to utilize its much greater mechanical properties. Optimized designs are not expected to suffer from the lower thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivity data, while not central to the primary application, show that GRCop-84 has potential for applications where a combination of good electrical conductivity and strength is required.

  9. Aesthetic properties of everyday objects.

    PubMed

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Eisermann, Jens; Leder, Helmut

    2007-06-01

    This research addresses whether one underlying concept of appreciation exists across different classes of objects. Three studies were done. To identify aesthetic properties relevant for the aesthetic judgment of everyday objects and paintings, in Study 1 expert interviews were conducted with 12 interior designers, object-oriented designers and architects, and 12 students of art history. In Study 2, multidimensional unfolding (MDU) was used to examine whether common judgment criteria can be identified for the objects of the different classes. A sample of 217 German subjects participated. 2- or 3-dimensional MDU solutions resulted for each object class. The identified dimensions were labeled using the aesthetic properties derived from the expert interviews (Study 1). These dimensions represent relevant dimensions of aesthetic judgment on which object properties vary. Study 2 suggested that people use different dimensions of aesthetic judgment for different object classes. The identified dimensions were then used to construct three sets of systematically varied everyday objects and one set of systematically varied paintings. Using this stimulus material in Study 3, conjoint analysis indicated these dimensions are differentially important for the overall aesthetic judgment.

  10. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  11. The Kiloparsec Properties of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nathaniel J.

    2010-12-01

    In this dissertation, we explore the properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) on kiloparsec scales at a radio frequency of 1.4 GHz. These properties include flux density, luminosity, and morphology. We compare these kiloparsec scale properties to similar properties on the parsec scale at 15 GHz, such as jet misalignment angle and other parsec scale properties, such as γ-ray flux density and luminosity. The AGN studied are the 135 from the Monitoring Of Jets in Active galaxies using VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) survey, MOJAVE-I sample. Using Monte Carlo Simulations with matching sample statistics, We find that the most likely distribution of intrinsic pc-to-kpc scale bend angles is a uniform distribution with a range of 0° - ˜ 10°. The maximum bend angle is unlikely to be < 5° or > 30°. Furthermore, power law distributions with an index > 1.25 or < -0.5 are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. Narrowly peaked Gaussian distributions are likewise excluded. Using the ASURV statistics package, We find that gamma-ray (Lγ ) and kpc-scale radio luminosities (Lext ) are strongly correlated. Since Lext is correlated with jet power, it is likely that this is indicative of a mutual dependence of intrinsic γ-ray and extended radio emission on jet power. Partial correlation coefficients increase if Lγ is de-boosted by either the synchrotron-self Compton or external Compton models. Furthermore, no convincing correlation between Lγ and unresolved VLA core luminosity (Lc ) is present. Based on previous findings that use median VLBA flux densities a correlation with Lγ may be present. However, considering that the VLA data are from a single epoch and not taken simultaneously with the γ-ray data, this greatly reduces the chances of detecting Lc - γ-ray correlations after redshift bias is factored out. Although a recent discovery of extended γ-ray emission from Centaurus A could suggest a contribution to the Lγ -Lext correlation, this emission is diffuse and most

  12. 7 CFR 1955.62 - Removal and disposition of nonsecurity personal property from inventory real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.62 Removal and disposition of nonsecurity personal...

  13. 7 CFR 1955.62 - Removal and disposition of nonsecurity personal property from inventory real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.62 Removal and disposition of nonsecurity personal...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.62 - Removal and disposition of nonsecurity personal property from inventory real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.62 Removal and disposition of nonsecurity...

  15. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  16. Effect of chemical modification on tribological properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased ingredients possess a number of properties that makes them very desirable for applications in lubricant formulations. These include: excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Biobased ingredients also h...

  17. JH & JH Properties, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    JH & JH Properties, LLC (the Company) is located in Fargo, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Fargo, North Dakota.

  18. 7 CFR 767.51 - Property abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., manage, and operate the abandoned security property, including marketing perishable security property on behalf of the borrower when such action is in the Agency's financial interest. If the security is...

  19. Real fluid properties of normal and parahydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, F. N.; Haferd, A. M.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the real fluid properties of normal or parahydrogen using a library of single function calls without initial estimates. Accurate transport and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen are needed for advanced propulsion systems.

  20. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the