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Sample records for propidium iodide-stained cells

  1. Measuring Cell Death by Propidium Iodide Uptake and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Scott, Adrian P; Marfell, Brooke J; Boughaba, Jeanne A; Chojnowski, Grace; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) is a small fluorescent molecule that binds to DNA but cannot passively traverse into cells that possess an intact plasma membrane. PI uptake versus exclusion can be used to discriminate dead cells, in which plasma membranes become permeable regardless of the mechanism of death, from live cells with intact membranes. PI is excited by wavelengths between 400 and 600 nm and emits light between 600 and 700 nm, and is therefore compatible with lasers and photodetectors commonly available in flow cytometers. This protocol for PI staining can be used to quantitate cell death in most modern research facilities and universities. PMID:27371595

  2. [The application of eosin and propidium iodide in evaluation of vitality of human spermatozoa].

    PubMed

    Ploskonos, М В

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes comparative assessment of vitality of spermatozoa by condition of permeability of membranes for eosin and propidium iodide and comparison of results acquired using technique of light and fluorescent microscopy. The comparison of data of light microscopy with eosin staining with data of fluorescent microscopy with propidium iodide staining demonstrated that percentage of content of spermatozoa separated from ejaculates of 28 fertile males and stained with eosin was reliably higher (34.8 ± 3.2) than percentage of content of spermatozoa with stained with propidium iodide (2.1 ± 4.0). After incubation of spermatozoa under room temperature during 24 hours percentage of unviable cells with stained eosin also was higher than in case of propidium iodide staining correspondingly (44.5 ± 3.3% and 34.7 ± 3.6%). The analysis of vitality of spermatozoa under damaging effect of oxidative stress on cell membrane developed by 4 hours incubation with 200 mkM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) demonstrated that under staining of spermatozoa with propidium iodide significantly higher percentage of damaged cells is detected. In such cases, eosin staining is less suitable for detection of vitality of spermatozoa (73.6 ± 5.8% against 51.7 ± 6.4%). The carried out experiment demonstrates that in case of detected effects on spermatozoa (for example, effect of oxidative stress) the light microscopy insufficiently adequate reflects degree of damage of membranes of spermatozoa. The fluorescent microscopy detects a higher percentage of spermatozoa with damaged membrane.

  3. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Erkus, Oylum; de Jager, Victor C L; Geene, Renske T C M; van Alen-Boerrigter, Ingrid; Hazelwood, Lucie; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-07-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem. Gouda cheese manufacturing is a proper model to evaluate the use of PMA for selective detection of intact cells since large fraction of membrane compromised cells emerges as a background in the cheese matrix during ripening. In this study, the effect of PMA on cheese community profiles was evaluated throughout manufacturing and ripening using quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA effectively inhibited the amplification of DNA derived from membrane compromised cells and enhanced the analysis of the intact fraction residing in the cheese samples. Furthermore, a two-step protocol, which involves whole genome amplification (WGA) to enrich the DNA not modified with PMA and subsequent sequencing, was developed for the selective metagenome sequencing of viable fraction in the Gouda cheese microbial community. The metagenome profile of PMA treated cheese sample reflected the viable community profile at that time point in the cheese manufacturing. PMID:27077825

  4. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Erkus, Oylum; de Jager, Victor C L; Geene, Renske T C M; van Alen-Boerrigter, Ingrid; Hazelwood, Lucie; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-07-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem. Gouda cheese manufacturing is a proper model to evaluate the use of PMA for selective detection of intact cells since large fraction of membrane compromised cells emerges as a background in the cheese matrix during ripening. In this study, the effect of PMA on cheese community profiles was evaluated throughout manufacturing and ripening using quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA effectively inhibited the amplification of DNA derived from membrane compromised cells and enhanced the analysis of the intact fraction residing in the cheese samples. Furthermore, a two-step protocol, which involves whole genome amplification (WGA) to enrich the DNA not modified with PMA and subsequent sequencing, was developed for the selective metagenome sequencing of viable fraction in the Gouda cheese microbial community. The metagenome profile of PMA treated cheese sample reflected the viable community profile at that time point in the cheese manufacturing.

  5. Flow cytometric phase-resolved discrimination of damaged/dead cells by propidium iodide uptake in macrophages having phagocytized fluorescent microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, John A.; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    2001-05-01

    Instilled particle burdens of uniform green-yellow fluorescent microspheres phagocytized by rat alveolar (lung) macrophages and cell viability, as indexed by propidium iodide uptake (red fluorescence), were assessed using flow cytometry. Since the spectral emission from phagocytized microspheres partially overlapped the propidium iodide fluorescence and interfered with the conventional flow cytometric measurement of damaged/dead cells without subtractive compensation, this caused errors when estimating the percentage of non-viable, propidium iodide positive, phagocytic macrophages. The interference was eliminated by employing phase-sensitive detection in the red fluorescence measurement channel based on differences in lifetimes between the fluorescent microspheres and propidium iodide. In addition, intrinsic cellular autofluorescence, whose fluorescence lifetime is approximately the same as the phagocytized microspheres, also was eliminated in the measurement process. Since there was no detectable spectral interference of propidium iodide in the green fluorescence (particle phagocytosis) measurement channel, conventional fluorescence detection was employed.

  6. A contribution to examination of propidium iodide and annexin V plasma cells indices in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Scudla, V; Ordeltova, M; Bacovsky, J; Vytrasova, M; Sumna, E; Martinek, A; Horak, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was a contemporaneous measurement and a mutual comparison of plasma cells proliferative activity and grade of apoptosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and various phases of MM i.e. smoldering (SMM), stable/plateau and active (progression/relapse) forms of this disease. The analyzed group of 197 patients consisted of 30 MGUS, 21 SMM, 82 patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis and 64 patients analyzed during various phases of the disease after previous chemotherapy. Plasma cell proliferative activity was measured by means of a propidium iodide index (PC-PI) examined by flow cytometry using a DNA/CD138 double staining technique. For detection of plasma cells entering apoptosis (PC-AI) flow cytometry method with annexin V FITC and MoAb CD138 was used. The individuals with MGUS, SMM and stable/plateau form of MM had overall low levels of PC-PI (M-1.8, 1.7% and 2.1%) and relatively high levels of PC-AI (M-9.1, 10.8 and 9.0%). The correlation between PC-PI and PC-AI was in all the groups mutually highly statistically significant (p=0.000). Analysis of plasma cells proliferative activity (PC-PI) was statistically significant in comparison of MGUS or SMM and versus: patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.018 or 0.016); patients evaluated during various phases of MM after previous chemotherapy (p=0.021 or 0.019); stable/plateau MM phase in the cohort of all patients (p=0.017 or 0.040); in the plateau phase after chemotherapy (p=0.008 or 0.024) but insignificant in comparison of MGUS and SMM and with the stable group examined at the time of MM diagnosis. Analysis of the apoptotic process revealed significant differences when comparing PC-AI of SMM but not MGUS group versus all cohort of stable/plateau MM patients (p=0.045); there were also insignificant differences in comparison of MGUS and SMM groupsand versus the stable form of MM measured at the time of MM diagnosis or plateau phase after

  7. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available.

  8. The detection of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans using propidium monoazide with semi-nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Cattani, F; Ferreira, C A S; Oliveira, S D

    2013-05-01

    Bacillus sporothermodurans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can survive ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment in milk. Therefore, we developed a rapid, specific and sensitive semi-nested touchdown PCR assay combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for the detection of viable B. sporothermodurans vegetative cells. The semi-nested touchdown PCR alone proved to be specific for B. sporothermodurans, and the achieved detection limit was 4 CFU/mL from bacterial culture and artificially contaminated UHT milk. This method combined with PMA treatment was shown to amplify DNA specifically from viable cells and presented a detection limit of 10(2) CFU/mL in UHT milk. The developed PMA-PCR assay shows applicability for the specific detection of viable cells of B. sporothermodurans from UHT milk. This method is of special significance for applications in the food industry by reducing the time required for the analysis of milk and dairy products for the presence of this microorganism.

  9. Quantitative study of viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells in raw seafood using propidium monoazide in combination with quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping; Jia, You-Feng; Song, Li-Feng

    2012-09-01

    In this study we developed a specific and sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment to quantify tdh-positive viable cells of V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood (PMA-qPCR). The high selectivity of primers and probes were demonstrated by using purified DNA from 57 strains belonging to 18 species. Using these primers and probes for qPCR and in artificial contamination samples, a good correlation was obtained between Ct values and log CFU/reaction in the range of 12-1.2×10(6)CFU/reaction both from qPCR and PMA-qPCR with R(2) values of 0.9973 and 0.9919, respectively. The optimization of PMA concentration showed that 8 μg/mL was considered optimal to achieve a compromise between minimal impact on intact cells and maximal signal reduction in compromised cells. However, turbidity and cell concentration experiments showed that PMA treatment was not effective in samples where turbidities were ≥10 NTU and OD(600 nm) values were ≥0.8. PMA-qPCR was compared with culture isolation and traditional qPCR in environmental samples (including oyster, scallop, shrimp, and crab). The PMA-qPCR resulted in lower numbers of log CFUg(-1) than qPCR, with values having better agreement with numbers determined by culture isolation. In conclusion, this method is an effective tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood. PMID:22677606

  10. Time-resolved, single-cell analysis of induced and programmed cell death via non-invasive propidium iodide and counterstain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Christina E M; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Conventional propidium iodide (PI) staining requires the execution of multiple steps prior to analysis, potentially affecting assay results as well as cell vitality. In this study, this multistep analysis method has been transformed into a single-step, non-toxic, real-time method via live-cell imaging during perfusion with 0.1 μM PI inside a microfluidic cultivation device. Dynamic PI staining was an effective live/dead analytical tool and demonstrated consistent results for single-cell death initiated by direct or indirect triggers. Application of this method for the first time revealed the apparent antibiotic tolerance of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum cells, as indicated by the conversion of violet fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CvAM). Additional implementation of this method provided insight into the induced cell lysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing a lytic toxin-antitoxin module, providing evidence for non-lytic cell death and cell resistance to toxin production. Finally, our dynamic PI staining method distinguished necrotic-like and apoptotic-like cell death phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae among predisposed descendants of nutrient-deprived ancestor cells using PO-PRO-1 or green fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CgAM) as counterstains. The combination of single-cell cultivation, fluorescent time-lapse imaging, and PI perfusion facilitates spatiotemporally resolved observations that deliver new insights into the dynamics of cellular behaviour. PMID:27580964

  11. Time-resolved, single-cell analysis of induced and programmed cell death via non-invasive propidium iodide and counterstain perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Christina E. M.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Conventional propidium iodide (PI) staining requires the execution of multiple steps prior to analysis, potentially affecting assay results as well as cell vitality. In this study, this multistep analysis method has been transformed into a single-step, non-toxic, real-time method via live-cell imaging during perfusion with 0.1 μM PI inside a microfluidic cultivation device. Dynamic PI staining was an effective live/dead analytical tool and demonstrated consistent results for single-cell death initiated by direct or indirect triggers. Application of this method for the first time revealed the apparent antibiotic tolerance of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum cells, as indicated by the conversion of violet fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CvAM). Additional implementation of this method provided insight into the induced cell lysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing a lytic toxin-antitoxin module, providing evidence for non-lytic cell death and cell resistance to toxin production. Finally, our dynamic PI staining method distinguished necrotic-like and apoptotic-like cell death phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae among predisposed descendants of nutrient-deprived ancestor cells using PO-PRO-1 or green fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CgAM) as counterstains. The combination of single-cell cultivation, fluorescent time-lapse imaging, and PI perfusion facilitates spatiotemporally resolved observations that deliver new insights into the dynamics of cellular behaviour. PMID:27580964

  12. Bioactive actions of pomegranate fruit extracts on leukemia cell lines in vitro hold promise for new therapeutic agents for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dahlawi, Haytham; Jordan-Mahy, Nicola; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that pomegranates contain bioactive chemicals with potential for treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice extracts (PJE) have been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and tumor growth and induce cell death via apoptosis in a number of cancer cell lines. However, to date, few studies have investigated the potential of PJE in the treatment of leukemia. We investigated the potential effect of PJE on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cellular proliferation in 8 leukemia cell lines (4 lymphoid and 4 myeloid) and nontumor hematopoietic stem cells (control cells). Apoptosis was assessed by 2 methods: Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining with flow cytometric analysis and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) morphological assessment. Cell cycle stage was investigated using propidum iodide staining of DNA content and flow cytometric analysis. Live cell counts were also performed using a trypan exclusion assay. PJE significantly induced apoptosis in all cell lines, including nontumor control cells, although lymphoid cells and 2 of the myeloid cell lines were more sensitive. Furthermore, PJE induced cell cycle arrest. These results were confirmed by DAPI analysis and viable cell counts using trypan blue exclusion assay. Our results provide evidence that PJE contain bioactive compounds that could be used in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:22098126

  13. Apoptotic effects on cultured cells of atmospheric-pressure plasma produced using various gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominami, Kanako; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kudo, Tada-aki; Sasaki, Shota; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma on various cells such as rat fibroblastic Rat-1 cell line, rat neuroblastoma-like PC12 cell line, and rat macrophage-like NR8383 cell line. The plasma was irradiated directly to a culture medium containing plated cells for 0-20 s. The applied voltage, excitation frequency, and argon or helium gas flow were, respectively, 3-6 kV, 10 kHz, and 3 L/min. Cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated using annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Results showed that the low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation promoted cell death in a discharge-voltage-dependent and irradiation-time-dependent manner. Furthermore, different effects are produced depending on the cell type. Moreover, entirely different mechanisms might be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cells by helium and argon plasma.

  14. 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) Ethanone-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/G0 in HT-29 Cells Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (DMHE) was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational) cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed. PMID:24451128

  15. 1-(2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone-induced cell cycle arrest in G₁/G₀ in HT-29 cells human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (DMHE) was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational) cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed. PMID:24451128

  16. Transgenic over-expression of slit2 enhances disruption of blood-brain barrier and increases cell death after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Li, Hang; He, Xiao-Fei; Li, Ge; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Jia, Huan-Huan; Li, Jiang-Chao; Huang, Ren; Pei, Zhong; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among male adolescents and young adults; and mild traumatic brain injury is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in brain trauma. Previously, we have found that slit2, a member of slit protein family, increases permeability of BBB. In the present study, we examined the role of slit2 in the pathogenesis of mild TBI in a mouse model of micro TBI. Rhodamine BandPI (PropidiumIodide) staining were used to detect the permeability of BBB and cell death, respectively. The leakage of Rhodamine B and cell death were significantly increased in Slit2-Tg mice than in C57 control mice after micro TBI. The present results suggest that over expression of slit2 plays a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of mild TBI.

  17. The effect of lance geometry and carbon coating of silicon lances on propidium iodide uptake in lance array nanoinjection of HeLa 229 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, John W.; Lindstrom, Dallin L.; Hanks, Brad W.; Hope, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    Connecting technology to biologic discovery is a core focus of non-viral gene therapy biotechnologies. One approach that leverages both the physical and electrical function of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in cellular engineering is a technology previously described as lance array nanoinjection (LAN). In brief, LAN consists of a silicon chip measuring 2 cm by 2 cm that has been etched to contain an array of 10 μm tall, solid lances that are spaced every 10 μm in a grid pattern. This array of lances is used to physically penetrate hundreds of thousands of cells simultaneously and to then electrically deliver molecular loads into cells. In this present work, two variables related to the microfabrication of the silicon lances, namely lance geometry and coating, are investigated. The purpose of both experimental variables is to assess these parameters’ effect on propidium iodide (PI), a cell membrane impermeable dye, uptake to injected HeLa 229 cells. For the lance geometry experimentation, three different microfabricated lance geometries were used which include a flat/narrow (FN, 1 μm diameter), flat/wide (FW, 2-2.5 μm diameter), and pointed (P, 1 μm diameter) lance geometries. From these tests, it was shown that the FN lances had a slightly better cell viability rate of 91.73% and that the P lances had the best PI uptake rate of 75.08%. For the lance coating experimentation, two different lances were fabricated, both silicon etched lances with some being carbon coated (CC) in a  <100 nm layer of carbon and the other lances being non-coated (Si). Results from this experiment showed no significant difference between lance types at three different nanoinjection protocols (0V, +1.5V DC, and  +5V Pulsed) for both cell viability and PI uptake rates. One exception to this is the comparison of CC/5V Pul and Si/5V Pul samples, where the CC/5V Pul samples had a cell viability rate 5% higher. Both outcomes were unexpected and reveal how to better

  18. Theracurmin® efficiently inhibits the growth of human prostate and bladder cancer cells via induction of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minyong; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Kook, Ha Rim; Lee, Sangchul; Oh, Jong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Byun, Seok-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of Theracurmin®, a novel form of the yellow curry pigment curcumin, as well as explore the molecular mechanisms of the potential anticancer effects of Theracurmin® on human prostate cancer and bladder cancer cells in vitro. The proliferation of cancer cells was examined by using the Cell Counting Kit-8. The clonogenic growth potential was determined by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis was applied to explore the expression patterns of molecules associated with apoptotic cell death and cell cycle checkpoint. We noted that Theracurmin® and curcumin exhibited similar anticancer effects in both androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These agents reduced cell viability and clonogenic growth potential by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle disturbance in human prostate cancer cells. Theracurmin® and curcumin also exerted marked anticancer effects on human bladder cancer cells, even in cisplatin-resistant T24R2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, Theracurmin® and curcumin treatment decreased cell viability and clonogenicity via induction of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle dysregulation in human bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that Theracurmin® has potential as an anticancer agent in complementary and alternative medicine for these urological cancers. PMID:26718024

  19. Predicting electroporation of cells in an inhomogeneous electric field based on mathematical modeling and experimental CHO-cell permeabilization to propidium iodide determination.

    PubMed

    Dermol, Janja; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-12-01

    High voltage electric pulses cause electroporation of the cell membrane. Consequently, flow of the molecules across the membrane increases. In our study we investigated possibility to predict the percentage of the electroporated cells in an inhomogeneous electric field on the basis of the experimental results obtained when cells were exposed to a homogeneous electric field. We compared and evaluated different mathematical models previously suggested by other authors for interpolation of the results (symmetric sigmoid, asymmetric sigmoid, hyperbolic tangent and Gompertz curve). We investigated the density of the cells and observed that it has the most significant effect on the electroporation of the cells while all four of the mathematical models yielded similar results. We were able to predict electroporation of cells exposed to an inhomogeneous electric field based on mathematical modeling and using mathematical formulations of electroporation probability obtained experimentally using exposure to the homogeneous field of the same density of cells. Models describing cell electroporation probability can be useful for development and presentation of treatment planning for electrochemotherapy and non-thermal irreversible electroporation.

  20. MERTK Inhibition Induces Polyploidy and Promotes Cell Death and Cellular Senescence in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sufit, Alexandra; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Rupji, Manali; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Pierce, Angela M.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V.; Earp, H. Shelton

    2016-01-01

    Background MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is expressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Our previous work demonstrated that inhibition of MERTK using RNA interference induced cell death and chemosensitivity in GBM cells, implicating MERTK as a potential therapeutic target. Here we investigate whether a novel MERTK-selective small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, UNC2025, has similar anti-tumor effects in GBM cell lines. Methods Correlations between expression of GAS6, a MERTK ligand, and prognosis were determined using data from the TCGA database. GBM cell lines (A172, SF188, U251) were treated in vitro with increasing doses of UNC2025 (50-400nM). Cell count and viability were determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycle profiles and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometric analysis after BrdU or Po-Pro-1/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Polyploidy was detected by propidium iodide staining and metaphase spread. Cellular senescence was determined by β-galactosidase staining and senescence-associated secretory cytokine analysis. Results Decreased overall survival significantly correlated with high levels of GAS6 expression in GBM, highlighting the importance of TAM kinase signaling in GBM tumorigenesis and/or therapy resistance and providing strong rationale for targeting these pathways in the clinic. All three GBM cell lines exhibited dose dependent reductions in cell number and colony formation (>90% at 200nM) after treatment with UNC2025. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and development of polyploidy. After extended exposure, 60–80% of cells underwent apoptosis. The majority of surviving cells (65–95%) were senescent and did not recover after drug removal. Thus, UNC2025 mediates anti-tumor activity in GBM by multiple mechanisms. Conclusions The findings described here provide further evidence of oncogenic roles for MERTK in GBM, demonstrate the

  1. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics.

  2. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Hiromi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kakino, Mamoru; Ichihara, Kenji; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB). Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24 h or 4/10 J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8) cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induced by UVA irradiation in NB1-RGB cells was measured using a reactive-oxygen-species- (ROS-) sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA. Moreover, the effects of propolis on the UVA-induced activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined by immunoblotting. Results. Treatment with propolis and two dicaffeoylquinic acids significantly inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by white light in 661W. Propolis and its constituents inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by UVA in NB1-RGB. Moreover, propolis suppressed the intracellular ROS production by UVA irradiation. Propolis also inhibited the levels of phosphorylated-p38 and ERK by UVA irradiation. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis may become a major therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AMD and skin damage induced by UV irradiation. PMID:24416064

  3. The cytotoxic activities of 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin on 5637 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2/M stage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is the second common malignancy of genitourinary tract, and transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) account for 90% of all bladder cancers. Due to acquired resistance of TCC cells to a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents, there is always a need for search on new compounds for treatment of these cancers. Coumarins represent a group of natural compounds, which some of them have exerted valuable anti-tumor activities. The current study was designed to evaluate anti-tumor properties and mechanism of action of 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, a prenyloxycoumarin, on 5637 cells (a TCC cell line). Results MTT results revealed that the cytotoxic effects of 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin on 5637 cancerous cells were more prominent in comparison to HDF-1 normal cells. This coumarin increased the amount of chromatin condensation and DNA damage in 5637 cells by 58 and 33%, respectively. The results also indicated that it can induce apoptosis most probably via activation of caspase-3 in these cells. Moreover, propidium iodide staining revealed that 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage, after 24 h of treatment. Conclusion Our results indicated that 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin had selective toxic effects on this bladder cancer cell line and promoted its effects by apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. This coumarin can be considered for further studies to reveal its exact mechanism of action and also its anti-cancer effects in vivo. PMID:24393601

  4. A new fibrin sealant as a three-dimensional scaffold candidate for mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The optimization of an organic scaffold for specific types of applications and cells is vital to successful tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of a new fibrin sealant derived from snake venom as a scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells, to demonstrate the ability of cells to affect and detect the biological microenvironment. Methods The characterization of CD34, CD44 and CD90 expression on mesenchymal stem cells was performed by flow cytometry. In vitro growth and cell viability were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Differentiation into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was induced. Results The fibrin sealant did not affect cell adhesion, proliferation or differentiation and allowed the adherence and growth of mesenchymal stem cells on its surface. Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining demonstrated the viability of mesenchymal stem cells in contact with the fibrin sealant and the ability of the biomaterial to maintain cell survival. Conclusions The new fibrin sealant is a three-dimensional scaffolding candidate that is capable of maintaining cell survival without interfering with differentiation, and might also be useful in drug delivery. Fibrin sealant has a low production cost, does not transmit infectious diseases from human blood and has properties of a suitable scaffold for stem cells because it permits the preparation of differentiated scaffolds that are suitable for every need. PMID:24916098

  5. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  6. Calpains are involved in Entamoeba histolytica-induced death of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Soo; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sang Kyou; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2011-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that can cause amebic colitis and liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica has the capability to kill colon epithelial cells in vitro; however, information regarding the role of calpain in colon cell death induced by ameba is limited. In this study, we investigated whether calpains are involved in the E. histolytica-induced cell death of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. When HT-29 cells were co-incubated with E. histolytica, the propidium iodide stained dead cells markedly increased compared to that in HT-29 cells incubated with medium alone. This pro-death effect induced by ameba was effectively blocked by pretreatment of HT-29 cells with the calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. Moreover, knockdown of m- and µ-calpain by siRNA significantly reduced E. histolytica-induced HT-29 cell death. These results suggest that m- and µ-calpain may be involved in colon epithelial cell death induced by E. histolytica. PMID:21738275

  7. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effect of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Davari, Atiyeh-Sadat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: 7-prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites that are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae families. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7, a breast carcinoma cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Bax protein expression was detected by western blot to investigate the underlying mechanism. Results: Doses which induced 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) against MCF-7 cells with auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin were calculated (59.7, 207.6, 476.3, and 73.4 µM), respectively. Auraptene induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that auraptene significantly up-regulated Bax expression in MCF-7 cells compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Auraptene exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in breast carcinoma cell line and can be considered for further mechanistic evaluations in human cancer cells. These results candidate auraptene for further studies to evaluate its biosafety and anti-cancer effects. PMID:26693409

  8. Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2016-05-01

    Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies. PMID:27133056

  9. Phloroglucinol Protects INS-1 Pancreatic β-cells Against Glucotoxicity-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji Sook

    2015-11-01

    Decreasing numbers, and impaired function, of pancreatic β-cells are key factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. This study was designed to investigate whether phloroglucinol protected pancreatic β-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis using a rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1). High glucose treatment (30 mM) induced INS-1 cell death; however, the level of glucose-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in cells treated with 100-μM phloroglucinol. Treatment with 10-100-μM phloroglucinol increased cell viability and decreased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation dose-dependently in INS-1 cells pretreated with high glucose. Furthermore, phloroglucinol treatment markedly reduced the protein expression of Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 9, while increasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Cell death type was examined using annexin V/propidium iodide staining, revealing that phloroglucinol markedly reduced high glucose-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrated that phloroglucinol could be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for the protection of pancreatic β-cells against glucose-induced apoptosis. PMID:26152514

  10. The histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and romidepsin downmodulate IL-10 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiffon, CE; Adams, JE; van der Fits, L; Wen, S; Townsend, PA; Ganesan, A; Hodges, E; Vermeer, MH; Packham, G

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vorinostat and romidepsin are histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, the mechanism(s) by which these drugs exert their anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Since CTCL is associated with immune dysregulation, we investigated whether these HDI modulated cytokine expression in CTCL cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH CTCL cell lines and primary CTCL cells were treated in vitro with vorinostat or romidepsin, or with STAT3 pathway inhibitors. Cell cycle parameters and apoptosis were analysed by propidium iodide and annexin V/propidium iodide staining respectively. Cytokine expression was analysed using QRT-PCR and elisa assays. STAT3 expression/phosphorylation and transcriptional activity were analysed using immunoblotting and transfection/reporter assays respectively. KEY RESULTS Vorinostat and romidepsin strongly down-regulated expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, frequently overexpressed in CTCL, at both the RNA and protein level in CTCL cell lines and at the RNA level in primary CTCL cells. Vorinostat and romidepsin also increased expression of IFNG RNA and decreased expression of IL-2 and IL-4 RNA, although to a lesser extent compared to IL-10. Transient exposure to vorinostat was sufficient to suppress IL-10 secretion but was not sufficient to irreversibly commit cells to undergo cell death. STAT3 pathway inhibitors decreased production of IL-10 and vorinostat/romidepsin partially decreased STAT3-dependent transcription without effects on STAT3 expression or phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results demonstrate that HDI modulate cytokine expression in CTCL cells, potentially via effects on STAT3. Immunomodulation may contribute to the clinical activity of HDI in this disease. PMID:21198545

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Somayeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Lo, Kong Mun; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Chow, Kit May; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, (compound C1), was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.5±0.50 μg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 μg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the present study obviously reveal potential cytotoxic effects of compound C1 against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. PMID:26648695

  12. Increased oxidative stress and toxicity in ADH and CYP2E1 overexpressing human hepatoma VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2012-05-01

    High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured and apoptosis or necrosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and detecting decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and the formation of advanced glycated-end products were assessed. The levels of several antioxidants which included glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were altered in high glucose treated VL-17A cells. Greater toxicity was observed in VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose when compared to HepG2 cells. Oxidative stress parameters were greatly increased in high glucose exposed VL-17A cells and apoptotic cell death was observed. Inhibition of CYP2E1 or caspase 3 or addition of the antioxidant trolox led to significant decreases in high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Thus, the over-expression of ADH and CYP2E1 in liver cells is associated with increased high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity.

  13. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01). Moreover, arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01) induced G1/G0 cell-cycle arrest. Our data provide evidence that arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC.

  14. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01). Moreover, arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01) induced G1/G0 cell-cycle arrest. Our data provide evidence that arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC. PMID:24395429

  15. Mechanisms of Propidium Monoazide Inhibition of Polymerase Chain Reaction and implications for Propidium Monoazide Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. M.; Darrach, H.; Ponce, A.; McFarland, E.; Laymon, C.; Fingland, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    PMA-qPCR is a laboratory technique that can be used to identify viable microbes by employing the use of propidium monoazide (PMA), a DNA-intercalating dye, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The current model of PMA-qPCR operates under the assumption that PMA is only capable of entering membrane-compromised cells, where it irreversibly cross-links to DNA and makes it unavailable for amplification via qPCR. However, the exact mechanism behind PMA's entry into the cell and its interaction with genetic material is not well understood. To better understand PMA's capabilities, we have examined the effect PMA has on enzyme binding and processivity using endonucleases and exonucleases. Our results suggest that the current model behind PMA-qPCR inhibition is incomplete, in that rather than precipitating the entirety of the DNA, PMA also inhibits enzyme binding and/or processivity in soluble DNA. These results have important implications for studying the viable community of microorganisms in various applications, such as environmental monitoring, planetary protection and bioburden assessment, and biohazard detection.

  16. Proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells induced from rat embryonic neural precursor cells followed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lü, He-Zuo; Wang, Yan-Xia; Li, Ying; Fu, Sai-Li; Hang, Qin; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that a cell-intrinsic timer might determine when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) stop dividing and initiate differentiation in a defined environment. In this report, the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs induced from neural precursor cells (NPCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry combined with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester labeling and propidium iodide staining, respectively. When OPCs were cultured in OPC-medium, more than 30% of cells were in S- and G2/M-phases, and continuously self-renewed without differentiation. After exposure to thyroid hormone, there was an obvious decrease in the fraction of cells in both S- and G2/M-phases (<10%). Furthermore, the OPCs no longer proliferated, but differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The dynamic proliferation and differentiation characteristics of OPCs induced from NPCs and analyzed by flow cytometry were similar to those of OPCs isolated from the CNS and analyzed by other methods. These studies indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs can be followed simply and rapidly by flow cytometry. PMID:18473382

  17. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Frame, Fiona M; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M; Simms, Matthew S; Boyle, Ross W; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer.

  18. Survival of Host-Associated Bacteroidales Cells and Their Relationship with Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, and Adenovirus in Freshwater Microcosms as Measured by Propidium Monoazide-Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    The ideal host-associated genetic fecal marker would be capable of predicting the presence of specific pathogens of concern. Flowthrough freshwater microcosms containing mixed feces and inocula of the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and adenovirus were placed at ambient temperature in the presence and absence of diurnal sunlight. The total Enterococcus DNA increased during the early periods (23 h) under sunlight exposure, even though cultivable Enterococcus and DNA in intact cells, as measured by propidium monoazide (PMA), decreased with first-order kinetics during the entire period. We found a significant difference in the decay of host-associated Bacteroidales cells between sunlight exposure and dark conditions (P value < 0.05), whereas the persistence of host-associated Bacteroidales DNA was comparable. The 2-log reduction times of adenovirus were 72 h for sunlight exposure and 99 h for dark conditions with similar decay rate constants (P value = 0.13). The persistences of fecal Bacteroidales cells and Campylobacter cells exposed to sunlight were similar, and host-associated Bacteroidales DNA and waterborne pathogen DNA were degraded at comparable rates (P values > 0.05). Overall, the ratio of quantitative PCR (qPCR) cycle threshold (CT) values with and without PMA treatment was indicative of the time elapsed since inoculation of the microcosm with (i) fecal material from different animal sources based on host-associated Bacteroidales and (ii) pure cultures of bacterial pathogens. The use of both PMA-qPCR and qPCR may yield more realistic information about recent sources of fecal contamination and result in improved prediction of waterborne pathogens and assessment of health risk. PMID:22139002

  19. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway.

  20. The acetone extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7).

    PubMed

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy.

  1. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo

    2015-01-01

    Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938

  2. Apoptosis induced by oxysterols in murine lymphoma cells and in normal thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Christ, M; Luu, B; Mejia, J E; Moosbrugger, I; Bischoff, P

    1993-01-01

    Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols), a family of naturally occurring compounds, possess marked anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive activities, in particular they have been shown to inhibit T-cell responses to different stimuli. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 7 beta,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7.25-OHC) are able to kill not only RDM4 murine lymphoma in vitro, but also, surprisingly, mouse thymocytes after several hours of incubation. In this study, we report that the death of RDM4 and thymocytes induced by oxysterols exhibits the features of apoptosis. This phenomenon was identified by agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments extracted from the cells and quantified by flow cytometric analysis of the DNA fluorescence of propidium iodide-stained cells. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D were found to decrease the number of apoptotic cells and to increase cell viability, indicating a requirement for the synthesis of macromolecules in oxysterol-induced programmed cell death. The pathway by which 25-OHC and 7.25-OHC are able to induce apoptosis in this type of cell and the possible contribution of these compounds to thymus involution during development are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7682990

  3. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  4. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  5. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  6. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  7. Thrombin Induces Tumor Cell Cycle Activation and Spontaneous Growth by Down-regulation of p27Kip1, in Association with the Up-regulation of Skp2 and MiR-222

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Ibrahim, Sherif; Liu, Cynthia; Skaar, Jeffrey; Pagano, Michele; Karpatkin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The effect of thrombin on tumor cell cycle activation and spontaneous growth was examined in synchronized serum-starved tumor cell lines and a model of spontaneous prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice. BrdUrd incorporation and propidium iodide staining of prostate LNCaP cells arrested in G0 and treated with thrombin or serum revealed a 48- and 29-fold increase in S phase cells, respectively, at 8 hours. Similar results were obtained with TRAMP cells and a glioblastoma cell line, T98G. Cell cycle kinases and inhibitors in synchronized tumor cells revealed high levels of p27Kip1 and low levels of Skp2 and cyclins D1 and A. Addition of thrombin, TFLLRN, or serum down-regulated p27Kip1 with concomitant induction of Skp2, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin A with similar kinetics. LNCaP p27Kip1-transfected cells or Skp2 knockdown cells were refractory to thrombin-induced cell cycle activation. MicroRNA 222, an inhibitor of p27Kip1, was robustly up-regulated by thrombin. The in vitro observations were tested in vivo with transgenic TRAMP mice. Repetitive thrombin injection enhanced prostate tumor volume 6- to 8-fold (P < 0.04). Repetitive hirudin, a specific potent antithrombin, decreased tumor volume 13- to 24-fold (P < 0.04). Thus, thrombin stimulates tumor cell growth in vivo by down-regulation of p27Kip1. PMID:19351827

  8. Soy isoflavones protect against H₂O₂-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lianhai; Zhao, Xingyu; Qin, Yingxin; Zhu, Wenhe; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Anheng; Luo, Zhengli

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy isoflavones on the injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by H2O2. EVC‑304 cells were preincubated with soy isoflavones for 12 h, and then exposed to 100 µM H2O2 for 1 h. Cell viability was evaluated by a 3‑(4,5‑di‑methylthiazol‑2‑yl) 2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The apoptosis of EVC‑304 cells was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin‑V/propidium iodide staining. The oxidative stress‑related biochemical parameters were detected and the expression of apoptosis‑related proteins was examined by western blot analysis. The results showed that incubation with soy isoflavones caused a significant increase in the viability of EVC‑304 cells and a decrease in cell apoptosis induced by H2O2. Soy isoflavones also markedly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced the level of malondialdehyde. Western blot analysis results show that soy isoflavones can modulate the activation of nuclear factor‑κB and the mitochondria‑mediated apoptosis signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated the potential biological relevance of soy isoflavones in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26095641

  9. Cytotoxic Effect of Coscinium fenestratum on Human Head and Neck Cancer Cell Line (HN31).

    PubMed

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Chiranthanut, Natthakarn; Khonsung, Parirat; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    Coscinium fenestratum is widely used as a medicinal plant in many Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of a crude water extract of C. fenestratum (CF extract) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human HN31 cell line, a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx. The results revealed that cell morphology visualized under inverted light microscopy was changed from flat with a polygonal appearance to round appearance after CF extract application. The cell viability assay (MTT test) showed that the concentration producing 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 48-hour incubation of CF extract on HN31 was 0.12 mg/mL, while the IC50 of 5-FU was 6.6 mg/mL, indicating that CF extract has a higher potency. However, combining various concentrations of 5-FU and CF extract at IC50 did not show synergistic effect. The CF extract dose dependently increased cell apoptosis determined by Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. It decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and pAkt, while it increased the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of CF extract was associated with the modulation of p38 MAPK, pAkt, and p53 signal molecules, leading to inhibiting cell survival and increasing apoptosis. No synergistic effects of CF extract and 5-FU were observed. PMID:26074999

  10. Cytotoxic Effect of Coscinium fenestratum on Human Head and Neck Cancer Cell Line (HN31)

    PubMed Central

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Khonsung, Parirat

    2015-01-01

    Coscinium fenestratum is widely used as a medicinal plant in many Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of a crude water extract of C. fenestratum (CF extract) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human HN31 cell line, a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx. The results revealed that cell morphology visualized under inverted light microscopy was changed from flat with a polygonal appearance to round appearance after CF extract application. The cell viability assay (MTT test) showed that the concentration producing 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 48-hour incubation of CF extract on HN31 was 0.12 mg/mL, while the IC50 of 5-FU was 6.6 mg/mL, indicating that CF extract has a higher potency. However, combining various concentrations of 5-FU and CF extract at IC50 did not show synergistic effect. The CF extract dose dependently increased cell apoptosis determined by Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. It decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and pAkt, while it increased the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of CF extract was associated with the modulation of p38 MAPK, pAkt, and p53 signal molecules, leading to inhibiting cell survival and increasing apoptosis. No synergistic effects of CF extract and 5-FU were observed. PMID:26074999

  11. Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ooi Kheng; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2011-01-01

    Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug. PMID:19541726

  12. Detergent sclerosants at sub-lytic concentrations induce endothelial cell apoptosis through a caspase dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Andrade, Osvaldo; Cheung, Kelvin; Chew, An-Ning; Connor, David Ewan; Parsi, Kurosh

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the apoptotic effects of detergent sclerosants sodium tetradecylsulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) on endothelial cells at sub-lytic concentrations. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and labelled with antibodies to assess for apoptosis and examined with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Isolated HUVECs viability was assessed using propidium iodide staining. Early apoptosis was determined by increased phosphatidylserine exposure by lactadherin binding. Caspase 3, 8, 9 and Bax activation as well as inhibitory assays with Pan Caspase (Z-VAD-FMK) and Bax (BI-6C9) were assessed to identify apoptotic pathways. Porimin activation was used to assess cell membrane permeability. Cell lysis reached almost 100 % with STS at 0.3 % and with POL at 0.6 %. Apoptosis was seen with both STS and POL at concentrations ranging from 0.075 to 0.15 %. PS exposure increased with both STS and POL and exhibited a dose-dependent trend. Active Caspase 3, 8 and 9 but not Bax were increased in HUVECs stimulated with low concentrations of both STS and POL. Inhibitory assays demonstrated Caspase 3, 8, 9 inhibition at low concentrations (0.075 to 0.6 %) with both STS and POL. Both agents increased the activation of porimin at all concentrations. Both sclerosants induced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis at sub-lytic concentrations through a caspase-dependant pathway. Both agents induced EC oncosis. PMID:27225250

  13. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:21385597

  14. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer.

  15. Kefir induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in human acute erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran. We investigated the effect of kefir on acute erythroleukemia cell line (KG-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cell line and PBMCs were treated with different doses of kefir and milk and incubated for three different times. We used Polymixin B to block the lipopolysaccharide and NaOH (1 mol/l) to neutralize the acidic media. Viability was detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin-propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that kefir induced apoptosis and necrosis in KG-1 cell line. It was revealed that kefir decreased proliferation in erythroleukemia cell line. We did not observe a remarkable effect of kefir on PBMCs. Our study suggested that kefir may have potential to be an effective treatment for erythroleukemia.

  16. Dual role of the caspase enzymes in satellite cells from aged and young subjects.

    PubMed

    Fulle, S; Sancilio, S; Mancinelli, R; Gatta, V; Di Pietro, R

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cell (SC) proliferation and differentiation have critical roles in skeletal muscle recovery after injury and adaptation in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Normal ageing hinders SC proliferation and differentiation, and is associated with increased expression of a number of pro-apoptotic factors in skeletal muscle. In light of previous studies that have demonstrated age-related altered expression of genes involved in SC antioxidant and repair activity, this investigation was aimed at evaluating the incidence of apoptotic features in human SCs. Primary cells were obtained from vastus lateralis of nine young (27.3±2.0 years old) and nine old (71.1±1.8 years old) subjects, and cultured in complete medium for analyses at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h. Apoptosis was assessed using AnnexinV/propidium iodide staining, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling technique, RT-PCR, DNA microarrays, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis. There was an increased rate of apoptotic cells in aged subjects at all of the experimental time points, with no direct correlation between AnnexinV-positive cells and caspase-8 activity. On the other hand, CASP2, CASP6, CASP7, and CASP9 and a number of cell death genes were upregulated in the aged SCs. Altogether, our data show age-related enhanced susceptibility of human SCs to apoptosis, which might be responsible for their reduced response to muscle damage. PMID:24336075

  17. Cell viability of acute myeloid leukaemia blasts in culture correlates with treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Maha, Abdullah; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chooi-Fun; Seow, Heng-Fong

    2008-02-01

    Despite the advances in understanding the pathophysiology of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), the cure rate for acute myeloid leukaemia patients remains low. Cytogenetic abnormalities and age are the prognostic factors that guide treatment decisions. However, many AML patients still die. The biological factors that influence treatment outcome are largely unknown. Thus, the objective of our study was to use the in vitro viability test to correlate with treatment outcome. Acute myeloid leukaemia blasts demonstrated differing ability to survive in culture. Our examination of blast phenotype at various days in culture showed two possible growth directions. First, cells underwent maturation by increased expression of CD16 and down-regulated CD34 (a haemopoietic stem cell marker). These cells also appeared to have undergone apoptosis. Alternatively, cells continued to survive in culture and maintained high expression of CD34. An MTT assay was carried out to determine viability after three days of culture. Lower optical density values were obtained for samples that underwent apoptosis and higher values were obtained for samples that survived in culture. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. A comparison between results of MTT assay and duration of disease free survival revealed that a higher viability in vitro correlated significantly with shorter survival duration in the patient (R -0.761, p=0.002, n=13). Thus, this study further supports the hypothesis that AML patients with poor survival may be related to having blasts with a biologically more immature or stem cell-like nature.

  18. Leptin promotes cell proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Magariños, María Paula; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Kotler, Mónica; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Varone, Cecilia L

    2007-02-01

    Leptin, the 16-kDa protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, leptin has been suggested to be involved in other functions during pregnancy, particularly in placenta. In the present work, we studied a possible effect of leptin on trophoblastic cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Recombinant human leptin added to JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cell lines showed a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation up to 3 and 2.4 times, respectively, measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. These effects were time and dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml for JEG-3 cells and 50 ng leptin/ml for BeWo cells. Moreover, by inhibiting endogenous leptin expression with 2 microM of an antisense oligonucleotide (AS), cell proliferation was diminished. We analyzed cell population distribution during the different stages of cell cycle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and we found that leptin treatment displaced the cells towards a G2/M phase. We also found that leptin upregulated cyclin D1 expression, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins. Since proliferation and death processes are intimately related, the effect of leptin on cell apoptosis was investigated. Treatment with 2 microM leptin AS increased the number of apoptotic cells 60 times, as assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, and the caspase-3 activity was increased more than 2 fold. This effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. In conclusion, we provide evidence that suggests that leptin is a trophic and mitogenic factor for trophoblastic cells by virtue of its inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation. PMID:17021346

  19. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2. PMID:27420953

  20. In Vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles with optical imaging reporter in tumor mice model.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Gangadaran, Prakash; Li, Xiu Juan; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a therapeutic armor for cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs have been evaluated for anticancer effects. In vivo targeting of EVs to the tumor is an essential requirement for successful therapy. Therefore, non-invasive methods of monitoring EVs in animal models are crucial for developing EV-based cancer therapies. The present study to develop bioluminescent EVs using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-expressing MSCs. The EVs from MSC/Rluc cells (EV-MSC/Rluc) were visualized in a murine lung cancer model. The anticancer effects of EVs on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and other cancer cells were assessed. EV-MSC/Rluc were visualized in vivo in the LLC-efffuc tumor model using optical imaging. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. EV-MSC/Rluc and EV-MSCs showed a significant cytotoxic effect against LLC-effluc cells and 4T1; however, no significant effect on CT26, B16F10, TC1 cells. Moreover, EV-MSC/Rluc inhibited LLC tumor growth in vivo. EV-MSC/Rluc-mediated LLC tumor inhibitory mechanism revealed the decreased pERK and increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. We successfully developed luminescent EV-MSC/Rluc that have a therapeutic effect on LLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo. This bioluminescent EV system can be used to optimize EV-based therapy. PMID:27452924

  1. Troxerutin, a natural flavonoid binds to DNA minor groove and enhances cancer cell killing in response to radiation.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Singh, Beena G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Sandur, Santosh K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-05-01

    Troxerutin, a flavonoid best known for its radioprotective and antioxidant properties is of considerable interest of study due to its broad pharmacological activities. The present study on troxerutin highlights its abilities to bind DNA and enhance cancer cell killing in response to radiation. Troxerutin showed strong binding with calf thymus DNA in vitro. Troxerutin-DNA interaction was confirmed by CD spectropolarimetry. The mode of binding of troxerutin to DNA was assessed by competing troxerutin with EtBr or DAPI, known DNA intercalator and a minor groove binder, respectively. DAPI fluorescence was drastically reduced with linear increase in troxerutin concentration suggesting possible binding of troxerutin to DNA minor groove. Further, computational studies of docking of troxerutin molecule on mammalian DNA also indicated possible troxerutin-DNA interaction at minor groove of DNA. Troxerutin was found to mainly localize in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells. It induced cytotoxicity in radioresistant (DU145) and sensitive (PC3) prostate cancer cells. When troxerutin pre-treated DU145 and PC3 cells were exposed to γ-radiation, cytotoxicity as estimated by MTT assay, was found to be further enhanced. In addition, the % subG1 population detected by propidium iodide staining also showed similar response when combined with radiation. A similar trend was observed in terms of ROS generation and DNA damage in DU145 cells when troxerutin and radiation were combined. DNA binding at minor groove by troxerutin may have contributed to strand breaks leading to increased radiation induced cell death.

  2. In Vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles with optical imaging reporter in tumor mice model

    PubMed Central

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Gangadaran, Prakash; Li, Xiu Juan; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a therapeutic armor for cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs have been evaluated for anticancer effects. In vivo targeting of EVs to the tumor is an essential requirement for successful therapy. Therefore, non-invasive methods of monitoring EVs in animal models are crucial for developing EV-based cancer therapies. The present study to develop bioluminescent EVs using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-expressing MSCs. The EVs from MSC/Rluc cells (EV-MSC/Rluc) were visualized in a murine lung cancer model. The anticancer effects of EVs on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and other cancer cells were assessed. EV-MSC/Rluc were visualized in vivo in the LLC-efffuc tumor model using optical imaging. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. EV-MSC/Rluc and EV-MSCs showed a significant cytotoxic effect against LLC-effluc cells and 4T1; however, no significant effect on CT26, B16F10, TC1 cells. Moreover, EV-MSC/Rluc inhibited LLC tumor growth in vivo. EV-MSC/Rluc-mediated LLC tumor inhibitory mechanism revealed the decreased pERK and increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. We successfully developed luminescent EV-MSC/Rluc that have a therapeutic effect on LLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo. This bioluminescent EV system can be used to optimize EV-based therapy. PMID:27452924

  3. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-21

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2.

  4. Cordycepin induces apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells through extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Le-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Yan, Sheng; Jin, Jian-Di; Ren, Shao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin, also termed 3′-deoxyadenosine, is a nucleoside analogue from Cordyceps sinensis and has been reported to demonstrate numerous biological and pharmacological properties. Our previous study illustrated that the anti-tumor effect of cordycepin may be associated with apoptosis. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of cordycepin on HepG2 cells was investigated using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide and propidium iodide staining analysis and flow cytometry. The results showed that cordycepin exhibited the ability to inhibit HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when cells produced typical apoptotic morphological changes, including chromatin condensation, the accumulation of sub-G1 cells and change mitochondrial permeability. A potential mechanism for cordycepin-induced apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells may occur through the extrinsic signaling pathway mediated by the transmembrane Fas-associated with death domain protein. Apoptosis was also associated with Bcl-2 family protein regulation, leading to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability and resulting in the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The activation of the caspase cascade is responsible for the execution of apoptosis. In conclusion, cordycepin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involved the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathway and was primarily regulated by the Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:27446383

  5. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 μmol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  6. Sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex sensitizes doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Hua Jian; Zhou, Chao Zhu; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex (SPPC) on the antitumor effect of doxorubicin (Dox) on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assays demonstrated that SPPC selectively sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to Dox-induced cytotoxicity. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Dox against MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased from 5.3 to 1.5 µM when it was used concomitantly with 5 µM SPPC. SPPC potentiated Dox-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway by activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. Notably, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk diminished the effect of SPPC on Dox-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, combination treatment with SPPC and Dox markedly reduced the growth of breast cancer xenografts in mice. The present study demonstrated that SPPC was able to enhance the antitumor effect of Dox on breast cancer cells, thus suggesting that SPCC may be used to reduce the cumulative dose of Dox and its associated toxicities in the chemotherapy of breast cancer and other types of cancer.

  7. Sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex sensitizes doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Hua Jian; Zhou, Chao Zhu; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex (SPPC) on the antitumor effect of doxorubicin (Dox) on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assays demonstrated that SPPC selectively sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to Dox-induced cytotoxicity. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Dox against MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased from 5.3 to 1.5 µM when it was used concomitantly with 5 µM SPPC. SPPC potentiated Dox-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway by activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. Notably, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk diminished the effect of SPPC on Dox-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, combination treatment with SPPC and Dox markedly reduced the growth of breast cancer xenografts in mice. The present study demonstrated that SPPC was able to enhance the antitumor effect of Dox on breast cancer cells, thus suggesting that SPCC may be used to reduce the cumulative dose of Dox and its associated toxicities in the chemotherapy of breast cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27698706

  8. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R. . E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  9. Antiproliferative effects of anastrozole on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro are significantly enhanced by combined treatment with testosterone undecanoate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Cui, Junwei; Wang, Qinqin; Li, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Hu, Hui; Wei, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of aromatase inhibitor anastrozole and testosterone undecanoate, separately and in combination, on proliferation and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells cultured in vitro. The effects of various concentrations of these drugs on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by CCK8 assay, the levels of cell apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and androgen receptor (AR) protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results of the CCK8 assay indicated that greater antiproliferative activity was detected in the MCF-7 cells in the combined treatment groups, compared with those treated with anastrozole or testosterone undecanoate alone. Flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis revealed that treatment with a combination of the two drugs generated a higher percentage of apoptotic cells, particularly when the two drugs were applied for 48 h, compared with single drug treatment. Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in AR protein expression in the combined treatment groups compared with MCF7 cells treated with single drugs. The results of the present study provided evidence supporting the potential of a combination of anastrozole and testosterone undecanoate as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancer. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the antiproliferative effects of anastrozole were significantly enhanced by combined treatment with testosterone undecanoate via the AR signaling pathway.

  10. Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice. PMID:26426582

  11. A novel manganese complex selectively induces malignant glioma cell death by targeting mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ji; Li, Jing; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Kaidi; Chen, Qiuyun; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, malignant glioma commonly exhibits recurrence, subsequently leading to a poor prognosis. As manganese (Mn) compounds can be transported by the transferrin-transferrin receptor system, the present study synthesized and examined the potential use of Adpa-Mn as a novel antitumor agent. Adpa-Mn time and dose-dependently inhibited U251 and C6 cell proliferation; however, it had little effect on normal astrocytes. Apoptosis was significantly elevated following treatment with Adpa-Mn, as detected by chromatin condensation, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and the activation of caspases-9, -7 and -3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, Adpa-Mn enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine and elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine enhanced Adpa-Mn-induced cell inhibition, thus indicating that autophagy has an essential role in this process. Furthermore, evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the Adpa-Mn-treated group, including disrupted membrane potential, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted adenosine triphosphate. Conversely, treatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A reversed Adpa-Mn-induced ROS production, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis, thus suggesting that Adpa-Mn may target the mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggested that Adpa-Mn may be considered for use as a novel anti-glioma therapeutic option. PMID:27432745

  12. DNA alteration and programmed cell death during ageing of sunflower seed

    PubMed Central

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Mazuy, Claire; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed viability is affected by moisture content (MC) during ageing and is related to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and changes in energy metabolism. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of ageing on DNA alteration events by RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis and to determine whether loss of seed viability might correspond to a controlled programmed cell death (PCD). Ageing of sunflower seeds was carried out at 35 °C for 7 d at different MCs. The higher the MC, the lower was the seed viability. RAPD analysis showed that DNA alterations occurred during ageing especially in seeds containing a high MC. In addition, PCD, as revealed by DNA fragmentation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay, was detected in aged seeds at MCs which resulted in ∼50% seed viability. At the cellular level, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide staining showed that cell death concerns all the cells of the embryonic axis. The quantification of the adenylate pool highlights mitochondrial dysfunction in aged seeds containing a high MC. The involvement of oxidative burst, mitochondria dysfunction, and PCD in seed loss of viability is proposed. PMID:21765164

  13. Cytotoxic activity of novel palladium-based compounds on leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Antunovic, Maja; Kriznik, Bojana; Ulukaya, Engin; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Mihalic, Katarina C; Madunic, Josip; Marijanovic, Inga

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment methods for human leukemia are under development, but so far none of them have been found to be completely satisfactory. It was recently reported that palladium complexes have significant anticancer activity as well as lower toxicity compared with some clinically used chemotherapeutics. The anticancer activities of two novel palladium(II) complexes, [Pd(sac)(terpy)](sac)·4H2O and [PdCl(terpy)](sac)·2H2O, were tested against three human leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, MOLT-4, and THP-1, in comparison with cisplatin and adriamycin. The cytotoxic effect of the drugs was determined using the MTT assay. Cell death was assessed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin/propidium iodide staining for flow cytometry. Furthermore, p53 phosphorylation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels were examined to elucidate the mechanism of cell death induction. Both complexes exhibited a significant dose-dependent antigrowth effect in vitro. The complexes predominately induced apoptosis, but necrosis was also observed. In-vitro results have shown that palladium(II) complexes may be regarded as potential anticancer agents for treating human leukemia. Therefore, further analysis to determine the putative mechanism of action and in-vivo studies on animal models are warranted.

  14. Cytotoxic activity of octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lepiarczyk, Monika; Kałuża, Zbigniew; Bielawska, Anna; Czarnomysy, Robert; Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of novel octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives (1a-2c) employing a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA demonstrated that these compounds were more active than etoposide and camptothecin in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis after Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining also confirmed that apoptosis was the main response of human breast cancer cells to 1a-2c treatment. Our results suggest that apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in the presence of 1a-2c follows the mitochondrial pathway, with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 9, as well as by the external pathway with the significant increase in caspase 8 expression. Cytotoxic properties of compounds 1a-2c in cultured human breast cancer cells correlate to their ability to inhibit topoisomerase I/II.

  15. Inhibiting autophagy promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress and the ROS‑induced nod‑like receptor 3‑dependent proinflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia-Jing; Xie, Guangying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yanbo

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are key contributors to insulin resistance and metabolic disease, and interleukin (IL)‑1β is involved in insulin resistance. The present study aimed to investigated the role of autophagy in LPS‑induced ER stress and inflammation, which may provide evidence for controlling metabolic disease associated with inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the activation of ER stress and the nod‑like receptor 3‑dependent expression of IL‑1β and caspase‑1, as shown by western blotting, which contributed to HepG2 cell death. This also involved the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the autophagy signaling response, which are derived from the ER stress pathway. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species formation was detected by flow cytometry using the peroxide sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Autophagy activation was measured by western blotting and confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy promoted ER stress and the proinflammatory response in addition to cell death. These findings provide insights into the protective role of autophagy in LPS‑induced cell death and ER stress, and further identified the association of autophagy, ER stress and inflammation in HepG2 cells.

  16. Toxicity of surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles toward lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Nadège; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Santiago, Letícia Aragão; Kerdine-Romer, Saadia; Pallardy, Marc; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

    2013-10-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity and inflammatory response following exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been investigated on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Three different PLGA NPs (230 nm) were obtained using different stabilizers (polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, or Pluronic(®) F68) to form respectively neutral, positively or negatively charged NPs. Polystyrene NPs were used as polymeric but non-biodegradable NPs, and titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) as inorganic NPs, for comparison. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial activity as well as membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, propidium iodide staining). The cytotoxicity of PLGA-based and polystyrene NPs was lower or equivalent to the one observed after exposure to titanium dioxide NPs. The inflammatory response, evaluated through the release of the IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α cytokines, was low for all NPs. However, some differences were observed, especially for negative PLGA NPs that led to a higher inflammatory response, which can be correlated to a higher uptake of these NPs. Taken together, these results show that both coating of PLGA NPs and the nature of the core play a key role in cell response.

  17. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

  18. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs. PMID:25500741

  19. Solamargine triggers hepatoma cell death through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XIE, XIAODONG; ZHU, HAITAO; YANG, HUIJIAN; HUANG, WENSI; WU, YINGYING; WANG, YING; LUO, YANLING; WANG, DONGQING; SHAO, GENBAO

    2015-01-01

    Solamargine (SM), a steroidal alkaloid glycoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Solanum incanum, has been evidenced to inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in a number of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, the anticancer effect of SM and underlying molecular mechanism of SM-induced apoptosis were investigated on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC7721 and HepG2. The proliferation effects of SM on the SMMC7721 and HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V/propidium iodide staining method and the cell cycle distribution mediated by SM was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-9, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and Ki67 proteins were examined to further demonstrate the proliferate and apoptosis effects of SM on the hepatoma cells. The results indicated that SM effectively inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. SM resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the two cell lines. In addition, SM downregulated the levels of proliferation-associated (Ki67 and pcna) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, and promoted the activity of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9). Therefore, the activation of the Bcl-2/Bax and caspase signaling pathways may be involved in the SM-induced apoptosis of hepatoma cells. PMID:26170994

  20. Anticancer effects of crocetin in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHENG; JIANG, SHENG; JIANG, WEI; ZHOU, YUE; SHEN, XIU-YIN; LUO, TAO; KONG, LING-PING; WANG, HUA-QIAO

    2015-01-01

    Crocetin is the main pharmacologically-active component of saffron and has been considered as a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of crocetin and the possible mechanisms of these properties in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line KYSE-150. The KYSE-150 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and incubated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 μmol/l crocetin for 48 h. Cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay. Hoechst 33258 staining and observation under fluorescent microscopy were used to analyze the proapoptotic effects of crocetin. The migration rate was assessed by a wound-healing assay. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry analysis subsequent to propidium iodide staining. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase 3 was determined by western blot analysis. It was found that treatment of KYSE-150 cells with crocetin for 48 h significantly inhibited the proliferation of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibition of proliferation was associated with S phase arrest. Crocetin was also found to induce morphological changes and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner through increased expression of proapoptotic Bax and activated caspase 3. In addition, crocetin suppressed the migration of KYSE-150 cells. The present study provides evidence that crocetin exerts a prominent chemopreventive effect against esophageal cancer through the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and induction of apoptosis. These findings reveal that crocetin may be considered to be a promising future chemotherapeutic agent for esophageal cancer therapy. PMID:25663893

  1. Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Ultraviolet light-emitting diode irradiation-induced cell death in HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    XIE, DONG; SUN, YAN; WANG, LINGZHEN; LI, XIAOLING; ZANG, CHUANNONG; ZHI, YUNLAI; SUN, LIRONG

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is considered to be a potent cell-damaging agent in various cell lineages; however, the effect of UV light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on human cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of UV LED irradiation emitting at 280 nm on cultured HL-60 human leukemia cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. HL-60 cells were irradiated with UV LED (8, 15, 30 and 60 J/m2) and incubated for 2 h after irradiation. The rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis, the cell cycle profiles and the mRNA expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using cell counting kit-8, multicaspase assays, propidium iodide staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results showed that UV LED irradiation (8–60 J/m2) inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. UV LED at 8–30 J/m2 induced dose-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, while UV LED at 60 J/m2 induced necrosis. In conclusion, 280 nm UV LED irradiation inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HL-60 cells. In addition, the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and the downregulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression were shown to be involved in UV LED-induced apoptosis. PMID:26820261

  3. Anti-tumor activity of safranal against neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Shoshtari, Mohammad Ebrahim; Sargolzaei, Javad; Hossinimoghadam, Hosna; Farahzad, Jabbari Azad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Safranal (2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde, C10H14O) is an active ingredient in the saffron, which is used in traditional medicine, and also, the biological activity of saffron in anti-cancer is in development. It has been reported to have anti-oxidant effects, but its anti-tumor effects remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of safranal on anti-tumor on neuroblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Neuroblastoma cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (0, 10, 15, 20, 50 μg/ml). Cell proliferation was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptotic cells, cell cycle distribution, and sub-G1 fraction were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. Results: Safranal inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC (50) values against the neuroblastoma cell line were determined as 11.1 and 23.3 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Safranal induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in safranal toxicity. Conclusions: Our pre-clinical study demonstrated a neuroblastoma cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not yet clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24991121

  4. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression.

  5. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression. PMID:27260669

  6. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  7. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit leukemia/lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow transplant

    PubMed Central

    SONG, NINGXIA; GAO, LEI; QIU, HUIYING; HUANG, CHONGMEI; CHENG, HUI; ZHOU, HONG; LV, SHUQING; CHEN, LI; WANG, JIANMIN

    2015-01-01

    The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contributes to the reconstitution of hematopoiesis by ameliorating acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). However, the role of MSCs in graft-versus-leukemia remains to be determined. In the present study, we co-cultured C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs with A20 murine B lymphoma, FBL3 murine erythroleukemia and P388 murine acute lymphocytic leukemia cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the amount of cytokine secretion were then measured using a Cell Counting kit-8, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We also established a model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using BALB/c mice. Following the administration of A20 cells and MSCs, we recorded the symptoms and the survival of the mice for 4 weeks, assessed the T cell subsets present in peripheral blood, and, after the mice were sacrifice, we determined the infiltration of MSCs into the organs by histological staining. Our results revealed that the MSCs inhibited the proliferation of the mouse lymphoma and leukemia cells in vitro, leading to cell cycle arrest and reducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)-10. In our model of allogeneic BMT, the intravenous injection of MSCs into the mice injected wth A20 cells decreased the incidence of lymphoma, improved survival, increased the fraction of CD3+CD8+ T cells, decreased the fraction of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells in peripheral blood, and ameliorated the manifestation of aGVHD. The results from the present study indicate that MSCs may be safe and effective when used in allogeneic BMT for the treatment of hemotological malignancies. PMID:25901937

  8. miR‑205 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis via regulation of the PTEN/AKT pathway in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Bin; Duan, Bo; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Xinyi

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the importance of microRNA‑205 (miR‑205) in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of miR‑205 in RCC tissue, normal tissue adjacent to carcinoma, RCC cells and normal renal cells. It was determined that the expression levels of miR‑205 in RCC tissue and cells were reduced compared with those in normal tissue and renal cells. miR‑205 mimics and the negative control were prepared and transfected into RCC cells. Cell viability and apoptosis were investigated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated with Transwell assays. The protein expression levels of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), E‑cadherin, vimentin, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphorylated AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (p‑AKT) were determined with western blot analysis. It was revealed that miR‑205 promoted the apoptosis of RCC cells and suppressed their proliferation, metastasis and invasion compared with the negative control. The expression levels of E2F1, Bcl‑2, vimentin and p‑AKT were downregulated compared with the negative control. The expression levels of E‑cadherin and PTEN were upregulated in the cells transfected with miR‑205 mimics compared with the negative control group. Therefore, it was concluded that miR‑205 suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in RCC cells via regulation of the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway. The present study may contribute to future miRNA‑based RCC therapy. PMID:27498834

  9. Gallic acid induced apoptotic events in HCT-15 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Aruna Priyadharshni; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory action of diet-derived phenolic compound gallic acid (GA) against HCT-15 colon cancer cells. METHODS: The antiproliferative effect of GA against colon cancer cells was determined by performing thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The colony forming ability of GA treated colon cancer cells was evaluated using the colony forming assay. The cell cycle changes induced by GA in HCT-15 cells were analyzed by propidium iodide staining. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 exposed to GA was assessed using 2’,7’-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate and rhodamine-123 respectively, with the help of flow cytometry. Morphological changes caused by GA treatment in the colon cancer cells were identified by scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph examination. Apoptosis was confirmed using flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells after staining with Yo-Pro-1. RESULTS: MTT assay results illustrated that GA has an inhibitory effect on HCT-15 cells with IC50 value of 740 μmol/L. A time-dependent inhibition of colony formation was evident with GA treatment. Cell cycle arrest was evident from the accumulation of GA treated HCT-15 cells at sub-G1 phase (0.98 ± 1.03 vs 58.01 ± 2.05) with increasing exposure time. Flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells depicted early events associated with apoptosis like lipid layer breakage and fall in mitochondrial membrane potential apart from an increase in the generation of ROS which were in a time dependent manner. SEM and photomicrograph images of the GA-treated cells displayed membrane blebbing and cell shrinking characteristics of apoptosis. Further apoptosis confirmation by Yo-Pro-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment. CONCLUSION: These results show that GA induced ROS dependent apoptosis and inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells. PMID:27099438

  10. Buformin exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Joshua; Jackson, Amanda L; Clark, Leslie H; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lu; Jones, Hannah M; Gilliam, Timothy P; Gehrig, Paola A; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Biguanides are anti-diabetic drugs that are thought to have anti-tumorigenic effects. Most pre-clinical studies have focused on metformin for cancer treatment and prevention; however, buformin may be potentially more potent than metformin. Given this, our goal was to evaluate the effects of buformin on cell growth, adhesion and invasion in endometrial cancer cell lines. Methods: The ECC-1 and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was performed by FITC Annexin V assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Adhesion was analyzed using the laminin adhesion assay. Invasion was assessed using the transwell invasion assay. The effects of buformin on the AMPK/mTOR pathway were determined by Western immunoblotting. Results: Buformin and metformin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both endometrial cancer cell lines. IC50s were 1.4-1.6 mM for metformin and 8-150 μM for buformin. Buformin induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest in the ECC-1 cells and G2 phase arrest in the Ishikawa cells. For both ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells, treatment with buformin resulted in induction of apoptosis, reduction in adhesion and invasion, activation of AMPK and inhibition of phosphorylated-S6. Buformin potentiated the anti-proliferative effects of paclitaxel in both cell lines. Conclusion: Buformin has significant anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects in endometrial cancer cells through modulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway. IC50 values were lower for buformin than metformin, suggesting that buformin may be more potent for endometrial cancer treatment and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27398153

  11. The HIV-protease inhibitor saquinavir reduces proliferation, invasion and clonogenicity in cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Todeschini, Paola; Romani, Chiara; Zanotti, Laura; Erba, Eugenio; Colmegna, Benedetta; Bignotti, Eliana; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Sartori, Enrico; Odicino, Franco Edoardo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Tassi, Renata Alessandra; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Innovative therapies in cervical cancer (CC) remain a priority. Recent data indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors used in highly active antiretroviral therapy can exert direct antitumor activities also in HIV-free preclinical and clinical models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of various HIV-protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) on primary and established CC cell lines. Two CC cell lines established in our laboratory and four commercially available CC cell lines were treated with indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir at different concentrations and for different times. Proliferation, clonogenicity and radiosensitivity were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Proteasomal activities were assessed using a cell-based assay and immunoblotting. Cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. Invasion was tested with Matrigel chambers. A t-test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. In all cell lines, saquinavir was more effective than ritonavir in reducing cell proliferation and inhibiting proteasomal activities (P≤0.05). Conversely, indinavir exerted a negligible effect. The saquinavir concentrations required to modulate the proteasome activities were higher than those observed to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation. In HeLa cells, saquinavir was strongly effective in inhibiting cell invasion and clonogenicity (P≤0.05) at concentrations much lower than those required to perturb proteasomal activities. Saquinavir did not contribute to increase the sensitivity of HeLa cells to X-rays. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that saquinavir is able to significantly reduce cell proliferation, cell invasion and clonogenicity in a proteasome-independent manner in in vitro models of CC, and suggest that saquinavir could be a promising CC therapeutic agent.

  12. The HIV-protease inhibitor saquinavir reduces proliferation, invasion and clonogenicity in cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Todeschini, Paola; Romani, Chiara; Zanotti, Laura; Erba, Eugenio; Colmegna, Benedetta; Bignotti, Eliana; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Sartori, Enrico; Odicino, Franco Edoardo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Tassi, Renata Alessandra; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Innovative therapies in cervical cancer (CC) remain a priority. Recent data indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors used in highly active antiretroviral therapy can exert direct antitumor activities also in HIV-free preclinical and clinical models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of various HIV-protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) on primary and established CC cell lines. Two CC cell lines established in our laboratory and four commercially available CC cell lines were treated with indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir at different concentrations and for different times. Proliferation, clonogenicity and radiosensitivity were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Proteasomal activities were assessed using a cell-based assay and immunoblotting. Cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. Invasion was tested with Matrigel chambers. A t-test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. In all cell lines, saquinavir was more effective than ritonavir in reducing cell proliferation and inhibiting proteasomal activities (P≤0.05). Conversely, indinavir exerted a negligible effect. The saquinavir concentrations required to modulate the proteasome activities were higher than those observed to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation. In HeLa cells, saquinavir was strongly effective in inhibiting cell invasion and clonogenicity (P≤0.05) at concentrations much lower than those required to perturb proteasomal activities. Saquinavir did not contribute to increase the sensitivity of HeLa cells to X-rays. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that saquinavir is able to significantly reduce cell proliferation, cell invasion and clonogenicity in a proteasome-independent manner in in vitro models of CC, and suggest that saquinavir could be a promising CC therapeutic agent. PMID:27698818

  13. Growth inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin glucosides isolated from Citrullus colocynthis on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tannin-Spitz, Tehila; Grossman, Shlomo; Dovrat, Sara; Gottlieb, Hugo E; Bergman, Margalit

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to study the effects of cucurbitacin glucosides extracted from Citrullus colocynthis leaves on human breast cancer cell growth. Leaves were extracted, resulting in the identification of cucurbitacin B/E glucosides. The cucurbitacin glucoside combination (1:1) inhibited growth of ER(+) MCF-7 and ER(-) MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cell-cycle analysis showed that treatment with isolated cucurbitacin glucoside combination resulted in accumulation of cells at the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Treated cells showed rapid reduction in the level of the key protein complex necessary to the regulation of G(2) exit and initiation of mitosis, namely the p34(CDC2)/cyclin B1 complex. cucurbitacin glucoside treatment also caused changes in the overall cell morphology from an elongated form to a round-shaped cell, which indicates that cucurbitacin treatment caused impairment of actin filament organization. This profound morphological change might also influence intracellular signaling by molecules such as PKB, resulting in inhibition in the transmission of survival signals. Reduction in PKB phosphorylation and inhibition of survivin, an anti-apoptosis family member, was observed. The treatment caused elevation in p-STAT3 and in p21(WAF), proven to be a STAT3 positive target in absence of survival signals. Cucurbitacin glucoside treatment also induced apoptosis, as measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) using a fluorescent dye, JC-1. We suggest that cucurbitacin glucosides exhibit pleiotropic effects on cells, causing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that cucurbitacin glucosides might have therapeutic value against breast cancer cells.

  14. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  15. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data.

  16. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  17. Differential influence of tacrolimus and sirolimus on mitochondrial-dependent signaling for apoptosis in pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Abbas, Malak; Kassem, Mohamad; Gleizes, Céline; Kreutter, Guillaume; Schini-Kerth, Valerie; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Toti, Florence; Kessler, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    To examine and compare the mitochondria-related cellular mechanisms by which tacrolimus (TAC) or sirolimus (SIR) immunosuppressive drugs alter the pancreatic exocrine and endocrine β-cell fate. Human exocrine PANC-1 and rat endocrine insulin-secreting RIN-m5F cells and isolated rat islets were submitted to 1-100 nM TAC or SIR. In cultures, insulin secretion was measured as endocrine cell function marker. Apoptosis was quantified by annexin 5 and propidium iodide staining. Cleaved caspase-3, Bax apoptosis indicators, and p53, p21 cell cycle regulators were detected by Western blot. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were analyzed by flow cytometry and SA-beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity by fluorescence microscopy. Only TAC reduced insulin secretion by RIN-m5F after 24 h. TAC and SIR promoted moderate apoptosis in both PANC-1 and RIN-m5F after 24 h. Apoptosis was associated with up-regulated Bax (threefold) and cleaved caspase-3 (fivefold) but only in PANC-1, while p53 and p21 were up-regulated (twofold) in both cell lines. ΔΨm was impaired only in PANC-1 by TAC and SIR. Only SIR prompted cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. The induction of a premature senescence-like phenotype was confirmed in isolated islets by SA-β-gal activity. TAC and SIR are early inducers of pancreatic cell dysfunction and apoptosis but differentially alter endocrine and exocrine cells via mitochondrial-driven pathways. In rat islets, TAC and SIR prompt a senescence-like phenotype. PMID:27344165

  18. Fumonisin B₁ inhibits apoptosis in HepG2 cells by inducing Birc-8/ILP-2.

    PubMed

    Chuturgoon, Anil A; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Moodley, Devapregasan

    2015-06-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp., a common contaminant of maize. FB1 inhibits sphingolipid biosynthesis, alters sphingosine/sphinganine ratios and modifies cell survival and cell death processes at varying propensities at both species- and tissue-specific level. We investigated the effect of FB1 on the apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We measured: (i) the level of cell proliferation and cell death mechanism of HepG2 cells (MTT assay, annexin V and propidium iodide staining, JC-1 assay, γH2AX and cleaved PARP and Hoechst staining); (ii) initiator and executioner caspase activity (luminometric enzyme activity assays); (iii) regulation of mRNA expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules using an apoptosis array (qPCR) and (iv) levels of significantly altered apoptosis-related proteins (Western blotting) following a 24 h incubation. FB1 caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability with an inhibitory concentration for 50% of cell growth at 200 μM. FACS data showed FB1 induced a 2.5-fold increase in annexin V staining, however, caspase activity and mitochondrial depolarization was not significantly influenced. Cleaved PARP and γH2AX were significantly lower in treated cells with minimal DNA condensation and fragmentation observed with the Hoechst stain. BIRC-8/ILP-2 was most significantly up-regulated (8-fold; apoptosis array). ILP2 protein levels were elevated (2.3-fold) with a corresponding decrease in Smac/DIABLO protein levels (1.7-fold). Further analysis showed a dose-dependent increase in BIRC-8/ILP-2 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells. We conclude that FB1 modulates apoptosis in a complex dose-dependent regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules.

  19. Monobenzyltin Complex C1 Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells through the Intrinsic Signaling Pathway and through the Targeting of MCF-7-Derived Breast Cancer Stem Cells via the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fani, Somayeh; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Karimian, Hamed; Mun Lo, Kong; Ebrahimi Nigjeh, Siyamak; Swee Keong, Yeap; Soori, Rahman; May Chow, Kit; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Mohd Hashim, Najihah

    2016-01-01

    Monobenzyltin Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, C1, is an organotin non-platinum metal-based agent. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects on MCF-7 cells with respect to the induction of apoptosis and its inhibitory effect against MCF-7 breast cancer stem cells. As determined in a previous study, compound C1 revealed strong antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.5 μg/mL. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry indicated the induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Compound C1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and was mediated through the intrinsic pathway with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial cytochrome c release to cytosol. Complex C1 activated caspase 9 as a result of cytochrome c release. Subsequently, western blot and real time PCR revealed a significant increase in Bax and Bad expression and a significant decrease in the expression levels of Bcl2 and HSP70. Furthermore, a flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with compound C1 caused a significant arrest of MCF-7 cells in G0/G1 phase. The inhibitory analysis of compound C1 against derived MCF-7 stem cells showed a significant reduction in the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population and a significant reduction in the population of MCF-7 cancer stem cells in primary, secondary, and tertiary mammospheres. Moreover, treatment with C1 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings indicate that complex C1 is a suppressive agent of MCF-7 cells that functions through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and the targeting of MCF-7-derived cancer stem cells. This work may lead to a better treatment strategy for the reduction of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:27529753

  20. Monobenzyltin Complex C1 Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells through the Intrinsic Signaling Pathway and through the Targeting of MCF-7-Derived Breast Cancer Stem Cells via the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Somayeh; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Karimian, Hamed; Mun Lo, Kong; Ebrahimi Nigjeh, Siyamak; Swee Keong, Yeap; Soori, Rahman; May Chow, Kit; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Mohd Hashim, Najihah

    2016-01-01

    Monobenzyltin Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, C1, is an organotin non-platinum metal-based agent. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects on MCF-7 cells with respect to the induction of apoptosis and its inhibitory effect against MCF-7 breast cancer stem cells. As determined in a previous study, compound C1 revealed strong antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.5 μg/mL. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry indicated the induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Compound C1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and was mediated through the intrinsic pathway with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial cytochrome c release to cytosol. Complex C1 activated caspase 9 as a result of cytochrome c release. Subsequently, western blot and real time PCR revealed a significant increase in Bax and Bad expression and a significant decrease in the expression levels of Bcl2 and HSP70. Furthermore, a flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with compound C1 caused a significant arrest of MCF-7 cells in G0/G1 phase. The inhibitory analysis of compound C1 against derived MCF-7 stem cells showed a significant reduction in the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population and a significant reduction in the population of MCF-7 cancer stem cells in primary, secondary, and tertiary mammospheres. Moreover, treatment with C1 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings indicate that complex C1 is a suppressive agent of MCF-7 cells that functions through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and the targeting of MCF-7-derived cancer stem cells. This work may lead to a better treatment strategy for the reduction of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:27529753

  1. Scutellaria barbate extract induces apoptosis of hepatoma H22 cells via the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Zong-Fang; Ji, Zong-Zheng; Ren, Hong-Tao; Tang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Xu; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Song, Ling-Qin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Scutellaria barbata D.Don (S. barbata) and to determine the underlying mechanism of its antitumor activity in mouse liver cancer cell line H22. METHODS: Proliferation of H22 cells was examined by MTT assay. Cellular morphology of PC-2 cells was observed under fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope (EM). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with rhodamine 123 staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle of H22 cells with propidium iodide staining. Protein level of cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that extracts from S. barbata (ESB) could inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells in a time-dependent manner. Among the various phases of cell cycle, the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased, while the percentage of cells in G1 phase was increased. Flow cytometry assay also showed that ESB had a positive effect on apoptosis. Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of apoptotic cells could be observed under transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. To further investige the molecular mechanism behind ESB-induced apoptosis, ESB-treated cells rapidly lost their mitochondrial transmembrane potential, released mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytosol, and induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: ESB can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells involving loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C, and activation of caspase-3. PMID:19109865

  2. Induction of apoptosis in MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells by Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelium).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus), isolated from the mycelia of G. lucidum and P. umbellatus, exerts anti‑proliferative effects against malignant cells; however, its activity against human breast cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, cell proliferation was assessed using a 3-(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and poptosis was examined using annexin V‑propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The activation of caspases 7, 8 and 9 were detected in the Khz‑treated cells using western blotting. The results demonstrated that Khz increased the intracellular calcium concentration and induced the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, as determined using flow cytometry. The results also demonstrated that Khz inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the MCF‑7 cells. In addition, the mechanism by which Khz induces apoptosis in cancer cells was investigated. Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells, with a minimal effect on non‑transformed cells, suggesting its potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent. Oxidative stress is associated with apoptotic and non‑apoptotic cell death, although pro‑oxidative conditions are not a pre‑requisite for apoptosis. Assessment of the activation status of caspases 7, 8 and 9 revealed that the levels of cleaved caspases were significantly increased in the cells treated with Khz. It is widely accepted that calcium signaling is important in apoptosis, and the present study observed an increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Khz treatment. The anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects of Khz suggest that this extract may be developed as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:26648109

  3. The SH integral membrane protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 is required to block apoptosis in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    He, B; Lin, G Y; Durbin, J E; Durbin, R K; Lamb, R A

    2001-05-01

    In some cell types the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) causes little cytopathic effect (CPE) and infection continues productively for long periods of time; e.g., SV5 can be produced from MDBK cells for up to 40 days with little CPE. SV5 differs from most paramyxoviruses in that it encodes a small (44-amino-acid) hydrophobic integral membrane protein (SH). When MDBK cells were infected with a recombinant SV5 containing a deletion of the SH gene (rSV5DeltaSH), the MDBK cells exhibited an increase in CPE compared to cells infected with wild-type SV5 (recovered from cDNA; rSV5). The increased CPE correlated with an increase in apoptosis in rSV5DeltaSH-infected cells over mock-infected and rSV5-infected cells when assayed for annexin V binding, DNA content (propidium iodide staining), and DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay). In rSV5DeltaSH-infected MDBK cells an increase in caspase-2 and caspase-3 activities was observed. By using peptide inhibitors of individual caspases it was found that caspase-2 and caspase-3 were activated separately in rSV5DeltaSH-infected cells. Expression of caspase-2 and -3 in rSV5DeltaSH-infected MDBK cells appeared not to require STAT1 protein, as STAT1 protein could not be detected in SV5-infected MDBK cells. When mutant mice homologous for a targeted disruption of STAT1 were used as a model animal system and infected with the viruses it was found that rSV5DeltaSH caused less mortality than wild-type rSV5, consistent with the notion of clearance of apoptotic cells in a host species.

  4. Infrasound sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Kenneth; Moore, Dan H; Yount, Garret

    2013-11-01

    The development of nontoxic agents that can selectively enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy is an important aim in oncology. This study evaluates the ability of infrasound exposure to sensitize glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The infrasound was delivered using a device designed to replicate the unique infrasound emissions measured during external Qigong treatments. Human glioblastoma cell lines harboring wild-type p53 (U87) or mutant p53 (U251, SF210, and SF188) were treated in culture with cisplatin, infrasound emissions, or the combination of the 2 agents. Induction of apoptosis was quantified after 24 hours by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Infrasound emissions alone, delivered at moderate levels (~10 mPa) with dynamic frequency content (7-13 Hz), did not induce apoptosis, yet combining infrasound with cisplatin augmented the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin in all the 4 cell lines (P < .05). Increased cellular uptake of the fluorophore calcein associated with infrasound exposure was quantified by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry, demonstrating increased cell membrane permeability. The 4 cell lines differed in the degree to which infrasound exposure increased calcein uptake, and these differences were predictive of the extent to which infrasound enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. When exposed to specific frequencies, membrane permeabilization also appeared to be differentially responsive for each cell line, suggesting the potential for selective targeting of tissue types using isolated infrasonic frequencies. Additionally, the pressure amplitudes used in this study were several orders of magnitude less than those used in similar studies involving ultrasound and shock waves. The results of this study provide support for using infrasound to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in a clinical setting. PMID:23165942

  5. Characterization of the heterogeneity of R3327 rat prostatic tumors derived from single-cell clones.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S A; Johnson, M P; Heidger, P M; Lubaroff, D M

    1985-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by cellular diversity, which is well demonstrated in the Dunning R3327 rat prostatic adenocarcinoma. This heterogeneity may arise from epigenetic influences, ie, cellular adaptation or selection, and/or from genetic changes. To investigate the question of genetic instability, four tissue culture cell lines were derived from single cells isolated from the uncloned late (UCL) passage of the Dunning R3327H prostate cell culture. Each of these clonally derived tissue cultures was injected into castrated and intact young adult male rats for tumor production. Uncloned early (UCE) and UCL passage tissue cultures were also propagated as solid tumors. Tumors and the cultures from which they were derived were examined for evidence of phenotypic and genetic changes using morphological and cytometric methods. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed only slight differences among the cell cultures. A single population of diploid cells was demonstrated in each of the cell cultures by propidium iodide staining and subsequent flow cytometric measurement of DNA content/nucleus. Tumors of unicellular as well as multicellular origin exhibited extreme heterogeneity of histological features, both among animals as well as within a single tumor. Tumors were surveyed and tissue types were characterized and cataloged. Clone 3 was generally better differentiated than the others; tumors from castrated animals were better differentiated than those from intact animals. Flow cytometry revealed multiple hyperdiploid cell populations that were variable from one sample to another. We concluded that changes in genotype as well as phenotype occurred in the tumors derived from single cells. Some of these changes may have occurred in the cells while still in culture. PMID:4088951

  6. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic

  7. Efficient intracellular delivery of molecules with high cell viability using nanosecond-pulsed laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aritra; Kelly, Sean C; Dwivedi, Nishant; Thadhani, Naresh; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-03-25

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5-9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability.

  8. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  9. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 10(9) CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 10(9) CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  10. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E.; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S.; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 109 CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 109 CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  11. β-catenin knockdown inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHONG; CHEN, QIANXUE

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a crucial oncogene that is capable of regulating cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether β-catenin was associated with the proliferation and progress of glioma. In order to knockdown the expression of β-catenin in human U251 glioma cells, three pairs of small interfering (si)RNA were designed and synthesized and the most effective siRNA was selected and used for silencing the endogenous β-catenin, which was detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proliferation was subsequently detected using a methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the results demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis rate was analyzed using flow cytometry and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining demonstrated that β-catenin siRNA significantly increased the apoptosis of U251 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, the results of an in vitro scratch assay demonstrated that β-catenin silencing suppressed the proliferation of U251 cells, as compared with the control group (P<0.01). In vivo, β-catenin expression levels in U251 cells were significantly inhibited (P<0.01) following β-catenin short hairpin (sh)RNA lentiviral-vector transfection, as detected by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR. Tumorigenicity experiments demonstrated that β-catenin inhibition significantly increased the survival rate of nude mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin expression significantly inhibited the progression of human glioma cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo; thus suggesting that β-catenin silencing may be a novel therapy for the treatment of human glioma. PMID:26998037

  12. A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili; Sonis, Stephen T.; Lingen, Mark W.; Berger, Ann; Toback, F. Gary

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

  13. Bradykinin Preconditioning Improves Therapeutic Potential of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yefei; Yan, Fengdi; Huang, Jie; Ma, Genshan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Stem cell preconditioning (PC) is a powerful approach in reducing cell death after transplantation. We hypothesized that PC human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) with bradykinin (BK) enhance cell survival, inhibit apoptosis and repair the infarcted myocardium. Methods The hEPCs were preconditioned with or without BK. The hEPCs apoptosis induced by hypoxia along with serum deprivation was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide staining. Cleaved caspase-3, Akt and eNOS expressions were determined by Western blots. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were assessed in hEPCs. For in vivo studies, the survival and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of transplanted hEPCs were assessed using 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindodi- carbocyanine,4-chlorobenzenesul-fonate salt labeled hEPCs and TUNEL staining. Infarct size and cardiac function were measured at 10 days after transplantation, and the survival of transplanted hEPCs were visualized using near-infrared optical imaging. Results In vitro data showed a marked suppression in cell apoptosis following BK PC. The PC reduced caspase-3 activation, increased the Akt, eNOS phosphorylation and VEGF levels. In vivo data in preconditioned group showed a robust cell anti-apoptosis, reduction in infarct size, and significant improvement in cardiac function. The effects of BK PC were abrogated by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE140, the Akt and eNOS antagonists LY294002 and L-NAME, respectively. Conclusions The activation of B2 receptor-dependent PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway by BK PC promotes VEGF secretion, hEPC survival and inhibits apoptosis, thereby improving cardiac function in vivo. The BK PC hEPC transplantation for stem cell-based therapies is a novel approach that has potential for clinical used. PMID:24312554

  14. Induction of apoptosis by ginger in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Arul Diana Christie, Swamidurai; Ramkuma, Kunga Mohan

    2007-05-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) is a commonly used medicinal herb throughout the world. Although some studies have demonstrated its antitumour activities on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, the exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hence, the present study was designed to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of saline extract prepared from ginger extract on HEp-2 cell line. The cytotoxic effect of the drug was confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cell counting and estimation of protein, DNA and RNA. Meanwhile, propidium iodide staining and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed for determining the induction of apoptosis. In addition, superoxide radical generation, nitrite formation and glutathione studies show involvement of free radicals. The present results show that the extract exerts dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation; the IC(50) value was found to be 900 microg/ml. At a dose of 250 microg/ml, marked morphological changes including cell shrinkage and condensation of chromosomes were observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA from HEp-2 cells treated with 250 microg/ml ginger powder for 24 hr showed marked DNA ladder pattern. The involvement of free radicals was confirmed by increased superoxide production, decreased nitrate formation and depletion of glutathione in ginger-treated cells. Further screening of active components using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed the presence of clavatol, geraniol and pinostrobin in the extract. The results of the present study suggest that ginger might be useful as a potential antitumour agent. PMID:17448115

  15. Selected novel 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1, 3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones arrest cell cycle of HCT-116 in G0/G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lalitha; Srinivasan, K K; Kumar, Nitesh; Reddy, Neetinkumar D; Biswas, Subhankar; Rao, C Mallikarjuna; Moorkoth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    A series of 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (AC1-AC15) were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 5'-acetamido-2'-hydroxy acetophenone with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry and evaluated for their selective cytotoxicity using MTT assay on two cancer cell lines namely breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and one normal kidney epithelial cell line (Vero). Among the tested compounds, AC-10 showed maximum cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value 74.7 ± 3.5 µM. On HCT-116 cells, AC-13 exhibited maximum cytotoxicity with IC50 value 42.1 ± 4.0 µM followed by AC-14 and AC-10 with IC50 values 62 ± 2.3 µM and 95.4 ± 1.7 µM respectively. All tested compounds were found to be safe on Vero cell line with IC50 value more than 200 µM. Based on their highest efficacy on HCT-116, AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 were selected for mechanistic study on this cell line by evaluating changes nucleomorphological characteristics using acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AOEB) dual stain and by analyzing cell cycle with flow cytometry using propidium iodide stain. In AOEB staining, all three tested compounds showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in percentage apoptotic nuclei compared to control cells, with highest increase in apoptotic nuclei by AC-13 treatment (31 %). Flow cytometric studies showed cell cycle arrest by AC-10 and AC-14 treatment in G0/G1 phase and by AC-13 in G0/G1 and G2/M phase. The study reflected the potential of AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 to be the lead molecules for further optimization. PMID:27152112

  16. Selected novel 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1, 3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones arrest cell cycle of HCT-116 in G0/G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lalitha; Srinivasan, K. K.; Kumar, Nitesh; Reddy, Neetinkumar D.; Biswas, Subhankar; Rao, C. Mallikarjuna; Moorkoth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    A series of 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (AC1-AC15) were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 5'-acetamido-2'-hydroxy acetophenone with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry and evaluated for their selective cytotoxicity using MTT assay on two cancer cell lines namely breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and one normal kidney epithelial cell line (Vero). Among the tested compounds, AC-10 showed maximum cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value 74.7 ± 3.5 µM. On HCT-116 cells, AC-13 exhibited maximum cytotoxicity with IC50 value 42.1 ± 4.0 µM followed by AC-14 and AC-10 with IC50 values 62 ± 2.3 µM and 95.4 ± 1.7 µM respectively. All tested compounds were found to be safe on Vero cell line with IC50 value more than 200 µM. Based on their highest efficacy on HCT-116, AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 were selected for mechanistic study on this cell line by evaluating changes nucleomorphological characteristics using acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AOEB) dual stain and by analyzing cell cycle with flow cytometry using propidium iodide stain. In AOEB staining, all three tested compounds showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in percentage apoptotic nuclei compared to control cells, with highest increase in apoptotic nuclei by AC-13 treatment (31 %). Flow cytometric studies showed cell cycle arrest by AC-10 and AC-14 treatment in G0/G1 phase and by AC-13 in G0/G1 and G2/M phase. The study reflected the potential of AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 to be the lead molecules for further optimization. PMID:27152112

  17. The essentiality of folate for the maintenance of deoxynucleotide precursor pools, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    James, S J; Miller, B J; Cross, D R; McGarrity, L J; Morris, S M

    1993-01-01

    The fidelity and progression of DNA synthesis is critically dependent on the correct balance and availability of the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) precursors for the polymerases involved in DNA replication and repair. Because folate-derived one-carbon groups are essential for the de novo synthesis of both purines and pyrimidines, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of folate deprivation on deoxynucleotide pool levels and cell cycle progression. Primary cultures of phytohemagglutin (PHA)-stimulated splenocytes were used as the cellular model. T-cells and macrophages were purified from spleen cell suspensions obtained from F344 rats and recombined in culture. The cells were harvested after a 66-hr incubation with PHA and analyzed for nucleotide levels by reverse-phase HPLC with diode array detection. The proportion of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle was determined by bivariate flow cytometric measurement of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and DNA content (propidium iodide staining). PHA-stimulated T-cells cultured in medium lacking folate and methionine manifested significant decreases in the deoxynucleotides dCTP, dTMP, dGTP, and dATP relative to cells cultured in complete medium. The reduction in dNTP pools was associated with a decrease in the corresponding ribonucleotide pools. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in S and G2/mitosis (G2/M) DNA content in PHA-stimulated cells cultured in the medium lacking folate and methionine, which suggests a delay in cell cycle progression. These alterations in DNA content were accompanied by a 5-fold decrease in BrdU incorporation relative to PHA-stimulated cells cultured in complete medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8013406

  18. Activated Schwann Cell-Like Cells on Aligned Fibrin-Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Structures: A Novel Construct for Application in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Christina M A P; Morton, Tatjana J; Banerjee, Asmita; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Schmidhammer, Robert; Redl, Heinz; Ruenzler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration search for ways to support gold standard therapy (autologous nerve grafts) and to improve results by bridging nerve defects with different kinds of conduits. In this study, we describe electrospinning of aligned fibrin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers in an attempt to create a biomimicking tissue-like material seeded with Schwann cell-like cells (SCLs) in vitro for potential use as an in vivo scaffold. Rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were differentiated into SCLs and evaluated with flow cytometry concerning their differentiation and activation status [S100b, P75, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and protein 0 (P0)]. After receiving the proliferation stimulus forskolin, SCLs expressed S100b and P75; comparable to native, activated Schwann cells, while cultured without forskolin, cells switched to a promyelinating phenotype and expressed S100b, MAG, and P0. Human fibrinogen and thrombin, blended with PLGA, were electrospun and the alignment and homogeneity of the fibers were proven by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun scaffolds were seeded with SCLs and the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs was evaluated with phalloidin/propidium iodide staining. Carrier fibrin gels containing rASCs acted as a self-shaping matrix to form a tubular structure. In this study, we could show that rASCs can be differentiated into activated, proliferating SCLs and that these cells react to minimal changes in stimulus, switching to a promyelinating phenotype. Aligned electrospun fibrin-PLGA fibers promoted the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs, which also rolled the fibrin-PLGA matrix into a tubular scaffold. These in vitro findings favor further in vivo testing. PMID:26372904

  19. Study on antifibrotic effects of curcumin in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Lian; Lin, Chia-Yu; Chi, Chin-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2009-07-01

    Suppression of activation or fibrogenesis and induction of apoptosis, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been proposed as therapeutic strategies against liver fibrosis. Curcumin, an active compound isolated from yellow curry pigment of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), has been demonstrated to be an effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifibrogenic effects of curcumin on HSCs at the concentration range of (1-40 microM). A cell line of rat HSCs (HSC-T6) was stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The inhibitory effects of curcumin (1.25 approximately 10 microM) on fibrosis-related markers including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen were assessed. In addition, the induction effects of curcumin (20 approximately 40 microM) on apoptosis in HSC-T6 cells were also assessed by Hoechst and propidium iodide stains. Curcumin (1.25 approximately 10 microM) concentration-dependently suppressed TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression and collagen deposition in HSC-T6 cells, without cytotoxicity. Whereas, higher concentrations of curcumin (20 approximately 40 microM) induced cell apoptosis and cytochrome c release in HSC-T6 cells. Our results suggest that curcumin exerted antifibrotic effects, possibly through two different mechanisms depending on its concentrations. At lower concentrations (1.25 approximately 10 microM), curcumin exerted antifibrogenic effects, whereas at higher concentrations (20 approximately 40 microM), curcumin exerted induction of apoptosis in HSCs. PMID:19152370

  20. Antiproliferative effects of copper(II)-polypyridyl complexes in breast cancer cells through inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Mona; Abdi, Khatereh; Kandelous, Hirsa Mostafapour; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Amanzadeh, Amir; Sanati, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Although cisplatin has been used for decades to treat human cancer, some toxic side effects and resistance are observed. Previous investigations have suggested copper complexes as a novel class of tumor-cell apoptosis inducers. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-breast cancer activities of two polypyridyl-based copper(II) complexes, [Cu(tpy)(dppz)](NO3)2 (1) and [Cu(tptz)2](NO3)2 (2) (tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, tptz = 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), using human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The ability of the complexes to cleave supercoiled DNA in the presence and absence of external agents was also examined. The apoptotic activities of the complexes were assessed using flow cytometry, fluorescence microscope and western blotting analysis. Our results indicated the high DNA affinity and nuclease activity of complexes 1 and 2. The cleavage mechanisms between the complexes and plasmid DNA are likely to involve a singlet oxygen or singlet oxygen-like entity as the reactive oxygen species. Complexes 1 and 2 also significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values = 4.57 and 1.98 μM at 24 h, respectively). Complex 2 remarkably induced MCF-7 cells to undergo apoptosis, which was demonstrated by cell morphology, annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by the proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3 after treatment of MCF-7 cells with complex 2. Additionally, complex 2 significantly increased the expression of the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio to induce apoptosis. In conclusion, these results revealed that complex 2 may be a potential and promising chemotherapeutic agent to treat breast cancer.

  1. Anticancer Activities of Pterostilbene-Isothiocyanate Conjugate in Breast Cancer Cells: Involvement of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway. PMID:25119466

  2. Anticancer activities of pterostilbene-isothiocyanate conjugate in breast cancer cells: involvement of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Singh, Abhimanyu K; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway. PMID:25119466

  3. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2-associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms.

  4. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pálóczi, János; Varga, Zoltán V.; Szebényi, Kornélia; Sarkadi, Balázs; Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Csont, Tamás; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Görbe, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days) and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days), both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M), BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M), and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M). Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M) significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M) also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms. PMID:27403231

  5. Pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, a resveratrol derivative inhibits 17β-Estradiol induced cell migration and proliferation in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Wishard, Rohan; Palla, Srinivasa Rao; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis, thus development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor is essential for the improvement of therapeutics against cancer. Thrombospondins-1 (TSP-1) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that acts through direct effects on endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, and activating apoptotic pathways. TSP-1 has been shown to disrupt estrogen-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Here we investigated the potential of pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PTERC-T), a novel resveratrol (RESV) derivative, to inhibit angiogenesis induced by female sex steroids, particularly 17β-Estradiol (E2), on Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to elucidate the involvement of TSP-1 in PTERC-T action. Our results showed that PTERC-T significantly inhibited 17β-E2-stimulated proliferation of HUVECs and induced apoptosis as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, PTERC-T also inhibited endothelial cell migration, and invasion in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In contrast, RESV failed to inhibit 17β-E2 induced HUVECs proliferation and invasion at similar dose. PTERC-T was also found to increase TSP-1 protein expression levels in a dose-dependent manner which, however, was counteracted by co-incubation with p38MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTERC-T action. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PTERC-T on 17β-E2 induced angiogenesis is associated, at least in part, with its induction of endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration through targeting TSP-1. Thus, PTERC-T could be considered as a potential lead compound for developing a class of new drugs targeting angiogenesis-related diseases.

  6. Effect of thymol on Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Shong; Lin, Ko-Long; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Chiang, An-Jen; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Fong-Dee; Huang, Jong Khing; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shuih-Inn; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2011-11-16

    The effect of the natural essential oil thymol on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in human glioblastoma cells was examined. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)](i). Thymol at concentrations of 400-1000 μM induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent fashion. The response was decreased partially by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Thymol-induced Ca(2+) signal was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), but was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X. When extracellular Ca(2+) was removed, incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished thymol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with thymol also abolished thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished thymol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At concentrations of 200-800 μM, thymol killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This cytotoxic effect was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that thymol (200, 400 and 600 μM) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, in human glioblastoma cells, thymol induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by inducing phospholipase C- and protein kinase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via non store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Thymol induced cell death that may involve apoptosis. PMID:21914442

  7. Methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba induces apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Dolai, Narayan; Islam, Aminul; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as “Kadam” in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. Materials and Methods: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB). Comet assay was estimated to check the DNA damage. Flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]) was used to detect the apoptotic rate quantitatively by double labeling techniques using annexin V FITC/propidium iodide staining. Apoptotic protein expression was done using Western blotting assay method. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test of GraphPad Prism software. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 were considered statistically significant. Results: Apoptosis-inducing effect of MEAC on EAC cells was confirmed from AO/EB staining and FACS analysis. MEAC treatment showed dose-dependent induction of DNA damage. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the expression of multiple downstream factors such as pro-apoptotic protein p53 and p21 in EAC. Bax was up-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated resulting in decrease of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio by MEAC treatment. Conclusion: Experimental results revealed that MEAC induces apoptosis by modulating the expression of some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in EAC and thus exerts its anti-tumor activity. PMID:27756959

  8. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Context Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went (Monascaceae) NTU 568 (red mould rice) was found to contain antioxidants, including dimerumic acid (DMA) and deferricoprogen (DFC). Objective The effects of DMA and DFC on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and potential protective mechanisms in differentiated PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated. Materials and methods DMA (0-60 μM) or DFC (0-10 μM) was co-treated with 6-OHDA (200 μM, 24 h exposure) in differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell viability and intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of cell protein expression. Results DMA and DFC significantly increased cell viability to 72% and 81% in 6-OHDA-induced differentiated PC-12 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, DMA and DFC reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of extracellular and intercellular ROS by 25% and 20%, respectively, and decreased NADPH oxidase-2 expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspase-3 via regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 protein expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. Conclusion DMA and DFC may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting ROS formation and apoptosis. These results showed that the metabolites from M. purpureus NTU 568 fermentation were potential therapeutic agents for PD induced by oxidative damage and should be encouraged for further research. PMID:26794209

  9. A novel roscovitine derivative potently induces G1-phase arrest in platelet-derived growth factor-BB-activated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Irene M; Heiss, Elke H; Havlicek, Libor; Totzke, Frank; Aristei, Yasmin; Pechan, Paul; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Strnad, Miroslav; Dirsch, Verena M

    2010-02-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation contributes to the pathogenesis of restenosis. Thus, drugs interfering with cell cycle progression in VSMC are promising candidates for an antirestenotic therapy. In this study, we pharmacologically characterize N-5-(2-aminocyclohexyl)-N-7-benzyl-3-isopropyl-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine-5,7-di-amine (LGR1406), a novel derivative of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor roscovitine (ROSC), in PDGF-BB-activated VSMC. Cell proliferation was quantified measuring DNA synthesis via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was done by flow cytometry using propidium iodide-stained nuclei. Key regulators of the cell cycle and relevant signaling pathways were dissected by Western blot analyses. In addition, in vitro kinase assays and in silico studies regarding the pharmacokinetic profile of both compounds were performed. LGR1406 shows a stronger (IC(50) = 3.0 muM) antiproliferative activity than ROSC (IC(50) = 16.9 muM), halting VSMCs in G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, whereas ROSC does not arrest but rather delays cell cycle progression. Neither of the compounds interferes with early PDGF-BB-induced signaling pathways (p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and both inhibit CDKs, with LGR1406 exerting a slightly higher potency against CDK1/2 and 4 than ROSC. Expression of cyclins A and E as well as hyperphosphorylation of the pocket proteins retinoblastoma protein and p107 are negatively affected by both compounds, although to a different extent. In silico calculations predicted a much higher metabolic stability for LGR1406 compared with ROSC. Altogether, ROSC derivatives, such as LGR1406 seem to be promising compounds for further development in antirestenotic therapy.

  10. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings. PMID:26194866

  11. Anticancer Activity of Cobra Venom Polypeptide, Cytotoxin-II, against Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line (MCF-7) via the Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Farshad H.; Vatanpour, Hosein; zare, Abas; Kobarfard, Farzad; Rabiei, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is a significant health problem worldwide, accounting for a quarter of all cancer diagnoses in women. Current strategies for breast cancer treatment are not fully effective, and there is substantial interest in the identification of novel anticancer agents especially from natural products including toxins. Cytotoxins are polypeptides found in the venom of cobras and have various physiological effects. In the present study, the anticancer potential of cytotoxin-II against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) was investigated. Methods The cytotoxic effects of cytotoxin-II were determined by morphological analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The mode and mechanism of cell death were investigated via acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) double staining, flow cytometric analysis of cell death, detection of mitochondrial membrane potential, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and caspase-9 activity assays. Results The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cytotoxin-II in MCF-7 cells was 4.18±1.23 µg/mL, while the value for cisplatin was approximately 28.02±1.87 µg/mL. Morphological analysis and AO/EtBr double staining showed typical manifestations of apoptotic cell death (in doses lower than 8 µg/mL). Dose- and time-dependent ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation, and cell cycle arrest were observed in their respective tests. Conclusion In conclusion, cytotoxin-II has potent anticancer effects in the MCF-7 cell line, which are induced via the intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Based on these findings, cytotoxin-II is a suitable choice for breast cancer treatment. PMID:25548578

  12. Matrine induces the hepatic differentiation of WB-F344 rat hepatic progenitor cells and inhibits Jagged 1/HES1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyun; Wang, Li; Wang, Xianbo

    2016-10-01

    Matrine is a Chinese medicine, which is widely utilized for the attenuation of liver injuries and promotion of liver regeneration. It was previously observed that the in vivo administration of matrine promoted oval cell‑mediated liver regeneration in a rat model, suggesting that this compound may affect the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying this observation and to investigate the effect of matrine on the differentiation of the WB‑F344 rat hepatic progenitor cell line. Matrine was administered to rats, and rat serum was collected. WB‑F344 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of the rat serum for 24‑72 h, and the effects on cell viability and proliferation were assessed using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl) ‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of albumin (ALB, a hepatocyte marker) and the notch signaling pathway ligand, Jagged 1, were assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the mRNA transcription of ALB, Jagged 1 and hairy and enhancer of split‑1 (HES1, another notch signaling ligand) were measured using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that proliferation of the WB‑F344 cells was inhibited by matrine serum in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. Matrine serum downregulated Jagged 1 and HES1, and upregulated ALB, indicating the induction of WB‑F344 cell differentiation. The effects of matrine serum were reversed by supplementing the culture medium with 0.1 mol/l parathyroid hormone, a Notch signaling pathway activator. In conclusion, matrine induced hepatic differentiation of the hepatic progenitor cells, likely by inhibiting the Jagged 1/HES1 signaling pathway.

  13. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ influx was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²⁺-permeable channels, without causing Ca²⁺ release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²⁺]i rises.

  14. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218 μg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48 μg/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  15. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ influx was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²⁺-permeable channels, without causing Ca²⁺ release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²⁺]i rises. PMID:25687486

  16. Targeting of RUNX3 by miR-130a and miR-495 cooperatively increases cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Yuk Dong; Choi, Young Sun; Lee, You Mie

    2015-10-20

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 23 nucleotide noncoding RNA molecules that can downregulate multiple gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are considered to play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation during mammalian development. The Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) expression and activity are frequently downregulated by various mechanisms in gastric cancer. We have reported that RUNX3 inactivation is crucial for early tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNAs targeting RUNX3 in early tumorigenesis. miR-130a and miR-495 upregulated under hypoxic conditions that bind to the RUNX3 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) were identified in gastric cancer cells by using microarray analysis and bioinformatics programs. Combination of miR-130a and miR-495 inhibited RUNX3 expression at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level. miR-130a and miR-495 significantly inhibited the RUNX3-3'UTR-luciferase activity. Combination of miR-130a and miR-495 significantly decreased apoptosis determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of Bim in SNU484 gastric cancer cells. In addition, p21 and Bim, RUNX3 target genes, were completely downregulated by the combination of miR-130a and miR-495. Using matrigel plug assay, we found that antagomiRs specific for miR-130a and miR-495 significantly reduced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, targeting miR-130a and miR-495 could be a potential therapeutics to recover RUNX3 expression under hypoxic conditions and in early tumorigenic progression. PMID:26375442

  17. The D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF83959, attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in RGC-5 cells involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yu; Li, Ting; Fan, Bin; Zheng, Yong-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is widely implicated in the death of retinal ganglion cells associated with various optic neuropathies. Agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor have recently been found to be potentially neuroprotective against oxidative stress–induced injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether SKF83959, a next-generation high-affinity D1 receptor agonist, could protect retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells from H2O2-induced damage and the molecular mechanism involved. Methods We examined expression of the D1 receptor in RGC-5 cells with reverse-transcription–PCR and immunoblotting and assessed neuroprotection using propidium iodide staining and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, we monitored the activation and involvement of members of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, with western blot and specific inhibitors. Results We found that the D1 receptor was expressed in RGC-5 cells, but the sequence analysis suggested this cell line is from mouse and not rat origin. SKF83959 exhibited a remarkable neuroprotective effect on H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, which was blocked by the specific D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. ERK and p38 were activated by SKF83959, and pretreatment with their inhibitors U0126 and SB203580, respectively, significantly blunted the SKF83959-induced cytoprotection. However, the specific c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor, SP600125, had no effect on the SKF83959-induced protection. Conclusions We conclude that SKF83959 attenuates hydrogen peroxide–induced injury in RGC-5 cells via a mechanism involving activation of the ERK and p38 pathways and the D1 receptor is a potential molecular target for developing neuroprotective drugs. PMID:23233790

  18. Evaluation of the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenol on oxidative parameters and viability of human blood mononuclear cells (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Bukowska, B; Wieteska, P; Kwiatkowska, M; Sicińska, P; Michalowicz, J

    2016-07-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is formed in drinking water as a result of its chlorination, and it is created in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics such as triclosan or herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The molecular mechanism depicting the action of phenolic compounds on nucleated blood cells has been insufficiently studied, and therefore, we have assessed the effect of 2,4-DCP on the structure and viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic, and morphological changes (alterations in the size and granulation) in PBMCs incubated with 2,4-DCP in the concentration ranging from 10 to 500 µg mL(-1) for 4 h at 37°C. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in the incubated cells. We have noted that 2,4-DCP increased ROS formation and lipid peroxidation (from 10 µg mL(-1)) and oxidized proteins (from 50 µg mL(-1)) in PBMCs. The compound studied also provoked apoptotic (from 50 µg mL(-1)), necrotic (from 100 µg mL(-1)) and alterations in the size and granulation (from 50 µg mL(-1)) in the incubated cells. The analysis of quinolinium 4-[(3-methyl-2(3H)-benzoxazolylidene)methyl]-1-[3-(trimethyl-ammonio)-propyl]-diiodide/propidium iodide staining revealed that 2,4-DCP (50-250 µg mL(-1)) more strongly increased the number of apoptotic than necrotic cells, which suggests that this cell death type is mainly provoked by this compound in PBMCs. The observed changes were caused by relatively high concentrations of 2,4-DCP, which cannot influence human organism during environmental exposure and thus may only occur as a result of acute or subacute poisoning with this compound.

  19. Fructose induces mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells by provoking oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Natasha; Maurya, Chandan K; Arha, Deepti; Avisetti, Deepa R; Prathapan, Ayyappan; Raj, Palayyan S; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G; Kalivendi, Shasi V; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that oxidative stress results from the increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, tissue damage, insulin resistance, and other complications observed in type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that intake of high fructose contributes to insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. However, there is limited information about the direct effect of fructose on the mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle, the major metabolic determinant of whole body insulin activity. Here, we assessed the effect of fructose exposure on mitochondria-mediated mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. Exposure of L6 myotubes to high fructose stimulated the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase. Fructose-induced oxidative stress was associated with increased translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 to the nucleus, decreases in mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondrial dysfunctions, as evidenced by decreased activities of citrate synthase and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased activity of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, and impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism. Furthermore, positive Annexin-propidium iodide staining and altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and caspases in L6 myotubes indicated that the cells progressively became apoptotic upon fructose exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that exposure of skeletal muscle cells to fructose induced oxidative stress that decreased mitochondrial DNA content and triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, which caused apoptosis.

  20. The Mechanism of Safrole-Induced [Ca²⁺]i Rises and Non-Ca²⁺-Triggered Cell Death in SCM1 Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tzu-Yi; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Sun, Te-Kung; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Fang, Yi-Chien; Li, Yih-Do; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-10-31

    Safrole is a carcinogen found in plants. The effect of safrole on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) and viability in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells was explored. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²⁺](i). Safrole at concentrations of 150-450 μM induced a [Ca²⁺](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced by 60% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Safrole-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and protein kinase C activator or inhibitor. In Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished safrole-evoked [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Conversely, treatment with safrole abolished thapsigargin or BHQ-evoked [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished safrole-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises. At 250-550 μM, safrole decreased cell viability concentration-dependently, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that safrole (350-550 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently. These studies suggest that in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells, safrole induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises by inducing PLC-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ influx via non-store-operated Ca²⁺ entry pathways. Safrole-induced cell death may involve apoptosis.

  1. The Mechanism of Safrole-Induced [Ca²⁺]i Rises and Non-Ca²⁺-Triggered Cell Death in SCM1 Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tzu-Yi; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Sun, Te-Kung; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Fang, Yi-Chien; Li, Yih-Do; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-10-31

    Safrole is a carcinogen found in plants. The effect of safrole on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) and viability in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells was explored. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²⁺](i). Safrole at concentrations of 150-450 μM induced a [Ca²⁺](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced by 60% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Safrole-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and protein kinase C activator or inhibitor. In Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished safrole-evoked [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Conversely, treatment with safrole abolished thapsigargin or BHQ-evoked [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished safrole-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises. At 250-550 μM, safrole decreased cell viability concentration-dependently, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that safrole (350-550 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently. These studies suggest that in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells, safrole induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises by inducing PLC-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ influx via non-store-operated Ca²⁺ entry pathways. Safrole-induced cell death may involve apoptosis. PMID:26387654

  2. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZONGCHAO; MA, CHUAN; SHEN, JIELIANG; WANG, DAWU; HAO, JIE; HU, ZHENMING

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of lower back pain, and increased cell apoptosis is a key characteristic of IVDD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis on apoptosis in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). The expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in human intervertebral discs (IVD) were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis of primary cultured NPCs was quantified by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining following stimulation with SDF-1 and knockdown of CXCR4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The association with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was investigated using CXCR4-siRNA and NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), treatment. The results demonstrated that SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, were upregulated in degenerative IVD samples compared with normal samples. Stimulation with SDF-1 increased the level of apoptosis in cultured NPCs, and conversely, the apoptosis level was suppressed post-transfection with CXCR4 siRNA compared with SDF-1 stimulation alone. Furthermore, SDF-1 treatment increased the level of phosphorylated NF-κB subunit P65, which was downregulated following CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC treatment. In addition, CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65, which was induced by SDF-1. Taken together, SDF-1-mediated apoptosis was suppressed by NF-κB inhibition using PDTC. In conclusion, the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promoted cell apoptosis in human degenerative NPCs via the NF-κB pathway, thus suggesting that SDF-1/CXCR signaling may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of degenerative IVD diseases. PMID:27220474

  3. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL) and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Bertolin, Thiago Carlos; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-01-01

    A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu); 92 (Ser/Leu); 93 (Ile/Thr); 95 (Arg/Gly) and 97 (Leu/Ser). CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM) and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM), but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å2). The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells). The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells. PMID:23823708

  4. Platelet-rich plasma and fibrin glue-coated bioactive ceramics enhance growth and differentiation of goat bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manitha B; Varma, H K; John, Annie

    2009-07-01

    New biotechnologies such as tissue engineering require functionally active cells within supportive matrices where the physical and chemical stimulus provided by the matrix is indispensable to determine the cellular behavior. This study has investigated the influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin glue (FG) on the functional activity of goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gBMSCs) that differentiated into the osteogenic lineage. To achieve this goal, PRP and FG were separately coated on bioactive ceramics like hydroxyapatite (HA) and silica-coated HA (HASi), on which gBMSCs were seeded and induced to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage for 28 days. The cells were then analyzed for viability (lactate dehydrogenase assay: acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining), morphology (scanning electron microscopy), proliferation (picogreen assay), cell cycle assay (propidium iodide staining), and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity and real-time PCR analysis of ALP, osteocalcin, and osteopontin gene). It has been observed that PRP and FG have appreciably favored the viability, spreading, and proliferation of osteogenic-induced gBMSCs. The osteopontin and osteocalcin expression was significantly enhanced on PRP- and FG-coated HA and HASi, but PRP had effect on neither ALP expression nor ALP activity. The results of this study have depicted that FG-coated ceramics were better than PRP-coated and bare matrices. Among all, the excellent performance was shown by FG coated HASi, which may be attributed to the communal action of the stimulus emanated by Si in HASi and the temporary extracellular matrix provided by FG over HASi. Thus, we can conclude that PRP or FG in combination with bioactive ceramics could possibly enhance the functional activity of cells to a greater extent, promoting the hybrid composite as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) on the cell cycle of CHO and Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.; Navara, Christopher; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to nano-second pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. Variations between cell lines in membrane and cytoskeletal structure as well as in survival of nsPEF exposure should correspond to unique line-dependent cell cycle effects. Additionally, phase of cell cycle during exposure may be linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations recovered similarly to sham populations postnsPEF exposure and did not exhibit a phase-specific change in response. Jurkat cells exhibited considerable apoptosis/necrosis in response to nsPEF exposure and were unable to recover and proliferate in a manner similar to sham exposed cells. Additionally, Jurkat cells appear to be more sensitive to nsPEFs in G2/M phases than in G1/S phases. Recovery of CHO populations suggests that nsPEFs do not inhibit proliferation in CHO cells; however, inhibition of Jurkat cells post-nsPEF exposure coupled with preferential cell death in G2/M phases suggest that cell cycle phase during exposure may be an important factor in determining nsPEF toxicity in certain cell lines. Interestingly, CHO cells have a more robust and rigid cytoskeleton than Jurkat cells which is thought to contribute to their ability to

  6. Selective detection of live bacteria combining propidium monoazide sample treatment with microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Nocker, Andreas; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke; Camper, Anne K; Brousseau, Roland

    2009-03-01

    The use of DNA-based molecular detection tools for bacterial diagnostics is hampered by the inability to distinguish signals originating from live and dead cells. The detection of live cells is typically most relevant in molecular diagnostics. DNA-intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) offer a possibility to selectively remove cells with compromised cell membranes from the analysis. Once these dyes enter a cell, they bind to DNA and can be covalently crosslinked to it by light exposure. PCR amplification of such modified DNA is strongly inhibited. In this study we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide treatment to exclude isopropanol-killed cells from detection in defined mixtures using diagnostic microarray technology. The organisms comprised Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. PCR products obtained from amplification of chaperonin 60 genes (cpn60; coding for GroEL) were hybridized to a custom-designed microarray containing strain-specific cpn60-based 35-mer oligonucleotide probes. Results were compared with data from quantitative PCR, which confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from killed cells in the mixtures. Although microarray data based on analysis of end-point PCR amplicons is not quantitative, results showed a significant signal reduction when targeting killed cells and consistently agreed with qPCR results. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with diagnostic microarray detection can therefore be considered beneficial when analyzing mixtures of intact and membrane-compromised cells. Minimization of detection signals deriving from dead cells will render data more relevant in studies including pathogen risk assessment.

  7. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  8. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  9. Differential nanoreprotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in male somatic cells and spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Choi, Yun-Jung; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Park, Jung Hyun; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. AgNPs have been increasingly used as anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antibacterial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections in open wounds as well as in ointments, bandages, and wound dressings. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two different sizes of AgNPs (10 nm and 20 nm) in male somatic Leydig (TM3) and Sertoli (TM4) cells and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Methods Here, we demonstrate a green and simple method for the synthesis of AgNPs using Bacillus cereus culture supernatants. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The toxicity of the synthesized AgNPs was evaluated by the effects on cell viability, metabolic activity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and expression of genes encoding steroidogenic and tight junction proteins. Results AgNPs inhibited the viability and proliferation of TM3 and TM4 cells in a dose- and size-dependent manner by damaging cell membranes and inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species, which in turn affected SSC growth on TM3 and TM4 as feeder cells. Small AgNPs (10 nm) were more cytotoxic than medium-sized nanoparticles (20 nm). TEM revealed the presence of AgNPs in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus, and detected mitochondrial damage and enhanced formation of autosomes and autolysosomes in the AgNP-treated cells. Flow cytometry analysis using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining showed massive cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that in TM3 and TM4 cells, AgNPs activated the p53, p38, and pErk1/2 signaling pathways and significantly downregulated the expression of genes related to testosterone synthesis (TM3) and tight junctions (TM4). Furthermore, the exposure of TM3

  10. Selenium suppresses oxidative-stress-enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Li, Xiaoming; Qin, Fei; Huang, Kaixun

    2014-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, and it has emerged as a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A number of studies have examined the association between selenium and risk of cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the role of selenium in vascular calcification. To determine the role of selenium in regulating vascular calcification, we assessed the effect of sodium selenite on oxidative-stress-enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and the underlying mechanism. Oxidative stress induced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase increased apoptosis, as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and it enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs, on the basis of alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of Runx2 and type I collagen, and calcium deposition. These effects of oxidative stress were significantly inhibited by selenite. The following processes may explain the inhibitory effects of selenite: (1) selenite significantly suppressed oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decrease of the oxidative status of the cell and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as by the increase of the total protein thiol content and the activity of the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase; (2) selenite significantly attenuated oxidative-stress-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, resulting in decreased osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs; (3) selenite significantly inhibited oxidative-stress-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby leading to decreased apoptosis. Our results suggest a potential role of selenium in the prevention of vascular calcification, which may provide more mechanistic insights into the relationship between selenium and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Silencing of TBX20 gene expression in rat myocardial and human embryonic kidney cells leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiyan; Sun, Yueling; Qiu, Guangbin; Jiang, Hongkun; Qiu, Guangrong

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common birth defects due to abnormal cardiac development. The T-box 20 (TBX20) gene is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and encodes TBX20, which is essential for early heart development. In the present study, reduced TBX20 expression was observed in CHD tissue samples compared with normal tissues, and the function of TBX20 in Rattus norvegicus myocardial cells [H9c2(2-1)] and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) was investigated. TBX20 was silenced in H9c2 and HEK293 cells via transfection of small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA duplexes, respectively, and TBX20 mRNA and protein levels were subsequently examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was determined by western blotting. Analysis of cell apoptosis was achieved by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and a fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling system. Cell cycle analysis was achieved using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and, an RT-qPCR array was used to profile the expression of TBX20-related genes. Silencing of TBX20 in H9c2 and HEK293 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and led to G2/M cell cycle arrest. A reduction in cyclin B1 mRNA levels and an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B mRNA levels was observed, which indicated that cells were arrested in G2 phase. Concurrently, the mRNA levels of GATA binding protein 4 were increased in both cell lines, which may provide an explanation for the abnormal cardiac hypertrophy observed in patients with congenital heart disease. These results suggest that TBX20 is required for heart morphogenesis, and inhibition of TBX20 expression may lead to the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle

  12. Silencing of TBX20 gene expression in rat myocardial and human embryonic kidney cells leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiyan; Sun, Yueling; Qiu, Guangbin; Jiang, Hongkun; Qiu, Guangrong

    2016-10-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common birth defects due to abnormal cardiac development. The T-box 20 (TBX20) gene is a member of the T‑box family of transcription factors and encodes TBX20, which is essential for early heart development. In the present study, reduced TBX20 expression was observed in CHD tissue samples compared with normal tissues, and the function of TBX20 in Rattus norvegicus myocardial cells [H9c2(2-1)] and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) was investigated. TBX20 was silenced in H9c2 and HEK293 cells via transfection of small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA duplexes, respectively, and TBX20 mRNA and protein levels were subsequently examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was determined by western blotting. Analysis of cell apoptosis was achieved by annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and a fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling system. Cell cycle analysis was achieved using fluorescence‑activated cell sorting, and, an RT‑qPCR array was used to profile the expression of TBX20‑related genes. Silencing of TBX20 in H9c2 and HEK293 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and led to G2/M cell cycle arrest. A reduction in cyclin B1 mRNA levels and an increase in cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1B mRNA levels was observed, which indicated that cells were arrested in G2 phase. Concurrently, the mRNA levels of GATA binding protein 4 were increased in both cell lines, which may provide an explanation for the abnormal cardiac hypertrophy observed in patients with congenital heart disease. These results suggest that TBX20 is required for heart morphogenesis, and inhibition of TBX20 expression may lead to the suppression of cell

  13. Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Jun, Lu; Gang, Li; Lan, Cao; Na-Na, Wang; Xiao-Juan, Du; Li-Chao, Sun; Wen-Li, Zhao; Pei-Fang, Xiao; He, Zhao; Guang-Hao, Su; Yan-Hong, Li; Yi-Ping, Li; Yun-Yun, Xu; Hui-Ting, Zhou; Yi, Wu; Mei-Fang, Jin; Lin, Liu; Jian, Ni; Shao-Yan, Hu; Xue-Ming, Zhu; Xing, Feng; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC. Conclusions LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new “network” of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators

  14. Efficacy of SYBR 14/propidium iodide viability stain for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, M P; Clulow, J; Mahony, M J

    2010-01-25

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently described pathogen that has been implicated as a causal agent in the global decline in amphibians. Research into its biology and epidemiology has frequently involved in vitro experimentation. However, this research is currently limited by the inability to differentiate between viable and inviable zoospores. Stains are frequently used to determine cell viability, and this study tested a 2-colour fluorescence assay for the detection and quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis zoospores. The results show that the nucleic acid stains SYBR 14 and propidium iodide are effective in distinguishing live from dead zoospores, and a protocol has been optimized for their use. This viability assay provides an efficient and reliable tool that will have applications in B. dendrobatidis challenge and amphibian exposure experiments.

  15. Sodium formate induces autophagy and apoptosis via the JNK signaling pathway of photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YING; XU, SHAO-LIN; XU, WEN-JING; YANG, HAI-YAN; HU, PING; LI, YU-XIN

    2016-01-01

    Incidents associated with methanol intoxication resulting from the consumption of fake wine occur not infrequently worldwide. Certain individuals are made blind due to methanol poisoning. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium formate exposure on photoreceptor cells (661W cells). The 661W cells were exposed to sodium formate for 6–24 h and cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Subsequently, the 661W cells were exposed to 15 or 30 mM sodium formate for 24 h. The level of apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, visualizing the cells under a fluorescence microscope, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining, using flow cytometric analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining, followed by flow cytometric analysis. Autophagy of the 661W cells was measured by monodansylcadaverine staining. The activation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) was assessed by western blotting. The effects of Z-VAD-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) on the viability of the sodium formate-induced 661W cells were determined using an MTT assay. Sodium formate treatment induced a decrease in the viability of the 661W cells in a time- and a dose-dependent manner. In addition, sodium formate at concentrations of 15 or 30 mM markedly increased the level of apoptosis and the ROS levels, as measured by DCFH-DA staining of the 661W cells. Additionally, 661W cells exposed to sodium formate for 24 h exhibited increased levels of p-JNK, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and LC3II (the phosphatidylethanolamine-modified form of LC3), although the level of Bcl-2 was decreased

  16. Detecting inactivated endospores in fluorescence microscopy using propidium monoazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Mahnert, Alexander; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2012-04-01

    The differentiation between living and dead bacterial endospores is crucial in many research areas of microbiology. The identification of inactivated, non-pathogenic Bacillus anthracis spores is one reason why improvement of decontamination protocols is so desirable. Another field interested in spore viability is planetary protection, a sub-discipline of astrobiology that estimates the bioburden of spacecraft prior to launch in order to avoid interplanetary cross-contamination. We developed a dedicated, rapid and cost-effective method for identifying bacterial endospores that have been inactivated and consequently show a compromised spore wall. This novel protocol is culture-independent and is based on fluorescence microscopy and propidium monoazide (PMA) as a fluorescent marker, which is suggested to bind to DNA of spores with compromised spore coat, cortex and membranes based on our results. Inactivated preparations (treated with wet heat, irradiation, ultracentrifugation) showed a significant increase in spores that were PMA stained in their core; moreover, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus seemed to be best suited for this technique, as the spore cores of all these endospores could be positively stained after inactivation. Lastly, we describe an additional counter-staining protocol and provide an example of the application of the coupled staining methods for planetary protection purposes. The introduction of this novel protocol is expected to provide an initial insight into the various possible future applications of PMA as a non-viability marker for spores in, for example, B. anthracis-related studies, food microbiology and astrobiology.

  17. A simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay with propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W-J; Li, J

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a new simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay (SNVA) with propidium iodide (PI) to determine the status of nuclear vacuole (NV) of individual spermatozoa. After PI staining, sperm nuclei were classified into the 14 categories according to both nuclear morphology and the status of NV. The incidence was 57.8% (range 28-84%) in fertile controls (n = 40), and 85.1% (range 67-99%) in men with varicocele (n = 40). In the fertile group, normal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region were significantly more in comparison with the varicocele group. In the varicocele group, abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one large NV and with multiple NVs located in the ante-nuclear region were most frequent findings. Besides, spermatozoa with NVs in both ante- and post-nuclear regions in the varicocele group were significantly more than those in the fertile group. In both fertile and varicocele groups, normal or abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one or more vacuoles only located in the post-nuclear region occurred sparingly. The SNVA provides a useful additional approach to identify the status of NV in human spermatozoa for diagnostic purposes. A good sperm sample would have more spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region.

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic field affects intrinsic and endoplasmatic reticulum apoptosis induction pathways in MonoMac6 cell line culture.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Chorobik, P; Juszczak, K; Zaraska, W; Thor, P J

    2012-10-01

    Current studies were aimed to elucidate influence of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on cell viability and apoptosis induction pathways. For the experimental model we have chosen monocytic cell line MonoMac6 and several apoptosis inducers with different mechanism of death induction like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline and hydrogen peroxide. MonoMac6 cell line was grown at density 1x10(5) cells/well in 96-well culture plates. To induce cell death cell cultures were treated with different apoptosis inducers like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, hydrogen peroxide and at the same time with pulsed electromagnetic field 50 Hz, 45±5 mT (PEMF) for 4 hour per each stimulation, three times, in 24 hours intervals. Afterwards, cells were harvested for flow cytometry analysis of cell viability measured by annexin V-APC labeled and propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis related genes was evaluated by semi quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. NuPAGE Novex Western blot analysis was carried out for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) abundance in cytosolic and nuclear extracts of MonoMac6 cells. Puromycin, colchicine and minocycline activated cells and simultaneously treated with PEMF have shown out diminished percentage of annexinV positive (AnV+) cells comparing to controls without PEMF stimulation. MonaMac6 cells puromycin/colchicyne and PEMF treated were to a higher extent double stained (AnV+,PI+), which means increased late apoptotic as well as necrotic (PI+) cells, than non-stimulated controls. On the other hand, minocycline activated cells prior to PEMF treatment showed diminished amount of apoptotic and necrotic (annexin V, annexin V and propidium iodide, propidium iodide positive staining) cells. The opposite effect of PEMF on the percentage of annexin V positively stained cells has been achieved after treatment of MonoMac6 culture with cyclophoshamide and hydrogen peroxide. PEMF enhanced early

  19. Integrin β1-mediated acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells occurs via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    DENG, QIN-FANG; SU, BO; ZHAO, YIN-MIN; TANG, LIANG; ZHANG, JIE; ZHOU, CAI-CUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the role of integrin β1 and the relevant signaling pathways in acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inhibitory effects of gefitinib, with or without LY294002, on cellular proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, while western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of EGFR, phosphorylated (phospho)-EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and phospho-Erk. The gene expression profiles of PC9 and PC9/G cells were determined by DNA microarray. Integrin β1 was knocked down in PC9/G cells by transiently transfected short interfering RNA (siRNA). A scrambled siRNA sequence was used as a control. Apoptosis of transfected cells was determined by Annexin V-phycoerythrin-Cy5/propidium iodide staining. Sequencing products were amplified by nested PCR. The resistant index of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was ~138- to 256-fold higher than that of PC9 cells, and this resistance was accompanied by significant increase in integrin β1 expression in PC9/G cells. Knockdown of integrin β1 with short hairpin RNA in PC9/G cells markedly inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in response to gefitinib, restoring the sensitivity of PC9/G cells gefitinib. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation was observed in PC9/G cells in the presence of gefitinib and the sensitivity of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was also able to be restored by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, knockdown of integrin β1 significantly reduced the levels of phospho-Akt. These findings suggest that integrin β1 signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway may be a significant mechanism underlying gefitinib resistance, and may potentially present an alternative therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC unresponsive to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26870244

  20. Visible light may directly induce nuclear DNA damage triggering the death pathway in RGC-5 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Ma, Tong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Visible light has been previously demonstrated to induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. The present study was designed to determine whether visible light might also directly trigger the death pathway by damaging nuclear DNA. Methods RGC-5 cells were exposed to various intensities and durations of visible light exposure. Cell viability and death were monitored with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide staining. Nuclear DNA damage caused by light was determined with the plasmid assay, genome DNA assay, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. The subsequent activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was measured with western blot, and PARP-1’s role in the death pathway was assessed by using specific inhibitors. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) inhibitors were used to show their influence on light-induced cell death. Calcium influx was examined with the fura-2 assay and calcium channel blocker. Results We found that visible light induced RGC-5 cell death in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. After the light intensity was increased to 2,600 lx, activation of the death pathway in RGC-5 cells was clearly observed by detecting double-strand DNA breaks and nuclear DNA damage in vitro. Nuclear enzyme PARP-1 was promptly activated after exposure to 2,600 lx of light for 2 days, and specific inhibitors of PARP-1 had significant neuroprotective effects. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor tannic acid and AIF inhibitor N-phenylmaleimide partially protected RGC-5 cells from light injury. A massive calcium influx was detected after 2 days of light exposure, and a calcium channel blocker partially protected cells against light injury. Conclusions These results suggest that visible light exposure may directly cause nuclear DNA damage, which consequently activates

  1. Laccase purified from Cerrena unicolor exerts antitumor activity against leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    MATUSZEWSKA, ANNA; KARP, MARTA; JASZEK, MAGDALENA; JANUSZ, GRZEGORZ; OSIŃSKA-JAROSZUK, MONIKA; SULEJ, JUSTYNA; STEFANIUK, DAWID; TOMCZAK, WALDEMAR; GIANNOPOULOS, KRZYSZTOF

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most commonly observed adult hematological malignancy in Western countries. Despite the fact that recent improvements in CLL treatment have led to an increased percentage of complete remissions, CLL remains an incurable disease. Cerrena unicolor is a novel fungal source of highly active extracellular laccase (ex-LAC) that is currently used in industry. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports regarding its anti-leukemic activity have been published thus far. In the present study, it was hypothesized that C. unicolor ex-LAC may possess cytotoxic activity against leukemic cell lines and CLL primary cells. C. unicolor ex-LAC was separated using anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose-Sepharose and Sephadex G-50 columns. The cytotoxic effects of ex-LAC upon 24- and 48-h treatment on HL-60, Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and K562 cell lines, as well as CLL primary cells of nine patients with CLL, were evaluated using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining of Jurkat cells treated with ex-LAC was used to investigate apoptosis via flow cytometry. Ex-LAC induced changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, as visualized by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XTT assay revealed high cytotoxic rates following treatment with various concentrations of ex-LAC on all the cell lines and CLL primary cells analyzed, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/ml. Fluorescence microscopy and SEM observations additionally revealed apoptotic changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells treated with ex-LAC, compared with control cells. These results were in agreement with the apoptosis analysis of Jurkat cells on flow cytometry. In conclusion, C. unicolor ex-LAC was able to significantly induce cell apoptosis, and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of various hematological neoplasms. PMID

  2. Downregulation of HIF-1α inhibits the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H157 cells

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, JIALIN; BAI, HAO; GAO, ZHIQIANG; DONG, YU; PEI, JUN; MA, MEILI; HAN, BAOHUI

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, specifically non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. In previous years, almost no significant advancements have been made towards the molecular characterization of NSCLC, which highlights the requirement for novel target genes. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is known to be essential in tumorigenesis, as it regulates the expression of numerous factors that are involved in angiogenesis, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. However, no direct association between HIF-1α and NSCLC treatment has previously been established. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of HIF-1α on NSCLC and to explore the possible mechanism. Additionally, HIF-1α small interfering (si)RNA and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) were used in combination to explore the combined effects on NSCLC cells. Lung carcinoma NCI-H157 cells were treated with HIF-1α small interfering (si)RNA, 5 µg/ml DDP or a combination of the two, and the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion ability of the cells were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a Transwell assay, respectively. In addition, the protein levels of caspase-3/9, anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)PI3K, protein kinase B (AKT), p-AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-ERK were detected using western blot analysis. Similar to DPP treatment, HIF-1α siRNA treatment may reduce cell proliferation and the invasiveness of tumor cells while promoting apoptosis. Additionally, HIF-1α siRNA may increase the levels of the apoptotic proteins caspases 3 and 9 and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2. These anti-tumor effects may be acting through the VEGF/PEDF, PI3K/AKT and Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways. The effects

  3. Enumeration of viable non-culturable Vibrio cholerae using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2015-08-01

    The well-known human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, can enter a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The differentiation of VBNC cells and nonviable cells is essential for both disease prevention and basic research. Among all the methods for detecting viability, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time PCR is popular because of its specificity, sensitivity, and speed. However, the effect of PMA treatment is not consistent and varies among different species and conditions. In this study, with an initial cell concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/ml, time and dose-effect relationships of different PMA treatments were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR using live cell suspensions, dead cell suspensions and VBNC cell suspensions of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706. The results suggested that a PMA treatment of 20 μM PMA for 20 min was optimal under our conditions. This treatment maximized the suppression of the PCR signal from membrane-compromised dead cells but had little effect on the signal from membrane-intact live cells. In addition to the characteristics of PMA treatment itself, the initial concentration of the targeted bacteria showed a significant negative influence on the stability of PMA-PCR assay in this study. We developed a strategy that mimicked a 1×10(8) CFU/ml cell concentration with dead bacteria of a different bacterial species, the DNA of which cannot be amplified using the real time PCR primers. With this strategy, our optimal approach successfully overcame the impact of low cell density and generated stable and reliable results for counting viable cells of V. cholerae in the VBNC state.

  4. Discerning Viable from Nonviable Yersinia pestis pgm- and Bacillus anthracis Sterne using Propidium Monoazide in the Presence of White Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Becky M.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Sydor, Michael A.; Wunschel, David S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-12-23

    ABSTRACT Aims To develop and optimize an assay to determine viability status of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and Yersinia pestis pgm- strains in the presence of white powders by coupling propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. Methods and Results PMA selectively enters nonviable cells and binds DNA, thereby increasing qPCR assay cycle threshold (CT) values compared to untreated samples. Dye concentration, cell number and fitness, incubation time, inactivation methods, and assay buffer were optimized for B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis pgm-. Differences in CT values in nonviable cells compared to untreated samples were consistently > 9 for both B. anthracis Sterne vegetative cells and Y. pestis pgm- in the presence and absence of three different white powders. Our method eliminates the need for a DNA extraction step prior to detection by qPCR. Conclusions The developed assay enables simultaneous identification and viability assessment for B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis pgm- under laboratory conditions, even in the presence of white powders. Eliminating the DNA extraction step that is typically used reduces total assay time and labor requirements for sample analysis. Significance and Impact of the Study The method developed for simultaneous detection and viability assessment for B. anthracis and Y. pestis can be employed in forming decisions about the severity of a biothreat event or the safety of food. Keywords Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Propidium Monoazide, qPCR, White Powders, Rapid Viability Detection

  5. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in T-2 toxin-induced cell cycle alteration and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mona; Bhaskar, A S B; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2015-01-01

    T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and a frequent contaminant in many agriculture products. Dietary ingestion represents the most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans. T-2 toxin exposure leads to many pathological conditions like nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immune depression and dermal inflammation. However, the neuronal toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32). T-2 toxin was cytotoxic at a low concentration of 10 ng/ml. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of T-2 toxin was found to be 40 ng/ml as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, crystal violet dye exclusion test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. T-2 toxin increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation as early as 15 min and peaked at 60 min as analyzed by flow cytometry. Annexin V + propidium iodide staining showed time-dependent increase in percent apoptotic cells. DNA gel electrophoresis showed oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptotic cells. Additionally, casapse-3 activation and PARP cleavage indicated involvement of mitochondrial mediated caspase-dependent pathway of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed time-dependent increase in sub-G1 population of cells and significant up-regulation of CDK2, CDK6, cyclin A and p21 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Exposure to T-2 toxin induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). Analysis of human phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) antibody array revealed time-dependent increase in phosphorylation. Upstream of ERK pathway Grb2, Ras and Raf and downstream transcription factors c-fos and c-jun were significantly up-regulated. Z-VAD-FMK and MAPK inhibitors (PD 98059, SB 203580 and ZM 336372) exposure prior to T-2

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis Differentially Modulates Cell Death Profile in Ox-LDL and TNF-α Pre-Treated Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bugueno, Isaac Maximiliano; Khelif, Yacine; Seelam, Narendra; Morand, David-Nicolas; Tenenbaum, Henri; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Huck, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies demonstrated a potential link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the main periodontal pathogen, has been associated to atheromatous plaque worsening. However, synergism between infection and other endothelial stressors such as oxidized-LDL or TNF-α especially on endothelial cell (EC) death has not been investigated. This study aims to assess the role of Pg on EC death in an inflammatory context and to determine potential molecular pathways involved. Methods Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were infected with Pg (MOI 100) or stimulated by its lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) (1μg/ml) for 24 to 48 hours. Cell viability was measured with AlamarBlue test, type of cell death induced was assessed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. mRNA expression regarding caspase-1, -3, -9, Bcl-2, Bax-1 and Apaf-1 has been evaluated with RT-qPCR. Caspases enzymatic activity and concentration of APAF-1 protein were evaluated to confirm mRNA results. Results Pg infection and Pg-LPS stimulation induced EC death. A cumulative effect has been observed in Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs infected or stimulated. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells. Pg infection promotes EC necrosis, however, in infected Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, apoptosis was promoted. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells highlighting specificity of molecular pathways activated. Regarding mRNA expression, Pg increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes including caspases-1,-3,-9, Bax-1 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, Pg increased significantly the expression of Apaf-1. These results were confirmed at the protein level. Conclusion This study contributes to demonstrate that Pg and its Pg-LPS could exacerbate Ox-LDL and TNF-α induced endothelial injury through increase of EC death. Interestingly, molecular pathways are differentially modulated by the infection in function of the

  7. Interactions of dimethyl sulfoxide and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on the cell cycle kinetics and phosphoproteins of G1-enriched HL-60 cells: evidence of early effects on lamin B phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J K; Lee, K S; Frazel, M A; Keng, P C; Young, D A

    1991-03-01

    We have found that GM-CSF and DMSO have antagonistic effects on the proliferation but not maturation of asynchronously growing HL-60 cells such that growth in the presence of both more closely resembles normal hematopoiesis (Brennan et al., J. Cell Physiol. 132:246, 1987). Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not the agents affected the same mitogenic pathway and locus in the cell cycle. HL-60 populations containing at least 90% G1 cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation, exposed to 100 u/ml recombinant human GM-CSF and/or 0-1.25% DMSO, and phosphoprotein changes quantified on autoradiograms of [32P]-orthophosphate-labeled cell proteins separated by giant 2-D gel electrophoresis. Results were correlated with 1) intracellular pH, determined by measurement of BCECF fluorescence; 2) [32P]-orthophosphate uptake; 3) cell cycle progression, determined by flow quantitation of DNA content in mithramycin or propidium iodide-stained cells; and 4) growth, determined by cell volume and concentration. GM-CSF stimulated and DMSO inhibited the GM-CSF-stimulated phosphorylation of 1 protein (approximately 65 kDa, p.i. 5.6) within 2 min of exposure. These effects were sustained through G1, not associated with changes in intracellular pH, and preceded similar antagonistic effects on phosphate uptake (15-30 minutes), cell volume change (16-24 hr), and cell concentration increase (28-32 hr). GM-CSF accelerated and DMSO inhibited G1 to S transit with the most marked antagonism observed in the second cycle following synchronization (28 to 40 hrs). Cell maturation (morphology, NBT reduction) was dominated by DMSO and not antagonized by GM-CSF. We have identified p65 as the nuclear intermediate filament protein, lamin B, on the basis of its locus on gels and its binding of a monoclonal antibody to intermediate filaments and antiserum to human lamin B on immunoblots. These studies suggest that at least part of the GM-CSF-DMSO antagonism is exerted through the same

  8. Positive allosteric modulation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors promotes cell death by inducing Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Álvarez, María; Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Navarro, Elisa; Fernández-Morales, José Carlos; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Cano-Abad, María F

    2015-05-01

    Positive allosteric modulation of α7 isoform of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic approach for central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. However, its effect on Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability remains controversial. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator (PAM II) PNU120596 affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. We used human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing α7-nAChRs (α7-SH) and their control (C-SH). We monitored cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) with Fura-2 and the genetically encoded cameleon targeting the ER, respectively. Nicotinic inward currents were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Viability was assessed using methylthiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide or propidium iodide staining. We observed that in the presence of a nicotinic agonist, PNU120596 (i) reduced viability of α7-SH but not of C-SH cells; (ii) significantly increased inward nicotinic currents and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration; (iii) released Ca(2+) from the ER by a Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release mechanism only in α7-SH cells; (iv) was cytotoxic in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures; and, lastly, all these effects were prevented by selective blockade of α7-nAChRs, ryanodine receptors, or IP3 receptors. In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of α7-nAChRs with the PAM II PNU120596 can lead to dysregulation of ER Ca(2+) , overloading of intracellular Ca(2+) , and neuronal cell death. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 (PAM II PNU12) affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. Using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing α7-nAChRs (α7-SH) and their control (C-SH), we find that PAM of α7-nAChRs with PNU120596: (i) increases inward calcium current (ICa ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ); (ii) releases Ca(2+) from the ER ([Ca(2

  9. B7-H3 silencing by RNAi inhibits tumor progression and enhances chemosensitivity in U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yanfang; Dong, Fei; Zhu, Mingxia; Wan, Wenli; Li, Haishen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Xinxing; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of B7-H3 in acute monocytic leukemia U937 cells has not been thoroughly investigated. Materials and methods B7-H3 knockdown in the U937 cell line was performed using small hairpin (sh)RNA lentivirus transduction. The effects on cell proliferation, cycle, migration, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, methyl cellulose colony-forming assay, propidium iodide staining, and Transwell assays in vitro. Changes in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, when combined with chemotherapy drugs, were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays. U937 xenograft models were used to assess the effects of B7-H3 on tumorigenicity and the therapeutic effect of B7-H3 knockdown in combination with chemotherapy drugs in vivo. Results Downregulation of B7-H3 significantly decreased U937 cell growth and colony-forming ability. The mean inhibition rate of tumor growth with B7-H3 knockdown was 59.4%, and the expression of both Ki-67 and PCNA in xenografts was significantly reduced. After B7-H3 silencing, the U937 cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 phase. The cell migration rate of B7-H3 knockdown cells was reduced more than fivefold, and invasion capacity decreased by 86.7%. B7-H3 RNAi profoundly increased the antitumor effect of chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. On day 19, inhibition rates of tumor growth in B7-H3 shRNA combined with idarubicin, cytarabine, and idarubicin plus cytarabine were 70.5%, 80.0%, and 90.0%, respectively (P=0.006, P=0.004, and P=0.016, respectively). Conclusion B7-H3 may promote U937 cell progression, and shRNA targeting B7-H3 significantly enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results may provide new insight into the function of B7-H3 and a promising therapeutic approach targeting B7-H3 in acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:26203263

  10. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk

  11. Effects of cordycepin on HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells: Potential antiproliferative, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LU, HAISHENG; LI, XITING; ZHANG, JIANYING; SHI, HUI; ZHU, XIAOFENG; HE, XIAOSHUN

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays an important role in HCC development. Cordycepin, also known as 3′-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of adenosine, and numerous cellular enzymes cannot differentiate the two. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cordycepin regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) and in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). MTT was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). Transwell and wound healing assays were used to analyze the migration and invasion of HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells was assessed using a tube formation assay. Cordycepin strongly suppressed HepG2 and EA.hy926 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin induced EA.hy926 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (2,000 μg/ml: 50.20±1.55% vs. 0 μg/ml: 2.62±0.19%; P<0.01). Cordycepin inhibited EA.hy926 cell migration (percentage of wound healing area, 2,000 μg/ml: 3.45±0.29% vs. 0 μg/ml: 85.48±0.84%; P<0.05), as well as tube formation (total length of tubular structure, 1,000 μg/ml: 107±39 μm vs. 0 μg/ml: 936±56 μm; P<0.05). Cordycepin also efficiently inhibited HepG2 cell invasion and migration. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the cytosol from EA.hy926 cells showed that cordycepin was stable for 3 h. In conclusion, cordycepin not only inhibited human HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion, but also induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that cordycepin may be used as a novel anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC. PMID:24765175

  12. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food.

  13. Antitumor effect of a copper (II) complex of a coumarin derivative and phenanthroline on lung adenocarcinoma cells and the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Yu, Hao; Feng, Yan; Chen, Jianqiang; Lu, Qin; Xie, Jing; Ding, Weiliang; Ma, Tieliang

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of a copper (II) complexes of a coumarin derivative and phenanthroline (hereinafter referred to as the coumarin-copper drug) on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro, along with the mechanism of action, LA795 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of coumarin-copper drug. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cell proliferation ratio, cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining with flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis was employed to evaluate the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins. In addition, an LA795 cell xenograft tumor model was established in nude mice, with mice receiving intraperitoneal injection once a week for three weeks of either 2 or 4 mg/kg in three divided doses coumarin‑copper drug, or phosphate‑buffered saline. The tumor growth curves were drawn and the tumor growth inhibition rates were calculated. The apoptotic index of subcutaneously transplanted tumor cells was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end‑labeling assay. The coumarin-copper drug effectively inhibited the proliferation of LA795 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration equaling 2.0 µmol/l. The coumarin-copper drug also significantly induced LA795 cell apoptosis in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05), which was accompanied by upregulation p35 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), and downregulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, the coumarin‑copper drug significantly inhibited the growth of LA795 tumors in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05), in accordance with the apoptotic index. In conclusion, the coumarin-copper drug may inhibit the proliferation of LA795 cells through the induction of cell apoptosis, which may be associated with the upregulation of p53 and Bax, with concurrent downregulation of Bcl-2.

  14. Liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 DNA into human prostate cancer cells is improved by low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    BAI, WEN-KUN; ZHANG, WEI; HU, BING; YING, TAO

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in elderly men. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound exposure in combination with SonoVue microbubbles on liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 genes into human prostate cancer cells. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells were exposed to ultrasound; duty cycle was controlled at 20% (2 sec on, 8 sec off) for 5 min with and without SonoVue microbubble echo-contrast agent using a digital sonifier (frequency, 21 kHz; intensity, 46 mW/cm2). The cells were divided into eight groups, as follows: Group A (SonoVue + wild-type P53), group B (ultrasound + wild-type P53), group C (SonoVue + ultrasound + wild-type P53), group D (liposome + wild-type P53), group E (liposome + SonoVue + wild-type P53), group F (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound), group G (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound + SonoVue) and the control group (wild-type P53). Following treatment, a hemocytometer was used to measure cell lysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to detect P53 gene transfection efficiency, Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed to reveal cell proliferation and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to determine cell apoptosis. Cell lysis was minimal in each group. Wild-type P53 gene and protein expression were significantly increased in the PC-3 cells in group G compared with the control and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed in group G compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis levels in group G were significantly improved compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study indicate that the use of low-frequency and low-energy ultrasound in combination with SonoVue microbubbles may be a potent physical method for increasing liposome gene delivery efficiency. PMID:27313702

  15. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques. PMID:26742766

  16. Discrimination of infectious bacteriophage T4 virus by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fittipaldi, Mariana; Rodriguez, Nancy J Pino; Codony, Francesc; Adrados, Bárbara; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Morató, Jordi

    2010-09-01

    The advent of quantitative PCR has improved the detection of human viral pathogens in the environment. However, a serious limitation of this method may arise from the inability to discriminate between viruses that are infectious and viruses that have been inactivated and do not represent a human health hazard. To assess whether propidium monoazide (PMA) pre-treatment is a good approach to inhibiting DNA amplification from non-infectious viruses, bacteriophage T4 survival was measured using cell culture titration and real-time PCR with and without PMA pre-treatment. Heat (85 degrees C) and proteolysis methods were carried out. After these inactivation treatments, the results indicated that the PMA pre-treatment approach is not appropriate for differentiating infectious viruses. However, when a heat treatment at 110 degrees C was undertaken, PMA pre-treatment did allow differentiation of non-infectious from infectious viruses. In this case, effective binding of PMA to bacteriophage T4 DNA could be taken to indicate capsid damage. Therefore, PMA pre-treatment may be appropriate for assessing effective disinfection treatments and for a more reliable understanding of the factors that contribute to viral inactivation through capsid damage monitoring. The PMA-PCR approach could be useful as a rapid and inexpensive analytical tool for screening and evaluation of the efficacy of disinfectants.

  17. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  18. The interaction of propidium diiodide with self-complementary dinucleoside monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M W; Griggs, B G; Lopp, I G; Wilson, W D

    1977-12-14

    The interactions of a quinacrine derivative, methylated at both the aromatic and aliphatic nitrogens, and propidium diiodide with the dinucleoside monophosphates CpG, GpC, UpA and ApU have been investigated using 13C-NMR (for the quinacrine derivative prepared with [13C]methyl substituents and 1H-NMR and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The quinacrine derivative displayed negligible interaction with the dinucleosides at concentrations up to 5 - 10(-4) M. Propidium did form complexes with dinucleosides even at concentrations as low as 10(-4) M. Propidium displayed a pyrimidine-purine binding preference and gave especially large changes in ultraviolet-visible and 1H-NMR spectra in the presence of CpG. This suggests that propidium forms an intercalated complex with a Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonded CpG dimer. At higher concentrations UpA and GpC gave similar spectral changes indicating that they could also form significant amounts of an intercalated complex with propidium under appropriate conditions. The changes caused by ApU were small under all conditions and were more similar to the effects caused by mononucleotides. These results indicate that, at least for phenanthridines, cationic side chains do not greatly inhibit complex formation with dinucleoside monophosphates, and suggest that the weak interaction of the quinacrine derivative with dinucleosides is due to weaker interactions of the acridine ring system with nucleoside bases relative to the phenanthridine ring system.

  19. Involvement of NF-κB and HSP70 signaling pathways in the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells induced by a prenylated xanthone compound, α-mangostin, from Cratoxylum arborescens

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Mohan, Syam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Ghaderian, Mostafa; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Ali, Landa Zeenelabdin; Karimian, Hamed; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Background Cratoxylum arborescens has been used traditionally in Malaysia for the treatment of various ailments. Methods α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated from C. arborescens and its cell death mechanism was investigated. AM-induced cytotoxicity was observed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and annexin V were used to detect cells in early phases of apoptosis. High-content screening was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. The role of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9, reactive oxygen species, Bcl-2 and Bax expression, and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. To determine the role of the central apoptosis-related proteins, a protein array followed by immunoblot analysis was conducted. Moreover, the involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was also analyzed. Results Apoptosis was confirmed by the apoptotic cells stained with annexin V and increase in chromatin condensation in nucleus. Treatment of cells with AM promoted cell death-transducing signals that reduced MMP by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, triggering cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by the executioner caspase-3/7 and then cleaved the PARP protein. Increase of caspase-8 showed the involvement of extrinsic pathway. AM treatment significantly arrested the cells at the S phase (P<0.05) concomitant with an increase in reactive oxygen species. The protein array and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of HSP70. Moreover, AM significantly blocked the induced translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion Together, the results demonstrate that the AM isolated from C. arborescens inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was suggested to

  20. Sanguinarine inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac cells via restoring reactive oxygen species-mediated decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN; JIAO, RONG; MA, ZHEN-GUO; LIU, WEI; WU, QING-QING; YANG, ZHENG; LI, FANG-FANG; YUAN, YUAN; BIAN, ZHOU-YAN; TANG, QI-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Cell apoptosis induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) has a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sanguinarine (SAN), a drug which was proved to have anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and immune enhancing effects, can abolish cell apoptosis induced by Ang II. In the present study, H9c2 cardiac cells were stimulated with 10 µM Ang II with or without SAN. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed using JC-1 staining. Furthermore, mRNA expression of NOX2 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) as well as cleaved (c)-caspase 3 and -9 were detected by western blot analysis, and the activity of caspase 3 and -9 was detected using an ELISA. The results of the present study showed that NOX2 expression and ROS generation induced by Ang II were inhibited by SAN, and the Ang 2-induced MMP loss was also ameliorated. Furthermore, Ang II-induced H9c2 cardiac cell apoptosis as well as c-caspase 3 and -9 levels were significantly reduced by SAN. Investigation of the possible pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of SAN showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while that of Bax was increased following stimulation with Ang II, which was reversed following treatment with SAN. In addition, Ang II enhanced the activity of caspase 9 and cleaved downstream caspases such as caspase-3, initiating the caspase cascade, while pre-treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with SAN blocked these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that SAN inhibits the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac cells induced by Ang II, most likely via restoring

  1. Thymoquinone from Nigella sativa Seeds Promotes the Antitumor Activity of Noncytotoxic Doses of Topotecan in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Khalife, Rana; Hodroj, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhoury, Rajaa; Rizk, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Topotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is an anticancer drug widely used in the therapy of lung, ovarian, colorectal, and breast adenocarcinoma. Due to the primary dose-limiting toxicity of topotecan, which is myelosuppressive, it is necessary to identify other chemotherapeutic agents that can work synergistically with topotecan to increase its efficacy and limit its toxicity. Many studies have shown synergism upon the combination of topotecan with other chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine. Other studies have demonstrated that pre-exposing cells to naturally occurring compounds such as thymoquinone, followed by gemcitabine or oxaliplatin, resulted in higher growth inhibition compared to treatment with gemcitabine or oxaliplatin alone. Our aim was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of topotecan in the survival and apoptotic pathways in human colon cancer cell lines in comparison to thymoquinone, to study the proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects of thymoquinone on the effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic agent topotecan, and to investigate the potential synergistic effect of thymoquinone with topotecan. Cells were incubated with different topotecan and thymoquinone concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in order to determine the IC50 for each drug. Combined therapy was then tested with ± 2 values for the IC50 of each drug. The reduction in proliferation was significantly dose- and time-dependent. After determining the best combination (40 µM thymoquinone and 0.6 µM topotecan), cell proteins were extracted after treatment, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 and of its associated X protein, proteins p53 and p21, and caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-8 were studied by Western blot. In addition, cell cycle analysis and annexin/propidium iodide staining were performed. Both drugs induced apoptosis through a p53-independent mechanism, whereas the expression of p21 was only seen in thymoquinone treatment. Cell cycle arrest in the S

  2. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  3. miR‑483‑5p promotes growth, invasion and self‑renewal of gastric cancer stem cells by Wnt/β‑catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Ma, Longan; Zhu, Jinxiang

    2016-10-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) ranks as the second most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Emerging evidence has suggested a potential novel therapeutic strategy based on the ability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to trigger tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have previously been implicated in CSC formation and regulation of their functional characteristics. In the current study, a significant upregulation of miR‑483‑5p levels was demonstrated in spheroid body‑forming cells (P<0.01) by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which were isolated from the MKN‑45 gastric cancer cell line and possessed gastric CSC (GCSC) properties. An MTT assay demonstrated that overexpression of miR‑483‑5p by transfection with miR‑483‑5p mimics significantly increased cell proliferation and Annexin V‑propidium iodide staining indicated the suppression of cell apoptosis, suggesting that miR‑483‑5p has an important function in GCSC growth. Notably, Transwell and sphere formation assays demonstrated that miR‑483‑5p elevation promoted GCSC invasion and cell self‑renewal ability, respectively. Further western blotting assays demonstrated that miR‑483‑5p upregulation induced an increase in the protein expression levels of β‑catenin and its downstream target molecules, including cyclin D1, Bcl‑2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2, indicating that miR‑483‑5p activates Wnt/β‑catenin signaling. Inhibition of this pathway by β‑catenin small interfering RNA transfection attenuated the miR‑483‑5p‑induced effects on cell growth, invasion and self‑renewal. These results demonstrate that miR‑483‑5p may act as an oncogene to promote the development of GC by regulating GCSC growth, invasion and self‑renewal via the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. Thus, the present study suggests that miR‑483‑5p may be a promising therapeutic target against GC. PMID:27511210

  4. Effects of Thymol on Ca²⁺ Homeostasis and Apoptosis in MDCK Renal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Tai; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Lu, Ti; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2014-04-30

    Thymol is a natural essential oil present in many plants and has many different effects in various cell types. However, the effect of thymol on the physiology of MDCK renal tubular cells is unknown. The action of the phytochemical thymol on cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells was explored. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was used to assess [Ca²⁺]i. Thymol at concentrations of 200-500 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²⁺ partially reduced the effects of thymol. Thymol-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In a Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited thymol-induced [Ca²⁺]i increases. Treatment with thymol also inhibited thapsigargin-induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. Thymol killed cells at concentrations of 300-500 μM in a concentrationdependent fashion. Chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent thymol cytotoxicity. Thymol (400 and 500 μM) induced apoptosis detected by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. At 400 or 500 μM, thymol increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in MDCK cells, thymol induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. Our data suggest that thymol-induced apoptosis might involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:24694198

  5. Neutrophil cell death, activation and bacterial infection in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Watt, A; Courtney, J; Moore, J; Ennis, M; Elborn, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by chronic endobronchial bacterial infection and neutrophil mediated inflammation. Neutrophil apoptosis is essential for the resolution of inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between levels of neutrophil apoptosis and sputum microbiology in matched clinically stable patients with CF. Methods: Sputum was induced from 34 patients (nine with no Gram negative infection, 10 colonised with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 with Burkholderia cenocepacia, and five with other infections). Apoptotic neutrophils measured by flow cytometric Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and morphology were similar in all groups. Results: Patients infected with P aeruginosa or B cenocepacia had a significantly lower percentage of viable neutrophils in the sputum than those with no Gram negative infection (Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.01, median (interquartile range (IQR)) 14.2% (9.4–21.6), 15.8% (12.3–19.5), and 48.4% (23.0–66.4); p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). They also had significantly higher levels of secondary necrotic granulocytes in sputum than patients with no Gram negative infection (Kruskal-Wallis p<0.0001, median (IQR) 55.5% (48.4–64.5), 50.4% (44.6–61.9), and 24.8% (14.4–30.5); p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Neutrophils (x106/g sputum) in P aeruginosa infected patients (Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.05, median (IQR) 6.3 (3.5–12.7)) and B cenocepacia infected patients (5.7 (1.5–14.5)) were significantly higher than in the group with no Gram negative infection (0.5 (0.5–4.3), p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: These results suggest that cell death and clearance may be altered in patients with CF colonised with P aeruginosa and B cenocepacia compared with those with no Gram negative infection. PMID:16061707

  6. Assessment of Probiotic Viability during Cheddar Cheese Manufacture and Ripening Using Propidium Monoazide-PCR Quantification.

    PubMed

    Desfossés-Foucault, Emilie; Dussault-Lepage, Véronique; Le Boucher, Clémentine; Savard, Patricia; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (4-6 months) by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA) select only the living cells' DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011, or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052) or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1), both lactobacilli strains (MC2), or all three strains (MC3). DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf) or the transaldolase gene (tal). Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P < 0.005), confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P < 0.0001), B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log 9 cfu/g of cheese) throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA

  7. Rise of [Ca²⁺]i and apoptosis induced by M-3M3FBS in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liou, Wen-Chin; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Lin, Ko-Long; Lu, Ti; Lu, Yi-Chau; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2014-02-28

    M-3M3FBS (2,4,6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide is a presumed phospholipase C activator which induced Ca²⁺ movement and apoptosis in different cell models. How- ever, the effect of m-3M3FBS on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells is unclear. This study explored whether m-3M3FBS elevated basal [Ca²⁺]i levels in suspended cells by using fura-2 as a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye. M-3M3FBS at concentrations between 5-50 μM increased [Ca²⁺]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca²⁺ signal was reduced by half by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. M-3M3FBS-induced Ca²⁺ influx was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, aristolochic acid, and GF109203X. In Ca²⁺-free medium, 50 μM m-3M3FBS pretreatment inhibited the [Ca²⁺]i rise induced by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin. Conversely, pretreatment with thapsigargin partly reduced m-3M3FBS-induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. Suppression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production with U73122 did not change m-3M3FBS- induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. At concentrations between 25 and 50 μM m-3M3FBS killed cells in a concentration- dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of m-3M3FBS was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with acetoxy-methyl ester of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that m-3M3FBS induced apoptosis at 25 and 50 μM. M-3M3FBS also increased levels of superoxide. Together, in human gastric cancer cells, m-3M3FBS induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing phospholipase C-independent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. M-3M3FBS induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via reactive oxygen species production.

  8. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01) at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V—fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001), indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01) while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001) compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01), while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01). The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001) while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001). Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the fraction

  9. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  10. Assessment of Probiotic Viability during Cheddar Cheese Manufacture and Ripening Using Propidium Monoazide-PCR Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; Dussault-Lepage, Véronique; Le Boucher, Clémentine; Savard, Patricia; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (4–6 months) by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA) select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011, or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052) or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1), both lactobacilli strains (MC2), or all three strains (MC3). DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf) or the transaldolase gene (tal). Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P < 0.005), confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P < 0.0001), B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log 9 cfu/g of cheese) throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA

  11. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA).

    PubMed

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2008-02-01

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees C or held at 5 degrees C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  12. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-11-28

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 μm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMAwith DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  13. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields and the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.

    Exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. The phase of the cell cycle at the time of exposure is linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Additionally, nsPEFs are capable of activating cell cycle checkpoints, which could lead to apoptosis or slow population growth. NsPEFs are emerging as a method for treating tumors via apoptotic induction; therefore, investigating the relevance of nsPEFs and the cell cycle could translate into improved efficacy in tumor treatment. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate the role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations appeared similar to sham populations post-nsPEFs but exhibited arrest in the G1 phase at 6h after exposure. Jurkat cells exhibited increased cell death after nsPEFs compared to CHO cells but did not exhibit checkpoint arrest at any observed time point. The G1/S phase checkpoint is partially controlled by the action of p53; the lack of an active p53 response in Jurkat cells could contribute to their ability to pass this checkpoint and resist cell cycle arrest. Both cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to nsPEFs in G2/M phase. Live imaging of CHO cells after nsPEF exposure supports the theory of G1/S phase arrest, as a reduced number of cells undergo mitosis within 24 h when

  14. Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter−1. PMID:21602375

  15. Argon mediates protection by interleukin-8 suppression via a TLR2/TLR4/STAT3/NF-κB pathway in a model of apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and following ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat retina in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Felix; Lerach, Teresa; Biermann, Julia; Kaufmann, Kai B; Lagreze, Wolf A; Buerkle, Hartmut; Loop, Torsten; Goebel, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Argon has recently come into scientific focus as a neuroprotective agent. The underlying neuroprotective mechanism remains unknown although toll-like receptors were recently suggested to play an important role. We hypothesized that TLR-associated downstream transcription factors are responsible for argon's effects, leading to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis was induced in human neuroblastoma cells. Immediately afterwards, argon treatment (75 Vol% for 2 h) was initiated. Cells were analyzed, measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive-oxygen-species, annexin-V/propidium iodide staining, transcription factor phosphorylation and binding activity as well as protein and mRNA expression of interleukins. Argon's in vivo effects were analyzed by quantification of retinal ganglion cell density, mRNA expression, serum cytokine analysis and immunohistochemistry after retinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Argon diminished rotenone-induced kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) but not STAT5 or cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity. Argon treatment attenuated apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential and decline in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. NF-κB and STAT3 inhibition, as well as TLR2 and TLR4 inhibition reversed argon's effects on IL-8 mRNA expression. Argon attenuated rotenone-induced IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in vitro. Inhibition of TLR2 and 4 attenuated argon's protective effect in vivo reducing IRI driven retinal IL-8 expression. IL-8 expression was found in the retina in co-localization with Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Argon mediates its neuroprotective effects by TLR-mediated regulation of transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3, thus decreasing interleukin-8 expression in vitro and in vivo. These findings may open up new

  16. Argon mediates protection by interleukin-8 suppression via a TLR2/TLR4/STAT3/NF-κB pathway in a model of apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and following ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat retina in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Felix; Lerach, Teresa; Biermann, Julia; Kaufmann, Kai B; Lagreze, Wolf A; Buerkle, Hartmut; Loop, Torsten; Goebel, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Argon has recently come into scientific focus as a neuroprotective agent. The underlying neuroprotective mechanism remains unknown although toll-like receptors were recently suggested to play an important role. We hypothesized that TLR-associated downstream transcription factors are responsible for argon's effects, leading to anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Apoptosis was induced in human neuroblastoma cells. Immediately afterwards, argon treatment (75 Vol% for 2 h) was initiated. Cells were analyzed, measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive-oxygen-species, annexin-V/propidium iodide staining, transcription factor phosphorylation and binding activity as well as protein and mRNA expression of interleukins. Argon's in vivo effects were analyzed by quantification of retinal ganglion cell density, mRNA expression, serum cytokine analysis and immunohistochemistry after retinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Argon diminished rotenone-induced kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) but not STAT5 or cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity. Argon treatment attenuated apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential and decline in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. NF-κB and STAT3 inhibition, as well as TLR2 and TLR4 inhibition reversed argon's effects on IL-8 mRNA expression. Argon attenuated rotenone-induced IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in vitro. Inhibition of TLR2 and 4 attenuated argon's protective effect in vivo reducing IRI driven retinal IL-8 expression. IL-8 expression was found in the retina in co-localization with Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Argon mediates its neuroprotective effects by TLR-mediated regulation of transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3, thus decreasing interleukin-8 expression in vitro and in vivo. These findings may open up new

  17. Use of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide to determine viral infectivity upon inactivation by heat, UV- exposure and chlorine.

    PubMed

    Leifels, Mats; Jurzik, Lars; Wilhelm, Michael; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Despite the great sensitivity of PCR in monitoring enteric viruses in an aquatic environment, PCR detects viral nucleic acids of both infectious and noninfectious viruses, limiting the conclusions regarding significance for public health. Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) are closely related membrane impermeant dyes that selectively penetrate cells with compromised membranes. Inside the cells, the dye can intercalate into nucleic acids and inhibit PCR amplification. To assess whether EMA and PMA pretreatment is a suitable approach to inhibit DNA amplification from noninfectious viruses upon heat treatment, UV exposure or chlorine treatment, viruses were measured by qPCR, EMA-qPCR, PMA-qPCR and cell culture titration. EMA/PMA-qPCR of UV- and heat-treated viruses did not correlate with the results of the cell culture assay. However, the data from EMA/PMA-qPCR of chlorine-inactivated viruses was consistent with the cell culture infectivity assay. Therefore, a dye treatment approach could be a rapid and inexpensive tool to screen the efficacy of chlorine disinfection, but it is not able to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses inactivated via heat treatment or UV irradiation. Indeed, different viruses may have different trends and mechanisms of inactivation; thus, the assay must be evaluated for each virus separately.

  18. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-jun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 103 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds. PMID:27739469

  19. Use of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide to determine viral infectivity upon inactivation by heat, UV- exposure and chlorine.

    PubMed

    Leifels, Mats; Jurzik, Lars; Wilhelm, Michael; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Despite the great sensitivity of PCR in monitoring enteric viruses in an aquatic environment, PCR detects viral nucleic acids of both infectious and noninfectious viruses, limiting the conclusions regarding significance for public health. Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) are closely related membrane impermeant dyes that selectively penetrate cells with compromised membranes. Inside the cells, the dye can intercalate into nucleic acids and inhibit PCR amplification. To assess whether EMA and PMA pretreatment is a suitable approach to inhibit DNA amplification from noninfectious viruses upon heat treatment, UV exposure or chlorine treatment, viruses were measured by qPCR, EMA-qPCR, PMA-qPCR and cell culture titration. EMA/PMA-qPCR of UV- and heat-treated viruses did not correlate with the results of the cell culture assay. However, the data from EMA/PMA-qPCR of chlorine-inactivated viruses was consistent with the cell culture infectivity assay. Therefore, a dye treatment approach could be a rapid and inexpensive tool to screen the efficacy of chlorine disinfection, but it is not able to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses inactivated via heat treatment or UV irradiation. Indeed, different viruses may have different trends and mechanisms of inactivation; thus, the assay must be evaluated for each virus separately. PMID:25747544

  20. Use of real-time PCR with propidium monoazide for enumeration of viable Escherichia coli in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ruike, Wataru; Higashimori, Atsushi; Yaguchi, Junichi; Li, Yu-You

    2016-01-01

    A combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) was optimized to enumerate only viable Escherichia coli in anaerobic digestion processes. Repeating the PMA treatment twice and a final concentration of 100 μM resulted in an effective exclusion of DNA from heat-treated E. coli cells. In three anaerobic digestion processes, real-time PCR, PMA-qPCR, and the most probable number method (MPN) were used to estimate the numbers of total, viable, and culturable E. coli cells, respectively. Culturable concentrations of fecal coliforms were also measured by the membrane filter method. For thermophilic digestion, the reductions in total and viable E. coli cells from the digester influent to the effluent were significantly lower than those in culturable cells and fecal coliforms by two to four orders of magnitude. For mesophilic digestion, the differences in the reductions in E. coli and fecal coliforms counts were less than two orders of magnitude. Based on the measurements of viable E. coli determined by the PMA-qPCR method, the microbial quality of digester effluents was discussed for agricultural application, and pasteurization after anaerobic digestion was suggested for the destruction of viable pathogens. PMID:27642844

  1. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Oenococcus oeni in must and wine by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation is an important step in winemaking, but it has to be avoided in some cases. It's carried out by lactic acid bacteria belonging mainly to the genus Oenococcus, which is known to be a slow growing bacterium. Classical microbiological methods to enumerate viable cells of Oenococcus oeni in must and wine take 7-9 days to give results. Moreover, RT-qPCR technique gives accurate quantitative results, but it requires time consuming steps of RNA extraction and reverse transcription. In the present work we developed a fast and reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate cells of Oenococcus oeni, directly, in must and wine. For the first time we used a propidium monoazide treatment of samples to enumerate only Oenococcus oeni viable cells. The detection limit of the developed method is 0.33 log CFU/mL (2.14 CFU/mL) in must, and 0.69 log CFU/mL (4.90 CFU/mL) in wine, lower than that of the previously developed qPCR protocols.

  2. Molecular monitoring of Escherichia coli O157: H7 sterilization rate using qPCR and propidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Xing-Long, X; Cong-Cong, L; Yang, Q; Yi-Gang, Y; Hui, W

    2013-05-01

    Propidium monoazide is a DNA-intercalating dye. PMA-qPCR has been reported as a novel method to detect live bacteria in complex samples. In this study, this method was used to monitor the sterilization effects of UHP, ultrasound and high PEF on Escherichia coli O157:H7. Our results showed that all three sterilization techniques are successful to kill viable E. coli O157:H7 cells under their appropriate conditions. PMA-qPCR can effectively monitor the amount of DNA released from viable E. coli O157:H7 cells, and the results from PMA-qPCR were highly consistent with those from plate counting after treatment with UHP, ultrasound and high PEF. The maximal ΔCt between PMA-qPCR and qPCR obtained in this study was 10·39 for UHP, 5·76 for ultrasound and 2·30 for high PEF. The maximal sterilization rates monitored by PMA-qPCR were 99·92% for UHP, 99·99% for ultrasound and 100% for high PEF. Thus, PMA-qPCR can be used to detect the sterilization effect on food and water supplies after treatment with UHP, ultrasound and high PEF.

  3. Effect of exposure to stress conditions on propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR based Campylobacter enumeration in broiler carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A; Botteldoorn, N; Coucke, W; Denayer, S; Dierick, K; Uyttendaele, M

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter quantification by qPCR is unable to distinguish viable vs. dead cells in contrast to the culture-based ISO 10272-2 reference method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this disadvantage. A Campylobacter PMA-qPCR enumeration method was evaluated for its consistency and compared to the culture-based enumeration for both artificially and natural contaminated broiler carcass rinses. The PMA effect was further evaluated on stressed cells. Five conditions, commonly encountered during the slaughter process and storage (acid, heat, cold, oxidation and freezing), were inflicted to the broiler carcass rinses artificially contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. A better correlation between the reference method and the qPCR enumeration was obtained when PMA was used. The two cultured-based methods used showed a significant CFU reduction for heat, cold and acid stresses although the PMA-qPCR enumeration showed that viable bacteria were underestimated. Freezing showed the highest reduction effect, while the reduction extend was also overestimated by the microbiological enumeration procedure. Exposure to a mild oxidative stress was the only stress condition applied at temperatures permitting adaptation of Campylobacter and did not lead to either reduction in CFU nor in the PMA-qPCR signal.

  4. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination.

  5. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique’s inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not

  6. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. PMID:26830746

  7. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique's inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not an

  8. Evaluation of propidium monoazide real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Oketič, K; Matijašić, B Bogovič; Obermajer, T; Radulović, Z; Lević, S; Mirković, N; Nedović, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate real-time PCR coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for enumeration of microencapsulated probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (CCM 7710) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CCM 7712) were analysed by plate counting and PMA real-time PCR during storage at 4 °C for 90 days. PMA was effective in preventing PCR amplification of the target sequences of DNA released from heat-compromised bacteria. The values obtained by real-time PCR of non-treated samples were in general higher than those obtained by real-time PCR of PMA-treated samples or by plate counting, indicating the presence of sub-lethally injured cells. This study shows that plate count could not be completely replaced by culture independent method PMA real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotics, but may rather complement the well-established plate counting, providing useful information about the ratio of compromised bacteria in the samples.

  9. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that

  10. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-01-17

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells.

  11. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  12. Trimethoxy-benzaldehyde levofloxacin hydrazone inducing the growth arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to search for new structural modification strategies on fluoroquinolones, we have designed and synthesized a series of fluoroquinolone derivatives by linking various hydrazine compounds to the C-3 carboxyl group of levofloxacin and assessed their anticancer activities. Several novel levofloxacin derivatives displayed potent cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7- piperazin-1, 4-dihydro- quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid benzo [1,3] dioxol-5- ylmethylene- hydrazide (QNT11) on the apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro. Methods The inhibition effects of QNT11 on cell proliferation were examined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis method. The topoisomerase ΙΙ activity was measured by agarose gel electrophoresis using Plasmid pBR322 DNA as the substrate. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry in conjunction with ethanol fixation and propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) was measured by high content screening image system. The caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, CDK1, Cyclin B1and cytochrome c protein expressions were detected by Western blot analysis. Results QNT11 showed selective cytotoxicity against Hep3B, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and HCT-8 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.21 μM, 2.38 μM, 3.17 μM and 2.79 μM, respectively. In contrast, QNT11 had weak cytotoxicity against mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with IC50 value of 7.46 μM. Treatment of Hep3B cells with different concentrations of QNT11 increased the percentage of the apoptosis cells significantly, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the ladder DNA bands typical of apoptotic cells, with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Compared to the control group, QNT11 could influence the DNA topoisomerase IIactivity and inhibit the religation of

  13. Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture independent methods: (1) LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (LD) and (2) propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were f...

  14. Comparative analysis of bacterial community composition in bulk tank raw milk by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods using the viability dye propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mareike; Geißert, Janina; Kruse, Myriam; Lipski, André

    2014-11-01

    Microbial diversity of 3 raw milk samples after 72 h of storage at 4 °C in a bulk tank was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The culture-dependent approach was based on the isolation of bacteria on complex and selective media, chemotaxonomic differentiation of isolates, and subsequent identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach included the treatment of raw milk with the dye propidium monoazide before direct DNA extraction by mechanic and enzymatic cell lysis approaches, and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The selective detection of viable bacteria improved the comparability between bacterial compositions of raw milk based on culture-dependent and -independent methods, which was the major objective of this study. Several bacterial species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were detected by the culture-dependent method, whereas mainly bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria as well as low proportions of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were detected by the culture-independent method. This led to the conclusion that the phylum Firmicutes was strongly discriminated by the culture-independent approach. Generally, species richness detected by the culture-dependent method was higher than that detected by the culture-independent method for all samples. However, few taxa could be detected solely by the direct DNA-based method. In conclusion, the combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods led to the detection of the highest bacterial diversity for the raw milk samples analyzed. It was shown that DNA extraction from raw milk as the essential step in culture-independent methods causes the discrimination of taxa by incomplete cell lysis. Treatment of raw milk with the viability dye propidium monoazide was optimized for the application in raw milk without former removal of milk ingredients and proved to be a suitable tool to ensure comparability

  15. Selective detection of viable Helicobacter pylori using ethidium monoazide or propidium monoazide in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sehee; Kwon, Soonbok; Kim, Min-jeong; Chae, Jong-Chan; Jae Maeng, Pil; Park, Jong-Geun; Lee, Gyu-Cheol

    2011-12-01

    Because Helicobacter pylori has a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer, chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, detection of its viable form is very important. The objective of this study was to optimize a PCR method using ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) for selective detection of viable H. pylori cells in mixed samples of viable and dead bacteria. Before conducting the real-time PCR using SodB primers of H. pylori, EMA or PMA was added to suspensions of viable and/or dead H. pylori cells at concentrations between 1 and 100 μM. PMA at a concentration of 50 μM induced the highest DNA loss in dead cells with little loss of genomic DNA in viable cells. In addition, selective detection of viable cells in the mixtures of viable and dead cells at various ratios was possible with the combined use of PMA and real-time PCR. In contrast, EMA penetrated the membranes of both viable and dead cells and induced degradation of their genomic DNA. The findings of this study suggest that PMA, but not EMA, can be used effectively to differentiate viable H. pylori from its dead form.

  16. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative PCR for selective detection of live Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables after inactivation by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Aznar, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) is enjoying increased popularity among researchers in different fields of microbiology. Its use in combination with real-time PCR (qPCR) represents one of the most successful approaches to detect viable cells. PMA-qPCR has successfully been used to evaluate the efficacy of various disinfection technologies in different microorganisms. Initially, in this study the effect of four essential oils (EOs), cumin, clove, oregano and cinnamon, was evaluated on suspensions of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PMA-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD BacLight flow cytometry analysis (LIVE/DEAD-FCM), and plate count. E. coli O157:H7 cells treated with EOs at killing concentrations were permeable to PMA which was confirmed by LIVE/DEAD-FCM. However, the PMA-qPCR assay allows specific quantification among the autochthonous microbiota of food products. Therefore, the PMA-qPCR assay was used to evaluate its applicability in artificially contaminated iceberg lettuce and soya sprouts. Amplification signal was negative for the spiking tests performed with any of the EO-killed E. coli cells. It demonstrates that the PMA-qPCR assay is a suitable technique for monitoring E. coli O157:H7 inactivation by essential oils in fresh-cut vegetables.

  17. A propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salam, Khaled W; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Barbour, Elie K; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2014-10-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 10(2) cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings.

  18. Rapid and accurate detection of bacteriophage activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Niu, Yan D; Li, Jinquan; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage (phage) for biocontrol of E. coli require several days, due to the need to culture bacteria. Furthermore, cell surface-attached phage particles may lyse bacterial cells during experiments, leading to an overestimation of phage activity. DNA-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a fast, sensitive, and highly specific means of enumerating pathogens. However, qPCR may underestimate phage activity due to its inability to distinguish viable from nonviable cells. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide (PMA), a microbial membrane-impermeable dye that inhibits amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA within dead or membrane-compromised cells as a means of using qPCR to identify only intact E. coli cells that survive phage exposure. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain R508N and 4 phages (T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and O1-like) were studied. Results compared PMA-qPCR and direct plating and confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from compromised/damaged cells E. coli O157:H7. Compared to PMA-qPCR, direct plating overestimated (P < 0.01) phage efficacy as cell surface-attached phage particles lysed E. coli O157:H7 during the plating process. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with qPCR can therefore be considered beneficial when assessing the efficacy of bacteriophage for biocontrol of E. coli O157:H7.

  19. Effects of Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid on Propidium Iodide Accessibility to DNA: Consequences on Genome Size Evaluation in Coffee Tree

    PubMed Central

    NOIROT, M.; BARRE, P.; DUPERRAY, C.; LOUARN, J.; HAMON, S.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of genome size using flow cytometry can be biased by the presence of cytosolic compounds, leading to pseudo‐intraspecific variation in genome size. Two important compounds present in coffee trees—caffeine and chlorogenic acid—modify accessibility of the dye propidium iodide to Petunia DNA, a species used as internal standard in our genome size evaluation. These compounds could be responsible for intraspecific variation in genome size since their contents vary between trees. They could also be implicated in environmental variations in genome size, such as those revealed when comparing the results of evaluations carried out on different dates on several genotypes. PMID:12876189

  20. [Evaluation of pathogen disinfection efficacy by chlorine and monochloramine disinfection based on quantitative PCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR)].

    PubMed

    Tong, Tie-Zheng; Wu, Shu-Xu; Li, Dan; He, Miao; Yang, Tian; Shi, Han-Chang

    2011-04-01

    A novel detection method of quantitative PCR combined with a DNA intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) was developed and then applied to analyze inactivation efficacy of chlorine and monochloramine on E. coli as a representative organism. The results shows that PMA removed 99.94% and 99.99% DNA from non-viable E. coli and Salmonella cells respectively and PMA-qPCR could effectively differentiate viable bacteria from non-viable bacteria; According to the first-order kinetic model, the inactivation coefficients on E. coli obtained by PMA-qPCR were 2.24 L x (mg x min)-1 and 0.0175 L x (mg x min)-1 for chlorine and monochloramine respectively, both of which were lower than those obtained by traditional plating counting method. In order to inactivate 99% of E. coli, the ct values by PMA-qPCR were 0.9 mg L(-1) min and more than 100 mg x L(-1) x min for chlorine and monochloramine while those by plating counting method were only 0.6 mg x L(-1) x min and 20 mg x L(-1) min, respectively; E. coli concentration detected by conventional qPCR kept almost the same when ct value increased, indicating that conventional qPCR was unable to evaluate inactivation efficacy of both chlorine and monochloramine disinfection. In summary, PMA-qPCR shows to be a promising method for evaluating disinfection efficacy by chlorine and monochloramine more accurately.

  1. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  2. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  5. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  6. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods. PMID:26143168

  7. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods.

  8. Propidium monoazide reverse transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad R; Fout, G Shay; Johnson, Clifford H; White, Karen M; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2015-07-01

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the public health significance of positive findings are limited. In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwalk virus from virus particles rendered non-infectious by any treatment. PMA RT-PCR assay was not able to differentiate between infectious and UV inactivated viruses suggesting that viral capsid damage may be necessary for PMA to enter and bind to the viral genome. PMA RT-PCR on naked MNV-1 and Norwalk virus RNA suggest that PMA RT-PCR can be used to detect intact, potentially infectious MNV-1 and Norwalk viruses and can be used to exclude the detection of free viral RNA by PCR assay. PMID:25796356

  9. Apoptotic and necrotic influence of dental resin polymerization initiators in human gingival fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Kouhei; Nomura, Yuji; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Hirata, Isao; Nahara, Yukinori; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and necrotic influence of four dental resin polymerization initiators--namely benzoyl peroxide (BPO), camphorquinone (CQ), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and dimethyl-para-toluidine (DMPT)--on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. To this end, the growth inhibition of HGF cells with 1 mM BPO, CQ, and DMAEMA, and 500 microM DMPT was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8. Then, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry was used to assess propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, G2/M phases). All four dental resin polymerization initiators induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. As for the patterns of cell death (necrosis and/or apoptosis), they were analyzed using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining with flow cytometry. All four dental resin polymerization initiators most likely induced necrosis.

  10. Anthocyanin Inhibits Propidium Iodide DNA Fluorescence in Euphorbia pulcherrima: Implications for Genome Size Variation and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Michael D.; Price, H. James; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2008-01-01

    Background Measuring genome size by flow cytometry assumes direct proportionality between nuclear DNA staining and DNA amount. By 1997 it was recognized that secondary metabolites may affect DNA staining, thereby causing inaccuracy. Here experiments are reported with poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with green leaves and red bracts rich in phenolics. Methods DNA content was estimated as fluorescence of propidium iodide (PI)-stained nuclei of poinsettia and/or pea (Pisum sativum) using flow cytometry. Tissue was chopped, or two tissues co-chopped, in Galbraith buffer alone or with six concentrations of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (a cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside contributing to red coloration in poinsettia). Key Results There were large differences in PI staining (35–70 %) between 2C nuclei from green leaf and red bract tissue in poinsettia. These largely disappeared when pea leaflets were co-chopped with poinsettia tissue as an internal standard. However, smaller (2·8–6·9 %) differences remained, and red bracts gave significantly lower 1C genome size estimates (1·69–1·76 pg) than green leaves (1·81 pg). Chopping pea or poinsettia tissue in buffer with 0–200 µm cyanidin-3-rutinoside showed that the effects of natural inhibitors in red bracts of poinsettia on PI staining were largely reproduced in a dose-dependent way by this anthocyanin. Conclusions Given their near-ubiquitous distribution, many suspected roles and known affects on DNA staining, anthocyanins are a potent, potential cause of significant error variation in genome size estimations for many plant tissues and taxa. This has important implications of wide practical and theoretical significance. When choosing genome size calibration standards it seems prudent to select materials producing little or no anthocyanin. Reviewing the literature identifies clear examples in which claims of intraspecific variation in genome size are probably artefacts caused by natural variation in anthocyanin levels or

  11. Use of Propidium Monoazide in Reverse Transcriptase PCR To Distinguish between Infectious and Noninfectious Enteric Viruses in Water Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Parshionikar, Sandhya; Laseke, Ian; Fout, G. Shay

    2010-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since only infectious viruses are a public health concern, methods that not only are rapid but also provide information on the infectivity of viruses are of interest. The intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used for distinguishing between viable and nonviable bacteria with DNA genomes, but it has not been used to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses with RNA genomes. In this study, PMA in conjunction with RT-PCR (PMA-RT-PCR) was used to determine the infectivity of enteric RNA viruses in water. Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, echovirus, and Norwalk virus were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment with heat (72°C, 37°C, and 19°C) or hypochlorite. Infectious or native and noninfectious or inactivated viruses were treated with PMA. This was followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The PMA-RT-PCR results indicated that PMA treatment did not interfere with detection of infectious or native viruses but prevented detection of noninfectious or inactivated viruses that were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment at 72°C and 37°C and by hypochlorite treatment. However, PMA-RT-PCR was unable to prevent detection of enteroviruses that were rendered noninfectious by treatment at 19°C. After PMA treatment poliovirus that was rendered noninfectious by treatment at 37°C was undetectable by qRT-PCR, but PMA treatment did not affect detection of Norwalk virus. PMA-RT-PCR was also shown to be effective for detecting infectious poliovirus in the presence of noninfectious virus and in an environmental matrix. We concluded that PMA can be used to differentiate between potentially infectious and noninfectious

  12. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas O.; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol–chloroform–isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations. PMID:26339125

  13. Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples. [Cell flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

    1981-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples has been developed by modification of the propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate procedure. Cell staining involves sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifugation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients showed mixed normal and aneuploid populations with a major portion of the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle analysis of normal and the aneuploid populations.

  14. Roles of BN52021 in platelet-activating factor pathway in inflammatory MS1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shi-Hai; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of BN52021 on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signaling molecules under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions in MS1 cells. METHODS: MS1 cells (a mouse pancreatic islet endothelial cell line) were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mmol/L glutamine and 100 μg/mL penicillin/streptomycin in 5% CO2 at 37 °C. After growth to confluency in media, the cells were processed for subsequent studies. The MS1 cells received 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/mL LPS in this experiment. The viability/proliferation of the cells induced by LPS was observed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Apoptosis and necrosis of the cells under the inflammatory condition described previously were observed using Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide staining. Adenylate cyclase (AC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) mRNA in the PAFR signaling pathway were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression level of phosphorylated AC (p-AC), phosphorylated PLA2 (p-PLA2), phosphorylated PTK (p-PTK), phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), PLCβ and GRK was measured using Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: The activity of MS1 cells incubated with different concentrations of LPS for 6 h decreased significantly in the 1 μg/mL LPS group (0.49 ± 0.10 vs 0.67 ± 0.13, P < 0.05) and 10 μg/mL LPS group (0.44 ± 0.10 vs 0.67 ± 0.13, P < 0.001), but not in 0.1 μg/mL group. When the incubation time was extended to 12 h (0.33 ± 0.05, 0.32 ± 0.03 and 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.69 ± 0.01) and 24 h (0.31 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.03 and 0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.63 ± 0.01), MS1 cell activity decreased in all LPS concentration groups compared with the blank control (P < 0.001). BN52021 significantly improved the cell

  15. Development of propidium iodide as a fluorescence probe for the on-line screening of non-specific DNA-intercalators in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanyan; Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Daidong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor prescription. To understand the relationships between its bioactive ingredients and pharmacological efficacies, our previous study has been successfully identified some DNA-binding compounds in FBI using an established on-line screening system, in which 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was developed as a probe. However, DAPI can be only used to screen ATT-specific DNA minor groove binders, leaving the potential active intercalators unknown in FBI. As a continuation of our studies on FBI, here we present a sensitive analytical method for rapid identification and evaluation of DNA-intercalators using propidium iodide (PI) as a fluorescent probe. We have firstly established the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multistage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-propidium iodide-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-PI-FLD) system. As a result, 38 of 58 previously identified compounds in FBI were DNA-intercalation active. Interestingly, all previously reported DNA-binders also showed intercalative activities, suggesting they are dual-mode DNA-binders. Quantitative study showed that flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids were the main active compounds in FBI, and displayed similar DNA-binding ability using either DAPI or PI. In addition, 13 active compounds were used to establish the structure-activity relationships. In this study, PI was developed into an on-line method for identifying DNA-intercalators for the first time, and thus it will be a useful high-throughput screening technique for other related samples.

  16. Development of propidium iodide as a fluorescence probe for the on-line screening of non-specific DNA-intercalators in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanyan; Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Daidong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor prescription. To understand the relationships between its bioactive ingredients and pharmacological efficacies, our previous study has been successfully identified some DNA-binding compounds in FBI using an established on-line screening system, in which 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was developed as a probe. However, DAPI can be only used to screen ATT-specific DNA minor groove binders, leaving the potential active intercalators unknown in FBI. As a continuation of our studies on FBI, here we present a sensitive analytical method for rapid identification and evaluation of DNA-intercalators using propidium iodide (PI) as a fluorescent probe. We have firstly established the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multistage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-propidium iodide-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-PI-FLD) system. As a result, 38 of 58 previously identified compounds in FBI were DNA-intercalation active. Interestingly, all previously reported DNA-binders also showed intercalative activities, suggesting they are dual-mode DNA-binders. Quantitative study showed that flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids were the main active compounds in FBI, and displayed similar DNA-binding ability using either DAPI or PI. In addition, 13 active compounds were used to establish the structure-activity relationships. In this study, PI was developed into an on-line method for identifying DNA-intercalators for the first time, and thus it will be a useful high-throughput screening technique for other related samples. PMID:27522151

  17. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

  18. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  19. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Amini, Elaheh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Jalali, Zahra; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sanjar-Mousavi, Naghmeh; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae) has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml). Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue® assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05). The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted. PMID:27051435

  20. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Alireza; Amini, Elaheh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Jalali, Zahra; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sanjar-Mousavi, Naghmeh; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae) has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml). Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue(®) assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05). The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted.

  1. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine and beer by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Marco; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe; Bertrand, Julien; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2014-09-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a current problem in winemaking all over the world, and the question if B. bruxellensis has a positive or negative impact on wine is one of the most controversial discussions in the world. The presence of live B. bruxellensis cells represents the risk of growth and an increase in cell numbers, which is related to the potential production of volatile phenols. In this work, the optimisation of a PMA-quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate only viable cells was carried out using the standard strain B. bruxellensis DSMZ 70726. The obtained detection limits were 0.83 log CFU/mL in red wine, 0.63 log CFU/mL in white wine and 0.23 log CFU/mL in beer. Moreover, the quantification was also performed by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and the results showed a higher detection limit for all of the trials.

  2. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine and beer by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Marco; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe; Bertrand, Julien; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2014-09-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a current problem in winemaking all over the world, and the question if B. bruxellensis has a positive or negative impact on wine is one of the most controversial discussions in the world. The presence of live B. bruxellensis cells represents the risk of growth and an increase in cell numbers, which is related to the potential production of volatile phenols. In this work, the optimisation of a PMA-quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate only viable cells was carried out using the standard strain B. bruxellensis DSMZ 70726. The obtained detection limits were 0.83 log CFU/mL in red wine, 0.63 log CFU/mL in white wine and 0.23 log CFU/mL in beer. Moreover, the quantification was also performed by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and the results showed a higher detection limit for all of the trials. PMID:24929737

  3. Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. PMID:24934261

  4. The Effects of Intense Submicrosecond Electrical Pulses on Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingdong; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Buescher, E. Stephen; Hair, Pamela S.; Fox, Paula M.; Beebe, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    A simple electrical model for living cells predicts an increasing probability for electric field interactions with intracellular substructures of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells when the electric pulse duration is reduced into the sub-microsecond range. The validity of this hypothesis was verified experimentally by applying electrical pulses (durations 100 μs–60 ns, electric field intensities 3–150 kV/cm) to Jurkat cells suspended in physiologic buffer containing propidium iodide. Effects on Jurkat cells were assessed by means of temporally resolved fluorescence and light microscopy. For the longest applied pulses, immediate uptake of propidium iodide occurred consistent with electroporation as the cause of increased surface membrane permeability. For nanosecond pulses, more delayed propidium iodide uptake occurred with significantly later uptake of propidium iodide occurring after 60 ns pulses compared to 300 ns pulses. Cellular swelling occurred rapidly following 300 ns pulses, but was minimal following 60 ns pulses. These data indicate that submicrosecond pulses achieve temporally distinct effects on living cells compared to microsecond pulses. The longer pulses result in rapid permeability changes in the surface membrane that are relatively homogeneous across the cell population, consistent with electroporation, while shorter pulses cause surface membrane permeability changes that are temporally delayed and heterogeneous in their magnitude. PMID:12668479

  5. Detection of viable murine norovirus using the plaque assay and propidium-monoazide-combined real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Seo, Jina; Oh, Hyejin; Jeon, Su Been; Ha, Sang-Do; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo; Choi, Changsun

    2015-09-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a virus culture system makes it difficult to determine the viability of norovirus by only reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the detection of viable murine norovirus (MNV) by combining propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) with qRT-PCR. MNV (5.21log10PFU/mL) was subjected to heat treatment at room temperature, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, or 90°C in a water bath for 1min. The plaque assay, qRT-PCR, PMA-combined qRT-PCR, and EMA-combined qRT-PCR were then performed with heat exposed MNV samples. The MNV titer was reduced by 0.38, 1.34, and 3.71log10PFU/mL at temperatures of 65, 70, and 75°C, respectively. MNV was reduced >4.21log10PFU/mL at 80, 85, and 90°C heat inactivation. PMA (EMA) value equation for the interpretation of the viability of MNV was derived as follows: PMA (EMA) value=-logRN-logRP (RN: the relative quantity value of the not-treated sample, and RP: the relative quantity value of the PMA- or EMA-treated sample as determined by qRT-PCR). By PMA-combined qRT-PCR, the viable PMA value was 0.32, 0.83, and 2.62 for the 65, 70, and 75°C preheated MNVs, respectively. The viable PMA values for the viruses heated at 80, 85, and 90°C were all greater than 3.0, which was the cutoff value for discriminating between live and dead MNVs. The results of EMA-combined qRT-PCR were similar to those of qRT-PCR. Thus, PMA-combined qRT-PCR correlated well with the plaque assay in detecting viable MNVs.

  6. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia.

  7. Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Hou, Chen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Pinglin; He, Xijing; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Haopeng

    2016-09-01

    Cannabidiol, a major component of marijuana, protects nerves, and exerts antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti‑anxiety effects. In the current study, the protective effect of cannabidiol was observed to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells. Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated from rats and cultured in vitro, and H2O2 was used to construct the nucleus pulposus cell model. Cell viability of the nucleus pulposus cells was assessed using a 3‑(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The ratio of apoptotic cells, and caspase‑3 or cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) mRNA expression was analyzed by annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium‑iodide staining and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The quantities of interleukin (IL)‑1β and interleukin‑6 were measured using a series of assay kits. B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression levels were analyzed using western blotting. The present study identified that cannabidiol enhanced cell viability and reduced apoptosis in H2O2‑treated nucleus pulposus cells in vitro using a lumbar disc herniation (LDH) model. In addition, cannabidiol reduced caspase‑3 gene expression and augmented the Bcl‑2 protein expression levels in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Pre‑treatment with cannabidiol suppressed the promotion of COX‑2, iNOS, IL‑1β and IL‑6 expression in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that cannabidiol potentially exerts its protective effect on LDH via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation and anti‑oxidative activities in nucleus pulposus cells. PMID:27430346

  8. Role of c-Jun in cellular sensitivity to the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine.

    PubMed

    Obey, Toria B; Lyle, Christopher S; Chambers, Timothy C

    2005-10-01

    The role of c-Jun in the apoptotic response of cells to the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine was investigated using fibroblasts lacking or overexpressing c-Jun. c-Jun null cells were found to be more sensitive than wild-type cells at low (1-3 nM) concentrations of vinblastine, but showed essentially identical apoptotic responses as wild-type cells at a higher concentration of 10nM. In contrast, c-Jun overexpressing cells were highly vinblastine-resistant, with an IC50 of 12-fold greater than wild-type cells. The fate of cells exposed to lethal concentrations of vinblastine was examined by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. All cell types appeared to undergo mitotic arrest prior to apoptosis. Apoptosis of wild-type cells was associated with significant DNA re-replication. In contrast, DNA re-replication was much less prominent in vinblastine-treated c-Jun null cells and absent during apoptosis of c-Jun overexpressing cells. These results suggest that c-Jun plays a key role in the cellular sensitivity to vinblastine. In addition, c-Jun appears to regulate the pathway to cell death following mitotic arrest.

  9. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 promotes proliferation and insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells via activating Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suijun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Ying; Li, Quanzhong; Su, Yong; Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Yun; Man, Hua; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic β-cells is closely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an intractable disease affecting numerous patients. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) is a potential modulator of insulin secretion in β-cells. This study aims at revealing roles and possible mechanisms of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells. Mouse pancreatic β-cell line NIT-1 was used for high glucose treatment and PKM2 overexpression by its specific expression vector. Cell proliferation by Thiazolyl blue assay, cell apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/prodium iodide staining and insulin secretion assay by ELISA were performed in each group. The mRNA and protein levels of related factors were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. Results showed that Pkm2 was inhibited under high glucose conditions compared to the untreated cells (P < 0.01). Its overexpression significantly suppressed NIT-1 cell apoptosis (P < 0.01), and induced cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and insulin secretion (P < 0.05). Related factors showed consistent mRNA expression changes. Protein levels of β-catenin (CTNNB1), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 were all promoted by PKM2 overexpression (P < 0.01), indicating the activated Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling. These results indicated the inductive roles of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cell NIT-1, including promoting cell proliferation and insulin secretion, and inhibiting cell apoptosis, which might be achieved via activating the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling and downstream factors. This study offers basic information on the role and mechanism of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells, and lays the foundation for using PKM2 as a potential therapeutic target in T2DM. PMID:26823761

  10. Tumor-targeting novel manganese complex induces ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; GUO, WENJIE; LI, JING; LI, XIANG; GENG, JI; CHEN, QIUYUN; GAO, JING

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antitumor activity of the novel manganese (II) compound, Adpa-Mn {[(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] (Adpa=bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid)}, and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. In vitro, the growth inhibitory effects of Adpa-Mn (with IC50 values lower than 15 μM) on tumor cell lines were examined by MTT assay. We found that this compound was more selective against cancer cells than the popular chemotherapeutic reagent, cisplatin. We then found that Adpa-Mn achieved its selectivity against cancer cells through the transferrin (Tf)-transferrin receptor (TfR) system, which is highly expressed in tumor cells. Furthermore, Adpa-Mn induced both apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by chromatin condensation, the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Annexin V/prop-idium iodide staining, an enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), as well as the elevated expression of the autophagy-related protein, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In addition, Adpa-Mn induced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its anticancer effects were significantly reduced following pre-treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine, indicating that ROS triggered cell death. In vivo, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor tissue was confirmed following treatment with Adpa-Mn, which contributed to its significant antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-A cell) xenografts at 10 mg/kg. Taken together, these data suggest the possible use of Adpa-Mn as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:25604962

  11. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7): a novel anti-tumor gene for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mhashilkar, A. M.; Schrock, R. D.; Hindi, M.; Liao, J.; Sieger, K.; Kourouma, F.; Zou-Yang, X. H.; Onishi, E.; Takh, O.; Vedvick, T. S.; Fanger, G.; Stewart, L.; Watson, G. J.; Snary, D.; Fisher, P. B.; Saeki, T.; Roth, J. A.; Ramesh, R.; Chada, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mda-7 gene (melanoma differentiation associated gene-7) is a novel tumor suppressor gene. The anti-proliferative activity of MDA-7 has been previously reported. In this report, we analyze the anti-tumor efficacy of Ad-mda7 in a broad spectrum of cancer lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ad-mda7-transduced cancer or normal cell lines were assayed for cell proliferation (tritiated thymidine incorporation assay, Alamar blue assay, and trypan-blue exclusion assay), apoptosis (TUNEL, and Annexin V staining visualized by fluorescent microscopy or FACs analysis), and cell cycle regulation (Propidium Iodide staining and FACs analysis). RESULTS: Ad-mda7 treatment of tumor cells resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a temporal and dose-dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects were independent of the genomic status of p53, RB, p16, ras, bax, and caspase 3 in these cells. In addition, normal cell lines did not show inhibition of proliferation or apoptotic response to Ad-mda7. Moreover, Ad-mda7-transduced cancer cells secreted a soluble form of MDA-7 protein. Thus, Ad-mda7 may represent a novel gene-therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The potent and selective killing activity of Ad-mda7 in cancer cells but not in normal cells makes this vector a potential candidate for cancer gene therapy. PMID:11471572

  12. Calibrating the imaging and therapy performance of magneto-fluorescent gold nanoshells for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Adam; Chen, Wenxue; Biswal, Nrusingh; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Giuliano, Mario; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2012-03-01

    Gold nanoshells with NIR plasmon resonance can be modified to simultaneously enhance conjugated NIR fluorescence dyes and T2 contrast of embedded iron-oxide nanoparticles, and molecularly targeted to breast and other cancers. We calibrated the theranostic performance of magneto-fluorescent nanoshells, and contrasted the performance of molecularly targeted and untargeted nanoshells for breast cancer therapy, employing MCF-7L and their HER2 overexpressing derivative MCF-7/HER2-18 breast cancer cells as in vitro model systems. Silica core gold nanoshells with plasmon resonance on ~810 nm were doped with NIR dye ICG and ~10 nm iron-oxide nanoparticles in a ~20 nm epilayer of silica. A subset of nanoshells was conjugated to antibodies targeting HER2. Cell viability with varying laser power levels in presence and absence of bare and HER2-targeted nanoshells was assessed by calcein and propidium iodide staining. For MCF-7L cells, increasing power resulted in increased cell death (F=5.63, p=0.0018), and bare nanoshells caused more cell death than HER2-targeted nanoshells or laser treatment alone (F=30.13, p<0.001). For MCF-7/HER2-18 cells, death was greater with HER2-targeted nanoshells and was independent of laser power. This study demonstrates the capability of magneto-fluorescent nanocomplexes for imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells, and the advantages of targeting receptors unique to cancer cells.

  13. Overestimation of the Legionella spp. load in environmental samples by quantitative real-time PCR: pretreatment with propidium monoazide as a tool for the assessment of an association between Legionella concentration and sanitary risk.

    PubMed

    Ditommaso, Savina; Ricciardi, Elisa; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Arauco Rivera, Susan R; Ceccarelli, Adriano; Zotti, Carla M

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Legionella in environmental water samples. In this study, qPCR and qPCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) were both applied to hot-water system samples and compared to traditional culture techniques. In addition, we evaluated the ability of PMA-qPCR to monitor the efficacy of different disinfection strategies. Comparison between the quantification obtained by culture and by qPCR or PMA-qPCR on environmental water samples confirms that the concentration of Legionella estimated by GU/L is generally higher than that estimated in CFU/L. Our results on 57 hot-water-system samples collected from 3 different sites show that: i) qPCR results were on average 178-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=2.25), ii) PMA-qPCR results were on average 27-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=1.43), iii) propidium monoazide-induced signal reduction in qPCR were nearly 10-fold (Δ log10=0.95), and that iv) different degrees of correlations between the 3 methods might be explained by different matrix properties, but also by different disinfection methods affecting cultivability of Legionella. In our study, we calculated the logarithmic differences between the results obtained by PMA-qPCR and those obtained by culture, and we suggested an algorithm for the interpretation of PMA-qPCR results for the routine monitoring of healthcare water systems using a commercial qPCR system (iQ-check real-time PCR kit; Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France). PMID:25284373

  14. Overestimation of the Legionella spp. load in environmental samples by quantitative real-time PCR: pretreatment with propidium monoazide as a tool for the assessment of an association between Legionella concentration and sanitary risk.

    PubMed

    Ditommaso, Savina; Ricciardi, Elisa; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Arauco Rivera, Susan R; Ceccarelli, Adriano; Zotti, Carla M

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Legionella in environmental water samples. In this study, qPCR and qPCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) were both applied to hot-water system samples and compared to traditional culture techniques. In addition, we evaluated the ability of PMA-qPCR to monitor the efficacy of different disinfection strategies. Comparison between the quantification obtained by culture and by qPCR or PMA-qPCR on environmental water samples confirms that the concentration of Legionella estimated by GU/L is generally higher than that estimated in CFU/L. Our results on 57 hot-water-system samples collected from 3 different sites show that: i) qPCR results were on average 178-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=2.25), ii) PMA-qPCR results were on average 27-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=1.43), iii) propidium monoazide-induced signal reduction in qPCR were nearly 10-fold (Δ log10=0.95), and that iv) different degrees of correlations between the 3 methods might be explained by different matrix properties, but also by different disinfection methods affecting cultivability of Legionella. In our study, we calculated the logarithmic differences between the results obtained by PMA-qPCR and those obtained by culture, and we suggested an algorithm for the interpretation of PMA-qPCR results for the routine monitoring of healthcare water systems using a commercial qPCR system (iQ-check real-time PCR kit; Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France).

  15. Rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Bai, Zhixia; Lv, Danni; Liu, Haibo; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine (BPV)‑induced cardiomyocyte toxicity. The inhibitory effects of BPV on H9c2 myoblast cell proliferation were investigated using an MTT assay. The H9c2 myoblast cells were treated with either 1 mM BPV or 1% lipid emulsion (LE) alone, or co‑treated with both of the drugs. Cell apoptosis was detected using both Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP assay. The protein expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were quantified using western blot analysis, and the mRNA expression levels were quantified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of reactive oxidative species, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were quantified using the optical density values obtained from a spectrophotometer. In addition, the mechanism underlying the mitochondrial function of the H9c2 myoblast cells was investigated using both JC‑1 staining, and cyclosporin A and atractyloside treatment. The results indicated that the H9c2 myoblast cells treated with BPV exhibited significantly higher levels of apoptosis. Furthermore, BPV treatment increased the levels of oxidative stress, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction within the H9c2 myoblast cells. LE treatment reversed the effects of BPV treatment in the H9c2 myoblast cells.

  16. A microneedle array able to inject tens of thousands of cells simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Burnett, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a biological microelectromechanical system for injecting foreign particles into thousands of cells simultaneously. The system inserts an array of microneedles into a monolayer of cells, and the foreign particles enter the cells by diffusion. The needle array is fabricated using a series of deep reactive ion etches and produces about 4 million needles that average 1 μm in diameter and 8 μm in length with 10 μm spacing. The insertion of the needles is controlled through a compliant suspension. The compliant suspension was designed to provide for needle motion into the cells while restraining rotations or transverse motions that could result in tearing of the cell membranes. Testing was performed using propidium iodide, a membrane impermeable dye, injected into HeLa cells. Average cell survivability was found to be 97.7%, and up to 97.9% of the surviving cells received the propidium iodide.

  17. Purification of Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) and Evaluation of its Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Bhargavi, Sd; Praveen, Vk; Marium, Salah; Sreepriya, M; Savitha, J

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and thus one of the leading causes of mortality in women. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug has previously been reported to exert antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsorption chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties with a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cells were investigated by determining its influence on cell numbers, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant properties in terms of hydroxy radical scavenging effects as well as levels of total reduced glutathione. Cell cycle analysis by ow cytometry (propidium iodide staining) confirmed induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The results of the study give leads for the anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential usefulness in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer. PMID:27644619

  18. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. Methods: The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. Results: The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone. PMID:27563423

  19. Assessment of drug delivery and anticancer potentials of nanoparticles-loaded siRNA targeting STAT3 in lung cancer, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayeeta; Das, Sreemanti; Paul, Avijit; Samadder, Asmita; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-03-21

    Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3) is a hallmark of several types of cancer. Failure to inhibit STAT3 expression by injection of siRNA for STAT3 directly to Balb/c mice led us to adopt alternative means. We formulated nanoparticle-based encapsulation of siRNA (NsiRNA) with polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and characterized them. The siRNA treated and NsiRNA-treated cells were subjected separately to different assay systems. We also checked if NsiRNA could cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Cell viability reduced dramatically in A549 cells after NsiRNA administration (23.89% at 24 h), thereby implicating considerable silencing of STAT3 by NsiRNA, but not after siRNA administration. Compared to controls, a significant decrease in expression of IL-6 and the angiogenic factor (VEGF) and increase in Caspase 3 activity was observed with corresponding regression in tumor growth in mice treated with NsiRNA. NsiRNA induced apoptosis of cells and arrested cells at G1/G0 stage, both in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis was also verified by Annexin-V-FITC/Propidium-iodide staining. NsiRNA could cross blood brain barrier. Overall results revealed PEI-PLGA to be a promising carrier for delivery of siRNA targeting STAT3 expression, which can be utilized as an effective strategy for cancer therapy.

  20. IL-4 is able to reverse the CD2-mediated negative apoptotic signal to CD4-CD8- alpha beta and/or gamma delta T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Nicoletti, I; Agea, E; Belia, S; Moraca, R; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1995-11-01

    Activation of immature thymocytes or transformed T lymphocytes via T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 signalling can induce programmed cell death (apoptosis). Recent data indicate that anti-CD3/TCR monoclonal antibodies (mAb) also trigger apoptosis in activated (but not resting) mature peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Here we report that triggering of resting CD4-CD8-TCR alpha beta+ and/or TCR gamma delta+ via the alternative CD2-dependent activation pathway is able to induce programmed cell death. A pair of mitogenic anti-CD2 mAb provoked a dramatic rise in [Ca2+]i that was almost entirely sustained by extracellular fluxes, and the inhibition of membrane [Ca2+/Mg2+] ATPase. The resulting endonuclease activation was able to induce DNA fragmentation, as revealed by propidium iodide staining and gel electrophoresis. Induction of apoptosis was prevented by the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as by endonuclease inactivation with 100 microM ZnCl2, but enhanced by the contemporary block of protein kinase C. Thus it seems that in resting T lymphocytes the strong calcium signal delivered by the alternative CD2 activation pathway may act as a negative apoptotic signal in both alpha beta and gamma delta T cells with low (non-major histocompatibility complex restricted) antigenic affinity, so limiting the extension of polyclonal T-cell growth. PMID:8550074

  1. Rigosertib Is a More Effective Radiosensitizer Than Cisplatin in Concurrent Chemoradiation Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma, In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Agoni, Lorenzo; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Seema; Alfieri, Alan; Gambino, Angela; Goldberg, Gary L.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Guha, Chandan

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare rigosertib versus cisplatin as an effective radiosensitizing agent for cervical malignancies. Methods and Materials: Rigosertib and cisplatin were tested in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and C33A. A 24-hour incubation with rigosertib and cisplatin, before irradiation (2-8 Gy), was used for clonogenic survival assays. Cell cycle analysis (propidium iodide staining) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX expression) were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter cytometry. Rigosertib was also tested in vivo in tumor growth experiments on cervical cancer xenografts. Results: Rigosertib was demonstrated to induce a G{sub 2}/M block in cancer cells. Survival curve comparison revealed a dose modification factor, as index of radiosensitization effect, of 1.1-1.3 for cisplatin and 1.4-2.2 for rigosertib. With 6-Gy irradiation, an increase in DNA damage of 15%-25% was achieved in both HeLa and C33A cells with cisplatin pretreatment, and a 71-108% increase with rigosertib pretreatment. In vivo tumor growth studies demonstrated higher performance of rigosertib when compared with cisplatin, with 53% longer tumor growth delay. Conclusions: Rigosertib was more effective than cisplatin when combined with radiation and caused minimal toxicity. These data support the need for clinical trials with rigosertib in combination therapy for patients with cervical carcinoma.

  2. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  3. Development of a confocal ultrasound device using an inertial cavitation control for transfection in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas, J. L.; Chettab, K.; Roux, S.; Prieur, F.; Lafond, M.; Dumontet, C.; Lafon, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. We developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (peGFP- C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The frequency spectrum of the signal receive by a hydrophone is used to compute a cavitation index (CI) representative of the inertial cavitation activity. The influence of the CI on transfection efficiency, as well as reproducibility were determined. A real-time feedback loop control on CI was integrated in the process to regulate the cavitation level during sonoporation. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device produced a highly efficient transfection of peGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. Moreover, the sonoporation of non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 was found to be equivalent to nucleofection in terms of efficiency and toxicity while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection with lipofection.

  4. Solvent assisted formation of ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes in one-pot with potential in vitro cytotoxicity and enhanced LDH, NO and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Eswaran; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanatha Vijaya; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2016-01-28

    A set each of new bivalent and trivalent ruthenium complexes, [Ru(III)(HL)Cl2(EPh3)2] and [Ru(II)(L)(CO)(EPh3)2] (E = P (complexes and ) or As (complexes and )) were synthesised from the reactions of [Ru(III)Cl3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde benzoic acid hydrazone (H2L) in methanol-chloroform and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral data and XRD study. A suitable mechanism to account for the formation of bivalent ruthenium carbonyl complexes from the corresponding trivalent precursors is provided by considering the role of added base in the reaction. Interaction of complexes with CT-DNA/bovine serum albumin was analysed with absorption and emission spectral titration studies. In vitro cytotoxic potential of the above ruthenium hydrazone complexes assayed against the A549 cell line revealed a significant growth inhibition. The test complexes added in IC50 concentration into the cell culture medium enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, NO and reactive oxygen species in comparison with the control. Cell death induced by the complexes was studied using a propidium iodide staining assay and showed noticeable changes in the cell morphology which resembled apoptosis.

  5. Enhanced gene disruption by programmable nucleases delivered by a minicircle vector.

    PubMed

    Dad, A-B K; Ramakrishna, S; Song, M; Kim, H

    2014-11-01

    Targeted genetic modification using programmable nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) is of great value in biomedical research, medicine and biotechnology. Minicircle vectors, which lack extraneous bacterial sequences, have several advantages over conventional plasmids for transgene delivery. Here, for the first time, we delivered programmable nucleases into human cells using transient transfection of a minicircle vector and compared the results with those obtained using a conventional plasmid. Surrogate reporter assays and T7 endonuclease analyses revealed that cells in the minicircle vector group displayed significantly higher mutation frequencies at the target sites than those in the conventional plasmid group. Quantitative PCR and reverse transcription-PCR showed higher vector copy number and programmable nuclease transcript levels, respectively, in 293T cells after minicircle versus conventional plasmid vector transfection. In addition, tryphan blue staining and flow cytometry after annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed that cell viability was also significantly higher in the minicircle group than in the conventional plasmid group. Taken together, our results show that gene disruption using minicircle vector-mediated delivery of ZFNs and TALENs is a more efficient, safer and less toxic method than using a conventional plasmid, and indicate that the minicircle vector could serve as an advanced delivery method for programmable nucleases.

  6. Solvent assisted formation of ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes in one-pot with potential in vitro cytotoxicity and enhanced LDH, NO and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Eswaran; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanatha Vijaya; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2016-01-28

    A set each of new bivalent and trivalent ruthenium complexes, [Ru(III)(HL)Cl2(EPh3)2] and [Ru(II)(L)(CO)(EPh3)2] (E = P (complexes and ) or As (complexes and )) were synthesised from the reactions of [Ru(III)Cl3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde benzoic acid hydrazone (H2L) in methanol-chloroform and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral data and XRD study. A suitable mechanism to account for the formation of bivalent ruthenium carbonyl complexes from the corresponding trivalent precursors is provided by considering the role of added base in the reaction. Interaction of complexes with CT-DNA/bovine serum albumin was analysed with absorption and emission spectral titration studies. In vitro cytotoxic potential of the above ruthenium hydrazone complexes assayed against the A549 cell line revealed a significant growth inhibition. The test complexes added in IC50 concentration into the cell culture medium enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, NO and reactive oxygen species in comparison with the control. Cell death induced by the complexes was studied using a propidium iodide staining assay and showed noticeable changes in the cell morphology which resembled apoptosis. PMID:26699435

  7. Proteasome inhibition reverses hedgehog inhibitor and taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Steg, Adam D; Burke, Mata R; Amm, Hope M; Katre, Ashwini A; Dobbin, Zachary C; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Landen, Charles N

    2014-08-30

    The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively. Studies demonstrated that GSI-I, but not Compound E, inhibited proteasome activity, similar to bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition decreased hedgehog target genes (PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2) and increased LDE225 sensitivity in vitro. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, increased paclitaxel sensitivity through apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Expression of the multi-drug resistance gene ABCB1/MDR1 was decreased and acetylation of α-tubulin, a marker of microtubule stabilization, was increased following bortezomib treatment. HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin-a demonstrated that microtubule effects are associated with hedgehog inhibition and sensitization to paclitaxel and LDE225. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition, through alteration of microtubule dynamics and hedgehog signaling, can reverse taxane-mediated chemoresistance. PMID:25216523

  8. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli in hypertonic sucrose media.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Taketo; Furukawa, Soichi; Narisawa, Naoki; Hagiwara, Chisato; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2009-06-01

    High osmotic environments produced by NaCl or sucrose have been used as reliable and traditional methods of food preservation. We tested, Escherichia coli as an indicator of food-contaminating bacterium, to determine if it can form biofilm in a hyperosmotic environment. E. coli K-12 IAM1264 did not form biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M NaCl. However, the bacterium formed biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M sucrose, although the planktonic growth was greatly suppressed. The biofilm, formed on solid surfaces, such as titer-plate well walls and glass slides, solely around the air-liquid interface. Both biofilm forming cells and planktonic cells in the hypertonic medium adopted a characteristic, fat and filamentous morphology with no FtsZ rings, which are a prerequisite for septum formation. Biofilm forming cells were found to be alive based on propidium iodide staining. The presence of 1 M sucrose in the food environment is not sufficient to prevent biofilm formation by E. coli. PMID:19447340

  9. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  10. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense.

    PubMed

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense.

  11. A Study of Aberrant Glycosylation in Simulated Microgravity Using Laser Induced AutoFluorescence and Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, B. DeSales

    1999-01-01

    A number of pathologies and cellular dysfunctions including neoplasms have been correlated with autofluorescence. The complications of aging and diabetes have been associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic glycosylations of tissue macromolecules. These products are known as the Advanced Glycosylated End Products (AGEs). A physical property associated with AGEs is the emission of 570 mn or 630 nm light energy (autofluorescence) following the absorption of 448 mm energy associated with the argon laser. This investigation sought to assess the induction of argon-laser induced autofluorescence in a variety of in vitro culture systems. Different fluorescence intensities distinguished tumor lines from normal cell populations. Laser-stimulated autofluorescence discriminated primary cultures of lymphocytes grown in the presence of excess glucose as opposed to normal glucose concentrations. The effects of deglycosylating agents upon laser-induced autofluorescence were also assessed. The studies included studies of cell cycle analysis using Propidium Iodide stained DNA of cells grown in simulated microgravity using NASA Bioreactor Vessels in media of normal and elevated glucose concentrations.

  12. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense

    PubMed Central

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  13. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  14. The influence of selected antimicrobial peptides on the physiology of the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golab, Karolina; Mittag, Anja; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Bocsi, Jozsef; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential part of the innate immune system that serves as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recently, immunomodulatory activities of AMPs have begun to be appreciated, implying the usefulness of AMPs in the treatment of infectious disease. The aim of this strategy is the modulation of host immune responses to enhance clearance of infectious agents and reduce tissue damage due to inflammation. Although AMPs could be used as therapeutic agents, a more detailed understanding of how they affect host cells is needed. Hence, several AMPs have been investigated for their potential as a new class of antimicrobial drugs in this study. Synthetic AMPs and AMPs of natural origin were tested on human leukocytes by flow cytometry. Dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects could be observed by propidium iodide staining. Different leukocyte subtypes seem to be susceptible to AMP treatment while others were not affected, even in high concentrations. In conclusion, AMPs have an impact on host immune cells. However, their role in stimulation of chemokine production and enhanced leukocyte recruitment remains a crucial aspect and further studies are needed.

  15. Experimental Procedures for Demonstration of MicroRNA Mediated Enhancement of Functional Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-01-01

    Protection of motoneurons is an important therapeutic goal in the treatment of neurological disorders. Recent reports have suggested that specific microRNAs (miRs) could modulate the expression of particular proteins for significant alterations in the pathogenesis of different neurological disorders. Thus, combination of overexpression of a specific neuroprotective miR and treatment with a neuroprotective agent could be a novel strategy for functional protection of motoneurons. The protocols described herein demonstrate that miR-7-1, a neuroprotective miR, can enhance the functional neuroprotective effects of estrogen receptor agonists such as 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT), Way 200070 (WAY), and estrogen (E2) in preventing apoptosis in A23187 calcium ionophore (CI) exposed VSC4.1 motoneurons. This article describes the protocols for the cell viability assay, transfection of VSC4.1 motoneurons with miRs, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining for apoptosis, Western blotting, patch-clamp recording of whole-cell membrane potential, and JC-1 staining for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these protocols are used to demonstrate that miR-7-1 caused significant enhancement of the efficacy of estrogen receptor agonists for functional neuroprotection in VSC4.1 motoneurons. PMID:26585150

  16. Isoflurane post-conditioning protects primary cultures of cortical neurons against oxygen and glucose deprivation injury via upregulation of Slit2/Robo1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Li-Min; Li, Qiang; Tong, Dong-Yi; Fan, Long-Chang; An, Ping; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Chen, Wei-Min; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Different mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to isoflurane-mediated neuroprotection. Previous studies have suggested that the protein Slit can abrogate neuronal death in mixed neuronal-glial cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfusion (OGD/R). We hypothesized that isoflurane increases the expression of Slit and its receptor Robo when cortical neurons are exposed to OGD/R. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cortical neurons to OGD for 90 min and reperfusion for 24h and investigated how isoflurane post-conditioning affected cell survival and expression of Slit2 and receptors Robo1 and Robo4. Cell survival increased after administration of isoflurane, as assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay, trypan blue analysis, and propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis showed that cleaved caspase-3 was increased after OGD/R(P<0.01) but reduced by isoflurane post-conditioning. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of Slit2 and Robo1, but not Robo4, were increased after OGD/R (P<0.5) and increased even further by isoflurane post-conditioning (P<0.01). Our results suggest that isoflurane post-conditioning markedly attenuates apoptosis and necrosis of cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R possibly in part via elevation of Slit2 and Robo1 expression. These findings provide a novel explanation for the pleiotropic effects of isoflurane that could benefit the central nervous system.

  17. Cationic surfactants in the form of nanoparticles and micelles elicit different human neutrophil responses: a toxicological study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-02-01

    Cationic surfactants are an ingredient commonly incorporated into nanoparticles for clinical practicability; however, the toxicity of cationic surfactants in nanoparticles is not fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory responses of cationic nanobubbles and micelles in human neutrophils. Soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) are the two cationic surfactants employed in this study. The zeta potential of CTAB nanobubbles was 80 mV, which was the highest among all formulations. Nanobubbles, without cationic surfactants, showed no cytotoxic effects on neutrophils in terms of inflammatory responses. Cationic nanobubbles caused a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of degranulation (elastase release) and membrane damage (release of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). Among all nanoparticles and micelles, CTAB-containing nanosystems showed the greatest inflammatory responses. A CTAB nanobubble diluent (1/150) increased the LDH release 80-fold. Propidium iodide staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified cell death and morphological change of neutrophils treated by CTAB nanobubbles. SME, in a micelle form, strengthened the inflammatory response more than SME-loaded nanobubbles. Membrane interaction and subsequent Ca(2+) influx were the mechanisms that triggered inflammation. The information obtained from this work is beneficial in designing nanoparticulate formulations for balancing clinical activity and toxicity. PMID:24246197

  18. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa stored at above-freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M

    2000-06-01

    The development of practical techniques for the storage of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., semen would significantly improve our ability to breed for desirable genotypes and maintain genetic diversity in populations. Artificial insemination of queens has been possible for some time, but the semen used is usually freshly collected, or held for < 1 wk at room temperature. I examined the limitations of spermatozoal survival at nonfrozen temperatures. Pooled, diluted semen was stored in sealed capillary tubes at room temperature (25 degrees C) or in a refrigerator set to 12 degrees C, for periods up to 1 yr. Survival of spermatozoa was assayed by a dual fluorescent staining technique using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide stains, which readily distinguishes live and dead cells. No significant loss of viable spermatozoa occurred within the first 6 wk. Between weeks 6 and 9, the percent live spermatozoa fell from 80 to 58%, and remained at that level until after 39 wk. By week 52, samples at room temperature, but not at 12 degrees C, fell to 18.9% live spermatozoa. Nonfrozen storage of honey bee semen has potential for short-term preservation of germplasm, however several factors need to be studied further to optimize survival rates. PMID:10902300

  19. The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mohibbullah, Md.; Hannan, Md. Abdul; Choi, Ji-Young; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26106876

  20. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  1. Whole-mount immunolocalization to study female meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Guzmán, Rocio; Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Ronceret, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    Here we describe a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol to follow the subcellular localization of proteins during female meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model species that is used to study sexual reproduction in flowering plants. By using confocal microscopy, the procedure allows one to follow megasporogenesis at all stages before differentiation of the functional megaspore. This in particular includes stages that occur during prophase I, such as the installation of the axial and central elements of the synaptonemal complex along the meiotic chromosomes. In contrast to procedures that require microtome sectioning or enzymatic isolation and smearing to separate female meiocytes from neighboring cells, this 3-day protocol preserves the constitution of the developing primordium and incorporates the architecture of the ovule to provide a temporal and spatial context to meiotic divisions. This opens up the possibility to systematically compare the dynamics of protein localization during female and male meiosis. Steps describe tissue collection and fixation, preparation of slides and polyacrylamide embedding, tissue permeabilization, antibody incubation, propidium iodide staining, and finally image acquisition by confocal microscopy. The procedure adds an essential technique to the toolkit of plant meiotic analysis, and it represents a framework for technical adaptations that could soon allow the analysis of plant reproductive alternatives to sexual reproduction.

  2. The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohibbullah, Md; Hannan, Md Abdul; Choi, Ji-Young; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-09-01

    Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis.

  3. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa stored at above-freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M

    2000-06-01

    The development of practical techniques for the storage of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., semen would significantly improve our ability to breed for desirable genotypes and maintain genetic diversity in populations. Artificial insemination of queens has been possible for some time, but the semen used is usually freshly collected, or held for < 1 wk at room temperature. I examined the limitations of spermatozoal survival at nonfrozen temperatures. Pooled, diluted semen was stored in sealed capillary tubes at room temperature (25 degrees C) or in a refrigerator set to 12 degrees C, for periods up to 1 yr. Survival of spermatozoa was assayed by a dual fluorescent staining technique using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide stains, which readily distinguishes live and dead cells. No significant loss of viable spermatozoa occurred within the first 6 wk. Between weeks 6 and 9, the percent live spermatozoa fell from 80 to 58%, and remained at that level until after 39 wk. By week 52, samples at room temperature, but not at 12 degrees C, fell to 18.9% live spermatozoa. Nonfrozen storage of honey bee semen has potential for short-term preservation of germplasm, however several factors need to be studied further to optimize survival rates.

  4. Whole-mount immunolocalization to study female meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Guzmán, Rocio; Rodríguez-Leal, Daniel; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Ronceret, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    Here we describe a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol to follow the subcellular localization of proteins during female meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model species that is used to study sexual reproduction in flowering plants. By using confocal microscopy, the procedure allows one to follow megasporogenesis at all stages before differentiation of the functional megaspore. This in particular includes stages that occur during prophase I, such as the installation of the axial and central elements of the synaptonemal complex along the meiotic chromosomes. In contrast to procedures that require microtome sectioning or enzymatic isolation and smearing to separate female meiocytes from neighboring cells, this 3-day protocol preserves the constitution of the developing primordium and incorporates the architecture of the ovule to provide a temporal and spatial context to meiotic divisions. This opens up the possibility to systematically compare the dynamics of protein localization during female and male meiosis. Steps describe tissue collection and fixation, preparation of slides and polyacrylamide embedding, tissue permeabilization, antibody incubation, propidium iodide staining, and finally image acquisition by confocal microscopy. The procedure adds an essential technique to the toolkit of plant meiotic analysis, and it represents a framework for technical adaptations that could soon allow the analysis of plant reproductive alternatives to sexual reproduction. PMID:26357009

  5. Measuring Survival of Adherent Cells with the Colony-Forming Assay.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Measuring cell death with colorimetric or fluorimetric dyes such as trypan blue and propidium iodide (PI) can provide an accurate measure of the number of dead cells in a population at a specific time; however, these assays cannot be used to distinguish cells that are dying or marked for future death. In many cases it is essential to measure the proliferative capacity of treated cells to provide an indirect measurement of cell death. This can be achieved using the colony-forming assay described here. This protocol specifically applies to measurement of HeLa cells but can be used for most adherent cell lines with limited motility. PMID:27480717

  6. Comparison of assessment of pigeon sperm viability by contrast-phase microscope (eosin-nigrosin staining) and flow cytometry (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) staining) [evaluation of pigeon sperm viability].

    PubMed

    Klimowicz-Bodys, M D; Batkowski, F; Ochrem, A S; Savič, M A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare the conventional, microscopic method of evaluating pigeon sperm viability to sperm assessed by flow cytometry. Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons. In every group were 20 males (Group I: meat-type breed; Group II: fancy pigeon breed). Semen was collected using the lumbosacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected from each group were pooled and diluted to 10 × 10(6) sperm/ml in BPSE solution. Samples were divided into three equal parts and estimated after collection as well as after in vitro storage for 3, 6 and 24 h. The first part was using for semen motility evaluation. The proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) of fresh and stored semen were evaluated using the CASA-system. The second part was examined subjectively by microscope (eosin-nigrosin (EN), eosin-nigrosin staining), the third one was assessed using dual fluorescence SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry (FC). There were not any significant differences in sperm viability and motility between the groups at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h post collection. The percentage of viable spermatozoa in fresh semen determined by EN and FC was not different in Groups I and II (I - 88.71 ± 5.42 and 84.01 ± 3.19, respectively; II-90.87 ± 6.01 and 87.38 ± 5.57, respectively). Significantly lower percentages of viable spermatozoa were detected by FC compared to the EN method in both groups after 6 h (P ≤ 0.05) as well as 24 h (P ≤ 0.01) of storage. Moreover, the dual fluorescent SYBR-14/PI staining allowed for the identification a third population of double stained, moribund spermatozoa. High positive correlations in percentage of live spermatozoa were noted between EN and FC methods in both groups of birds. Evaluation of sperm viability by FC is a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and objective method for the assessment of pigeon sperm viability in fresh as well as stored semen.

  7. Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples was developed by modification of the propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) procedure. Cell staining involved sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, FITC, and PI) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifiguation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients revealed mixed 2C DNA and aneuploid populations with the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle kinetic analysis of the 2C DNA and the aneuploid population.

  8. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of Loperamide Hydrochloride on Canine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    REGAN, Rebecca Cohen; GOGAL, Robert Michael; BARBER, James Perry; TUCKFIELD, Richard Cary; HOWERTH, Elizabeth Wynne; LAWRENCE, Jessica Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide is a peripheral opiate agonist that can cause apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human cancer cell lines and may sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of loperamide on viability, apoptosis and cell cycle kinetics in canine cancer cells and to establish whether the drug sensitizes cells to doxorubicin. Cell viability was assessed using Alamar Blue. Cell death and cell cycle were studied using flow cytometry with 7-Aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Loperamide decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion and was most effective against canine osteosarcoma cells. In all cell lines, it induced a dose and time dependent apoptosis and resulted in accumulation in G0/G1. When co-incubated with doxorubicin, loperamide induced a synergistic cell kill in canine carcinoma cells. Investigation is warranted into the role of loperamide in the treatment of canine cancer. PMID:25649936

  10. Concurrent use of flow cytometry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization techniques for detecting faulty meiosis in a human sperm sample.

    PubMed

    Weissenberg, R; Aviram, A; Golan, R; Lewin, L M; Levron, J; Madgar, I; Dor, J; Barkai, G; Goldman, B

    1998-01-01

    Routine semen analysis in an infertile patient revealed severe teratospermia associated with malformation of head and tail in 100% of the sperm cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were shown to supplement routine semen analysis by providing information on the sperm chromatin. Using flow cytometry, propidium iodide-stained spermatozoa from the same sperm sample were compared with a normal reference pool, and with human lymphocytes. The results point to a population of diploid sperm cells rather than to mature haploid spermatozoa. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities of the spermatozoa were subsequently evaluated using FISH. A total of 1000 sperm cells were scored for X and Y chromosomes, and an additional 1128 sperm cells for chromosome 18. Aneuploidy of chromosomes X and Y was revealed in 96.9% of the cells and of chromosome 18 in 90.3% of the cells. Non-disjunction of chromosome X and Y in meiosis I and II occurred in 54.8 and 2.7% of the sperm cells respectively. Non-disjunction in both meiosis I and II occurred in 39.4% of the sperm cells. A normal haploid pattern for chromosomes X and Y was observed in only 3.1%, and for chromosome 18 in 9.7%, of the cells. Using three colour FISH for the sex chromosomes and for chromosome 18, diploidy was demonstrated in 19.4% of 500 sperm cells and aneuploidy in virtually all sperm cells (99.2%). The use of flow cytometry and FISH in cases where genetic and developmental chromatin abnormalities are suspected is a valuable adjunct to other available techniques, and can guide the clinicians to decide which samples are unsuitable for intracytoplasmic injection.

  11. The in vitro influences of epidermal growth factor and heregulin-β1 on the efficacy of trastuzumab used in Her-2 positive breast adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) is over expressed in approximately 25-30% of all primary breast tumors resulting in a distinctive breast cancer subtype associated with a poor prognosis and a decrease in overall survival. Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), an anti-Her-2 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically altered the prognosis of Her-2 positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab is, however, associated with primary and acquired resistance. Aim and methods To investigate the in-vitro effects of trastuzumab on cell viability (tetrazolium conversion assay), cell cycling (propidium iodide staining), apoptosis (executioner caspases and annexin-V) and relative surface Her-2 receptor expression (anti-Her-2 affibody molecule) in Her-2-positive (SK-Br-3) and oestrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) breast adenocarcinoma cells and to determine potential augmentation of these effects by two endogenous ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heregulin-β1 (HRG- β1). Results Cell viability was decreased in SK-Br-3 cells by exposure to trastuzumab. This was associated with G1 accumulation and decreased relative surface Her-2 receptor density, supporting the cytostatic nature of trastuzumab in vitro. SK-Br-3 cells exposed to EGF and heregulin-β1 produced differential cell responses alone and in combination with trastuzumab, in some instances augmenting cell viability and cell cycling. Relative surface Her-2 receptor density was reduced substantially by trastuzumab, EGF and heregulin-β1. These reductions were amplified when ligands were used in combination with trastuzumab. Conclusion Cell type specific interactions of endogenous ligands appear to be dependent on absolute Her-receptor expression and cross activation of signaling pathways. This supports the notion that receptor density of Her-family members and multiplicity of growth ligands are of mutual importance in breast cancer cell proliferation and therefore also in resistance associated with trastuzumab. PMID

  12. Cigarette smoke-induced necroptosis and DAMP release trigger neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Simon D; Zijlstra, G Jan; van der Toorn, Marco; Hesse, Laura; Gras, Renee; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Krysko, Dmitri V; Vandenabeele, Peter; de Vries, Maaike; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Heijink, Irene H; Nawijn, Martijn C

    2016-02-15

    Recent data indicate a role for airway epithelial necroptosis, a regulated form of necrosis, and the associated release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DAMPs can activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), triggering innate immune responses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced epithelial necroptosis and DAMP release initiate airway inflammation in COPD. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and necrotic cell death (membrane integrity by propidium iodide staining) and DAMP release (i.e., double-stranded DNA, high-mobility group box 1, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial DNA, ATP) were analyzed. Subsequently, BEAS-2B cells were exposed to DAMP-containing supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells, and the release of proinflammatory mediators [C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8), IL-6] was evaluated. Furthermore, mice were exposed to CS in the presence and absence of the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1, and levels of DAMPs and inflammatory cell numbers were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CSE induced a significant increase in the percentage of necrotic cells and DAMP release in BEAS-2B cells. Stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells induced a significant increase in the release of CXCL8 and IL-6, in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent fashion. In mice, exposure of CS increased the levels of DAMPs and numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was statistically reduced upon treatment with necrostatin-1. Together, we showed that CS exposure induces necrosis of bronchial epithelial cells and subsequent DAMP release in vitro, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, CS exposure induces neutrophilic airway inflammation that is sensitive to necroptosis inhibition. PMID:26719146

  13. Cigarette smoke-induced necroptosis and DAMP release trigger neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Simon D; Zijlstra, G Jan; van der Toorn, Marco; Hesse, Laura; Gras, Renee; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Krysko, Dmitri V; Vandenabeele, Peter; de Vries, Maaike; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Heijink, Irene H; Nawijn, Martijn C

    2016-02-15

    Recent data indicate a role for airway epithelial necroptosis, a regulated form of necrosis, and the associated release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DAMPs can activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), triggering innate immune responses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced epithelial necroptosis and DAMP release initiate airway inflammation in COPD. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and necrotic cell death (membrane integrity by propidium iodide staining) and DAMP release (i.e., double-stranded DNA, high-mobility group box 1, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial DNA, ATP) were analyzed. Subsequently, BEAS-2B cells were exposed to DAMP-containing supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells, and the release of proinflammatory mediators [C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8), IL-6] was evaluated. Furthermore, mice were exposed to CS in the presence and absence of the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1, and levels of DAMPs and inflammatory cell numbers were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CSE induced a significant increase in the percentage of necrotic cells and DAMP release in BEAS-2B cells. Stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells induced a significant increase in the release of CXCL8 and IL-6, in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent fashion. In mice, exposure of CS increased the levels of DAMPs and numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was statistically reduced upon treatment with necrostatin-1. Together, we showed that CS exposure induces necrosis of bronchial epithelial cells and subsequent DAMP release in vitro, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, CS exposure induces neutrophilic airway inflammation that is sensitive to necroptosis inhibition.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of three ternary dinuclear copper (II) complexes with a reduced Schiff base ligand and diimine coligands in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaolei; Shen, Shanshan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Zhouqing; Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Ma, Tieliang; Xie, Jing; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui

    2016-06-01

    Three ternary copper (II) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), with the formulation [Cu2(NCL)2(H4PASP)]·4.5H2O (1-3) (where NCL=the diimine coligand, H4PASP=N,N'-(p-xylylene)di-2-aminosuccinic acid), were isolated and characterized. The binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied using UV-visible absorption titration, emission, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, among other methods. The changes in physicochemical properties that occurred upon binding of these complexes with DNA indicate that binding occurs primarily through intercalative interactions. Human tumor cell lines HeLa, PC3, and HepG2 were treated with the copper(II) complexes in vitro and cell survival rate was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet survival assay. Flow cytometry was performed on treated cells labeled with AnnexinV/Propidium Iodide staining to determine rates of apoptosis. Western blot was performed to determine the expression levels of the apoptotic markers p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The complexes reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in cells of human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, using a nude mouse xenograft model, we found that the three ternary copper (II) complexes inhibited human tumor cell growth in vivo. In conclusion, these novel synthetic copper complexes have profound antitumor effects on human tumor cells and are promising therapeutic agents for human tumors.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of three ternary dinuclear copper (II) complexes with a reduced Schiff base ligand and diimine coligands in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaolei; Shen, Shanshan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Zhouqing; Zhu, Taofeng; Chen, Ruhua; Ma, Tieliang; Xie, Jing; Dong, Kun; Huang, Jiancui

    2016-06-01

    Three ternary copper (II) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3), with the formulation [Cu2(NCL)2(H4PASP)]·4.5H2O (1-3) (where NCL=the diimine coligand, H4PASP=N,N'-(p-xylylene)di-2-aminosuccinic acid), were isolated and characterized. The binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied using UV-visible absorption titration, emission, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, among other methods. The changes in physicochemical properties that occurred upon binding of these complexes with DNA indicate that binding occurs primarily through intercalative interactions. Human tumor cell lines HeLa, PC3, and HepG2 were treated with the copper(II) complexes in vitro and cell survival rate was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet survival assay. Flow cytometry was performed on treated cells labeled with AnnexinV/Propidium Iodide staining to determine rates of apoptosis. Western blot was performed to determine the expression levels of the apoptotic markers p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The complexes reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in cells of human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, using a nude mouse xenograft model, we found that the three ternary copper (II) complexes inhibited human tumor cell growth in vivo. In conclusion, these novel synthetic copper complexes have profound antitumor effects on human tumor cells and are promising therapeutic agents for human tumors. PMID:26974885

  16. Enhanced Egress of Intracellular Eimeria tenella Sporozoites by Splenic Lymphocytes from Coccidian-Infected Chickens▿

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Abdelnabi, Ghada H.; Lee, Sung H.; Li, Guangxing; Jin, Hong; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment. PMID:21628515

  17. Inhibition of Salmonella-induced apoptosis as a marker of the protective efficacy of virulence gene-deleted live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Nitin M; Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the best protection strategies against Salmonella infection in humans and chickens. Salmonella bacteria must induce apoptosis prior to initiating infection, pathogenesis and evasion of host immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of vaccinating chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) using a vaccine candidate strain (JOL919), constructed by deleting the lon and cpxR genes from a wild-type SE using an allelic exchange method. In present study day old chickens were inoculated with 1×10(7)cfu (colony forming unit) of JOL919 per os. We measured cell-mediated immunity, protective efficacy and extent of apoptosis induction in splenocytes. Seven days post-immunization, the number of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in the immunized group compared to the control group, indicating a significant augmentation of systemic immune response. The internal organs of chickens immunized with JOL919 had a significantly lower challenge-strain recovery, indicating effective protection and clearance of the challenge strain. Post-challenge, the number of apoptotic cells in the immunized group was significantly lower than in the control group. Additionally, AV/PI (Annexin V/propidium iodide) staining was performed to differentiate between apoptotic cells and necrotic cells, which corroborated TUNEL-assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) results. The proportions of AV+/PI- and AV+/PI+ cells, which represent the proportions of early apoptotic and late apoptotic/early necrotic cells present, respectively, were significantly lower in the immunized group. Our findings suggest that the apoptotic splenocytes in immunized chickens significantly decreased in number, which occurred concomitantly with a significant rise in systemic immune response and bacterial clearance. This suggests that inhibition of apoptosis may be a marker of protection efficacy in immunized chickens. PMID

  18. ATP Mediates Neuroprotective and Neuroproliferative Effects in Mouse Olfactory Epithelium following Exposure to Satratoxin G In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Sangsiri, Sutheera; Belock, Bethany; Iqbal, Tania R.; Pestka, James J.; Hegg, Colleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Intranasal aspiration of satratoxin G (SG), a mycotoxin produced by the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum, selectively induces apoptosis in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis 24 h post-SG exposure in vitro as measured by increased activated caspases in the OP6 olfactory placodal cell line and increased propidium iodide staining in primary OE cell cultures. Intranasal aspiration of SG increased TUNEL (Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling) staining in the neuronal layer of the OE and significantly increased the latency to find a buried food pellet, confirming that SG selectively induces neuronal apoptosis and demonstrating that SG impairs the sense of smell. Next, we investigated whether ATP can prevent SG-induced OE toxicity. ATP did not decrease apoptosis under physiological conditions but significantly reduced SG-induced OSN apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, purinergic receptor inhibition significantly increased apoptosis in OE primary cell culture and in vivo. These data indicate that ATP is neuroprotective against SG-induced OE toxicity. The number of cells that incorporated 5′-bromodeoxyuridine, a measure of proliferation, was significantly increased 3 and 6 days post-SG aspiration. Treatment with purinergic receptor antagonists significantly reduced SG-induced cell proliferation, whereas post-treatment with ATP significantly potentiated SG-induced cell proliferation. These data indicate that ATP is released and promotes cell proliferation via activation of purinergic receptors in SG-induced OE injury. Thus, the purinergic system is a therapeutic target to alleviate or restore the loss of OSNs. PMID:21865290

  19. ATP mediates neuroprotective and neuroproliferative effects in mouse olfactory epithelium following exposure to satratoxin G in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cuihong; Sangsiri, Sutheera; Belock, Bethany; Iqbal, Tania R; Pestka, James J; Hegg, Colleen C

    2011-11-01

    Intranasal aspiration of satratoxin G (SG), a mycotoxin produced by the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum, selectively induces apoptosis in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis 24 h post-SG exposure in vitro as measured by increased activated caspases in the OP6 olfactory placodal cell line and increased propidium iodide staining in primary OE cell cultures. Intranasal aspiration of SG increased TUNEL (Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling) staining in the neuronal layer of the OE and significantly increased the latency to find a buried food pellet, confirming that SG selectively induces neuronal apoptosis and demonstrating that SG impairs the sense of smell. Next, we investigated whether ATP can prevent SG-induced OE toxicity. ATP did not decrease apoptosis under physiological conditions but significantly reduced SG-induced OSN apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, purinergic receptor inhibition significantly increased apoptosis in OE primary cell culture and in vivo. These data indicate that ATP is neuroprotective against SG-induced OE toxicity. The number of cells that incorporated 5'-bromodeoxyuridine, a measure of proliferation, was significantly increased 3 and 6 days post-SG aspiration. Treatment with purinergic receptor antagonists significantly reduced SG-induced cell proliferation, whereas post-treatment with ATP significantly potentiated SG-induced cell proliferation. These data indicate that ATP is released and promotes cell proliferation via activation of purinergic receptors in SG-induced OE injury. Thus, the purinergic system is a therapeutic target to alleviate or restore the loss of OSNs.

  20. Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

    2014-06-01

    For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7 × 10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying.

  1. Glutaric acid and its metabolites cause apoptosis in immature oligodendrocytes: a novel mechanism of white matter degeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Bettina; Gratopp, Alexander; Marcinkowski, Monika; Sifringer, Marco; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by elevated concentrations of glutaric acid (GA) and its metabolites glutaconic acid (GC) and 3-hydroxy-glutaric acid (3-OH-GA). Its hallmarks are striatal and cortical degeneration, which have been linked to excitotoxic neuronal cell death. However, magnetic resonance imaging studies have also revealed widespread white matter disease. Correspondingly, we decided to investigate the effects of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA on the rat immature oligodendroglia cell line, OLN-93. For comparison, we also exposed the neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y and the microglia line BV-2 to GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA. Cell viability was measured by metabolism of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium. Flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis via annexin-V, anti-active caspase-3 antibody, and propidium iodide staining. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA reduced OLN-93 oligodendroglia cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA was abrogated by preincubation with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Apoptosis but not necrosis was detected at various stages (early: annexin-V; effector: caspase-3) after 24-48 h of incubation with GA, GC, or 3-OH-GA in OLN-93 but not in neuroblastoma or microglia cells. OLN-93 lacked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, making classical glutamatergic excitotoxicity an unlikely explanation for the selective toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA for OLN-93 cells. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA directly initiate the apoptotic cascade in oligodendroglia cells. This mechanism may contribute to the white matter damage observed in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  2. Inhibition of Salmonella-induced apoptosis as a marker of the protective efficacy of virulence gene-deleted live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Nitin M; Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the best protection strategies against Salmonella infection in humans and chickens. Salmonella bacteria must induce apoptosis prior to initiating infection, pathogenesis and evasion of host immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of vaccinating chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) using a vaccine candidate strain (JOL919), constructed by deleting the lon and cpxR genes from a wild-type SE using an allelic exchange method. In present study day old chickens were inoculated with 1×10(7)cfu (colony forming unit) of JOL919 per os. We measured cell-mediated immunity, protective efficacy and extent of apoptosis induction in splenocytes. Seven days post-immunization, the number of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in the immunized group compared to the control group, indicating a significant augmentation of systemic immune response. The internal organs of chickens immunized with JOL919 had a significantly lower challenge-strain recovery, indicating effective protection and clearance of the challenge strain. Post-challenge, the number of apoptotic cells in the immunized group was significantly lower than in the control group. Additionally, AV/PI (Annexin V/propidium iodide) staining was performed to differentiate between apoptotic cells and necrotic cells, which corroborated TUNEL-assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) results. The proportions of AV+/PI- and AV+/PI+ cells, which represent the proportions of early apoptotic and late apoptotic/early necrotic cells present, respectively, were significantly lower in the immunized group. Our findings suggest that the apoptotic splenocytes in immunized chickens significantly decreased in number, which occurred concomitantly with a significant rise in systemic immune response and bacterial clearance. This suggests that inhibition of apoptosis may be a marker of protection efficacy in immunized chickens.

  3. The first characterization of free radicals formed from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Law, Benedict; Qian, Steven Y

    2013-04-01

    Through free radical-mediated peroxidation, cyclooxygenase (COX) can metabolize dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to form well-known bioactive metabolites, namely, the 1-series of prostaglandins (PGs1) and the 2-series of prostaglandins (PGs2), respectively. Unlike PGs2, which are generally viewed as proinflammatory and procarcinogenic PGs, PGs1 may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Previous studies using ovine COX along with spin trapping and the LC/ESR/MS technique have shown that certain exclusive free radicals are generated from different free radical reactions in DGLA and AA peroxidation. However, it has been unclear whether the differences were associated with the contrasting bioactivity of DGLA vs AA. The aim of this study was to refine the LC/MS and spin trapping technique to make it possible for the association between free radicals and cancer cell growth to be directly tested. Using a colon cancer cell line, HCA-7 colony 29, and LC/MS along with a solid-phase extraction, we were able to characterize the reduced forms of radical adducts (hydroxylamines) as the free radicals generated from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation. For the first time, free radicals formed in the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA vs DGLA and their association with cancer cell growth were assessed (cell proliferation via MTS and cell cycle distribution via propidium iodide staining) in the same experimental setting. The exclusive free radicals formed from the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA and DGLA were shown to be correlated with the cell growth response. Our results indicate that free radicals generated from the distinct radical reactions in COX-catalyzed peroxidation may represent the novel metabolites of AA and DGLA that correspond to their contrasting bioactivity.

  4. Fumaric acid esters promote neuronal survival upon ischemic stress through activation of the Nrf2 but not HIF-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin-Holderer, Jiemeng; Li, Lexiao; Gruneberg, Daniel; Marti, Hugo H; Kunze, Reiner

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of ischemic stroke pathogenesis causing neuronal malfunction and cell death. Up-regulation of anti-oxidative genes through activation of the NF-E2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the key mechanisms in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) represent a class of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory molecules that are already in clinical use for multiple sclerosis therapy. Purpose of this study was to investigate whether FAEs promote neuronal survival upon ischemia, and analyze putative underlying molecular mechanisms in neurons. Murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and two neuronal cell lines were treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and monomethyl fumarate (MMF). Ischemic conditions were generated by exposing cells and slice cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and cell death was determined through propidium iodide staining. Treatment with both DMF and MMF immediately after OGD during reoxygenation strongly reduced cell death in hippocampal cultures ex vivo. Both DMF and MMF promoted neuronal survival in HT-22 and SH-SY5Y cell lines exposed to ischemic stress. DMF but not MMF activated the anti-oxidative Nrf2 pathway in neurons. Accordingly, Nrf2 knockdown in murine neurons abrogated the protective effect of DMF but not MMF. Moreover, FAEs did not activate the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway suggesting that this pathway may not significantly contribute to FAE mediated neuroprotection. Our results may provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach to treat ischemic pathologies such as stroke with a drug that already has a broad safety record in humans. PMID:26801077

  5. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the synergistic action of high hydrostatic pressure and dissolved CO₂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Pan, Jian; Xie, Huiming; Yang, Yi; Lin, Chunming

    2010-11-15

    This study focused on the synergistic inactivation effects of combined treatment of HHP and dissolved CO₂ on microorganisms. The aim was to reduce the treatment pressure of the traditional HHP technology and make it more economically feasible. The combined treatment showed a strong bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in liquid culture, which usually have high levels of barotolerance under pressure alone. To identify the influence of CO₂, a new setup to dissolve, retain and measure the concentration of CO₂ was constructed. The results demonstrated that an inactivation rate of more than 8 log units was obtained for E. coli both at 300 MPa with 1.2 NL/L CO₂ and at 250 MPa with 3.2 NL/L CO₂, while only 2.2 and 1.8 log reductions were observed at 300 MPa and 250 MPa, respectively, for the HHP treatments alone. For S. aureus, the inactivation rate of more than 7 log units was found at 350 MPa with 3.8 NL/L CO₂, while only a 0.9 log reduction was achieved at this pressure in the absence of CO₂. The SEM photographs showed seriously deformed cells after the synergistic treatments. In contrast, the cells treated with individual HHP maintained a relatively smooth surface with invaginations. Propidium iodide staining and fluorescence observation was performed after pressure treatments. The results demonstrated that the combination of CO₂ with HHP also promoted pressure induced cell membrane permeabilization greatly. It was deduced that the enrichment of CO₂ on the cell surface and its penetration into the cells at high pressure accounted for the membrane damage and cell death.

  6. Isolation of a Glucosamine Binding Leguminous Lectin with Mitogenic Activity towards Splenocytes and Anti-Proliferative Activity towards Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “brown kidney bean.” The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20°C–60°C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65°C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0–2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13–14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC50 of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response. PMID:22720002

  7. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC(50) of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response. PMID:22720002

  8. Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lizard, G.; Fournel, S.; Genestier, L.; Dhedin, N.

    1995-11-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of cytoplasmic membrane and swelling of mitochondria. In this study we assessed by flow cytometry the sequential alterations of forward angle light scatter, 90{degrees} light scatter, and fluorescence associated with fluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123, and propidium iodide in two human B cell lines undergoing apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by sodium azide. At the same time intervals, cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy and by UV microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342. We report that sequential changes in light scatters and fluorescein diacetate are similar in cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, whereas apoptosis is characterized by a slightly delayed decrease of mitochondrial activity as assessed by rhodamine 123 staining. Surprisingly, a part of cells undergoing apoptosis displayed an early uptake of propidium iodide followed by a condensation and then a fragmentation of their nuclei. It is concluded that uptake of propidium iodide is a very early marker of cell death which does not discriminate between necrosis and apoptosis. Along with biochemical criteria, nuclear morphology revealed by staining with Hoechst 33342 would seem to be of the most simple and most discriminative assay of apoptosis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ley specific antibody with potent anti-tumor activity is internalized and degraded in lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, J.; Garrigues, U.; Hellström, I.; Hellström, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    BR96 is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) that recognizes many human carcinomas and can kill antigen-positive tumor cells in vitro. Using both gold and radiolabeled MAb, the distribution and cellular processing of BR96 during cytolysis has been determined. After a brief (< 3 minutes) MAb treatment, cells in suspension are stained by the nuclear viability dye propidium iodide. Whole MAb and F(ab')2 fragments are equally cytotoxic; monovalent F(ab) fragments, however, have no effect on dye uptake unless cross-linked with goat anti-mouse IgG. The level of toxicity is dependent on both MAb dose and on cell surface receptor density. Cell contact may regulate receptor expression. BR96 receptors are more abundant on cells migrating into the open areas of a scratch wounded confluent culture than on the adjacent contact-inhibited cells. BR96 can also inhibit the anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in soft agar showing that its effects on propidium iodide staining are not due to transient changes in membrane permeability. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that, after a 1-minute treatment, BR96 induces significant infolding of the plasma membrane and that internalized MAb is localized to these structures. Immediately thereafter, large cell surface and intracellular vesicles form, mitochondria are swollen, and membrane integrity is lost. Therefore, BR96 seems to cause morphological changes characteristic of necrosis rather than apoptosis. When bound to adherent carcinoma cells, BR96 is distributed uniformly on the apical surface of cells labeled at 4 C and is enriched at points of cell substratum contact. Upon warming of the cells to 37 C, BR96 localizes in small perinuclear clusters and the cell margin is now devoid of label. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that BR96 undergoes receptor mediated internalization and is localized within the same coated pits, endosomes, and lysosomes as the transferrin receptor. Quantitative studies using iodinated BR96 show that

  10. Pravastatin induces cell cycle arrest and decreased production of VEGF and bFGF in multiple myeloma cell line.

    PubMed

    Trojan, P J J; Bohatch-Junior, M S; Otuki, M F; Souza-Fonseca-Guimarães, F; Svidnicki, P V; Nogaroto, V; Fernandes, D; Krum, E A; Favero, G M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell bone marrow neoplasia characterized by inflammation with an intense secretion of growth factors that promote tumor growth, cell survival, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pravastatin, a drug used to reduce cholesterol, in a MM cell line.Cell cycle and viability were determinate by Trypan Blue and Propidium Iodide. IL6, VEGF, bFGF and TGFβ were quantified by ELISA and qRT-PCR including here de HMG CoA reductase. It was observed reduction of cell viability, increase of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and reducing the factors VEGF and bFGF without influence on 3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase expression.The results demonstrated that pravastatin induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and decreased production of growth factors in Multiple Myeloma cell line. PMID:26909624

  11. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  12. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer.

  13. Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Triphenylphosphonium Salts with Broad-Spectrum Activity

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Melissa; Pathania, Divya; Shabaik, Yumna; Taheri, Laleh; Deng, Jinxia; Neamati, Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of interest in developing compounds selectively targeting mitochondria for the treatment of neoplasms. The critical role of mitochondria in cellular metabolism and respiration supports this therapeutic rationale. Dysfunction in the processes of energy production and metabolism contributes to attenuation of response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and increased ROS production both of which are implicated in the initiation and progression of most human cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings A high-throughput MTT-based screen of over 10,000 drug-like small molecules for anti-proliferative activity identified the phosphonium salts TP187, 197 and 421 as having IC50 concentrations in the submicromolar range. TP treatment induced cell cycle arrest independent of p53 status, as determined by analysis of DNA content in propidium iodide stained cells. In a mouse model of human breast cancer, TP-treated mice showed significantly decreased tumor growth compared to vehicle or paclitaxel treated mice. No toxicities or organ damage were observed following TP treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from TP187-treated tumors demonstrated a decrease in cellular proliferation and increased caspase-3 cleavage. The fluorescent properties of analog TP421 were exploited to assess subcellular uptake of TP compounds, demonstrating mitochondrial localization. Following mitochondrial uptake cells exhibited decreased oxygen consumption and concomittant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. Proteomics analysis of results from a 600 target antibody microarray demonstrated that TP compounds significantly affected signaling pathways relevant to growth and proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Through our continued interest in designing compounds targeting cancer-cell metabolism, the Warburg effect, and mitochondria we recently discovered a series of novel, small-molecule compounds containing a triphenylphosphine moiety that

  14. Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chettab, Kamel; Roux, Stéphanie; Mathé, Doriane; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril; Dumontet, Charles; Mestas, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. The regulation system incorporated in the device allowed a real-time control of the cavitation level during sonoporation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP-C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the device was compared to those observed with lipofection and nucleofection methods. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device allowed high rate of transfection of pEGFP-C1 (40–80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. The transfection efficiency and toxicity of sonoporation on the non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 were similar to those of nucleofection, while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection by lipofection. Moreover, sonoporation was used to produce three stably transfected human lymphoma and leukemia lines. Significant transfection efficiency was also observed in two fresh samples of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In conclusion, we developed a user-friendly and cost-effective ultrasound device, well adapted for routine in vitro high-yield transfection experiments and which does not require the use of any transfection reagent or gas micro-bubbles. PMID:26274324

  15. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sanhu; Yang, Yanyong; Liu, Wen; Xuan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shouming; Yu, Shunfei; Mei, Ke; Huang, Yijuan; Zhang, Pei; Cai, Jianming; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Yaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H(2) was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological analysis were used to evaluate the splenic structural damage. Spleen superoxide dismutase, GSH, MDA were measured to appraise the antioxidant capacity and a DCF assay for the measurement of radical oxygen species. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by an Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining method as well as the apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and c-caspase-3. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subtypes were detected by flow cytometry with FITC-labelled antimouse CD4 and PE antimouse CD8 staining. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the CD4+ T cell subtypes and related cytokines. Our study demonstrated that pre-treatment with H(2) could increase the spleen index and attenuate the radiation damage on splenic structure. Radical oxygen species level was also reduced by H(2) treatment. H(2) also inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in splenocytes and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins in living mice. Radiation-induced imbalance of T cells was attenuated by H(2). Finally, we found that H(2) could regulate the polarization of CD4+ T cells and the level of related cytokines. This study suggests H(2) as an effective radioprotective agent on immune system by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  16. Circulating immune complexes of calves with bronchopneumonia modulate the function of peripheral blood leukocytes: In vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Buač, Marijana; Mojsilović, Slavko; Mišić, Dušan; Vuković, Dejan; Savić, Olivera; Valčić, Olivera; Marković, Dragana; Gvozdić, Dragan; Ilić, Vesna; Fratrić, Natalija

    2016-06-01

    In this work we studied if circulating immune complexes (CIC) of calves with bronchopneumonia have the capacity to modulate function of peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy cattle. CIC of three month old calves (6 healthy and 6 diseased) were isolated by PEG precipitation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and granulocytes from healthy calves and cows were the CIC responder cells in in vitro tests. The most remarkable increase of adhesiveness to polystyrene and ROS synthesis (assessed by NBT test) was detected in cows' granulocytes stimulated with CIC of diseased calves. Results of MTT test showed that CIC of both healthy and diseased calves reduced granulocytes' viability. The strongest effect of inhibition of cows' granulocytes resulted from CIC of diseased calves. CIC only moderately reduced spontaneous viability of calves' MNCs. Again, the strongest effect of CIC isolated from diseased calves was observed. In contrast to the low impact of CIC on non-stimulated cells, their inhibitory effect on viability of mitogen stimulated MNCs was very strong. With CFSE assay we showed that both types of CIC stimulated spontaneous, but inhibited mitogen induced proliferation of calves' MNCs. Propidium iodide staining reviled that CIC increased apoptosis/necrosis of both non-stimulated and mitogen stimulated MNCs. CIC of both healthy and diseased calves modulated the function of peripheral blood MNCs and granulocytes, but a stronger effect of CIC of diseased calves was shown. The age of the donors (calves or cows) of the responder cells, and the activation state of these cells, were also of influence. PMID:27234551

  17. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy.

    PubMed

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L F; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-21

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  18. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Ray, Doel; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2015-11-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. Liver dysfunction is associated with this syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin treatment on metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage. After induction of metabolic syndrome in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks, the rats were treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight, single intra-peritoneal injection). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect blood samples and liver tissues. Compared to normal, elevated activities of serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase, increased levels of liver advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, protein kinase Cα, NADPH oxidase-2, and decreased glutathione cycle components established liver damage and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Activation of nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in liver cell apoptosis. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12 proteins suggested hepatic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome caused hepatic DNA damage and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting using annexin V/propidium iodide staining confirmed the apoptotic hepatic cell death. Histology of liver tissue also supported the experimental findings. Treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and apoptotic cell death in fructose-fed rats. The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26400710

  19. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract inhibits both the metastasis and osteolytic components of mammary cancer 4T1 lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Wang; Ko, Chun-Hay; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Kai-Kai; Lee, Michelle; Li, Gang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-04-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, CS), a kind of Chinese tea commonly consumed as a healthy beverage, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities, including antioxidation, antiobesity and anticancer. Our study aims to investigate the antitumor, antimetastasis and antiosteolytic effects of CS aqueous extract both in vitro and in vivo using metastasis-specific mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. Our results showed that treatment of 4T1 cells with CS aqueous extract resulted in significant inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation. CS extract induced 4T1 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Western blot analysis showed that CS increased the expression of Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio and activated caspase-8 and caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. CS also inhibited 4T1 cell migration and invasion at 0.06-0.125 mg/ml. In addition, CS extract (0.6 g/kg, orally fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 34.8% in female BALB/c mice against water treatment control (100%). Apart from the antitumor effect, CS extract significantly decreased lung and liver metastasis in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors by 54.5% and 72.6%, respectively. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography and in vitro osteoclast staining analysis suggested that CS extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the CS aqueous extract, which closely mimics green tea beverage, has potent antitumor and antimetastasis effects in breast cancer and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction.

  20. Time course and mechanism of hippocampal neuronal death in an in vitro model of status epilepticus: Role of NMDA receptor activation and NMDA dependent calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Lou, Jeffrey K.; Mian, Ali; Blair, Robert E.; Sombati, Sompong; Attkisson, Elisa; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to seizure-induced damage and excitotoxic neuronal injury. This study examined the time course of neuronal death in relationship to seizure duration and the pharmacological mechanisms underlying seizure-induced cell death using low magnesium (Mg2+) induced continuous high frequency epileptiform discharges (in vitro status epilepticus) in hippocampal neuronal cultures. Neuronal death was assessed using cell morphology and Fluorescein diacetate-Propidium iodide staining. Effects of low Mg2+ and various receptor antagonists on spike frequency were assessed using patch clamp electrophysiology. We observed a linear and time-dependent increase in neuronal death with increasing durations of status epilepticus. This cell death was dependent upon extracellular calcium that entered primarily through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor channel subtype. Neuronal death was significantly decreased by co-incubation with the NMDA receptor antagonists and was also inhibited by reduction of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) during status epilepticus. In contrast, neuronal death from in vitro status epilepticus was not significantly prevented by inhibition of other glutamate receptor subtypes or voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly this NMDA-Ca2+ dependent neuronal death was much more gradual in onset compared to cell death from excitotoxic glutamate exposure. The results provide evidence that in vitro status epilepticus results in increased activation of the NMDA-Ca2+ transduction pathway leading to neuronal death in a time dependent fashion. The results also indicate that there is a significant window of opportunity during the initial time of continuous seizure activity to be able to intervene, protect neurons and decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated with status epilepticus. PMID:18289526

  1. Anti-amoebic properties of a Malaysian marine sponge Aaptos sp. on Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Nakisah, M A; Ida Muryany, M Y; Fatimah, H; Nor Fadilah, R; Zalilawati, M R; Khamsah, S; Habsah, M

    2012-03-01

    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii. PMID:22805843

  2. Development of a single cell electroporation method using a scanning ion conductance microscope with a theta nanopipette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Koji; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Iwata, Futoshi

    2015-08-01

    We developed a novel electroporation method using a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) with a theta capillary nanopipette probe that has two apertures at the edge of the pipette. One aperture of the pipette probe was used to control the pipette-surface distance and to apply pulse voltage for electroporation. The other was used to eject material over the cell by local electrophoresis. Using the nanopipette, propidium iodide was successfully introduced into a targeted single Hela cell without influencing the surrounding cells. Furthermore, by scanning the theta nanopipette probe using the SICM, the morphological behaviors of the electroporated cells could be observed.

  3. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis.

  4. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  5. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  6. Thymoquinone Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model: The Role of p38 MAPK and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

    2013-01-01

    Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation. PMID:24098377

  7. A new and simple method to evaluate early membrane changes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Saravia, F; Johannisson, A; Walgren, M; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2005-04-01

    Detection of early changes in the sperm plasma membrane during cryopreservation is of utmost importance when designing freezing protocols and has previously been studied in the pig species using annexin-V detection of phosphatidylserine translocation. In the present study we designed a new assay to detect these changes in boar spermatozoa, based on the slight increase of sperm membrane permeability occurring during the early stages of cryoinjury, using the combination of three fluorescent probes, SNARF-1, YO-PRO-1 and ethidium homodimer. Four ejaculates from five different boars were frozen-thawed and flow cytometrically (FC) evaluated as paired samples. One of the samples was assayed using the annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and the other sample was evaluated using the new triple staining. Using this combination of probes, four sperm subpopulations were easily detected: viable, with stable membranes (SNARF-1 positive cells), and three with compromised membranes, one of YO-PRO-1+/Eth- cells, one ethidium homodimer+ spermatozoa and, finally spermatozoa stained both with YO-PRO-1 and ethidium homodimer (YO-PRO-1+/Eth+). The latter three categories corresponded to dead spermatozoa, but with different degree of membrane damage, being YO-PRO+/Eth- an earlier stage of membrane destabilization, (manifested by an increase in membrane permeability, while still maintaining membrane integrity) than YO-PRO+/Eth+. A method agreement analysis between both methods was performed revealing good agreement, although the percentage of live cells was 9.44% larger for the triple stain than the annexin-V assay. The new assay stained all sperm sub-populations present in the sample, making it especially suitable for both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, facilitating the exclusion of debris and egg-yolk particles when using FC. PMID:15811072

  8. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin–fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  9. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline derivatives for cytotoxic and anti-leishmanial potential.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Nitin A; Gohil, Vikrantsinh M; Kushwah, Varun; Neelagiri, Soumya; Jain, Sanyog; Singh, Sushma; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, 23 derivatives of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic potential against four human cancer cells, namely A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 as well as anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani (MHOM/80/IN/Dd8) promastigotes. Among the studied compounds, compounds 13c and 13q showed potent cytotoxic activity better than the parent compound 10. For instance, compound 13c was found to be the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 4.72, 3.59, 3.65 and 4.17 μM against A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 respectively, while for compound 13q, IC50 were 15.47, 5.30, 6.15 and 13.39 μM against the same cancer cells respectively. Further, these two compounds were found to be apoptotic in A-549 and MCF-7 cells when observed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining under confocal microscope. All the compounds were also tested for anti-leishmanial potential. In which, compounds 13u and 13c were found to show moderate inhibition with IC50 of 23.5±9.0 and 68.0±0.0 μM respectively, while compound 10 was the most active with IC50 of 9.0±2.8 μM, suggesting the modification at C-6 detrimental for anti-leishmanial activity. Interestingly, amongst all, compound 13c was found to be the most active for cytotoxic and moderately active for anti-leishmanial activity which can be further developed as a lead for these disease areas.

  10. Tumescent Liposuction without Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Joshua J.; Fang, Xin-Hua; Williams, Shelley J.; Baynosa, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that lidocaine has a negative impact on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) survival. Currently for large-volume liposuction, patients often undergo general anesthesia; therefore, lidocaine subcutaneous anesthesia is nonessential. We hypothesized that removing lidocaine from tumescent might improve stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and ASC survival from the standard tumescent with lidocaine. Ropivacaine is also a commonly used local anesthetic. The effect of ropivacaine on ASC survival was examined. Methods: Adults who underwent liposuction on bilateral body areas were included (n = 10). Under general anesthesia, liposuction on 1 area was conducted under standard tumescent with lidocaine. On the contralateral side, liposuction was conducted under the modified tumescent without lidocaine. Five milliliters of lipoaspirate were processed for the isolation of SVF. The adherent ASCs were counted after 24 hours of SVF culture. Apoptosis and necrosis of SVF cells were examined by Annexin/propidium iodide staining and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Average percentage of live SVF cells was 68.0% ± 4.0% (28.5% ± 3.8% of apoptosis and 3.4% ± 1.0% of necrosis) in lidocaine group compared with 86.7% ± 3.7% (11.5% ± 3.1% of apoptosis and 1.8% ± 0.7% of necrosis) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.002). Average number of viable ASC was also significantly lower (367,000 ± 107) in lidocaine group compared with that (500,000 ± 152) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.04). No significant difference was found between lidocaine and ropivacaine on ASC cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Removing lidocaine from tumescent significantly reduced SVF and ASC apoptosis in the lipoaspirate. We recommend tumescent liposuction without lidocaine, particularly if patient’s lipoaspirate will be used for fat grafting.

  11. The Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Epsilon-Poly-l-Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S.; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ε-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ε-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ε-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ε-PL's binding efficiency. ε-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ε-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ε-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ε-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ε-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles. PMID:25304506

  12. Assessment of nicotine-induced DNA damage in a genotoxicological test battery.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Friehs, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2013-02-18

    The role of the tobacco-alkaloid nicotine in tumour biology is widely discussed in the literature. Due to a strong capacity to induce angiogenesis, a pro-mutagenic potential in non-tumour and cancer cells, and a pro- and anti-apoptotic influence, nicotine seems to promote the growth of established tumours. However, results indicating DNA damage and genetic instability associated with nicotine have been contradictory thus far. A variety of markers and endpoints of genotoxicity are required to characterize the genotoxic potential of nicotine. Induction of DNA single- and double-strand breaks, the formation of micronuclei, and the induction of sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations represent possible genotoxicological endpoints at different cellular levels. Human lymphocytes were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1μM and 1mM for 24h in vitro. The comet assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, the chromosome aberration (CA) test, and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test were then applied. Viability and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry in combination with the annexin V-propidium iodide staining test. In this test setting, no enhanced DNA migration was measured by the comet assay. An increase in the micronucleus frequency was detected at a concentration of 100μM nicotine without affecting the frequency of apoptotic cells. A distinct genotoxic effect was determined by the CA test and the SCE test, with a significant increase in CA and SCE at a concentration of 1μM. In the annexin V test, nicotine did not influence the proportion of apoptotic or necrotic cells. The current data indicating the induction of CA by nicotine underscore the necessity of ongoing investigations on the potential of nicotine to initiate mutagenesis and tumour promotion. Taking into account the physiological nicotine plasma levels in smokers or in nicotine-replacement therapy, particularly the long-term use of nicotine should be critically discussed. PMID

  13. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  14. Tumescent Liposuction without Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Joshua J.; Fang, Xin-Hua; Williams, Shelley J.; Baynosa, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that lidocaine has a negative impact on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) survival. Currently for large-volume liposuction, patients often undergo general anesthesia; therefore, lidocaine subcutaneous anesthesia is nonessential. We hypothesized that removing lidocaine from tumescent might improve stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and ASC survival from the standard tumescent with lidocaine. Ropivacaine is also a commonly used local anesthetic. The effect of ropivacaine on ASC survival was examined. Methods: Adults who underwent liposuction on bilateral body areas were included (n = 10). Under general anesthesia, liposuction on 1 area was conducted under standard tumescent with lidocaine. On the contralateral side, liposuction was conducted under the modified tumescent without lidocaine. Five milliliters of lipoaspirate were processed for the isolation of SVF. The adherent ASCs were counted after 24 hours of SVF culture. Apoptosis and necrosis of SVF cells were examined by Annexin/propidium iodide staining and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Average percentage of live SVF cells was 68.0% ± 4.0% (28.5% ± 3.8% of apoptosis and 3.4% ± 1.0% of necrosis) in lidocaine group compared with 86.7% ± 3.7% (11.5% ± 3.1% of apoptosis and 1.8% ± 0.7% of necrosis) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.002). Average number of viable ASC was also significantly lower (367,000 ± 107) in lidocaine group compared with that (500,000 ± 152) in no-lidocaine group (P = 0.04). No significant difference was found between lidocaine and ropivacaine on ASC cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Removing lidocaine from tumescent significantly reduced SVF and ASC apoptosis in the lipoaspirate. We recommend tumescent liposuction without lidocaine, particularly if patient’s lipoaspirate will be used for fat grafting. PMID:27622097

  15. The Calpain Inhibitor MDL28170 Induces the Expression of Apoptotic Markers in Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Fernanda A.; Gonçalves, Keyla C. S.; Oliveira, Simone S. C.; Gonçalves, Diego S.; Matteoli, Filipe P.; Seabra, Sergio H.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina S.; Bellio, Maria; Oliveira, Selma S.; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M.; Santos, André L. S.; Branquinha, Marta H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by distinct species, including Leishmania amazonensis. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory due to increases in drug resistance and relapses, and toxicity of compounds to the host. As a consequence for this situation, the development of new leishmanicidal drugs and the search of new targets in the parasite biology are important goals. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the mechanism of death pathway induced by the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 on Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms. The combined use of different techniques was applied to contemplate this goal. MDL28170 treatment with IC50 (15 µM) and two times the IC50 doses induced loss of parasite viability, as verified by resazurin assay, as well as depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, which was quantified by JC-1 staining. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic images revealed drastic alterations on the parasite morphology, some of them resembling apoptotic-like death, including cell shrinking, surface membrane blebs and altered chromatin condensation pattern. The lipid rearrangement of the plasma membrane was detected by Annexin-V labeling. The inhibitor also induced a significant increase in the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase, as quantified by propidium iodide staining, as well as genomic DNA fragmentation, detected by TUNEL assay. In cells treated with MDL28170 at two times the IC50 dose, it was also possible to observe an oligonucleossomal DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions/Significance The data presented in the current study suggest that MDL28170 induces apoptotic marker expression in promastigotes of L. amazonensis. Altogether, the results described in the present work not only provide a rationale for further exploration of the mechanism of action of calpain inhibitors against trypanosomatids, but may also widen the investigation of the

  16. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J A; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Pinkney, A E; Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S

    2015-03-15

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin-fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa. PMID:25559842

  17. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline derivatives for cytotoxic and anti-leishmanial potential.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Nitin A; Gohil, Vikrantsinh M; Kushwah, Varun; Neelagiri, Soumya; Jain, Sanyog; Singh, Sushma; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, 23 derivatives of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic potential against four human cancer cells, namely A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 as well as anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani (MHOM/80/IN/Dd8) promastigotes. Among the studied compounds, compounds 13c and 13q showed potent cytotoxic activity better than the parent compound 10. For instance, compound 13c was found to be the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 4.72, 3.59, 3.65 and 4.17 μM against A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 respectively, while for compound 13q, IC50 were 15.47, 5.30, 6.15 and 13.39 μM against the same cancer cells respectively. Further, these two compounds were found to be apoptotic in A-549 and MCF-7 cells when observed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining under confocal microscope. All the compounds were also tested for anti-leishmanial potential. In which, compounds 13u and 13c were found to show moderate inhibition with IC50 of 23.5±9.0 and 68.0±0.0 μM respectively, while compound 10 was the most active with IC50 of 9.0±2.8 μM, suggesting the modification at C-6 detrimental for anti-leishmanial activity. Interestingly, amongst all, compound 13c was found to be the most active for cytotoxic and moderately active for anti-leishmanial activity which can be further developed as a lead for these disease areas. PMID:26791014

  19. Inter-laboratory comparison of the in vivo comet assay including three image analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Guérard, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories.

  20. Autophagic and apoptotic cell death in amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z-Y; Li, E-M; Lu, S-Q; Shen, J; Cai, Y-M; Wu, Y-E; Zheng, R-M; Tan, L-J; Xu, L-Y

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine if autophagic cell death is associated with apoptosis and whether it participates in the process of term amniotic rupture. Forty pieces of fresh term amnions, including twenty from a position near the margin of the placentas and twenty from the margin of the naturally ruptured part of the placentas in term gestation were collected, respectively. The amnions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and amniotic epithelial (AE) cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Autophagic and apoptotic cell death (PCD) were assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) or flow cytometry using monodansylcadaverin (MDC) and propidium iodide (PI) stain. BCL(2) and BAX were examined by immunoblotting. Under SEM the amniotic epithelia appeared normal in the position near the placenta. They had an atrophied appearance in the margin of their natural broken parts. In the AE cells PCD was divided into three subtypes by TEM: autophagic cell death with positive stains of MDC and PI; apoptotic cell death; and the mixed type. Quantitative detection showed that there were more death cells, including autophagic and apoptotic, in the AE cells near the ruptured parts than near the placentas. An increased expression of BAX and a decreased expression of BCL(2) protein in the AE cells near the broken margin were observed. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death by the intrinsic pathway are the basic event in the AE cell and they are involved in the cause of membrane rupture of the human amnion in term gestation.

  1. Determination of intracellular reactive oxygen species and high mitochondrial membrane potential in Percoll-treated viable boar sperm using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R

    2006-08-01

    The use of frozen semen in the swine industry is limited by problems with viability and fertility compared with liquid semen. Part of the reduction in sperm motility and fertility associated with cryopreservation may be due to oxidative damage from excessive or inappropriate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chemiluminescence measurements of ROS are not possible in live cells and are problematic because of poor specificity. An alternative approach, flow cytometry, was developed to identify viable boar sperm containing ROS utilizing the dyes hydroethidine and 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate as oxidizable substrates and impermeant DNA dyes to exclude dead sperm. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by flow cytometry using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide with propidium iodide staining to exclude nonviable cells. Sperm were incubated with and without ROS generators and free radical scavengers. Basal ROS formation was low (less than 4%) and did not differ (P = 0.26) between viable fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm. In addition, fresh and frozen-thawed viable sperm were equally susceptible (P = 0.20) to intracellular formation of ROS produced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase (94.4 and 87.9% of sperm, respectively). Menadione increased (P < 0.05) ROS formation, decreased (P < 0.05) JC-1-aggregate fluorescence intensity, and decreased (P < 0.05) motion variables by 25 to 60%. The mechanism of inhibition of motility by ROS formation may be related to a decrease in mitochondrial charge potential below a critical threshold. Catalase and superoxide dismutase treatment in the presence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase indicated that hydrogen peroxide was the primary intracellular ROS measured. Further, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, was capable of attenuating ROS-induced inhibition of motility. Whereas basal intracellular hydrogen

  2. Nutrient reserves may allow for genome size increase: evidence from comparison of geophytes and their sister non-geophytic relatives

    PubMed Central

    Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genome size of an organism is determined by its capacity to tolerate genome expansion, given the species' life strategy and the limits of a particular environment, and the ability for retrotransposon suppression and/or removal. In some giant-genomed bulb geophytes, this tolerance is explained by their ability to pre-divide cells in the dormant stages or by the selective advantage of larger cells in the rapid growth of their fleshy body. In this study, a test shows that the tendency for genome size expansion is a more universal feature of geophytes, and is a subject in need of more general consideration. Methods Differences in monoploid genome sizes were compared using standardized phylogenetically independent contrasts in 47 sister pairs of geophytic and non-geophytic taxa sampled across all the angiosperms. The genome sizes of 96 species were adopted from the literature and 53 species were newly measured using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Key Results The geophytes showed increased genome sizes compared with their non-geophytic relatives, regardless of the storage organ type and regardless of whether or not vernal geophytes, polyploids or annuals were included in the analyses. Conclusions The universal tendency of geophytes to possess a higher genome size suggests the presence of a universal mechanism allowing for genome expansion. It is assumed that this is primarily due to the nutrient and energetic independence of geophytes perhaps allowing continuous synthesis of DNA, which is known to proceed in the extreme cases of vernal geophytes even in dormant stages. This independence may also be assumed as a reason for allowing large genomes in some parasitic plants, as well as the nutrient limitation of small genomes of carnivorous plants. PMID:23960044

  3. Celastrol Potentiates Radiotherapy by Impairment of DNA Damage Processing in Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Yao; DeSano, Jeffrey T.; Meng Yang; J, Qing; Ljungman, Mats; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Xu Liang

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Celastrol is an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine and has recently been identified as a potent natural proteasome inhibitor. In the present study, we evaluated the radiosensitizing potential of celastrol in the human prostate cancer PC-3 model. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the radiosensitizing effect of celastrol. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and by a caspase-3 activation assay. DNA damage processing was examined by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot for phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX). The PC-3 xenograft model in the athymic nude mouse was used for the determination of the in vivo efficacy of celastrol combined with radiotherapy. The tumor samples were also analyzed for apoptosis and angiogenesis. Results: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to ionizing radiation (IR) in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, in which pretreatment with celastrol for 1 h followed by IR achieved maximal radiosensitization. Celastrol significantly prolonged the presence of IR-induced {gamma}H2AX and increased IR-induced apoptosis. Celastrol, combined with fractionated radiation, significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth in vivo without obvious systemic toxicity. The combination treatment increased {gamma}H2AX levels and apoptosis, induced cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase and Mcl-1, and reduced angiogenesis in vivo compared with either treatment alone. Conclusion: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo by impairing DNA damage processing and augmenting apoptosis. Celastrol might represent a promising new adjuvant regimen for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  4. Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G/sub 1/ peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations.

  5. Riccardin C derivatives cause cell leakage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Morita, Daichi; Sawada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Wakano; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Teruo

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem in clinical settings, and because it is resistant to most antimicrobial agents, MRSA infections are difficult to treat. We previously reported that synthetic macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) derivatives, which were originally discovered in liverworts, had anti-MRSA activity. However, the action mechanism responsible was unclear. In the present study, we elucidated the action mechanism of macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) RC-112 and its partial structure, IDPO-9 (2-phenoxyphenol). Survival experiments demonstrated that RC-112 had a bactericidal effect on MRSA, whereas IDPO-9 had bacteriostatic effects. IDPO-9-resistant mutants exhibited cross-resistance to triclosan, but not to RC-112. The mutation was identified in the fabI, enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase gene, a target of triclosan. We have not yet isolated the RC-112-resistant mutant. On the other hand, the addition of RC-112, unlike IDPO-9, caused the inflow of ethidium and propidium into S. aureus cells. RC-112-dependent ethidium outflow was observed in ethidium-loaded S. aureus cells. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that S. aureus cells treated with RC-112 had intracellular lamellar mesosomal-like structures. Intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations were significantly changed by the RC-112 treatment. These results indicated that RC-112 increased membrane permeability to ethidium, propidium, Na+, and K+, and also that the action mechanism of IDPO-9 was different from those of the other compounds. PMID:26003535

  6. Increased Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes from Alzheimer Patients Correlates with Dementia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Daniela P.; Salech, Felipe; SanMartin, Carol D.; Silva, Monica; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Henriquez, Mauricio; Quest, Andrew F.; Behrens, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on enhanced susceptibility to death of lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and an increased resistance to death in those of patients with a history of skin cancer. This is consistent with our hypothesis proposing that the cellular machinery controlling cell death is deregulated in opposite directions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer, to explain the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether the observed increased susceptibility correlates with the degree of dementia severity. Peripheral lymphocytes from 23 AD patients, classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) into severe dementia (CDR 3, n=10) and mild-to-moderate dementia (CDR 1–2, n=13), and 15 healthy controls (HC) (CDR 0), were exposed to H2O2 for 20 hours. Lymphocyte death was determined by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. The greatest susceptibility to H2O2-induced death was observed for lymphocytes from severe dementia patients, whereas those with mild-to-moderate dementia exhibited intermediate values, compared to healthy controls. A significant increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio was found in AD patients. Poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition significantly protected from H2O2-induced death of lymphocytes, whereby a lower degree of protection was observed in severe AD patients. Moreover, inhibition of PARP-1 abolished the differences in apoptosis/necrosis ratios observed between the three groups of patients. These results support the notion that AD is a systemic disorder, whereby enhanced susceptibility to H2O2-induced death in peripheral lymphocytes correlates with dementia severity and enhanced death in AD patients is attributable to a PARP-dependent increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio. PMID:25274115

  7. VEGF ameliorates cognitive impairment in in vivo and in vitro ischemia via improving neuronal viability and function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajia; Yao, Yang; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Tao

    2014-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has recently been proved to be a potential therapeutic drug in ischemic disorders depending on the dose, route and time of administration, especially in focal cerebral ischemia. Whether VEGF could exert protection in a long-term total cerebral ischemic model is still uncertain, and the cellular mechanism has not been clarified so far. In order to answer the above issue, an experiment was performed in non-invasively giving exogenous VEGF to a total cerebral ischemic model rats and examining their spatial cognitive function by performing Morris water maze and long-term potential test. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiment to explore the cellular mechanism of VEGF protection effect. In an in vitro ischemia model oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), whole-cell patch-clamp recording was employed to examine neuronal function. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin and propidium iodide staining were applied in vivo and in vitro in the neuropathological and viability study, separately. Our results showed that intranasal administration of VEGF could improve the cognitive function, synaptic plasticity and damaged hippocampal neurons in a global cerebral ischemia model. In addition, VEGF could retain the membrane potential, neuronal excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the early stage of ischemia, which further demonstrated that there was an acute effect of VEGF in OGD-induced pyramidal neurons. Simultaneously, it was also found that the death of CA1 pyramidal neuronal was significantly reduced by VEGF, but there was no similar effect in VEGF coexists with SU5416 group. These results indicated that VEGF could ameliorate cognitive impairment and synaptic plasticity via improving neuronal viability and function through acting on VEGFR-2. PMID:24338641

  8. Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum β-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

    2014-10-01

    The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 μg/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

  9. Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to

  10. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein inhibits neuron apoptosis through the suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Xue, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Kong, Hai-Bo; Liu, Ai-Jun; Li, Shou-Chun; Xu, Dong-Gang

    2015-10-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is induced by mild hypothermia in several mammals, but the precise mechanism by which CIRP mediates hypothermia-induced neuroprotection remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which CIRP protects the nervous system during mild hypothermia. Rat cortical neurons were isolated and cultured in vitro under mild hypothermia (32°C). Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, visualized by flow cytometry. Neuron ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. CIRP overexpression and knockdown were achieved via infection with pL/IRES/GFP-CIRP and pL/shRNA/F-CIRP-A lentivirus. RT(2) Profiler PCR Array Pathway Analysis and western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of CIRP overexpresion/knockdown on the neurons׳ transcriptome. Neuron late apoptosis was significantly reduced at day 7 of culture by 12h hypothermia, but neuron ultrastructure remained relatively intact. RT(2) Profiler PCR Array Pathway Analysis of 84 apoptosis pathway-associated factors revealed that mild hypothermia and CIRP overexpression induce similar gene expression profiles, specifically alterations of genes implicated in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Mild hypothermia-treated neurons up-regulated 12 and down-regulated 38 apoptosis pathway-associated genes. CIRP-overexpressing neurons up-regulated 15 and down-regulated 46 genes. CIRP-knocked-down hypothermia-treated cells up-regulated 9 and down-regulated 40 genes. Similar results were obtained at the protein level. In conclusion, CIRP may inhibit neuron apoptosis through the suppression of the mitochondria apoptosis pathway during mild hypothermia.

  11. Interplay between Ca2+ cycling and mitochondrial permeability transition pores promotes reperfusion-induced injury of cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Yaser; Kasseckert, Sascha A; Iraqi, Wisam; Said, Maher; Shahzad, Tayyab; Erdogan, Ali; Neuhof, Christiane; Gündüz, Dürsün; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Tillmanns, Harald; Piper, H Michael; Reusch, H Peter; Ladilov, Yury

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Uncontrolled release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contributes to the reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte injury, e.g. hypercontracture and necrosis. To find out the underlying cellular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we investigated whether the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP), resulting in ATP depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, may be involved. For this purpose, isolated cardiac myocytes from adult rats were subjected to simulated ischemia and reperfusion. MPTP opening was detected by calcein release and by monitoring the ΔΨm. Fura-2 was used to monitor cytosolic [Ca2+]i or mitochondrial calcium [Ca2+]m, after quenching the cytosolic compartment with MnCl2. Mitochondrial ROS [ROS]m production was detected with MitoSOX Red and mag-fura-2 was used to monitor Mg2+ concentration, which reflects changes in cellular ATP. Necrosis was determined by propidium iodide staining. Reperfusion led to a calcein release from mitochondria, ΔΨm collapse and disturbance of ATP recovery. Simultaneously, Ca2+ oscillations occurred, [Ca2+]m and [ROS]m increased, cells developed hypercontracture and underwent necrosis. Inhibition of the SR-driven Ca2+ cycling with thapsigargine or ryanodine prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS formation and MPTP opening. Suppression of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (Ru360) or MPTP (cyclosporine A) significantly attenuated Ca2+ cycling, hypercontracture and necrosis. ROS scavengers (2-mercaptopropionyl glycine or N-acetylcysteine) had no effect on these parameters, but reduced [ROS]m. In conclusion, MPTP opening occurs early during reperfusion and is due to the Ca2+ oscillations originating primarily from the SR and supported by MPTP. The interplay between Ca2+ cycling and MPTP promotes the reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte hypercontracture and necrosis. Mitochondrial ROS formation is a result rather than a cause of MPTP opening. PMID:21199327

  12. Assessment of different functional parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa by using cytofluorimetric determinations.

    PubMed

    Minervini, F; Guastamacchia, R; Pizzi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E; Barile, V L

    2013-04-01

    Flow cytometry is a useful tool that provides an accurate, objective and rapid evaluation of semen quality. The use of this technique could significantly improve the quality of buffalo semen samples used in artificial insemination. This study was carried out to evaluate, by flow cytometry, frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa quality parameters such as sperm viability by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining; mitochondrial function by JC-1 potentiometric probe; sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by acridine orange; and acrosome reaction (AR) by FITC-PNA staining. Semen samples from five Italian Mediterranean buffalo bulls were used. Sperm viability was not different between bulls and ranged from 33.4% to 43.6%. A consistent rate (55.1 ± 10.8%) of sperm cells showed high mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(high)), with no significant differences between subjects. Sperm chromatin structure assay differed significantly between the five buffalo bulls; moreover, data showed high stability within each buffalo. DNA fragmentation indexes (DFI), such as %-DFI, -DFI, SD-DFI, were 11.2 ± 8.6, 153.3 ± 24.6 and 81.6 ± 21.2, respectively. Regarding AR, the percentage of acrosome-reacted live (ARL) and acrosome-reacted dead (ARD) spermatozoa was 0.3 ± 0.2 and 15.3 ± 5.5, respectively. This functional parameter differed significantly between buffalo bulls and showed high stability. Following to Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 for 3 h, AR significantly differed between subjects and was characterized by an increase in both ARL (10.8%) and ARD population (22.0%). This study indicates that flow cytometry could be a useful tool for a quick multiparametric evaluation of sperm quality in buffalo. In particular, SCSA and AR resulted in sperm functional parameters sensitive enough for the diagnosis of frozen-thawed semen fertilizing potential. PMID:22834640

  13. Type II secretory phospholipase A2 binds to ischemic flip-flopped cardiomyocytes and subsequently induces cell death.

    PubMed

    Nijmeijer, R; Willemsen, M; Meijer, C J L M; Visser, C A; Verheijen, R H; Gottlieb, R A; Hack, C E; Niessen, H W M

    2003-11-01

    Type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a cardiovascular risk factor. We recently found depositions of sPLA2 in the necrotic center of infarcted human myocardium and normally appearing cardiomyocytes adjacent to the border zone. The consequences of binding of sPLA2 to ischemic cardiomyocytes are not known. To explore a potential effect of sPLA2 on ischemic cardiomyocytes at a cellular level we used an in vitro model. The cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 or adult cardiomyocytes were isolated from rabbits that were incubated with sPLA2 in the presence of metabolic inhibitors to mimic ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Cell viability was established with the use of annexin V and propidium iodide or 7-aminoactinomycin D. Metabolic inhibition induced an increase of the number of flip-flopped cells, including a population that did not stain with propidium iodide and that was caspase-3 negative. sPLA2 bound to the flip-flopped cells, including those negative for caspase-3. sPLA2 binding induced cell death in these latter cells. In addition, sPLA2 potentiated the binding of C-reactive protein (CRP) to these cells. We conclude that by binding to flip-flopped cardiomyocytes, including those that are caspase-3 negative and presumably reversibly injured, sPLA2 may induce cell death and tag these cells with CRP.

  14. Chrysophanic Acid Induces Necrosis but not Necroptosis in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chrysophanic acid, also known as chrysophanol, has a number of biological activities. It enhances memory and learning abilities, raises superoxide dismutase activity, and has anti-cancer effects in several model systems. According to previous reports, chrysophanic acid-induced cell death shares features of necrotic cell death. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying chrysophanic acid-induced cell death remain poorly understood. Methods: Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was monitored by cell viability assay and Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining of renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by chrysophanic acid and the suppression of ROS by anti-oxidants were evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. The expression and phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in apoptosis and necroptosis were detected by immunoblotting. Results: The extent of chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was concentration and time dependent, and dead cells mainly appeared in the PI-positive population, which is a major feature of necrosis, upon fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was associated with the generation of intracellular ROS, and this effect was reversed by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine. Chrysophanic acid-induced cell death was not associated with changes in apoptotic or necroptotic marker proteins. Conclusions: The cell death induced by chrysophanic acid resembled neither apoptotic nor necroptotic cell death in human renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells. PMID:27390736

  15. Photodynamic hyperthermal therapy with indocyanine green (ICG) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in B16F10 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Rozanaliza; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Nakayama, Yuji; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We examined the effects of photodynamic hyperthemal therapy (PHT), which is a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HT), on the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of murine melanoma B16F10 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cell was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by PI staining with flow cytometry. The expression of cyclins and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined by a Western blotting analysis. PHT induces death in B16F10 cells, and PHT-mediated apoptosis occurred acutely and persistently in vitro. Our study demonstrated that PHT using indocyanine green (ICG) and near infrared (NIR) light source induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in the B16F10 cells. PMID:22146339

  16. Photodynamic hyperthermal therapy with indocyanine green (ICG) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in B16F10 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Rozanaliza; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Nakayama, Yuji; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We examined the effects of photodynamic hyperthemal therapy (PHT), which is a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HT), on the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of murine melanoma B16F10 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cell was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by PI staining with flow cytometry. The expression of cyclins and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined by a Western blotting analysis. PHT induces death in B16F10 cells, and PHT-mediated apoptosis occurred acutely and persistently in vitro. Our study demonstrated that PHT using indocyanine green (ICG) and near infrared (NIR) light source induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in the B16F10 cells.

  17. Pharmacological evidence that the activation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger protects C6 glioma cells during chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Amoroso, Salvatore; De Maio, Matteo; Russo, Giovanni M; Catalano, Annalisa; Bassi, Antonella; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    1997-01-01

    In C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia a massive release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred at 3 and 6 h, coupled with an increased number of propidium-iodide positive dead cells. Extracellular Na+ removal, which activates the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger as a Na+ efflux pathway and prevents Na+ entrance, significantly reduced LDH release and the number of propidium iodide positive C6 cells. During chemical hypoxia, in the presence of extracellular Na+ ions, a progressive increase of [Ca2+]i occurred; in the absence of extracellular Na+ ions [Ca2+]i was enhanced to a greater extent. The blockade of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger by the amiloride derivative 5-(N-4-chlorobenzyl)-2′,4′-dimethylbenzamil (CB-DMB), lanthanum (La3+) and the Ca2+ chelator EGTA, completely reverted the protective effect exerted by the removal of Na+ ions on C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia. The inhibition of the Na+-Ca2+ antiporter enhanced chemical hypoxia-induced LDH release when C6 glioma cells were incubated in the presence of physiological concentrations of extracellular Na+ ions (145 mM), suggesting that the blockade of the Na+-Ca2+ antiporter during chemical hypoxia can lead to increased cell damage. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger protects C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia, whereas its pharmacological blockade can exacerbate cellular injury. PMID:9154341

  18. Induction of apoptosis in human endothelial cells by nanodiamond particles.

    PubMed

    Solarska, K; Gajewska, A; Bartosz, G; Mitura, K

    2012-06-01

    Carbon nanoparticles are a promising material which finds application in different fields in industry and medicine. For medical applications, biocompatibility of nanoparticles is of critical importance because a lot of medical implants are coated by carbon coating. Our previous results showed that nanoparticles may induce increased production of ROS by the cells so we decided to checked if nanopowders can induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was quantified by double-staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. For comparison, we identified apoptotic cells with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. Our data demonstrate that treatment of the cells with diamond nanopowders may induce apoptosis and necrosis and this effect is dependent on the time of treatment and concentration of the nanopowders. The highest level of apoptotic cells was observed after incubation with Ultrananocrystalline Detonation Diamond (UDD) suggesting that the size is the main determinant of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. PMID:22905588

  19. Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Normal tissue toxicity due to x-ray exposure is a limiting factor for treatment success. Many efforts have been employed to develop predictive tests applied to clinical practice. Determination of lymphocyte radio-sensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method to predict tissue toxicity due to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients and to explore their role in predicting radiation induced toxicity. Seventy nine consecutive patients suffering from head and neck cancer, diagnosed and treated in our institution, were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined by two constants: α and β. α, as the origin of the curve in the Y axis determining the percentage of spontaneous cell death, and β, as the slope of the curve determining the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose, were obtained. β value was statistically associated to normal tissue toxicity in terms of severe xerostomia, as higher levels of apoptosis were observed in patients with low toxicity (p = 0.035; Exp(B) 0.224, I.C.95% (0.060-0.904)). These data agree with our previous results and suggest that it is possible to estimate the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients determining the radiation induced apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining. β values observed define an individual radiosensitivity profile that could predict late toxicity due to radiotherapy

  20. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge. PMID:27375200

  1. Lipid Nanopores Can Form a Stable, Ion Channel-Like Conduction Pathway in Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Bowman, Angela M.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Andre, Franck M.; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    Cell permeabilization by electric pulses (EPs), or electroporation, has been well established as a tool to indiscriminately increase membrane flows of water solutes down the concentration and voltage gradients. However, we found that EPs of nanosecond duration (nsEPs) trigger formation of voltage-sensitive and inward-rectifying membrane pores. NsEP-treated cells remain mostly impermeable to propidium, suggesting that the maximum pore size is ~1 nm. The ion-channel- like properties of nsEP-opened nanopores vanish if they break into larger, propidium-permeable “conventional” pores. However, nanopores can be stable for many minutes and significantly impact cell electrolyte and water balance. Multiple nsEPs cause fast cell swelling and blebbing, whereas opening of larger pores with digitonin abolishes swelling and causes blebs to implode. The lipid nature of nsEP-opened nanopores is confirmed by fast externalization of phosphatidylserine residues. Nanopores constitute a previously unexplored ion transport pathway that supplements classic ion channels but is distinctly different from them. PMID:19450553

  2. Lipid nanopores can form a stable, ion channel-like conduction pathway in cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Bowman, Angela M; Ibey, Bennett L; Andre, Franck M; Pakhomova, Olga N; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2009-07-24

    Cell permeabilization by electric pulses (EPs), or electroporation, has been well established as a tool to indiscriminately increase membrane flows of water solutes down the concentration and voltage gradients. However, we found that EPs of nanosecond duration (nsEPs) trigger formation of voltage-sensitive and inward-rectifying membrane pores. NsEP-treated cells remain mostly impermeable to propidium, suggesting that the maximum pore size is approximately 1nm. The ion-channel-like properties of nsEP-opened nanopores vanish if they break into larger, propidium-permeable "conventional" pores. However, nanopores can be stable for many minutes and significantly impact cell electrolyte and water balance. Multiple nsEPs cause fast cell swelling and blebbing, whereas opening of larger pores with digitonin abolishes swelling and causes blebs to implode. The lipid nature of nsEP-opened nanopores is confirmed by fast externalization of phosphatidylserine residues. Nanopores constitute a previously unexplored ion transport pathway that supplements classic ion channels but is distinctly different from them.

  3. Local electroporation of a single cell using a scanning ion conductance microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Futoshi; Yamazaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Kimihiro; Ushiki, Tatuo

    2014-03-01

    We developed a novel electroporation technique for molecular delivery into a single cell. A nanopipette, a thermally pulled glass capillary, is prepared as to act as a pair of tiny electrodes for single-cell electroporation. An Ag/AgCl wire is inserted into the nanopipette, and the outside edge of the nanopipette is coated by Ag sputtering. Electric pulses are applied between the outside and inside electrodes to form a local electric field at the edge of the nanopipette. To position the pipette edge in the vicinity of the cell membrane, we control the probe-surface distance using a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM). The SICM technique achieves non-contact approach of the nanopipette edge on the cell membrane, which allows low-invasive electroporation of a single cell. As a demonstration of this technique, a fluorescent molecule of propidium iodide was successfully delivered into a single HeLa cell.

  4. Bax is not involved in the resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a natural plant polyphenol widely present in foods such as grapes, wine, and peanuts. Previous studies indicate that RV has an ability to inhibit various stages of carcinogenesis and eliminate preneoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell. In this report, we analyzed whether Bax translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria during RV-induced apoptosis in single living cell using onfocal microscopey. Cells were transfected with GFP-Bax plasmid. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibition of RV on the cells viability. Apoptotic activity of RV was detected by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Our results showed that RV induced a dose-dependent apoptosis in which Bax did not translocate to mitochondrias.

  5. Preferential S phase entry and apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of HIV-1-infected patients after in vitro cultivation.

    PubMed

    Patki, A H; Zielske, S P; Sieg, S F; Lederman, M M

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the relationship between spontaneous apoptosis and cell cycle perturbations in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of HIV-1-infected patients and healthy controls. PBMC obtained from HIV-1-infected patients and healthy controls were incubated in culture medium for 48 h. Cells were separated into CD4(+) and CD8(+) populations using immunomagnetic beads. Apoptosis and cell cycle phases were measured by propidium iodide staining and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation followed by flow cytometric analyses. In experiments using cells obtained from HIV-1-infected patients, spontaneous apoptosis was more frequent in CD4(+) T lymphocytes than in CD8(+) T lymphocytes (17.6% vs 9.5%, P < 0.005). Among healthy controls, spontaneous apoptosis in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes was comparable (4.5% vs 5.1%). Lymphocytes obtained from patients were more frequently in S phase than healthy controls' cells (2.2 +/- 0.9% vs 0.5 +/- 0.2%, P < 0.002) and patients' CD4(+) cells tended to enter S phase more frequently than controls' CD4(+) cells (4.2% +/- 3.5% vs 1.8% +/- 0.5% P < 0.04), whereas the frequency of S phase CD8(+) T cells was not different among patients (2.8% +/- 2.9%) and controls (1.8% +/- 0.5%) (P > 0.4). Kinetic analyses using BrdU and PI staining revealed that S phase cells were more likely to become apoptotic than resting (G(0)-G(1)) cells (28.4% +/- 10.3% vs 11.3% +/- 9.9% in patients, P < 0.04, and 15.3% +/- 2.8% vs 1.8% +/- 0.5% in controls, P < 0.003). Lymphocytes obtained from HIV-1-infected persons are activated in vivo to enter S phase and to undergo spontaneous apoptosis after brief in vitro cultivation. The present studies indicate that most apoptotic cells in this system are CD4(+) and kinetic analyses reveal that S phase cells are more likely to undergo spontaneous apoptosis than G(0)-G(1) cells. Accelerated cell death in HIV-1 disease may contribute to the failure of lymphocyte responsiveness to appropriate T cell receptor

  6. Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of motile sperm cells and CHO cells in an optical trap (laser tweezers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Liu, Yagang; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Patrizio, Pasquale; Tadir, Yona; Sonek, Gregory J.; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    We describe fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging studies of optically trapped single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and motile human sperm cells. The NIR trapping beam was provided by a tunable, multimode continuous wave Ti:Sapphire laser. The beam was introduced into an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Fluorescence of cells in the single- beam gradient force optical trap was excited with a 488 nm microbeam (laser scanning microscopy) or with 365 nm radiation from a high- pressure mercury lamp. Modifications to NADH-attributed autofluorescence and Rhodamine- and Propidium Iodide-attributed xenofluorescence indicate a significant cell-damaging effect of 760 nm trapping beams. 760 nm effects produce a biological response comparable to UVA-induced oxidative stress and appear to be a consequence to two-photon absorption.

  7. Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubuloglomerular feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Zhao; Schmerbach, Kristin; Lu, Yuan; Perlewitz, Andrea; Nikitina, Tatiana; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Persson, Pontus B; Patzak, Andreas; Liu, Ruisheng; Sendeski, Mauricio M

    2014-04-15

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) have adverse effects that may result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in CM-induced kidney injury. We test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide in tubules are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage and that increased local oxidative stress may increase tubuloglomerular feedback. Rat thick ascending limbs (TAL) were isolated and perfused. Superoxide and nitric oxide were quantified using fluorescence techniques. Cell death rate was estimated using propidium iodide and trypan blue. The function of macula densa and tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness were measured in isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGA) of rabbits. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated in the renal medulla of rats that received CM. CM increased superoxide concentration and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in TAL. Propidium iodide fluorescence and trypan blue uptake increased more in CM-perfused TAL than in controls, indicating increased rate of cell death. There were no marked acute changes in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress in medullary segments of Henle's loop. SOD activity did not differ between CM and control groups. The tubuloglomerular feedback in isolated JGA was increased by CM. Tubular cell damage and accompanying oxidative stress in our model are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage, which also modifies the tubulovascular interaction at the macula densa, and may therefore contribute to disturbances of renal perfusion and filtration.

  8. Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubuloglomerular feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi Zhao; Schmerbach, Kristin; Lu, Yuan; Perlewitz, Andrea; Nikitina, Tatiana; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Persson, Pontus B.; Liu, Ruisheng; Sendeski, Mauricio M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) have adverse effects that may result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in CM-induced kidney injury. We test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide in tubules are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage and that increased local oxidative stress may increase tubuloglomerular feedback. Rat thick ascending limbs (TAL) were isolated and perfused. Superoxide and nitric oxide were quantified using fluorescence techniques. Cell death rate was estimated using propidium iodide and trypan blue. The function of macula densa and tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness were measured in isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGA) of rabbits. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated in the renal medulla of rats that received CM. CM increased superoxide concentration and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in TAL. Propidium iodide fluorescence and trypan blue uptake increased more in CM-perfused TAL than in controls, indicating increased rate of cell death. There were no marked acute changes in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress in medullary segments of Henle's loop. SOD activity did not differ between CM and control groups. The tubuloglomerular feedback in isolated JGA was increased by CM. Tubular cell damage and accompanying oxidative stress in our model are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage, which also modifies the tubulovascular interaction at the macula densa, and may therefore contribute to disturbances of renal perfusion and filtration. PMID:24431205

  9. Comparison of in Vitro Cytotoxicity and Apoptogenic Activity of Magnesium Chloride and Cisplatin as Conventional Chemotherapeutic Agents in the MCF-7 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Mirmalek, Seyed Abbas; Jangholi, Ehsan; Jafari, Mohammad; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Javidi, Mohammad Amin; Parsa, Yekta; Parsa, Tina; Salimi-Tabatabaee, Seyed Alireza; Ghasemzadeh Kolagar, Hossein; Khazaei Jalil, Saeed; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and also the second leading cause of cancer death among women and also in women that have a high mortality. Previous studies showed that magnesium (Mg) has cytotoxic effects on malignant cell lines. However, the anti-cancer effects of Mg on MCF-7 breast cancer cells are uncertain. This study was aimed at the comparison of the cytotoxic effect of Mg salt (MgCl2) and cisplatin on MCF-7 cells and fibroblasts (as normal cells). After treatment with various concentrations of MgCl2, and cisplatin as a positive control for 24 and 48 hours (h), cytotoxicity activity was measured by MTT assay. In addition, apoptosis was determined by annexin V/propidium iide assay. Both cisplatin and the MgCl2 exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in the MCF-7 cell line, although the LD50 of the Mg was significantly higher when compared to cispaltin (40 μg/ml vs. 20 μg/ml). Regarding annexin V/propidium results, treatment of MCF-7 cells with LD50 concentrations of cisplatin and Mg showed 59% and 44% apoptosis at 24h, respectively. Finally, the results indicated that Mg has cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells, but less than cisplatin as a conventional chemotherapeutic agent. However, regarding the side effects of chemotherapy drugs, it seems that Mg can be considered as a supplement for the treatment of breast cancer.

  10. l-Methionine inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Maximo A.; Bosland, Maarten C.; da Silva, Cássio P.; Sares, Claudia T. Gomes; de Oliveira, Alana M. Cerqueira; Kemp, Rafael; dos Reis, Rodolfo B.; Martins, Vilma R.; Sampaio, Suely V.; Bland, Kirby I.; Grizzle, William E.; dos Santos, José S.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that l-methionine inhibits proliferation of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. This study extends these findings to BXPC-3 (mutated p53) and HPAC (wild-type p53) pancreatic cancer cells and explores the reversibility of these effects. Cells were exposed to l-methionine (5 mg/ml) for 7 days or for 3 days, followed by 4 days of culture without l-methionine (recovery). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle effects were assessed by flow cytometry after staining for Ki-67 or annexin V/propidium iodide. Cell proliferation was reduced by 31–35% after 7 days of methionine exposure; the effect persisted in BXPC-3 and HPAC cells after 4 days of recovery. Methionine increased apoptosis by 40–75% in HPAC cells, but not in BXPC-3 cells. Continuous exposure to methionine caused accumulation of BXPC-3 cells in the S phase and HPAC cells in both the G0/G1 and S phases; however, after 4 days of recovery, these effects disappeared. In conclusion, l-methionine inhibits proliferation and interferes with the cell cycle of BXPC-3 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cells; the effects on apoptosis remarkably persisted after methionine withdrawal. Apoptosis was induced only in BXPC-3 cells. Some of the differences in the effects of methionine between cell lines may be related to disparate p53 status. These findings warrant further studies on the potential therapeutic benefit of l-methionine against pancreatic cancer. PMID:24126240

  11. L-Methionine inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Maximo A; Bosland, Maarten C; da Silva, Cássio P; Gomes Sares, Claudia T; de Oliveira, Alana M Cerqueira; Kemp, Rafael; dos Reis, Rodolfo B; Martins, Vilma R; Sampaio, Suely V; Bland, Kirby I; Grizzle, William E; dos Santos, José S

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that L-methionine inhibits proliferation of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells. This study extends these findings to BXPC-3 (mutated p53) and HPAC (wild-type p53) pancreatic cancer cells and explores the reversibility of these effects. Cells were exposed to L-methionine (5 mg/ml) for 7 days or for 3 days, followed by 4 days of culture without L-methionine (recovery). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle effects were assessed by flow cytometry after staining for Ki-67 or annexin V/propidium iodide. Cell proliferation was reduced by 31-35% after 7 days of methionine exposure; the effect persisted in BXPC-3 and HPAC cells after 4 days of recovery. Methionine increased apoptosis by 40-75% in HPAC cells, but not in BXPC-3 cells. Continuous exposure to methionine caused accumulation of BXPC-3 cells in the S phase and HPAC cells in both the G0/G1 and S phases; however, after 4 days of recovery, these effects disappeared. In conclusion, L-methionine inhibits proliferation and interferes with the cell cycle of BXPC-3 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cells; the effects on apoptosis remarkably persisted after methionine withdrawal. Apoptosis was induced only in BXPC-3 cells. Some of the differences in the effects of methionine between cell lines may be related to disparate p53 status. These findings warrant further studies on the potential therapeutic benefit of L-methionine against pancreatic cancer.

  12. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (p<0.0001, MTT-assay) and migration (p<0.05; scratch-assay), and increased apoptosis (p<0.05; caspase-3/7-assay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, DDNDBeQ treatment showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.01, MTT-assay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (p<0.05) as compared to DDN-control. This was further verified by cell cycle analysis (propidium-iodide-staining) that demonstrated significant cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase (p<0.001) by DDNDBeQ treatment as compared to control-DDN. Moreover

  13. Effects of air transient spark discharge and helium plasma jet on water, bacteria, cells, and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Karol; Kučerová, Katarína; Tarabová, Barbora; Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Sano, Kaori; Mihai, Cosmin Teodor; Ciorpac, Mitică; Gorgan, Lucian Dragos; Jijie, Roxana; Pohoata, Valentin; Topala, Ionut

    2015-06-06

    Atmospheric pressure DC-driven self-pulsing transient spark (TS) discharge operated in air and pulse-driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (PJ) operated in helium in contact with water solutions were used for inducing chemical effects in water solutions, and the treatment of bacteria (Escherichia coli), mammalian cells (Vero line normal cells, HeLa line cancerous cells), deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), and protein (bovine serum albumin). Two different methods of water solution supply were used in the TS: water electrode system and water spray system. The effects of both TS systems and the PJ were compared, as well as a direct exposure of the solution to the discharge with an indirect exposure to the discharge activated gas flow. The chemical analysis of water solutions was performed by using colorimetric methods of UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometry. The bactericidal effects of the discharges on bacteria were evaluated by standard microbiological plate count method. Viability, apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed in normal and cancerous cells. Viability of cells was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion test, apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, and cell cycle progression by propidium iodide/RNase test. The effect of the discharges on deoxyribonucleic acid and protein were evaluated by fluorescence and UV absorption spectroscopy. The results of bacterial and mammalian cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle clearly show that cold plasma can inactivate bacteria and selectively target cancerous cells, which is very important for possible future development of new plasma therapeutic strategies in biomedicine. The authors found that all investigated bio-effects were stronger with the air TS discharge than with the He PJ, even in indirect exposure.

  14. PACAP protects against TNFα-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNFα ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNFα significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNFα-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNFα was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNFα involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  15. Experimental Adaptation of Rotaviruses to Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A.; Guerrero, Rafael A.; Silva, Elver; Acosta, Orlando; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A number of viruses show a naturally extended tropism for tumor cells whereas other viruses have been genetically modified or adapted to infect tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses have become a promising tool for treating some cancers by inducing cell lysis or immune response to tumor cells. In the present work, rotavirus strains TRF-41 (G5) (porcine), RRV (G3) (simian), UK (G6-P5) (bovine), Ym (G11-P9) (porcine), ECwt (murine), Wa (G1-P8), Wi61 (G9) and M69 (G8) (human), and five wild-type human rotavirus isolates were passaged multiple times in different human tumor cell lines and then combined in five different ways before additional multiple passages in tumor cell lines. Cell death caused by the tumor cell-adapted isolates was characterized using Hoechst, propidium iodide, 7-AAD, Annexin V, TUNEL, and anti-poly-(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and -phospho-histone H2A.X antibodies. Multiple passages of the combined rotaviruses in tumor cell lines led to a successful infection of these cells, suggesting a gain-of-function by the acquisition of greater infectious capacity as compared with that of the parental rotaviruses. The electropherotype profiles suggest that unique tumor cell-adapted isolates were derived from reassortment of parental rotaviruses. Infection produced by such rotavirus isolates induced chromatin modifications compatible with apoptotic cell death. PMID:26828934

  16. Synergistic Interactions between HDAC and Sirtuin Inhibitors in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Michele; Soncini, Debora; Fruscione, Floriana; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Garuti, Anna; Emionite, Laura; Moran, Eva; Magnone, Mirko; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Reverberi, Daniele; Caffa, Irene; Salis, Annalisa; Cagnetta, Antonia; Bergamaschi, Micaela; Casciaro, Salvatore; Pierri, Ivana; Damonte, Gianluca; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gobbi, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins) in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527) and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited. PMID:21818379

  17. Sapodilla Plum (Achras sapota) Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cell Lines and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2014-01-01

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice. PMID:25142835

  18. Correlated analysis of cellular DNA, membrane antigens and light scatter of human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Braylan, R.C.; Benson, N.A.; Nourse, V.; Kruth, H.S.

    1982-03-01

    Flow cytometric correlated analysis of membrane antigens, DNA, and light scatter was performed on human lymphoid cells using fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated antibodies to label B- and T-cell antigens and propidium iodide (PI) to stain DNA after ethanol fixation and RNase treatment. A FACS II flow cytometer was modified to obtain digitized measurements of two color fluorescence and light scatter emissions, simultaneously. Software was written to allow single parameter analysis or correlated analysis of any two of the three parameters acquired. Ethanol fixation preserved FITC surface labeling for at least 15 weeks, but produced marked changes in light scatter. No changes in FITC distributions were observed after RNase treatment and PI staining, and the presence of FITC labeling did not affect DNA distributions. Within heterogeneous cell populations, the DNA distribution of cell subpopulations identified by a membrane antigen was clearly demonstrated.

  19. K562 cells display different vulnerability to H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress in differing cell cycle phases.

    PubMed

    Akcakaya, Handan; Dal, Fulya; Tok, Sabiha; Cinar, Suzan-Adin; Nurten, Rustem

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the increase of oxidizing agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or the imbalance between the antioxidative defense mechanism and oxidants. Cell cycle checkpoint response can be defined as the arrest of the cell cycle functioning after damaging chemical exposure. This temporary arrest may be a period of time given to the cells to repair the DNA damage before entering the cycle again and completing mitosis. In order to determine the effects of oxidative stress on several cell cycle phases, human erytroleukemia cell line (K562) was synchronized with mimosine and genistein, and cell cycle analysis carried out. Synchronized cells were exposed to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at several concentrations and different times. Changes on mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) of K562 cells were analyzed in G1, S, and G2 /M using Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). To determine apoptosis and necrosis, stressed cells were stained with Annexin V (AnnV) and propidium iodide (PI) for flow cytometry. Changes were observed in the ΔΨm of synchronized and asynchronized cells that were exposed to oxidative stress. Synchronized cells in S phase proved resistant to the effects of oxidative stress and synchronized cells at G2 /M phase were sensitive to the effects of H2O2 -induced oxidative stress at 500 μM and above.

  20. Analysis of tumour cell composition in tumours composed of paired mixtures of mammary tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, F. R.; Wilburn, D. J.; Heppner, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to quantitate the effects of tumour subpopulation interactions, we have devised a method to determine the subpopulation composition of tumours by using paired tumour cell lines able to grow in different selective media. Line 4T07 forms colonies in thioguanine but not in HAT and line 168 forms colonies in HAT but not in thioguanine. An independent technique of determining tumour cell content was used to validate this method: line 168 and 4T07 cells are distinguishable by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide for DNA content. Mixtures of cell suspensions prepared from each unmixed tumour, as well as from tumours arising from mixtures of these lines, were analysed by both the colony formation assay and by the DNA content assay. The colony formation assay yielded values in good agreement with the DNA content assay, but was considerably more sensitive in that it was able to quantitate minority subpopulations that constituted less than 10% of the tumour. Both methods revealed that in tumours arising from mixtures, the tumour cells were almost entirely line 4T07, even when the inoculum had contained a high proportion of 168 cells. Since line 168 cells are very tumorigenic per se, these results suggest that line 4T07 cells are capable of interfering with 168 proliferation in mixed tumours, either directly or through a host-mediated mechanism. PMID:3426919

  1. Parallel single-cell analysis microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Floris T G; Gool, Elmar; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Bomer, Johan; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2011-11-01

    We report a PDMS microfluidic platform for parallel single-cell analysis (PaSCAl) as a powerful tool to decipher the heterogeneity found in cell populations. Cells are trapped individually in dedicated pockets, and thereafter, a number of invasive or non-invasive analysis schemes are performed. First, we report single-cell trapping in a fast (2-5  min) and reproducible manner with a single-cell capture yield of 85% using two cell lines (P3x63Ag8 and MCF-7), employing a protocol which is scalable and easily amenable to automation. Following this, a mixed population of P3x63Ag8 and MCF-7 cells is stained in situ using the nucleic acid probe (Hoechst) and a phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibody directed at EpCAM present on the surface of the breast cancer cells MCF-7 and absent on the myeloma cells P3x63Ag8 to illustrate the potential of the device to analyze cell population heterogeneity. Next, cells are porated in situ using chemicals in a reversible (digitonin) or irreversible way (lithium dodecyl sulfate). This is visualized by the transportation of fluorescent dyes through the membrane (propidium iodide and calcein). Finally, an electrical protocol is developed for combined cell permeabilization and electroosmotic flow (EOF)-based extraction of the cell content. It is validated here using calcein-loaded cells and visualized through the progressive recovery of calcein in the side channels, indicating successful retrieval of individual cell content. PMID:22025223

  2. Effects of esterified lactoferrin and lactoferrin on control of postharvest blue mold of apple fruit and their possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Shi, Xu-Gen; Wang, Hong-Yan; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2012-06-27

    The effects of esterified lactoferrin (ELF) and lactoferrin (LF) on blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in apple fruit stored at 25 °C were investigated. Both ELF and LF provided an effective control and strongly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of P. expansum in vitro. Assessment by propidium iodide staining combined with fluorescent microscopy revealed that the plasma membrane of P. expansum spores was damaged more seriously by ELF than by LF treatment, and the leakage of protein and sugar was higher from ELF-treated mycelia. Interestingly, ELF treatment induced a significant increase in the activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase in apple fruit, whereas both LF treatment and the control showed no obvious difference. These findings indicated that the effects of ELF on blue mold in apple fruit might be associated with the direct fungitoxic property against the pathogens and the elicitation of defense-related enzymes in fruit.

  3. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.M.B.D.; Seabra, S.H.; Vallim, D.C.; Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L.; Vommaro, R.C.; Domingues, R.M.C.P.

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  4. Delivery of molecules into cells using localized single cell electroporation on ITO micro-electrode based transparent chip.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chiech; Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Single cell electroporation is one of the nonviral method which successfully allows transfection of exogenous macromolecules into individual living cell. We present localized cell membrane electroporation at single-cell level by using indium tin oxide (ITO) based transparent micro-electrodes chip with inverted microscope. A focused ion beam (FIB) technique has been successfully deployed to fabricate transparent ITO micro-electrodes with submicron gaps, which can generate more intense electric field to produce very localized cell membrane electroporation. In our approach, we have successfully achieved 0.93 μm or smaller electroporation region on the cell surface to inject PI (Propidium Iodide) dye into the cell with 60 % cell viability. This experiments successfully demonstrate the cell self-recover process from the injected PI dye intensity variation. Our localized cell membrane electroporation technique (LSCMEP) not only generates reversible electroporation process but also it provides a clear optical path for potentially monitoring/tracking of drugs to deliver in single cell level.

  5. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  6. Gold nanoparticle sensitize radiotherapy of prostate cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Wilson; Zhang, Xiaojing; Guo, Linghong; Shaw, Andrew; Hu, Xiuying; Xiong, Yeping; Gulavita, Sunil; Patel, Samir; Sun, Xuejun; Chen, Jie; Moore, Ronald; Xing, James Z.

    2009-09-01

    Glucose-capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) have been used to improve cellular targeting and radio-sensitization. In this study, we explored the mechanism of Glu-GNP enhanced radiation sensitivity in radiation-resistant human prostate cancer cells. Cell survival and proliferation were measured using MTT and clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry with staining by propidium iodide (PI) was performed to study the cell cycle changes induced by Glu-GNPs, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of p53 and cyclin proteins that correlated to cell cycle regulation. With 2 Gy of ortho-voltage irradiation, Glu-GNP showed a 1.5-2.0 fold enhancement in growth inhibition when compared to x-rays alone. Comparing the cell cycle change, Glu-GNPs induced acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase at 29.8% versus 18.4% for controls at 24 h. G2/M arrest was accompanied by decreased expression of p53 and cyclin A, and increased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin E. In conclusion, Glu-GNPs trigger activation of the CDK kinases leading to cell cycle acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation in the G2/M phase. This activation is accompanied by a striking sensitization to ionizing radiation, which may have clinical implications.

  7. Detection of irradiated quail meat by using DNA comet assay and evaluation of comets by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erel, Yakup; Yazici, Nizamettin; Özvatan, Sumer; Ercin, Demet; Cetinkaya, Nurcan

    2009-09-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) was used to detect DNA comets in irradiated quail meat samples. Obtained DNA comets were evaluated by both photomicrographic and image analysis. Quail meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0.52, 1.05, 1.45, 2.00, 2.92 and 4.00 kGy in gamma cell (gammacell 60Co, dose rate 1.31 kGy/h) covering the permissible limits for enzymatic decay and stored at 2 °C. The cells isolated from muscle (chest, thorax) in cold PBS were analyzed using the DNA comet assay on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 11 day post irradiation. The cells were lysed between 2, 5 and 9 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophorosis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2 min. After propidium iodide staining, the slides were evaluated through a fluorescent microscope. In all irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and damaged cells appeared as a comet. All measurement data were analyzed using BS 200 ProP with software image analysis (BS 200 ProP, BAB Imaging System, Ankara, Turkey). The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. The values of tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment were significantly different and identical between 0.9 and 4.0 kGy dose exposure, and also among storage times on day 1, 4 and 8. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay EN 13784 standard method may be used not only for screening method for detection of irradiated quail meat depending on storage time and condition but also for the quantification of applied dose if it is combined with image analysis. Image analysis may provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of head and tail of comet intensity related with applied doses.

  8. Induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by berberine in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Keqiang; Zhang, Cheng; Feng, Jinbo; Hou, Lifang; Yan, Lei; Zhou, Zunlin; Liu, Zhaoxu; Liu, Cheng; Fan, Yidon; Zheng, Baozhong; Xu, Zhonghua

    2011-07-01

    Bladder cancer is the ninth most common type of cancer, and its surgery is always followed by chemotherapy to prevent recurrence. Berberine is non-toxic to normal cells but has anti-cancer effects in many cancer cell lines. This study was aimed to determine whether berberine inhibits the cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in BIU-87 and T24 bladder cancer cell line. The superficial bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 and invasive T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of berberine. MTT assay was used to determine the effects of berberine on the viability of these cells. The cell cycle arrest was detected through propidium iodide (PI) staining. The induction of apoptosis was determined through Annexin V-conjugated Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa488) staining. Berberine inhibited the viability of BIU-87 and T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also promoted cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. We observed that H-Ras and c-fos mRNA and protein expressionswere dose-dependently and time-dependently decreased by berberine treatment. Also, we investigated the cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 protein expressions increased in a dose-dependent manner. Berberine inhibits the cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in BIU-87, bladder cancer cell line and T24, invasive bladder cancer cell line. Berberine can inhibit the oncogentic H-Ras and c-fos in T24 cells, and can induce the activation of the caspase-3 and caspase-9 apoptosis. Therefore, berberine has the potential to be a novel chemotherapy drug to treat the bladder cancer by suppressing tumor growth.

  9. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors.

  10. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors. PMID:26367709

  11. Tyrphostin AG 1296 induces glioblastoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    LI, HONGWEI; ZHENG, JUNNING; GUAN, RUIYUN; ZHU, ZIFENG; YUAN, XIANHOU

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common type of malignant human brain tumor. Currently available chemotherapies for glioblastoma focus on targeting tyrosine kinases. However, the existing inhibitors of tyrosine kinases have not produced the therapeutic outcomes that were anticipated. In order to investigate the viability alternative chemotherapeutic agents in this disease, the present study examined the anticancer effects of tyrphostin AG 1296, focusing on its involvement in apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. The study aimed to identify whether tyrphostin AG 1296 affects glioblastoma cell growth by inducing cell apoptosis. To achieve this, cell viability, propidium iodide analysis and cell invasion assay were used to measure cell growth, cell apoptosis and cell migration of human glioblastoma cells. The results showed that tyrphostin AG 1296 treatment reduced cell viability and suppressed migration of human glioblastoma cells. It was also demonstrated that tyrphostin AG 1296 induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Finally, tyrphostin AG 1296 was also shown to significantly inhibit the growth of glioblastoma cells and to increase tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. These findings suggest that tyrphostin AG 1296 induces apoptosis, thereby reducing cell viability and capacity for migration of glioblastoma cells. PMID:26788146

  12. An epiiluminator/detector unit permitting arc lamp illumination for fluorescence activated cell sorters.

    PubMed

    Koper, G J; Bonnet, J; Christiaanse, J G; Ploem, J S

    1982-07-01

    The application of arc lamps to flow cytometers is discussed and epiillumination for jet-in-air cell sorters is introduced. An epiilluminator/detector unit equipped with a mercury arc lamp constructed for a commercially available cell sorter is described. Experiments in which laser and mercury arc lamp illumination were compared show that the signal-to-noise ratio for the arc lamp illumination is predominantly limited by shot noise from constant light backgrounds due to reflected excitation light and ambient light. Arc lamp illumination can be used for the sorting of highly fluorescent objects such as cells stained for DNA by for example: ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, or the Hoechst dyes. The simultaneous employment of mercury arc and laser light sources as an inexpensive dual wavelength system is discussed.

  13. Pseudolaric Acid B Induced Cell Cycle Arrest, Autophagy and Senescence in Murine Fibrosarcoma L929 Cell

    PubMed Central

    hua Yu, Jing; yu Liu, Chun; bin Zheng, Gui; Zhang, Li Ying; hui Yan, Ming; yan Zhang, Wen; ying Meng, Xian; fang Yu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: PAB induced various cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. But in cell line murine fibrosarcoma L929, PAB did not induce apoptosis, but autophagy, therefore it was thought by us as a good model to research the relationship of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence bypass apoptosis. Methods: Inhibitory ratio was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Hoechst 33258 staining for nuclear change, propidium iodode (PI) staining for cell cycle, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining for autophagy, and rodanmine 123 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by fluorescence microscopy or flowcytometry. Apoptosis was determined by DNA ladder test. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was detected by PKC assay kit. SA-β-galactosidase assay was used to detect senescence. Protein expression was examined by western blot. Results: PAB inhibited L929 cell growth in time-and dose-dependent manner. At 12 h, 80 μmol/L PAB induced obvious mitotic arrest; at 24 h, PAB began to induce autophagy; at 36 h, cell-treated with PAB slip into G1 cell cycle; and 3 d PAB induced senescence. In time sequence PAB induced firstly cell cycle arrest, then autophagy, then slippage into G1 phase, lastly senescence. Senescent cells had high level of autophagy, inhibiting autophagy led to apoptosis, and no senescence. PAB activated PKC activity to induce cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, inhibiting PKC activity suppressed cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence. Conclusion: PAB induced cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cell through PKC. PMID:23630435

  14. Curcumin Inhibits Glyoxalase 1—A Possible Link to Its Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Santel, Thore; Pflug, Gabi; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Schäfer, Angelika; Hollenbach, Marcus; Buchold, Martin; Hintersdorf, Anja; Lindner, Inge; Otto, Andreas; Bigl, Marina; Oerlecke, Ilka; Hutschenreuter, Antje; Sack, Ulrich; Huse, Klaus; Groth, Marco; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Gebhardt, Rolf; Platzer, Mathias; Weiss, Thomas; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A.; Krüger, Monika; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Glyoxalases (Glo1 and Glo2) are involved in the glycolytic pathway by detoxifying the reactive methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate in a two-step reaction using glutathione (GSH) as cofactor. Inhibitors of glyoxalases are considered as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agents. The recent finding that various polyphenols modulate Glo1 activity has prompted us to assess curcumin's potency as an Glo1 inhibitor. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultures of whole blood cells and tumor cell lines (PC-3, JIM-1, MDA-MD 231 and 1321N1) were set up to investigate the effect of selected polyphenols, including curcumin, on the LPS-induced cytokine production (cytometric bead-based array), cell proliferation (WST-1 assay), cytosolic Glo1 and Glo2 enzymatic activity, apoptosis/necrosis (annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining; flow cytometric analysis) as well as GSH and ATP content. Results of enzyme kinetics revealed that curcumin, compared to the polyphenols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, luteolin and rutin, elicited a stronger competitive inhibitory effect on Glo1 (Ki = 5.1±1.4 µM). Applying a whole blood assay, IC50 values of pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β) were found to be positively correlated with the Ki-values of the aforementioned polyphenols. Moreover, whereas curcumin was found to hamper the growth of breast cancer (JIMT-1, MDA-MB-231), prostate cancer PC-3 and brain astrocytoma 1321N1 cells, no effect on growth or vitality of human primary hepatocytes was elucidated. Curcumin decreased D-lactate release by tumor cells, another clue for inhibition of intracellular Glo1. Conclusions/Significance The results described herein provide new insights into curcumin's biological activities as they indicate that inhibition of Glo1 by curcumin may result in non-tolerable levels of MGO and GSH, which, in turn, modulate various metabolic cellular pathways including depletion of cellular ATP and GSH content. This may account

  15. Melatonin Protects Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaolian; Sivakumaran, Priyadharshini; Lim, Shiang Y.; Morrison, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have applications in regenerative medicine based on their therapeutic potential to repair and regenerate diseased and damaged tissue. They are commonly subject to oxidative stress during harvest and transplantation, which has detrimental effects on their subsequent viability. By functioning as an antioxidant against free radicals, melatonin may exert cytoprotective effects on ASCs. Methods We cultured human ASCs in the presence of varying dosages of hydrogen peroxide and/or melatonin for a period of 3 hours. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining under fluorescence microscopy. Results Hydrogen peroxide (1–2.5 mM) treatment resulted in an incremental increase in cell death. 2 mM hydrogen peroxide was thereafter selected as the dose for co-treatment with melatonin. Melatonin alone had no adverse effects on ASCs. Co-treatment of ASCs with melatonin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide protected ASCs from cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and afforded maximal protection at 100 µM (n=4, one-way analysis of variance P<0.001). Melatonin co-treated ASCs displayed significantly fewer apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by condensed and fragmented nuclei under fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions Melatonin possesses cytoprotective properties against oxidative stress in human ASCs and might be a useful adjunct in fat grafting and cell-assisted lipotransfer. PMID:27218020

  16. Time-Lapse Imaging of Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Wallberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Meier, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    The best approach to distinguish between necrosis and apoptosis is time-lapse video microscopy. This technique enables a biological process to be photographed at regular intervals over a period, which may last from a few hours to several days, and can be applied to cells in culture or in vivo. We have established two time-lapse microscopy methods based on different ways of calculating cell death: semiautomated and automated. In the semiautomated approach, cell death can be visualized by staining with combinations of Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated Annexin V and Sytox Green (SG), or Annexin V(FITC) and Propidium iodide (PI). The automated method is similar except that all cells are labeled with dyes. This allows faster quantification of data. To this end Cell Tracker Green is used to label all cells at time zero in combination with PI and Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated Annexin V. Necrotic cell death is accompanied by either simultaneous labeling with Annexin V and PI or SG (double-positive), or direct PI or SG staining. Additionally, necrotic cells display characteristic morphology, such as cytoplasmic swelling. In contrast to necrosis where membrane permeabilization is an early event, cells that die by apoptosis lose their membrane permeability relatively late. Therefore, the time between Annexin V staining and PI or SG uptake (double-positive) can be used to distinguish necrosis from apoptosis. This protocol describes the analysis of cell death by time-lapse imaging of HT1080 and L929 cells stained with these dyes, but it can be readily adapted to other cell types of interest. PMID:26933245

  17. Membrane permeabilization and cell damage by ultrashort electric field shocks.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Shevin, Rachael; White, Jody A; Kolb, Juergen F; Pakhomova, Olga N; Joshi, Ravindra P; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2007-09-01

    Mammalian cells exposed to electric field pulses of nanosecond duration (nsPEF; 60-ns, 12 kV/cm) experienced a profound and long-lasting increase in passive electrical conductance (G(m)) of the cell membrane, probably caused by opening of stable conductance pores (CPs). The CPs were permeable to Cl(-) and alkali metal cations, but not to larger molecules such as propidium iodide (PI). CPs gradually resealed; the process took minutes and could be observed even in dialyzed cells and in ATP- and glucose-free solutions. Cells subjected to long nsPEF trains (up to 200 pulses) underwent severe and immediate necrotic transformation (cell swelling, blebbing, cytoplasm granulation), but remained impermeable to PI for at least 30-60 min after the exposure. Both G(m) increase after short nsPEF trains and necrotic changes after long nsPEF trains were cell type-dependent: they were much weaker in HeLa than in GH3 cells. La(3+) and Gd(3+) ions significantly inhibited the nsPEF-induced G(m) increase (probably by blocking the CPs), and effectively protected intensely exposed cells from developing necrosis. We conclude that plasma membrane permeabilization is the principal cause of necrotic transformation in nsPEF-exposed cells and probably contributes to other known nsPEF bioeffects.

  18. Optical injection of mammalian cells using a microfluidic platform

    PubMed Central

    Marchington, Robert F.; Arita, Yoshihiko; Tsampoula, Xanthi; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2010-01-01

    The use of a focused laser beam to create a sub-micron hole in the plasma membrane of a cell (photoporation), for the selective introduction of membrane impermeable substances (optical injection) including nucleic acids (optical transfection), is a powerful technique most commonly applied to treat single cells. However, particularly for femtosecond photoporation, these studies have been limited to low throughput, small-scale studies, because they require sequential dosing of individual cells. Herein, we describe a microfluidic photoporation system for increased throughput and automated optical injection of cells. Hydrodynamic focusing is employed to direct a flow of single-file cells through a focused femtosecond laser beam for photoporation. Upon traversing the beam, a number of transient pores potentially open across the extracellular membrane, which allows the uptake of the surrounding fluid media into the cytoplasm, also containing the chosen injection agent. The process is entirely automated and a rate of 1 cell/sec could readily be obtained, enabling several thousand cells to be injected per hour using this system. The efficiency of optically injecting propidium iodide into HEK293 mammalian cells was found to be 42 ± 8%, or 28 ± 4% taking into account the requirement of post-injection viability, as tested using Calcein AM. This work now opens the way for combining photoporation with microfluidic analyses, sorting, purification or on-chip cell culture studies. PMID:21258487

  19. Effect of hyperthermic CO2-treated dendritic cell-derived exosomes on the human gastric cancer AGS cell line

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JINLIN; WANG, ZHIYONG; MO, YANXIA; ZENG, ZHAOHUI; WEI, PEI; LI, TAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antitumor effects of hyperthermic CO2 (HT-CO2)-treated dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (Dex) on human gastric cancer AGS cells. Mouse-derived DCs were incubated in HT-CO2 at 43°C for 4 h. The exosomes in the cell culture supernatant were then isolated. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was observed using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining and the analysis of caspase-3 activity. In addition, the proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated in xenotransplant nude mice. HT-CO2 markedly inhibited cell proliferation, as assessed by the CCK-8 assay, and also induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity and morphological analysis using Hoechst fluorescent dye. It was also revealed that HT-CO2-treated Dex decreased the expression of heat shock protein 70 and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, HT-CO2 exerted an efficacious immune-enhancing effect on DCs. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the elimination of free cancer cells during laparoscopic resection. However, the potential cellular mechanisms underlying this process require further investigation. PMID:26170979

  20. Islet Stellate Cells Isolated from Fibrotic Islet of Goto-Kakizaki Rats Affect Biological Behavior of Beta-Cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Fei; Chen, Bi-Jun; Li, Wei; Li, Ling; Zha, Min; Zhou, S; Bachem, M G; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We previously isolated islet stellate cells (ISCs) from healthy Wistar rat islets. In the present study, we isolated "already primed by diabetic environment" ISCs from islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, determined the gene profile of these cells, and assessed the effects of these ISCs on beta-cell function and survival. We detected gene expression of ISCs by digital gene expression. INS-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin production were measured after being treated with ISCs supernatant (SN). We observed the similar expression pattern of ISCs and PSCs, but 1067 differentially expressed genes. Insulin production in INS-1 cells cultured with ISC-SN was significantly reduced. The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-positive INS-1 cells treated with ISC-SN were decreased. Propidium iodide- (PI-) positive INS-1 cells were 2.6-fold higher than those in control groups. Caspase-3 activity was increased. In conclusion, ISCs presented in fibrotic islet of GK rats might be special PSCs, which impaired beta-cell function and proliferation and increased beta-cell apoptosis.

  1. Islet Stellate Cells Isolated from Fibrotic Islet of Goto-Kakizaki Rats Affect Biological Behavior of Beta-Cell

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Fei; Chen, Bi-Jun; Li, Wei; Li, Ling; Zha, Min; Zhou, S.; Bachem, M. G.; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We previously isolated islet stellate cells (ISCs) from healthy Wistar rat islets. In the present study, we isolated “already primed by diabetic environment” ISCs from islets of Goto-Kakizaki rats, determined the gene profile of these cells, and assessed the effects of these ISCs on beta-cell function and survival. We detected gene expression of ISCs by digital gene expression. INS-1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and insulin production were measured after being treated with ISCs supernatant (SN). We observed the similar expression pattern of ISCs and PSCs, but 1067 differentially expressed genes. Insulin production in INS-1 cells cultured with ISC-SN was significantly reduced. The 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine-positive INS-1 cells treated with ISC-SN were decreased. Propidium iodide- (PI-) positive INS-1 cells were 2.6-fold higher than those in control groups. Caspase-3 activity was increased. In conclusion, ISCs presented in fibrotic islet of GK rats might be special PSCs, which impaired beta-cell function and proliferation and increased beta-cell apoptosis. PMID:26697502

  2. Purified CD34+ Lin- Thy+ stem cells do not contain clonal myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Gazitt, Y; Reading, C C; Hoffman, R; Wickrema, A; Vesole, D H; Jagannath, S; Condino, J; Lee, B; Barlogie, B; Tricot, G

    1995-07-01

    High-dose therapy with autologous marrow or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue has been extensively applied in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients during the past 10 years resulting in improved event-free and overall survival when compared with standard chemotherapy. However, relapses are common and cure is unlikely in the majority of patients. Because both bone marrow and PBSCs are contaminated with myeloma cells it is conceivable that relapse after autotransplantation originates at least in part from autografted tumor cells. In this study, mobilized PBSCs were examined for the presence of myeloma cells based on immunophenotyping and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. In addition, CD34+ Lin- Thy+ stem cells were purified from mobilized PBSC harvests of 10 MM patients by sequentially using counterflow elutriation centrifugation, treatment with phenylalanine methylester, and flow sorting, using 5-parameter gating (propidium iodide, forward scatter, side scatter, CD34+ v Lin- and CD34+ v Thy+). Virtually all mobilized unsorted PBSC preparations contained myeloma cells in sufficient quantities (range, < 0.01 to > 10%) potentially causing a disease relapse. Stem cell purification led to an overall enrichment by about 50-fold in all 10 patients; approximately 90% of the final cell population expressed CD34+ Lin- Thy+ with no evidence of myeloma cell contamination based on flow cytometric analysis of CD38bright cells (< 0.1%). Quantitative PCR amplification of patient-specific complementarity determining region III (CDRIII) DNA sequences showed depletion of clonal B cells by 2.7 to 7.3 logs, with the highest log reduction noted in the samples initially containing the most tumor cells. Our results show that purification of CD34+ Lin- Thy+ cells depletes myeloma cells to undetectable levels from up to 10% present in unsorted PBSCs, thus offering a tool to investigate whether MM relapse after autotransplantation can be reduced

  3. β-Adrenoceptor activation depresses brain inflammation and is neuroprotective in lipopolysaccharide-induced sensitization to oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation acting in synergy with brain ischemia aggravates perinatal ischemic brain damage. The sensitizing effect of pro-inflammatory exposure prior to hypoxia is dependent on signaling by TNF-α through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1. Adrenoceptor (AR) activation is known to modulate the immune response and synaptic transmission. The possible protective effect of α˜ and β˜AR activation against neuronal damage caused by tissue ischemia and inflammation, acting in concert, was evaluated in murine hippocampal organotypic slices treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequently subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Method Hippocampal slices from mice were obtained at P6, and were grown in vitro for 9 days on nitrocellulose membranes. Slices were treated with β1(dobutamine)-, β2(terbutaline)-, α1(phenylephrine)- and α2(clonidine)-AR agonists (5 and 50 μM, respectively) during LPS (1 μg/mL, 24 h) -exposure followed by exposure to OGD (15 min) in a hypoxic chamber. Cell death in the slice CA1 region was assessed by propidium iodide staining of dead cells. Results Exposure to LPS + OGD caused extensive cell death from 4 up to 48 h after reoxygenation. Co-incubation with β1-agonist (50 μM) during LPS exposure before OGD conferred complete protection from cell death (P < 0.001) whereas the β2-agonist (50 μM) was partially protective (p < 0.01). Phenylephrine was weakly protective while no protection was attained by clonidine. Exposure to both β1- and β2-agonist during LPS exposure decreased the levels of secreted TNF-α, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prevented microglia activation in the slices. Dobutamine remained neuroprotective in slices exposed to pure OGD as well as in TNFR1-/- and TNFR2-/- slices exposed to LPS followed by OGD. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that activation of both β1- and β2-receptors is neuroprotective and may offer mechanistic insights valuable for development of neuro-protective strategies

  4. Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Oridonin inhibits BxPC-3 cell growth through cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Shen, Wen; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Jun; Fan, Yongjun; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has multiple biological and pharmaceutical functions and has been used clinically for many years. While the antitumor function of oridonin has been corroborated by numerous lines of evidence, its anticancer mechanism has not been well documented. In this study, the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was used as a model to investigate a possible anticancer mechanism of oridonin through examining its effects on cell viability. The results showed that oridonin affected cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After exposure to different oridonin concentrations, growth rates and cell cycle arrest of BxPC-3 cells were significantly reduced compared with untreated cells, suggesting its effects on proliferation inhibition. Detailed signaling pathway analysis by western blot analysis revealed that low-dose oridonin treatment inhibited BxPC-3 cell proliferation by up-regulating p53 and down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. A high-dose oridonin not only arrested BxPC-3 cells in the G2/M phase but also induced cell accumulation in the S phase, presumably through γH2AX up-regulation and DNA damage. In addition, our results showed that a cell subpopulation was stained with propidium iodide after oridonin treatment. Protein quantification showed that cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was increased after a high-dose oridonin treatment, especially after long-term exposure. Accompanied by the increased level of deactivated PARP in BxPC-3 cells, the apoptosis initiators caspase-3 and caspase-7 expressions were also significantly increased, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptosis contributed to cell death. PMID:25651847

  6. Cell Electrosensitization Exists Only in Certain Electroporation Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Dermol, Janja; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation-induced cell sensitization was described as the occurrence of a delayed hypersensitivity to electric pulses caused by pretreating cells with electric pulses. It was achieved by increasing the duration of the electroporation treatment at the same cumulative energy input. It could be exploited in electroporation-based treatments such as electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation. The mechanisms responsible for cell sensitization, however, have not yet been identified. We investigated cell sensitization dynamics in five different electroporation buffers. We split a pulse train into two trains varying the delay between them and measured the propidium uptake by fluorescence microscopy. By fitting the first-order model to the experimental results, we determined the uptake due to each train (i.e. the first and the second) and the corresponding resealing constant. Cell sensitization was observed in the growth medium but not in other tested buffers. The effect of pulse repetition frequency, cell size change, cytoskeleton disruption and calcium influx do not adequately explain cell sensitization. Based on our results, we can conclude that cell sensitization is a sum of several processes and is buffer dependent. Further research is needed to determine its generality and to identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:27454174

  7. Cell Electrosensitization Exists Only in Certain Electroporation Buffers.

    PubMed

    Dermol, Janja; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation-induced cell sensitization was described as the occurrence of a delayed hypersensitivity to electric pulses caused by pretreating cells with electric pulses. It was achieved by increasing the duration of the electroporation treatment at the same cumulative energy input. It could be exploited in electroporation-based treatments such as electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation. The mechanisms responsible for cell sensitization, however, have not yet been identified. We investigated cell sensitization dynamics in five different electroporation buffers. We split a pulse train into two trains varying the delay between them and measured the propidium uptake by fluorescence microscopy. By fitting the first-order model to the experimental results, we determined the uptake due to each train (i.e. the first and the second) and the corresponding resealing constant. Cell sensitization was observed in the growth medium but not in other tested buffers. The effect of pulse repetition frequency, cell size change, cytoskeleton disruption and calcium influx do not adequately explain cell sensitization. Based on our results, we can conclude that cell sensitization is a sum of several processes and is buffer dependent. Further research is needed to determine its generality and to identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:27454174

  8. Effects of cell orientation and electric field frequency on the transmembrane potential induced in ellipsoidal cells.

    PubMed

    Maswiwat, Kanokkan; Wachner, Derk; Gimsa, Jan

    2008-11-01

    The transmembrane potential (Deltaphi) induced by external electric fields is important both in biotech applications and in new medical therapies. We analyzed the effects of AC field frequency and cell orientation for cells of a general ellipsoidal shape. Simplified equations were derived for the membrane surface points where the maximum Deltaphi is induced. The theoretical results were confirmed in experiments with three-axial chicken red blood cells (a:b:c=6.66 microm:4.17 microm:1.43 microm). Propidium iodide (PI) staining and cell lysis were detected after an AC electropermeabilization (EP) pulse. The critical field strength for both effects increased when the shorter axis of a cell was parallel to the field, as well as at higher field frequency and for shorter pulse durations. Nevertheless, data analysis based on our theoretical description revealed that the Deltaphi required is lower for the shorter axis, i.e. for smaller membrane curvatures. The critical Deltaphi was independent of the field frequency for a given axis, i.e. the field strength had to be increased with frequency to compensate for the membrane dispersion effect. Comparison of the critical field strengths of PI staining in a linear field aligned along semi-axis a (142 kV m(-1)) and a field rotating in the a-b plane (115 kV m(-1)) revealed the higher EP efficiency of rotating fields.

  9. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  10. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST