Science.gov

Sample records for propidium iodide-stained cells

  1. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-11-03

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have undergone apoptosis in vivo. B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples collected from the lymph nodes and/or the spleen are used to prepare a single-cell suspension that is exposed to a hypotonic solution containing the fluorochrome PI. The DNA content of the cells, now labeled with PI, is analyzed by flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content is lost during apoptosis, resulting in a hypodiploid (or sub-G1) DNA profile during flow cytometry. In contrast, healthy cells display a sharp diploid DNA profile.

  2. Measuring the DNA Content of Cells in Apoptosis and at Different Cell-Cycle Stages by Propidium Iodide Staining and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Chojnowski, Grace; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-10-03

    All cells are created from preexisting cells. This involves complete duplication of the parent cell to create two daughter cells by a process known as the cell cycle. For this process to be successful, the DNA of the parent cell must be faithfully replicated so that each daughter cell receives a full copy of the genetic information. During the cell cycle, the DNA content of the parent cell increases as new DNA is synthesized (S phase). When there are two full copies of the DNA (G2/M phase), the cell splits to form two new cells (G0/G1 phase). As such, cells in different stages of the cell cycle have different DNA contents. The cell cycle is tightly regulated to safeguard the integrity of the cell and any cell that is defective or unable to complete the cell cycle is programmed to die by apoptosis. When this occurs, the DNA is fragmented into oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are disposed of when the dead cell is removed by phagocytosis. Consequently apoptotic cells have reduced DNA content compared with living cells. This can be measured by staining cells with propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent molecule that intercalates with DNA at a specific ratio. The level of PI fluorescence in a cell is, therefore, directly proportional to the DNA content of that cell. This protocol describes the use of PI staining to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of apoptotic cells in a sample.

  3. [Simultaneous staining with fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide to determine isolated cochlear outer hair cell viability of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Shi, H; Wang, J

    1995-01-01

    A simultaneous double-staining procedure using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) is discribed for use in the determination of isolated cochlear outer hair cell viability. With exciter light, viable cells fluoresce bright green, while nonviable cells are bright red. In cell culture and cytotoxicity studies, double-staining with FDA-PI is a accurate method to discriminate between live and nonviable cells.

  4. Quantification of viable Legionella pneumophila cells using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, M Adela; Nocker, Andreas; Soria-Soria, Elena; Múrtula, Raquel; Martínez, Lorena; Catalán, Vicente

    2011-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges of implementing fast molecular detection methods as part of Legionella surveillance systems is to limit detection to live cells. In this work, a protocol for sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been optimized and validated for L. pneumophila as an alternative of the currently used time-consuming culture method. Results from PMA-qPCR were compared with culture isolation and traditional qPCR. Under the conditions used, sample treatment with 50 μM PMA followed by 5 min of light exposure were assumed optimal resulting in an average reduction of 4.45 log units of the qPCR signal from heat-killed cells. When applied to environmental samples (including water from cooling water towers, hospitals, spas, hot water systems in hotels, and tap water), different degrees of correlations between the three methods were obtained which might be explained by different matrix properties, but also varying degrees of non-culturable cells. It was furthermore shown that PMA displayed substantially lower cytotoxicity with Legionella than the alternative dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) when exposing live cells to the dye followed by plate counting. This result confirmed the findings with other species that PMA is less membrane-permeant and more selective for the intact cells. In conclusion, PMA-qPCR is a promising technique for limiting detection to intact cells and makes Legionella surveillance data substantially more relevant in comparison with qPCR alone. For future research it would be desirable to increase the method's capacity to exclude signals from dead cells in difficult matrices or samples containing high numbers of dead cells.

  5. Enumeration of Viable Listeria monocytogenes Cells by Real-Time PCR with Propidium Monoazide and Ethidium Monoazide in the Presence of Dead Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium monoazide were used for enumeration of viable Listeria monocytogenes cells in the presence of dead cells. PMA had no antimicrobial effect on L. monocytogenes. Viable cell counts were linearly related to real-time PCR threshold cycle values for PMA-treated cel...

  6. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available.

  7. Time-resolved, single-cell analysis of induced and programmed cell death via non-invasive propidium iodide and counterstain perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Christina E. M.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Conventional propidium iodide (PI) staining requires the execution of multiple steps prior to analysis, potentially affecting assay results as well as cell vitality. In this study, this multistep analysis method has been transformed into a single-step, non-toxic, real-time method via live-cell imaging during perfusion with 0.1 μM PI inside a microfluidic cultivation device. Dynamic PI staining was an effective live/dead analytical tool and demonstrated consistent results for single-cell death initiated by direct or indirect triggers. Application of this method for the first time revealed the apparent antibiotic tolerance of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum cells, as indicated by the conversion of violet fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CvAM). Additional implementation of this method provided insight into the induced cell lysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing a lytic toxin-antitoxin module, providing evidence for non-lytic cell death and cell resistance to toxin production. Finally, our dynamic PI staining method distinguished necrotic-like and apoptotic-like cell death phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae among predisposed descendants of nutrient-deprived ancestor cells using PO-PRO-1 or green fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CgAM) as counterstains. The combination of single-cell cultivation, fluorescent time-lapse imaging, and PI perfusion facilitates spatiotemporally resolved observations that deliver new insights into the dynamics of cellular behaviour. PMID:27580964

  8. Apoptotic effects on cultured cells of atmospheric-pressure plasma produced using various gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominami, Kanako; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kudo, Tada-aki; Sasaki, Shota; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma on various cells such as rat fibroblastic Rat-1 cell line, rat neuroblastoma-like PC12 cell line, and rat macrophage-like NR8383 cell line. The plasma was irradiated directly to a culture medium containing plated cells for 0-20 s. The applied voltage, excitation frequency, and argon or helium gas flow were, respectively, 3-6 kV, 10 kHz, and 3 L/min. Cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated using annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Results showed that the low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation promoted cell death in a discharge-voltage-dependent and irradiation-time-dependent manner. Furthermore, different effects are produced depending on the cell type. Moreover, entirely different mechanisms might be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cells by helium and argon plasma.

  9. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  10. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells induces cell death in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus and aggravates lesion in a model of oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Ana Paula; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Grudzinski, Patrícia Benke; Gerhardt, Daniéli; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Chagastelles, Pedro; Nardi, Nance Beyer; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to be a new alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases, including stroke. In order to investigate the response of hippocampal tissue to factors secreted by MSC and if these factors are neuroprotective in a model of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), we used organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived MSC. Our results suggest that the conditioned medium obtained from these cells aggravates lesion caused by OGD. In addition, the presence of the conditioned medium alone was toxic mainly to cells in the CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampal organotypic culture even in basal conditions. GABA stimulation and NMDA and AMPA receptors antagonists were able to reduce propidium iodide staining, suggesting that the cell death induced by the toxic factors secreted by MSC could involve these receptors.

  11. Involvement of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 isoforms in oxidant-induced neural cell death.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brianna; Knotts, Taylor; Cummings, Brian S

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the roles of Ca2+-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) in phospholipid chemistry and oxidant-induced cell death in human astrocytes. A172 cells expressed both cytosolic Group VIA (iPLA2beta) and microsomal Group VIB (iPLA2gamma) PLA2 as determined by activity assays and immunoblot analysis. Inhibition of total iPLA2 activity using racemic bromoenol lactone (BEL, 2.5 microM) decreased the expression of 14:0-16:0 phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) 15% and increased 18:0-18:1-PtdCho expression 15%. Treatment of cells with the iPLA2gamma specific inhibitor R-BEL decreased 14:0-16:0-PtdCho 35%, 16:0-16:0-PtdCho 15% and induced a 35% increase in 18:0-18:1-PtdCho. In contrast, treatment of cells with the iPLA2beta inhibitor S-BEL did not alter any phospholipid studied. To determine the roles of iPLA2 in oxidant-induced cell death, A172 cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP); both induced time- and concentration-dependent increases in cell death as assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Treatment of cells with racemic-BEL alone did not induce cell death. However, pretreatment with BEL prior to H2O2 (500 microM) or TBHP (200 microM) significantly increased necrosis as determined by increases in propidium iodide staining. Treatment with BEL prior to exposure to oxidants accelerated the loss of ATP levels, but not the formation of reactive oxygen species. These data support the hypothesis that iPLA2 mediates oxidant-induced neural cell death and demonstrates differential roles of iPLA2 isoforms in physiological and pathological events.

  12. The effect of lance geometry and carbon coating of silicon lances on propidium iodide uptake in lance array nanoinjection of HeLa 229 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, John W.; Lindstrom, Dallin L.; Hanks, Brad W.; Hope, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    Connecting technology to biologic discovery is a core focus of non-viral gene therapy biotechnologies. One approach that leverages both the physical and electrical function of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in cellular engineering is a technology previously described as lance array nanoinjection (LAN). In brief, LAN consists of a silicon chip measuring 2 cm by 2 cm that has been etched to contain an array of 10 μm tall, solid lances that are spaced every 10 μm in a grid pattern. This array of lances is used to physically penetrate hundreds of thousands of cells simultaneously and to then electrically deliver molecular loads into cells. In this present work, two variables related to the microfabrication of the silicon lances, namely lance geometry and coating, are investigated. The purpose of both experimental variables is to assess these parameters’ effect on propidium iodide (PI), a cell membrane impermeable dye, uptake to injected HeLa 229 cells. For the lance geometry experimentation, three different microfabricated lance geometries were used which include a flat/narrow (FN, 1 μm diameter), flat/wide (FW, 2-2.5 μm diameter), and pointed (P, 1 μm diameter) lance geometries. From these tests, it was shown that the FN lances had a slightly better cell viability rate of 91.73% and that the P lances had the best PI uptake rate of 75.08%. For the lance coating experimentation, two different lances were fabricated, both silicon etched lances with some being carbon coated (CC) in a  <100 nm layer of carbon and the other lances being non-coated (Si). Results from this experiment showed no significant difference between lance types at three different nanoinjection protocols (0V, +1.5V DC, and  +5V Pulsed) for both cell viability and PI uptake rates. One exception to this is the comparison of CC/5V Pul and Si/5V Pul samples, where the CC/5V Pul samples had a cell viability rate 5% higher. Both outcomes were unexpected and reveal how to better

  13. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content of living and fixed cells: a comparative study using various fixatives.

    PubMed

    Rousselle, C; Robert-Nicoud, M; Ronot, X

    1998-11-01

    The majority of studies dealing with DNA analyses are made on fixed cells. In this context, the efficiency as fixatives of ethanol, methanol, acetone, Carnoy, Boehm-Sprenger and aldehydes was determined using two different DNA fluorescent probes, Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide. The purpose of our study was to find the fixative that would provide the best results with respect to the following parameters: aggregates, cell size and granularity, and DNA staining analysis. Using murine fibroblasts, we found that 68% ethanol, 85% methanol and aldehydes did not increase aggregate formation, whereas Carnoy, acetone or Boehm-Sprenger fixatives did. The results show that aldehydes seem to alter cell size least. All fixatives induce an increase in cell granularity, which is very pronounced with alcohols, but aldehydes alter morphology less than alcohols. We observed that the fixatives giving the best resolution with Hoechst 33342 staining lead to a lower measurement variability than with propidium iodide staining. This study leads us to conclude that 68% ethanol and 85% methanol can be considered as appropriate fixatives for flow cytometry studies of DNA content.

  14. Theracurmin® efficiently inhibits the growth of human prostate and bladder cancer cells via induction of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minyong; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Kook, Ha Rim; Lee, Sangchul; Oh, Jong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Byun, Seok-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of Theracurmin®, a novel form of the yellow curry pigment curcumin, as well as explore the molecular mechanisms of the potential anticancer effects of Theracurmin® on human prostate cancer and bladder cancer cells in vitro. The proliferation of cancer cells was examined by using the Cell Counting Kit-8. The clonogenic growth potential was determined by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis was applied to explore the expression patterns of molecules associated with apoptotic cell death and cell cycle checkpoint. We noted that Theracurmin® and curcumin exhibited similar anticancer effects in both androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These agents reduced cell viability and clonogenic growth potential by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle disturbance in human prostate cancer cells. Theracurmin® and curcumin also exerted marked anticancer effects on human bladder cancer cells, even in cisplatin-resistant T24R2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, Theracurmin® and curcumin treatment decreased cell viability and clonogenicity via induction of apoptotic cell death and cell cycle dysregulation in human bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that Theracurmin® has potential as an anticancer agent in complementary and alternative medicine for these urological cancers.

  15. Polyphenols act synergistically with doxorubicin and etoposide in leukaemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mahbub, AA; Le Maitre, CL; Haywood-Small, SL; Cross, NA; Jordan-Mahy, N

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of polyphenols when used in combination with doxorubicin and etoposide, and to determine whether polyphenols sensitised leukaemia cells, causing inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. This study is based on findings in solid cancer tumours, which have shown that polyphenols can sensitize cells to chemotherapy, and induce apoptosis and/or cell-cycle arrest. This could enable a reduction of chemotherapy dose and off-target effects, whilst maintaining treatment efficacy. Quercetin, apigenin, emodin, rhein and cis-stilbene were investigated alone and in combination with etoposide and doxorubicin in two lymphoid and two myeloid leukaemia cells lines. Measurements were made of ATP levels (using CellTiter-Glo assay) as an indication of total cell number, cell cycle progression (using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry) and apoptosis (NucView caspase 3 assay and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining). Effects of combination treatments on caspases 3, 8 and 9 activity were determined using Glo luminescent assays, glutathione levels were measured using the GSH-Glo Glutathione Assay and DNA damage determined by anti-γH2AX staining. Doxorubicin and etoposide in combination with polyphenols synergistically reduced ATP levels, induced apoptosis and increased S and/or G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in lymphoid leukaemia cell lines. However, in the myeloid cell lines the effects of the combination treatments varied; doxorubicin had a synergistic or additive effect when combined with quercetin, apigenin, emodin, and cis-stilbene, but had an antagonistic effect when combined with rhein. Combination treatment caused a synergistic downregulation of glutathione levels and increased DNA damage, driving apoptosis via caspase 8 and 9 activation. However, in myeloid cells where antagonistic effects were observed, this was associated with increased glutathione levels and a reduction in DNA damage and

  16. MERTK Inhibition Induces Polyploidy and Promotes Cell Death and Cellular Senescence in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sufit, Alexandra; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Rupji, Manali; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Pierce, Angela M.; Kowalski, Jeanne; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V.; Earp, H. Shelton

    2016-01-01

    Background MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is expressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Our previous work demonstrated that inhibition of MERTK using RNA interference induced cell death and chemosensitivity in GBM cells, implicating MERTK as a potential therapeutic target. Here we investigate whether a novel MERTK-selective small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, UNC2025, has similar anti-tumor effects in GBM cell lines. Methods Correlations between expression of GAS6, a MERTK ligand, and prognosis were determined using data from the TCGA database. GBM cell lines (A172, SF188, U251) were treated in vitro with increasing doses of UNC2025 (50-400nM). Cell count and viability were determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycle profiles and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometric analysis after BrdU or Po-Pro-1/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Polyploidy was detected by propidium iodide staining and metaphase spread. Cellular senescence was determined by β-galactosidase staining and senescence-associated secretory cytokine analysis. Results Decreased overall survival significantly correlated with high levels of GAS6 expression in GBM, highlighting the importance of TAM kinase signaling in GBM tumorigenesis and/or therapy resistance and providing strong rationale for targeting these pathways in the clinic. All three GBM cell lines exhibited dose dependent reductions in cell number and colony formation (>90% at 200nM) after treatment with UNC2025. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and development of polyploidy. After extended exposure, 60–80% of cells underwent apoptosis. The majority of surviving cells (65–95%) were senescent and did not recover after drug removal. Thus, UNC2025 mediates anti-tumor activity in GBM by multiple mechanisms. Conclusions The findings described here provide further evidence of oncogenic roles for MERTK in GBM, demonstrate the

  17. Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanshan; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Di; Jin, Juan; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Wang, Qingtong

    2013-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play an important role in tumor development and progression. PGE2 mediates its biological activity by binding any one of four prostanoid receptors (EP1 through EP4). The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside. The proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to the selective EP2 receptor agonists butaprost and paeoniflorin. Apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was also quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the EP2 receptor and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 was determined by western blotting. Butaprost significantly increased proliferation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells stimulated by butaprost at multiple time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Paeoniflorin induced apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which was quantified by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Our results indicate that the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 was significantly increased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells after stimulation by butaprost. Paeoniflorin significantly decreased the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells on addition of butaprost. Our results show that the PGE2 receptor subtype EP2 may play a vital role in the survival of both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin, which may be a promising agent in the treatment of liver cancer, induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating

  18. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics.

  19. Memory CD8+ T cells colocalize with IL-7+ stromal cells in bone marrow and rest in terms of proliferation and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sercan Alp, Özen; Durlanik, Sibel; Schulz, Daniel; McGrath, Mairi; Grün, Joachim R; Bardua, Marcus; Ikuta, Koichi; Sgouroudis, Evridiki; Riedel, René; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hauser, Anja E; Tsuneto, Motokazu; Melchers, Fritz; Tokoyoda, Koji; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Thiel, Andreas; Radbruch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that memory CD8+ T cells are maintained in secondary lymphoid tissues, peripheral tissues, and BM by homeostatic proliferation. Their survival has been shown to be dependent on IL-7, but it is unclear where they acquire it. Here we show that in murine BM, memory CD8+ T cells individually colocalize with IL-7+ reticular stromal cells. The T cells are resting in terms of global transcription and do not express markers of activation, for example, 4-1BB (CD137), IL-2, or IFN-γ, despite the expression of CD69 on about 30% of the cells. Ninety-five percent of the memory CD8+ T cells in BM are in G0 phase of cell cycle and do not express Ki-67. Less than 1% is in S/M/G2 of cell cycle, according to propidium iodide staining. While previous publications have estimated the extent of proliferation of CD8+ memory T cells on the basis of BrdU incorporation, we show here that BrdU itself induces proliferation of CD8+ memory T cells. Taken together, the present results suggest that CD8+ memory T cells are maintained as resting cells in the BM in dedicated niches with their survival conditional on IL-7 receptor signaling. PMID:25639669

  20. B16 and cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells susceptibility to apoptosis after dacarbazine treatment.

    PubMed

    Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota M; Styczyńisk, Jan; Drewa, Tomasz A; Olszewski, Krzysztof J; Czajkowski, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    Considering the necessity of an individual choice of cytostatic drugs for patients with cancer disease and tumor cells' resistance to these compounds, their ability to induction of apoptosis should be investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dacarbazine (DTIC) on morphology and kinetics of proliferation of B16 and Cloudman S91 cells. It is important to determine the kind of death induced by the DTIC and the effect of a specific concentration. The evaluation of apoptosis and necrosis in these two mouse melanoma cell lines in vitro was performed. Induction of apoptosis was estimated in annexin V binding assay by flow cytometry. DNA content and cell cycle phases were determined by propidium iodide staining. DTIC induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis and necrosis in both cell lines. DTIC caused cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phase of both cell lines which showed hypertetraploidy. The highest induction of apoptosis was observed in DTIC concentration of 200 microg/mL for B16 cells (11%) and 100 microg/mL for apoptosis Cloudman S91 cells (22.2%). Higher doses of DTIC caused intensification of necrotic process. The B16 melanoma cells are more sensitive to DTIC than the Cloudman S91 cells, however more intensive apoptotic process was detected in Cloudman S91 cells already at lower concentration of DTIC.

  1. Mechanisms of Propidium Monoazide Inhibition of Polymerase Chain Reaction and implications for Propidium Monoazide Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. M.; Darrach, H.; Ponce, A.; McFarland, E.; Laymon, C.; Fingland, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    PMA-qPCR is a laboratory technique that can be used to identify viable microbes by employing the use of propidium monoazide (PMA), a DNA-intercalating dye, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The current model of PMA-qPCR operates under the assumption that PMA is only capable of entering membrane-compromised cells, where it irreversibly cross-links to DNA and makes it unavailable for amplification via qPCR. However, the exact mechanism behind PMA's entry into the cell and its interaction with genetic material is not well understood. To better understand PMA's capabilities, we have examined the effect PMA has on enzyme binding and processivity using endonucleases and exonucleases. Our results suggest that the current model behind PMA-qPCR inhibition is incomplete, in that rather than precipitating the entirety of the DNA, PMA also inhibits enzyme binding and/or processivity in soluble DNA. These results have important implications for studying the viable community of microorganisms in various applications, such as environmental monitoring, planetary protection and bioburden assessment, and biohazard detection.

  2. The protective effect of dopamine against OGD/R injury-induced cell death in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhu; Zhao, Lixi; Bai, Fan; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Hao; Liu, Lixu

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that levo-dopamine (L-dopa) can improve the consciousness of certain patients with prolonged coma after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and promote cell growth in vivo. This study aimed to investigate whether L-dopa, which is used clinically to treat Parkinson's disease, might also ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cell death. The oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R) model was used to mimic the ischemia-reperfusion pathological process in vitro. HT22 cells were treated with dopamine hydrochloride at different times (i.e., 2 h prior to OGD, during the period of OGD, during the period of R, and throughout the period of OGD/R) and at different concentrations (i.e., 25 μM, 50 μM, 100 μM). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, flow cytometry-annexin V, and propidium iodide staining with light microscopy showed that dopamine hydrochloride (added during re-oxygenation) promoted cell proliferation and facilitated maintenance of normal cell morphology. However, when present during oxygen-glucose deprivation for 18 h and present throughout OGD/R, dopamine hydrochloride increased cell damage as manifested by shrinkage, rounding up, and reduced viability. In conclusion, dopamine protected HT22 cells from OGD/R injury-induced cell death only at a particular point in time, suggesting that it may be useful for treating severe ischemia-reperfusion brain injury.

  3. Rottlerin-induced autophagy leads to apoptosis in bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ping; He, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lixiu; Fan, Yuan; Wang, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    It has been well-established that apoptosis contributes to cancer cell death; however, the role of autophagy in cancer cell death remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rottlerin, a traditional Indian medicine, on cell growth inhibition and autophagy in EJ human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro. Cell viability, measured by MTT assay, was found to be suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, apoptosis was significantly increased in cells treated with rottlerin, as indicated by increased annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and changes in the cell cycle distribution that indicated blockage at G1 phase. Rottlerin treatment also enhanced the activation of autophagy, with increased expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and the appearance of autophagosomes. The increased level of LC3-II and autophagosomes suggests that autophagy may contribute to apoptosis in these cells. In addition, no apparent alterations in the levels of pro-caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, total poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and cleaved-PARP were observed in cells treated with rottlerin, which indicates that caspases may not serve a key role during the process of apoptosis induced by rottlerin. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that rottlerin promotes apoptosis and arrests the cell cycle in EJ cells, which may be caused by autophagy activation. PMID:28101215

  4. A new fibrin sealant as a three-dimensional scaffold candidate for mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The optimization of an organic scaffold for specific types of applications and cells is vital to successful tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of a new fibrin sealant derived from snake venom as a scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells, to demonstrate the ability of cells to affect and detect the biological microenvironment. Methods The characterization of CD34, CD44 and CD90 expression on mesenchymal stem cells was performed by flow cytometry. In vitro growth and cell viability were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Differentiation into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was induced. Results The fibrin sealant did not affect cell adhesion, proliferation or differentiation and allowed the adherence and growth of mesenchymal stem cells on its surface. Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining demonstrated the viability of mesenchymal stem cells in contact with the fibrin sealant and the ability of the biomaterial to maintain cell survival. Conclusions The new fibrin sealant is a three-dimensional scaffolding candidate that is capable of maintaining cell survival without interfering with differentiation, and might also be useful in drug delivery. Fibrin sealant has a low production cost, does not transmit infectious diseases from human blood and has properties of a suitable scaffold for stem cells because it permits the preparation of differentiated scaffolds that are suitable for every need. PMID:24916098

  5. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  6. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic) or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic) to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation. PMID:21631947

  7. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effect of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Davari, Atiyeh-Sadat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: 7-prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites that are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae families. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7, a breast carcinoma cell line. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Bax protein expression was detected by western blot to investigate the underlying mechanism. Results: Doses which induced 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) against MCF-7 cells with auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin were calculated (59.7, 207.6, 476.3, and 73.4 µM), respectively. Auraptene induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that auraptene significantly up-regulated Bax expression in MCF-7 cells compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Auraptene exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in breast carcinoma cell line and can be considered for further mechanistic evaluations in human cancer cells. These results candidate auraptene for further studies to evaluate its biosafety and anti-cancer effects. PMID:26693409

  8. Matrigel-induced tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Liu, Bo; Wu, Jinjin; Lu, Yuangang; Yang, Yadong

    2011-09-01

    Human eccrine sweat glands are tubule-structured glands of the skin that are vital in thermoregulation, secretion, and excretion of water and electrolytes. A study of tubular morphogenesis in vitro would facilitate the development of a tissue engineering model for eccrine sweat glands and other tubule-structured glands. Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix, has been shown to promote differentiation and morphogenesis of many different cell types, including tubular cells. This study investigated the growth, differentiation, and tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells cultured in Matrigel. Human eccrine gland epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The cell growth in Matrigel was evidenced by the formation of cell clusters, which were observed under an inverted microscope. The internal structure of the cell clusters was further investigated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of propidium iodide-stained nuclei. The results demonstrated that although on a plastic surface or in a collagen gel the cells could not form tubular structures, they formed tubular structures when cultured in Matrigel. Consequently, we conclude that Matrigel can promote tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells.

  9. Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2016-05-01

    Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation and an increase in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner when compared with control and normal skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The morphology of treated cells supported apoptotic cell death. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that RFRA induced apoptosis in A375 and A549 cells and the percentages of early and late apoptotic populations significantly increased. Moreover, the apoptotic inducing ability of RFRA when analysing effector caspase 3/7 activity, indicated a marked increase in treated cells. In summary, we have shown the anticancer effects of RFRA in A375 and A549 cancer cells via induction of caspase dependent apoptosis in vitro. The extract is more effective against melanoma; which may suggest the usefulness of RFRA-based anticancer therapies.

  10. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fani, Somayeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Lo, Kong Mun; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Chow, Kit May; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, (compound C1), was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.5±0.50 μg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 μg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the present study obviously reveal potential cytotoxic effects of compound C1 against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Somayeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Lo, Kong Mun; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Chow, Kit May; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, (compound C1), was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.5±0.50 μg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 μg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the present study obviously reveal potential cytotoxic effects of compound C1 against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. PMID:26648695

  12. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01). Moreover, arctigenin (P < 0.05) or in combination with cisplatin (P < 0.01) induced G1/G0 cell-cycle arrest. Our data provide evidence that arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC.

  13. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Frame, Fiona M; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M; Simms, Matthew S; Boyle, Ross W; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer.

  14. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo

    2015-01-01

    Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938

  15. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  16. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  17. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-02-01

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V–FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  18. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  19. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V–FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:28225083

  20. Downregulation of a novel long noncoding RNA TRPM2-AS promotes apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Qin, Yingzhi; Liu, Hongsheng; Liang, Naixin; Chen, Yeye; Ma, Dongjie; Han, Zhijun; Xu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xiaoyun; He, Jia; Li, Shanqing

    2017-02-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer is still poor. Recent evidence has proved that long noncoding RNA is involved in tumorigenesis. For non-small cell lung cancer, the expression profile of long noncoding RNA has been studied. Here, we identified a novel long noncoding RNA TRPM2-AS from published dataset and found TRPM2-AS is widely upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Higher expression level of TRPM2-AS was correlated with higher TNM stages and larger tumor size. Patients with high TRPM2-AS expression level had poor survival than those with low TRPM2-AS level. We silenced TRPM2-AS by small interfering RNA and found that cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after knockdown of TRPM2-AS. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay confirmed that cell apoptosis increased after TRPM2-AS knockdown. Further experiments showed that silence of TRPM2-AS upregulated SHC1 and silence of SHC1 partially reversed cell apoptosis after TRPM2-AS knockdown. In summary, the novel long noncoding RNA TRPM2-AS upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer, and downregulation of TRPM2-AS promotes apoptosis in vitro.

  1. Cytotoxic Effect of Coscinium fenestratum on Human Head and Neck Cancer Cell Line (HN31)

    PubMed Central

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Khonsung, Parirat

    2015-01-01

    Coscinium fenestratum is widely used as a medicinal plant in many Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of a crude water extract of C. fenestratum (CF extract) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human HN31 cell line, a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx. The results revealed that cell morphology visualized under inverted light microscopy was changed from flat with a polygonal appearance to round appearance after CF extract application. The cell viability assay (MTT test) showed that the concentration producing 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 48-hour incubation of CF extract on HN31 was 0.12 mg/mL, while the IC50 of 5-FU was 6.6 mg/mL, indicating that CF extract has a higher potency. However, combining various concentrations of 5-FU and CF extract at IC50 did not show synergistic effect. The CF extract dose dependently increased cell apoptosis determined by Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. It decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and pAkt, while it increased the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of CF extract was associated with the modulation of p38 MAPK, pAkt, and p53 signal molecules, leading to inhibiting cell survival and increasing apoptosis. No synergistic effects of CF extract and 5-FU were observed. PMID:26074999

  2. Mefloquine inhibits chondrocytic proliferation by arresting cell cycle in G2/M phase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Chen, Zeng-Gan; Xia, Qing; Lin, Jian-Ping; Yan, Zuo-Qin; Yao, Zheng-Jun; Dong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Mefloquine (MQ), an analog of chloroquine, exhibits a promising cytotoxic activity against carcinoma cell lines and for the treatment of glioblastoma patients. The present study demonstrates the effect of mefloquine on proliferation and cell cycle in chondrocytes. MTT assay and propidium iodide staining were used for the analysis of proliferation and cell cycle distribution, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression levels of cyclin B1/cdc2, cdc25c, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53. The results revealed that mefloquine inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes and caused cell cycle arrests in the G2/M phase. The proliferation of chondrocytes was reduced to 27% at 40 μM concentration of mefloquine after 48 h. The population of chondrocytes in G2/M phase was found to be 15.7 and 48.4%, respectively at 10 and 40 μM concentration of mefloquine at 48 h following treatment. The expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins including, cyclin B1/cdc2 and cdc25c was inhibited. On the other hand, mefloquine treatment promoted the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 at 40 μM concentration after 48 h. Therefore, mefloquine inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in chondrocytes.

  3. Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ooi Kheng; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2011-01-01

    Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug. PMID:19541726

  4. Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Leong, Ooi Kheng; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2011-01-01

    Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug.

  5. Kefir induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in human acute erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran. We investigated the effect of kefir on acute erythroleukemia cell line (KG-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cell line and PBMCs were treated with different doses of kefir and milk and incubated for three different times. We used Polymixin B to block the lipopolysaccharide and NaOH (1 mol/l) to neutralize the acidic media. Viability was detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin-propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that kefir induced apoptosis and necrosis in KG-1 cell line. It was revealed that kefir decreased proliferation in erythroleukemia cell line. We did not observe a remarkable effect of kefir on PBMCs. Our study suggested that kefir may have potential to be an effective treatment for erythroleukemia.

  6. Involvement of mitochondria and metacaspase elevation in harpin Pss-induced cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sripriya, Paranthaman; Vedantam, Lakshmi Vasudev; Podile, Appa Rao

    2009-08-15

    Expression of a proteinaceous elicitor harpin(Pss,) encoded by hrpZ of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61, under GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187 resulted in galactose-inducible yeast cell death (YCD). Extracellular treatment of harpin did not affect the growth of yeast. The observed YCD was independent of the stage of cell cycle. "Petite" mutant of S. cerevisiae Y187 pYEUT-hrpZ was insensitive to cell death indicating the involvement of mitochondria in this YCD. Loss in mitochondrial potential, but no leakage of Cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, were notable features in harpin(Pss)-induced YCD. Cyclosporin A had no effect on hrpZ expressing yeast cells, further confirmed that there was no release of Cytochrome c. Elevation of caspase activity has been reported for the first time in this form of cell death induced by harpin expression. Release of reactive oxygen species and clear loss of membrane integrity were evident with the absence of nuclear fragmentation and chromosomal condensation, while annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed features typical of necrosis.

  7. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer.

  8. Effect of multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein on the hypoxia-induced multidrug resistance of human laryngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Liang; Huang, Jiameng; Xiao, Xiyan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, it was demonstrated that hypoxia upregulated the multidrug resistance (MDR) of laryngeal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, with multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression also being upregulated. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of MDR1/P-gp on hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The sensitivity of laryngeal cancer cells to multiple drugs and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined by CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis, respectively. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in the cells served as an estimate of drug accumulation and was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). MDR1/P-gp expression was inhibited using interference RNA, and the expression of the MDR1 gene was analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. As a result, the sensitivity to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and the apoptosis rate of the hypoxic laryngeal carcinoma cells increased following a decrease in MDR1/P-gp expression (P<0.05). Additionally, FCM analysis of fluorescence intensity indicated that the downregulated expression of MDR1/P-gp markedly increased intracellular Rh123 accumulation (P<0.05). Such results suggest that MDR1/P-gp serves an important role in regulating hypoxia-induced MDR in human laryngeal carcinoma cells through a decrease in intracellular drug accumulation.

  9. Analysis of Selenium Levels in Osteosarcoma Patients and the Effects of Se-Methylselenocysteine on Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Yong, Bi-cheng; Xu, Ming-hong; Li, Jing-chun; Guo, Hai-hua; Shen, Jing-nan

    2015-01-01

    The form of selenium appears to be important for preventing cancer in humans. Here, we evaluated selenium levels in the serum and bone tissue samples from osteosarcoma patients using atomic absorption spectrometry. The in vitro effects of Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MSC) on growth, cell cycle status, and apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells were assessed using the WST-1 assay, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. In osteosarcoma cases, the mean serum selenium levels in osteosarcoma tissue and normal bone were 0.08 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg, respectively (P < 0.05). Serum selenium levels in osteosarcoma and non-osteosarcoma cases were 0.09 mg/L and 0.08 mg/L, respectively (P > 0.05). Se-MSC-treated MG63 cells showed altered cellular morphology, decreased viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. Se-MSC also downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Bax. Se-MSC inhibited the proliferation of the drug-resistant osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2/MTX300 and enhanced the inhibitory effect of pirarubicin on MG63 cells. Our data demonstrate that selenium levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma tissue than normal bone tissue in osteosarcoma patients. The results also support the anticancer effects of Se-MSC in osteosarcoma. Further development of Se-MSC as an ancillary chemotherapy agent in osteosarcoma is warranted.

  10. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-21

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2.

  11. Troxerutin, a natural flavonoid binds to DNA minor groove and enhances cancer cell killing in response to radiation.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Singh, Beena G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Sandur, Santosh K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-05-05

    Troxerutin, a flavonoid best known for its radioprotective and antioxidant properties is of considerable interest of study due to its broad pharmacological activities. The present study on troxerutin highlights its abilities to bind DNA and enhance cancer cell killing in response to radiation. Troxerutin showed strong binding with calf thymus DNA in vitro. Troxerutin-DNA interaction was confirmed by CD spectropolarimetry. The mode of binding of troxerutin to DNA was assessed by competing troxerutin with EtBr or DAPI, known DNA intercalator and a minor groove binder, respectively. DAPI fluorescence was drastically reduced with linear increase in troxerutin concentration suggesting possible binding of troxerutin to DNA minor groove. Further, computational studies of docking of troxerutin molecule on mammalian DNA also indicated possible troxerutin-DNA interaction at minor groove of DNA. Troxerutin was found to mainly localize in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells. It induced cytotoxicity in radioresistant (DU145) and sensitive (PC3) prostate cancer cells. When troxerutin pre-treated DU145 and PC3 cells were exposed to γ-radiation, cytotoxicity as estimated by MTT assay, was found to be further enhanced. In addition, the % subG1 population detected by propidium iodide staining also showed similar response when combined with radiation. A similar trend was observed in terms of ROS generation and DNA damage in DU145 cells when troxerutin and radiation were combined. DNA binding at minor groove by troxerutin may have contributed to strand breaks leading to increased radiation induced cell death.

  12. In Vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles with optical imaging reporter in tumor mice model

    PubMed Central

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Gangadaran, Prakash; Li, Xiu Juan; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a therapeutic armor for cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs have been evaluated for anticancer effects. In vivo targeting of EVs to the tumor is an essential requirement for successful therapy. Therefore, non-invasive methods of monitoring EVs in animal models are crucial for developing EV-based cancer therapies. The present study to develop bioluminescent EVs using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-expressing MSCs. The EVs from MSC/Rluc cells (EV-MSC/Rluc) were visualized in a murine lung cancer model. The anticancer effects of EVs on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and other cancer cells were assessed. EV-MSC/Rluc were visualized in vivo in the LLC-efffuc tumor model using optical imaging. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. EV-MSC/Rluc and EV-MSCs showed a significant cytotoxic effect against LLC-effluc cells and 4T1; however, no significant effect on CT26, B16F10, TC1 cells. Moreover, EV-MSC/Rluc inhibited LLC tumor growth in vivo. EV-MSC/Rluc-mediated LLC tumor inhibitory mechanism revealed the decreased pERK and increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. We successfully developed luminescent EV-MSC/Rluc that have a therapeutic effect on LLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo. This bioluminescent EV system can be used to optimize EV-based therapy. PMID:27452924

  13. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in human SCM1 gastric cancer cells: activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Huang, Chorng-Chih; Huang, Chun-Jen; Wang, Being-Whey; Chang, Po-Min; Fang, Yi-Chien; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chu, Sau-Tung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-11-01

    Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative in some vaccines. The effect of thimerosal on human gastric cancer cells is unknown. This study shows that in cultured human gastric cancer cells (SCM1), thimerosal reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Thimerosal caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that thimerosal could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Thimerosal also induced [Ca2+](i) increases via Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. However, pretreatment with (bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate)/AM, a Ca2+ chelator, to prevent thimerosal-induced [Ca2+](i) increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in SCM1 cells, thimerosal caused Ca2+-independent apoptosis via phosphorylating p38 MAPK resulting in caspase-3 activation.

  14. Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kheng Leong; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Lim, Chui Hun; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

    2010-03-01

    The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL. An analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited an apoptotic cell death. mRNA expression analysis revealed the coregulation of apoptotic genes, that is, c-myc , p53, and caspase-3. The c-myc was significantly induced by the chloroform extract at the earlier phase of treatment, followed by p53 and caspase-3. Biochemical assay and ultrastructural observation displayed typical apoptotic features in the treated cells, including DNA fragmentation, blebbing and convolution of cell membrane, clumping and margination of chromatin, and production of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The presence of different stages of apoptotic cell death and phosphatidylserine externalization were further reconfirmed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the chloroform extract of P. minima induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways.

  15. Prexasertib, a Chk1/Chk2 inhibitor, increases the effectiveness of conventional therapy in B-/T- cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rorà, Andrea Ghelli Luserna Di; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Imbrogno, Enrica; Papayannidis, Cristina; Derenzini, Enrico; Ferrari, Anna; Guadagnuolo, Viviana; Robustelli, Valentina; Parisi, Sarah; Sartor, Chiara; Abbenante, Maria Chiara; Paolini, Stefania; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years many Checkpoint kinase 1/2 (Chk1/Chk2) inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of different type of cancers. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the Chk 1/2 inhibitor prexasertib mesylate monohydrate in B-/T- cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as single agent and in combination with other drugs. The prexasertib reduced the cell viability in a dose and time dependent manner in all the treated cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was confirmed by the increment of apoptotic cells (Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining), by the increase of γH2A.X protein expression and by the activation of different apoptotic markers (Parp-1 and pro-Caspase3 cleavage). Furthermore, the inhibition of Chk1 changed the cell cycle profile. In order to evaluate the chemo-sensitizer activity of the compound, different cell lines were treated for 24 and 48 hours with prexasertib in combination with other drugs (imatinib, dasatinib and clofarabine). The results from cell line models were strengthened in primary leukemic blasts isolated from peripheral blood of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In this study we highlighted the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of prexasertib as single agent or in combination with other conventional drugs like imatinib, dasatinib and clofarabine in the treatment of B-/T-ALL. PMID:27438145

  16. Sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex sensitizes doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Hua Jian; Zhou, Chao Zhu; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of sulfated polysaccharide-protein complex (SPPC) on the antitumor effect of doxorubicin (Dox) on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assays demonstrated that SPPC selectively sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to Dox-induced cytotoxicity. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Dox against MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased from 5.3 to 1.5 µM when it was used concomitantly with 5 µM SPPC. SPPC potentiated Dox-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway by activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. Notably, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk diminished the effect of SPPC on Dox-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, combination treatment with SPPC and Dox markedly reduced the growth of breast cancer xenografts in mice. The present study demonstrated that SPPC was able to enhance the antitumor effect of Dox on breast cancer cells, thus suggesting that SPCC may be used to reduce the cumulative dose of Dox and its associated toxicities in the chemotherapy of breast cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27698706

  17. Zygocin, a secreted antifungal toxin of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and its effect on sensitive fungal cells.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Frank; Schmitt, Manfred J

    2003-03-01

    Zygocin, a protein toxin produced and secreted by a killer virus-infected strain of the osmotolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, kills a great variety of human and phytopathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Toxicity of the viral toxin is envisaged in a two-step receptor-mediated process in which the toxin interacts with cell surface receptors at the level of the cell wall and the plasma membrane. Zygocin receptors were isolated and partially purified from the yeast cell wall mannoprotein fraction and could be successfully used as biospecific ligand for efficient one-step purification of the 10-kDa protein toxin by receptor-mediated affinity chromatography. Evidence is presented that zygocin-treated yeast cells are rapidly killed by the toxin, and intensive propidium iodide staining of zygocin-treated cells indicated that the toxin is affecting cytoplasmic membrane function, most probably by lethal ion channel formation. The presented findings suggest that zygocin has potential as a novel antimycotic in combating fungal infections.

  18. Ajulemic acid, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid acid, suppresses osteoclastogenesis in mononuclear precursor cells and induces apoptosis in mature osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    George, Kerri L; Saltman, Laura H; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Zurier, Robert B

    2008-03-01

    Oral administration of ajulemic acid (AjA), a cannabinoid acid devoid of psychoactivity, prevents joint tissue injury in rats with adjuvant induced arthritis. Because activation of osteoclasts is central to the pathogenesis of bone erosion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we investigated the influence of AjA on osteoclast differentiation and survival. Osteoclast cultures were established by stimulation of RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse bone marrow cultures with receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Simultaneous addition of AjA (15 and 30 microM) and RANKL to both culture systems significantly suppressed development of multinucleated osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis) in a dose dependent manner, as determined by quantification of multinuclear, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells. AjA impaired growth of RAW264.7 monocytes and prevented further osteoclast formation in cultures in which osteoclastogenesis had already begun. Reduction by AjA of both monocyte growth and osteoclast formation was associated with apoptosis, assayed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and caspase activity. The anti-osteoclastogenic effects of AjA did not require the continuous presence of AjA in the cell cultures. Based on these findings, we propose that AjA or other nonpsychoactive synthetic analogs of Cannabis constituents may be useful therapy for diseases such as RA and osteoporosis in which bone resorption is a central feature.

  19. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R. . E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  20. Involvement of Mst1 in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsubo, Hideki; Ichiki, Toshihiro Imayama, Ikuyo; Ono, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Kae; Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Sadoshima, Junichi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-03-07

    Mammalian sterile 20-kinase 1 (Mst1), a member of the sterile-20 family protein kinase, plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. However, little is know about the physiological activator of Mst1 and the role of Mst1 in endothelial cells (ECs). We examined whether Mst1 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of ECs. Western blot analysis revealed that TNF-{alpha} induced activation of caspase 3 and Mst1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TNF-{alpha}-induced Mst1 activation is almost completely prevented by pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase 3 inhibitor. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of propidium iodide-stained cells showed that TNF-{alpha} induced apoptosis of EC. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of Mst1 and caspase 3, as well as apoptosis. Knockdown of Mst1 expression by short interfering RNA attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis but not cleavage of caspase 3. These results suggest that Mst1 plays an important role in the induction of TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of EC. However, positive feedback mechanism between Mst1 and caspase 3, which was shown in the previous studies, was not observed. Inhibition of Mst1 function may be beneficial for maintaining the endothelial integrity and inhibition of atherogenesis.

  1. Cytotoxic activity of novel palladium-based compounds on leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Antunovic, Maja; Kriznik, Bojana; Ulukaya, Engin; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Mihalic, Katarina C; Madunic, Josip; Marijanovic, Inga

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment methods for human leukemia are under development, but so far none of them have been found to be completely satisfactory. It was recently reported that palladium complexes have significant anticancer activity as well as lower toxicity compared with some clinically used chemotherapeutics. The anticancer activities of two novel palladium(II) complexes, [Pd(sac)(terpy)](sac)·4H2O and [PdCl(terpy)](sac)·2H2O, were tested against three human leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, MOLT-4, and THP-1, in comparison with cisplatin and adriamycin. The cytotoxic effect of the drugs was determined using the MTT assay. Cell death was assessed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin/propidium iodide staining for flow cytometry. Furthermore, p53 phosphorylation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels were examined to elucidate the mechanism of cell death induction. Both complexes exhibited a significant dose-dependent antigrowth effect in vitro. The complexes predominately induced apoptosis, but necrosis was also observed. In-vitro results have shown that palladium(II) complexes may be regarded as potential anticancer agents for treating human leukemia. Therefore, further analysis to determine the putative mechanism of action and in-vivo studies on animal models are warranted.

  2. Cytotoxic activity of octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lepiarczyk, Monika; Kałuża, Zbigniew; Bielawska, Anna; Czarnomysy, Robert; Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of novel octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives (1a-2c) employing a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA demonstrated that these compounds were more active than etoposide and camptothecin in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis after Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining also confirmed that apoptosis was the main response of human breast cancer cells to 1a-2c treatment. Our results suggest that apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in the presence of 1a-2c follows the mitochondrial pathway, with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 9, as well as by the external pathway with the significant increase in caspase 8 expression. Cytotoxic properties of compounds 1a-2c in cultured human breast cancer cells correlate to their ability to inhibit topoisomerase I/II.

  3. Effects of Antrodia camphorata extracts on the viability, apoptosis, [Ca2+]i, and MAPKs phosphorylation of OC2 human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chorng-Chih; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Wang, Jue-Long; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chai, Kuo-Liang; Fang, Yi-Chien; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Chu, Sau-Tung; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Ko-Long; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2009-06-30

    The effect of Antrodia camphorata (AC) on human oral cancer cells has not been explored. This study examined the effect of AC on the viability, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and Ca2+ regulation of OC2 human oral cancer cells. AC at a concentration of 25 microM induced an increase in cell viability, but AC at concentrations > or = 50 microg/ml decreased viability in a concentration-dependent manner. AC at concentrations of 100-200 microg/ml induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by propidium iodide staining. AC (25 microg/ml) did not alter basal [Ca2+]i, but decreased the [Ca2+]i increases induced by ATP, bradykinin, histamine and thapsigargin. ATP, bradykinin, and histamine increased cell viability whereas thapsigargin decreased it. AC (25 microg/ml) pretreatment failed to alter ATP-induced increase in viability, potentiated bradykinin-induced increase in viability, decreased histamine-induced increase in viability and reversed thapsigargin-induced decrease in viability. Immunoblotting suggested that AC induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, but not p38 MAPK. Collectively, for OC2 cells, AC exerted multiple effects on their viability and [Ca2+]i, induced their ERK and JNK MAPK phosphorylation, and probably evoked their apoptosis.

  4. Fern plant-derived protoapigenone leads to DNA damage, apoptosis, and G(2)/m arrest in lung cancer cell line H1299.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chuang, Da-Wei; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chang, Yu-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Ming-Tz; Chen, Wan-Yu; Lee, Su-Shuo; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chao-Chieh; Liu, Yin-Chang; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2009-10-01

    Protoapigenone, isolated from the native fern plant Thelypteris torresiana, has anticancer activity against some cancer cells. However, the toxicological mechanism for protoapigenone is still unknown. Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of protoapigenone on human lung cancer cell lines. The comet assay showed that DNA damage induced by protoapigenone is dose-dependent. Trypan blue exclusion showed that the cell killing by protoapigenone is both time and dose dependent. The IC(50) of protoapigenone for 12, 24, and 48 h in H1299 cells is 6.11, 2.74, and 1.49 microM, respectively. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle perturbation such as sub-G(1) accumulation (at 1.57 microM for 48 h and at 3.57 microM for 12 and 24 h) and G(2)/M arrest (at 3.57 microM for 12 and 24 h) for protoapigenone. The sub-G(1) accumulation phenomena in the 3.57 microM for 24 h sample were shown to be apoptosis using Annexin V-immunofluorescence/propidium iodide staining. These results suggest protoapigenone is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for lung cancers.

  5. Cytotoxicity and morphological effects induced by carvacrol and thymol on the human cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, F Javier; Bermúdez, José María; Aucejo, Susana; Cameán, Ana María

    2014-02-01

    Essential oils used as additives in the food industry due to its flavour, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Therefore, human can be exposed orally to these compounds through the ingestion of foods. In this sense, the present work aims to assess toxicological effects of oregano essential oil on the digestive tract. In concrete, the cytotoxic effects of two components of the oregano essential oils, carvacrol and thymol, and their mixture, on the intestinal cells line Caco-2 after 24 and 48 h of exposure are studied. The basal cytotoxicity endpoints assayed (total protein content, neutral red uptake and the tetrazolium salt reduction) and the annexin/propidium iodide staining indicated that carvacrol and the mixture carvacrol/thymol induced toxic effects. Moreover, a morphological study was performed in order to determine the ultrastructural cellular damages caused by these substances. The main morphological alterations were vacuolated cytoplasm, altered organelles and finally cell death. In addition, although no cytotoxic effects were recorded for thymol at any concentration and time of exposure, ultrastructural changes evidenced cellular damage such as lipid degeneration, mitochondrial damage, nucleolar segregation and apoptosis.

  6. Radio-protective effects of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase mimics on ataxia telangiectasia cells

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Reboucas, Julio S.; Durazo, Armando; Kos, Ivan; Fike, Francesca; Panni, Moeen; Gralla, Edith Butler; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    We tested several classes of antioxidant manganese compounds for radioprotective effects using human lymphoblastoid cells: six porphyrins, three salens and two cyclic polyamines. Radioprotection was evaluated by seven assays: XTT; Annexin V and propidium iodide flow cytometry analysis; γ-H2AX immunofluorescence; the neutral comet assay; dichlorofluorescein and dihydroethidium staining; resazurin and colony survival assay. Two compounds were most effective in protecting wildtype, and A-T cells, against radiation-induced damage: MnMx-2-PyP-Calbio (a mixture of differently N-methylated MnT-2-PyP+ from Calbiochem) and MnTnHex-2-PyP. MnTnHex-2-PyP protected WT cells against radiation-induced apoptosis by 58% (p=0.04) in WT by XTT and 39% (p=0.01) in A-T by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. MnTnHex-2-PyP protected WT cells against DNA damage by 57% (p=0.005) by Gamma H2AX immunofluorescence and by 30% (p<0.01) by neutral comet assay. MnTnHex-2-PyP is more lipophilic than MnMx-2-PyP-Calbio and is also >10-fold more SOD-active; consequently it is >50-fold more potent as a radioprotectant, as supported by six of the tests employed in this study. Thus, lipophilicity and antioxidant potency correlated with the magnitude of the beneficial radioprotectant effects observed. Our results identify a new class of porphyrinic radioprotectants for the general and radiosensitive populations and may also provide a new option for treating A-T patients. PMID:19389472

  7. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  8. Highly chlorinated Escherichia coli cannot be stained by propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Phe, M-H; Dossot, M; Guilloteau, H; Block, J-C

    2007-05-01

    Several studies have shown that the staining by fluorochromes (DAPI, SYBR Green II, and TOTO-1) of bacteria is altered by chlorination. To evaluate the effect of chlorine (bleach solution) on propidium iodide (PI) staining, we studied Escherichia coli in suspension and biomolecules in solution (DNA, RNA, BSA, palmitic acid, and dextran) first subjected to chlorine and then neutralized by sodium thiosulphate. The suspensions and solutions were subsequently stained with PI. The fluorescence intensity of the PI-stained DNA and RNA in solution dramatically decreased with an increase in the chlorine concentration applied. These results explain the fact that for chlorine concentrations higher than 3 micromol/L Cl2, the E. coli cells were too damaged to be properly stained by PI. In the case of highly chlorinated bacteria, it was impossible to distinguish healthy cells (with a PI-impermeable membrane and undamaged nucleic acids), which were nonfluorescent after PI staining, from cells severely injured by chlorine (with a PI-permeable membrane and damaged nucleic acids) that were also nonfluorescent, as PI penetrated but did not stain chlorinated nucleic acids. Our results suggest that it would be prudent to be cautious in interpreting the results of PI staining, as PI false-negative cells (cells with compromised membranes but not stained by PI because of nucleic acid damage caused by chlorine) are obtained as a result of nucleic acid damage, leading to an underestimation of truly dead bacteria.

  9. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

  10. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs.

  11. Novel Photosensitizers Trigger Rapid Death of Malignant Human Cells and Rodent Tumor Transplants via Lipid Photodamage and Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Moisenovich, Mikhail M.; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Ramonova, Alla A.; Nikitina, Roza G.; Tatarskiy, Victor V.; Kaplan, Mikhail A.; Kalinin, Valery N.; Kotova, Elena A.; Uvarov, Oleg V.; Agapov, Igor I.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Shtil, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Our novel derivatives of chlorin e6, that is, its amide (compound 2) and boronated amide (compound 5) evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e6 against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes) necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all) lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3–4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e6 in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. Conclusions/Significance The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are directly associated with

  12. Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Disease and Carrier Isolates of Neisseria meningitidis Cause G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    von Papen, Michael; Oosthuysen, Wilhelm F.; Becam, Jérôme; Claus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have developed several mechanisms to modulate and interfere with host cell cycle progression. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis on the cell cycle of epithelial cells. Two pathogenic isolates, as well as two carrier isolates, were tested for their ability to adhere to and invade into the epithelial cell lines Detroit 562 and NP69 and to modulate the cell cycle. We found that all isolates adhered equally well to both Detroit 562 and NP69 cells, whereas the carrier isolates were significantly less invasive. Using propidium iodide staining and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling, we provide evidence that meningococcal infection arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle at 24 h postinfection. In parallel, a significant decrease of cells in the S phase was observed. Interestingly, G1-phase arrest was only induced after infection with live bacteria but not with heat-killed bacteria. By Western blotting we demonstrate that bacterial infection resulted in a decreased protein level of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, whereas cyclin E expression levels were increased. Furthermore, N. meningitidis infection induced an accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21WAF1/CIP1 that was accompanied by a redistribution of this CKI to the cell nucleus, as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. Moreover, the p27CIP1 CKI was redistributed and showed punctate foci in infected cells. In summary, we present data that N. meningitidis can interfere with the processes of host cell cycle regulation. PMID:27430269

  14. Ultraviolet light-emitting diode irradiation-induced cell death in HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    XIE, DONG; SUN, YAN; WANG, LINGZHEN; LI, XIAOLING; ZANG, CHUANNONG; ZHI, YUNLAI; SUN, LIRONG

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is considered to be a potent cell-damaging agent in various cell lineages; however, the effect of UV light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on human cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of UV LED irradiation emitting at 280 nm on cultured HL-60 human leukemia cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. HL-60 cells were irradiated with UV LED (8, 15, 30 and 60 J/m2) and incubated for 2 h after irradiation. The rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis, the cell cycle profiles and the mRNA expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were detected using cell counting kit-8, multicaspase assays, propidium iodide staining and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results showed that UV LED irradiation (8–60 J/m2) inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. UV LED at 8–30 J/m2 induced dose-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, while UV LED at 60 J/m2 induced necrosis. In conclusion, 280 nm UV LED irradiation inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HL-60 cells. In addition, the cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and the downregulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression were shown to be involved in UV LED-induced apoptosis. PMID:26820261

  15. Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Handan; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Saglam, Atiye Seda Yar; Tuysuz, Mehmed Zahid; Canseven, Ayşe Gulnihal; Yagci, Abdullah Munci; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression.

  16. Differential Effects of Polyphenols on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Myeloid and Lymphoid Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mahbub, Amani A; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Haywood-Small, Sarah L.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Cross, Neil A.; Jordan-Mahy, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mortality rates for leukemia are high despite considerable improvements in treatment. Since polyphenols exert pro-apoptotic effects in solid tumors, our study investigated the effects of polyphenols in haematological malignancies. The effect of eight polyphenols (quercetin, chrysin, apigenin, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein, cis-stilbene and trans-stilbene) were studied on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in four lymphoid and four myeloid leukemic cells lines, together with normal haematopoietic control cells. Methods: Cellular proliferation was measured by CellTiter-Glo® luminescent assay; and cell cycle arrest was assessed using flow cytometry of propidium iodide stained cells. Apoptosis was investigated by caspase-3 activity assay using flow cytometry and apoptotic morphology was confirmed by Hoescht 33342 staining. Results: Emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene were the most effective polyphenols at decreasing cell viability (IC50 values of 5-22 µM, 8-33 µM, and 25-85 µM respectively) and inducing apoptosis (AP50 values (the concentration which 50% of cells undergo apoptosis) of 2-27 µM, 19-50 µM, and 8-50 µM respectively). Generally, lymphoid cell lines were more sensitive to polyphenol treatment compared to myeloid cell lines, however the most resistant myeloid (KG-1a and K562) cell lines were still found to respond to emodin and quercetin treatment at low micromolar levels. Non-tumor cells were less sensitive to all polyphenols compared to the leukemia cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that polyphenols have anti-tumor activity against leukemia cells with differential effects. Importantly, the differential sensitivity of emodin, quercetin, and cis-stilbene between leukemia and normal cells suggests that polyphenols are potential therapeutic agents for leukemia. PMID:23796248

  17. Real architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system improves viability and maintains insulin and glucagon production of mouse pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Gabor J; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Feher, Liliana Z; Alfoldi, Robert; Kobolak, Julianna; Dinnyes, Andras; Puskas, Laszlo G

    2017-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for the improvement of pancreatic islet maintenance in culture. Due to restricted donor availability it is essential to ameliorate islet viability and graft engraftment. The aim of this study was to compare the standard tissue culture techniques with the advanced Real Architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system in terms of viability and hormone production. Here, we first report that islets embedded in RAFT™ collagen type I advanced tissue culture system maintain their tissue integrity better than in monolayer and suspension cultures. The Calcein violet assay and Annexin V/propidium-iodide staining show higher cell viability in the RAFT™ culture system. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that RAFT™ increases insulin expression after 18 days in culture compared to traditional methods. Enhanced insulin and glucagon production was further verified by immunofluorescent staining in a time-course manner. These results indicate that RAFT™ tissue culture platform can be a promising tool to maintain pancreatic islet spheroid integrity and culture islets for downstream high throughput pharmacological studies ex vivo.

  18. Isoflavone content and estrogenic activity of different batches of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extracts: an in vitro study in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Paola; Rasini, Emanuela; Luini, Alessandra; Legnaro, Massimiliano; Luzzani, Marcello; Casareto, Enrico; Carreri, Massimiliano; Paracchini, Silvano; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2014-04-01

    The estrogenicity of different batches of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae; RCL) extracts and its relationship with the isoflavone content were assessed by measuring MCF-7 cell proliferation by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. RCL extracts were compared to estradiol (E2) and to the main RCL isoflavones biochanin A, daidzein, genistein and formononetin. Isoflavone content in the extracts was assayed by HPLC. E2 and isoflavones increased MCF-7 proliferation in a concentration-dependent fashion, with the following potency order: E2>genistein>biochanin A=daidzein>formononetin. Extracts increased MCF-7 proliferation with different potencies, which in four out of five extracts correlated with the ratios 5,7-dihydroxyisoflavones/7-hydroxyisoflavones. The efficacy of all extracts increased with decreasing genistein contents. A solution containing the main isoflavones at the average concentration of RCL extracts increased MCF-7 proliferation with higher potency and steeper concentration-response curve. The effects of E2, of RCL extracts and of the isoflavone solution were inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Flow cytometric analysis of MCF-7 proliferation is a suitable bioassay for the estrogenicity of RCL extracts, thus expanding the characterization of individual batches beyond assessment of chemical composition and contributing to improved standardization of quality and activity.

  19. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  20. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit leukemia/lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningxia; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Huiying; Huang, Chongmei; Cheng, Hui; Zhou, Hong; Lv, Shuqing; Chen, Li; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-07-01

    The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contributes to the reconstitution of hematopoiesis by ameliorating acute graft‑versus‑host disease (aGVHD). However, the role of MSCs in graft‑versus‑leukemia remains to be determined. In the present study, we co‑cultured C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow (BM)‑derived MSCs with A20 murine B lymphoma, FBL3 murine erythroleukemia and P388 murine acute lymphocytic leukemia cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the amount of cytokine secretion were then measured using a Cell Counting kit‑8, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We also established a model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using BALB/c mice. Following the administration of A20 cells and MSCs, we recorded the symptoms and the survival of the mice for 4 weeks, assessed the T cell subsets present in peripheral blood, and, after the mice were sacrifice, we determined the infiltration of MSCs into the organs by histological staining. Our results revealed that the MSCs inhibited the proliferation of the mouse lymphoma and leukemia cells in vitro, leading to cell cycle arrest and reducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)‑10. In our model of allogeneic BMT, the intravenous injection of MSCs into the mice injected wth A20 cells decreased the incidence of lymphoma, improved survival, increased the fraction of CD3+CD8+ T cells, decreased the fraction of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells in peripheral blood, and ameliorated the manifestation of aGVHD. The results from the present study indicate that MSCs may be safe and effective when used in allogeneic BMT for the treatment of hemotological malignancies.

  1. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required.

  2. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required. PMID:28105237

  3. The Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Kamali, Ali Mohammad; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Matricaria chamomilla is an aromatic plant with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the inhibitory role of M. chamomilla on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells remains unclear. Objective: This study investigated the methods to evaluate these anticancer mechanisms of M. chamomilla on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cells were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla at different concentrations (50–1300 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h in a culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. This study quantified the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; apoptosis and necrosis through Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining; cell proliferation and clone formation by clonogenic assay as well as cellular migration, invasion, and attachment. After 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, the IC50levels were 992 ± 2.3 μg/mL, 893 ± 5.4 μg/mL, and 785 ± 4.8 μg/mL against MDA-MB-468, respectively, and 1288 ± 5.6 μg/mL, 926 ± 2.5 μg/mL, and 921 ± 3.5 μg/mL, against MCF-7, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the extract concentrations induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis and decreased cellular invasion or migration through 8 μm pores, colonization and attachment in a dose-dependent manner. Results: It indicated time- and dose-dependent anti-invasive and antimigrative or proliferative and antitoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of chamomile on breast cancer cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated an effective plant in preventing or treating breast cancer. SUMMARY Antioxidant compounds in Matricaria chamomilla have anticancer effects.Hydroalcoholic extract of M. chamomilla controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis induction.Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining suggested that the extract induces apoptosis more than necrosis.Hydroalcoholic extract of M

  4. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:27882102

  5. The HIV-protease inhibitor saquinavir reduces proliferation, invasion and clonogenicity in cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Todeschini, Paola; Romani, Chiara; Zanotti, Laura; Erba, Eugenio; Colmegna, Benedetta; Bignotti, Eliana; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Sartori, Enrico; Odicino, Franco Edoardo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Tassi, Renata Alessandra; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Innovative therapies in cervical cancer (CC) remain a priority. Recent data indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors used in highly active antiretroviral therapy can exert direct antitumor activities also in HIV-free preclinical and clinical models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of various HIV-protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) on primary and established CC cell lines. Two CC cell lines established in our laboratory and four commercially available CC cell lines were treated with indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir at different concentrations and for different times. Proliferation, clonogenicity and radiosensitivity were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Proteasomal activities were assessed using a cell-based assay and immunoblotting. Cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. Invasion was tested with Matrigel chambers. A t-test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. In all cell lines, saquinavir was more effective than ritonavir in reducing cell proliferation and inhibiting proteasomal activities (P≤0.05). Conversely, indinavir exerted a negligible effect. The saquinavir concentrations required to modulate the proteasome activities were higher than those observed to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation. In HeLa cells, saquinavir was strongly effective in inhibiting cell invasion and clonogenicity (P≤0.05) at concentrations much lower than those required to perturb proteasomal activities. Saquinavir did not contribute to increase the sensitivity of HeLa cells to X-rays. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that saquinavir is able to significantly reduce cell proliferation, cell invasion and clonogenicity in a proteasome-independent manner in in vitro models of CC, and suggest that saquinavir could be a promising CC therapeutic agent. PMID:27698818

  6. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy.

  7. Carboxy-terminal domain phosphatase 1 silencing results in the inhibition of tumor formation ability in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    FU, HONGBING; YANG, DEJUN; WANG, CHANGMING; XU, JIAPENG; WANG, WEIMIN; YAN, RONGLIN; CAI, QINGPING

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most malignant types of cancer, is the second greatest cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets for GC treatment are therefore urgently required. Carboxy-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (CTDP1) has a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role of CTDP1 in GC has not previously been explored. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect CTDP1 messenger RNA expression in various GC cell lines. CTDP1 was subsequently silenced in GC cells by lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) infection, and the effects of CTDP1 inhibition on cell proliferation were evaluated by cell number counting, cell cycle analysis with propidium iodide staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, apoptotic rate with Annexin V staining and FACS analysis, as well as colony formation assay in GC cells. The results revealed that CTDP1 was highly expressed in certain GC cell lines and lentivirus-mediated siRNA infection was able to effectively silence CTDP1 expression in GC cells. CTDP1 inhibition decreased cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and increased cell apoptosis in GC cells. Furthermore, the colony formation ability of GC cells was also suppressed by silencing CTDP1. Taken together these results indicated that CTDP1 has a significant role in the tumor formation ability of GC cells and is a novel and promising therapeutic target for the treatment of GC. PMID:26722269

  8. Knockdown of eIF3d inhibits cell proliferation through G2/M phase arrest in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifeng; Xiong, Liwen; Lin, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit d (eIF3d) has been recognized recently in several human cancers. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the functional role of eIF3d in NSCLC cells. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to silence eIF3d in the human NSCLC cell lines A549 and 95D. Cell viability was measured by MTT. Cell colony-forming ability was measured by colony formation. Cell cycle progression was determined by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Intracellular signaling molecules were detected using a PathScan(®) intracellular signaling array kit. In this study, we firstly proved that lentivirus-mediated RNAi specifically suppressed the expression of eIF3d both at the mRNA and protein levels in A549 and 95D cell lines. Further investigations revealed that eIF3d knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, the cell cycle of A549 cells was arrested at G2/M phase after eIF3d knockdown. Furthermore, the activations of AKT, HSP27 and SAPK/JNK were suppressed by eIF3d knockdown. This study highlights the crucial role of eIF3d in promoting NSCLC cell proliferation, and provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential of lentiviral-mediated delivery of eIF3d RNAi therapy for treatment of NSCLC.

  9. Effects of salinomycin and CGP37157 on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Froelich, Katrin; Rak, Kristen; Ginzkey, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combinations of these are all accepted modalities for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Despite this, 40‑60% of patients suffering from HNSCC develop loco‑regional failure and/or distant metastases. Salinomycin has been demonstrated to be >100‑fold more effective than paclitaxel at causing cancer stem cell death, therefore, it may offer an important improvement in cancer therapy. However, the toxicity of salinomycin is of concern. A possible solution may be the administration of additive drugs, which reduce the toxicity. By inhibiting the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger using the benzodiazepine derivate, CGP37157 (CGP), a significant reduction in salinomycin neuronal toxicity has been observed. This raises the question of whether CGP also inhibits the tumor toxicity of salinomycin. In the present study, the FaDu and HLaC79 C1 HNSCC cell lines were treated with salinomycin with or without CGP. Comparative viability assessments were performed using microscopy, a fluorescein diacetate assay, an MTT assay, a clonogenic assay and annexin V‑propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of MDR‑1 were monitored using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Salinomycin alone, and in combination with CGP, achieved a significant attenuation of cell viability and increased apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner. However, the tumor toxicity of salinomycin was not inhibited by CGP. The HLaC79 C1 cells were more sensitive to salinomycin, compared with the FaDu cells, with this sensitivity being due to high expression levels of MDR‑1 by the HLaC79 C1 cells. In conclusion, CGP did not counteract the tumor toxicity of salinomycin in vitro and may be a promising drug in future anticancer therapy. The results of the present study encourages further investigation of the toxicological aspects of salinomycin, particularly in human cells and animal models.

  10. Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ATM/p53-dependent pathway in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-07-01

    Soybean isoflavones have been used as a potential preventive agent in anticancer research for many years. Genistein is one of the most active flavonoids in soybeans. Accumulating evidence suggests that genistein alters a variety of biological processes in estrogen-related malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein in the prevention of human colon cancer remains unclear. Here we attempted to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanism of genistein in human colon cancer cells. First we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of genistein and two other isoflavones, daidzein and biochanin A, on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colon cancer cells. In addition, flow cyto-metry was performed to observe the morphological changes in HCT-116/SW-480 cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, which had been visualized using Annexin V-FITC and/or propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were also employed to study the changes in expression of several important genes associated with cell cycle regulation. Our data showed that genistein, daidzein and biochanin A exhibited growth inhibitory effects on HCT-116/SW-480 colon cancer cells and promoted apoptosis. Genistein showed a significantly greater effect than the other two compounds, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of ATM/p53, p21waf1/cip1 and GADD45α as well as downregulation of cdc2 and cdc25A demonstrated by q-PCR and immunoblotting assay. Interestingly, genistein induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. These findings exemplify that isoflavones, especially genistein, could promote colon cancer cell growth inhibition and facilitate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The ATM/p53-p21 cross-regulatory network may play a crucial role in mediating the anticarcinogenic activities of genistein in colon cancer.

  11. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data.

  12. Effect of capping agents on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human normal and cancer skin cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netchareonsirisuk, Ponsawan; Puthong, Songchan; Dubas, Stephan; Palaga, Tanapat; Komolpis, Kittinan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most widely used nanomaterials in medical and consumer products. However, safety in the uses of AgNPs is still controversial. The toxicity of AgNPs toward various cell types has been reported to depend on the surface properties of the nanoparticles. In this study, the effect of AgNPs with the average size of 5-15 nm on the viability of the CCD-986SK human normal skin fibroblast cell line and A375 human malignant melanoma cell line was evaluated. Comparative toxicity studies, based on MTT assay, were performed by using either sodium alginate or poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSMA) as capping agent in the nanoparticle preparation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that AgNO3 alone was highly toxic to both cell types while both alginate and PSSMA alone were not toxic. AgNPs capped with alginate were selectively toxic to the cancer cell line but not to the normal cell line while AgNPs capped with PSSMA were toxic to both cancer and normal cell lines. Judging from the 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50), it was found that the cancer cell line was more sensitive to AgNPs than the normal cell line. Study on the mode of cell death by annexin V and propidium iodide staining revealed that AgNPs induced more apoptotic cell death (84-90 %) than necrosis (8-12 %) in the skin cancer cell line. These results suggest that the toxicity of AgNPs depended on the type of capping agent and the type of cell line.

  13. A novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor (SKI-5C) induces cell death of Wilms' tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Heng; Tao, Yan-Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Zhao, He; Li, Xiao-Lu; Fang, Fang; Wu, Yi; Lu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Du, Wei-Wei; Ren, Jun-Li; Li, Yi-Ping; Xu, Yun-Yun; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian; He, Wei-Qi; Pan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is over-expressed in many cancers and therefore serves as a biomarker for cancer prognosis. SKI-5C is a new SphK1 inhibitor, and until now its molecular function in Wilms' tumor cells remained unknown. Here, using CCK-8 and nude mice experiments we assessed cell growth in Wilms' tumor cell lines (SK-NEP-1 and G401) in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that SphK1 is highly expressed in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells, and through annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analysis, we detected cell apoptosis. Treatment with SKI-5C inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SKI-5C treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice, with few side effects. Our microarray analysis revealed that SKI-5C-treated SK-NEP-1 cells mostly downregulated PRKACA and significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65. These results imply that SKI-5C induces apoptosis of SK-NEP-1 cells through the PRKACA/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. While, further research is required to determine the underlying details, these results provide new clues for the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by SKI-5C and suggest that SKI-5C may act as new candidate drug for Wilms' tumor.

  14. A novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor (SKI-5C) induces cell death of Wilms’ tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Heng; Tao, Yan-Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Zhao, He; Li, Xiao-Lu; Fang, Fang; Wu, Yi; Lu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Du, Wei-Wei; Ren, Jun-Li; Li, Yi-Ping; Xu, Yun-Yun; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian; He, Wei-Qi; Pan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is over-expressed in many cancers and therefore serves as a biomarker for cancer prognosis. SKI-5C is a new SphK1 inhibitor, and until now its molecular function in Wilms’ tumor cells remained unknown. Here, using CCK-8 and nude mice experiments we assessed cell growth in Wilms’ tumor cell lines (SK-NEP-1 and G401) in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that SphK1 is highly expressed in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells, and through annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analysis, we detected cell apoptosis. Treatment with SKI-5C inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SKI-5C treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice, with few side effects. Our microarray analysis revealed that SKI-5C-treated SK-NEP-1 cells mostly downregulated PRKACA and significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65. These results imply that SKI-5C induces apoptosis of SK-NEP-1 cells through the PRKACA/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. While, further research is required to determine the underlying details, these results provide new clues for the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by SKI-5C and suggest that SKI-5C may act as new candidate drug for Wilms’ tumor. PMID:27904661

  15. Monobenzyltin Complex C1 Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells through the Intrinsic Signaling Pathway and through the Targeting of MCF-7-Derived Breast Cancer Stem Cells via the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fani, Somayeh; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Karimian, Hamed; Mun Lo, Kong; Ebrahimi Nigjeh, Siyamak; Swee Keong, Yeap; Soori, Rahman; May Chow, Kit; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Mohd Hashim, Najihah

    2016-01-01

    Monobenzyltin Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, C1, is an organotin non-platinum metal-based agent. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects on MCF-7 cells with respect to the induction of apoptosis and its inhibitory effect against MCF-7 breast cancer stem cells. As determined in a previous study, compound C1 revealed strong antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.5 μg/mL. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry indicated the induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Compound C1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and was mediated through the intrinsic pathway with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial cytochrome c release to cytosol. Complex C1 activated caspase 9 as a result of cytochrome c release. Subsequently, western blot and real time PCR revealed a significant increase in Bax and Bad expression and a significant decrease in the expression levels of Bcl2 and HSP70. Furthermore, a flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with compound C1 caused a significant arrest of MCF-7 cells in G0/G1 phase. The inhibitory analysis of compound C1 against derived MCF-7 stem cells showed a significant reduction in the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population and a significant reduction in the population of MCF-7 cancer stem cells in primary, secondary, and tertiary mammospheres. Moreover, treatment with C1 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings indicate that complex C1 is a suppressive agent of MCF-7 cells that functions through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and the targeting of MCF-7-derived cancer stem cells. This work may lead to a better treatment strategy for the reduction of breast cancer recurrence.

  16. Monobenzyltin Complex C1 Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells through the Intrinsic Signaling Pathway and through the Targeting of MCF-7-Derived Breast Cancer Stem Cells via the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Somayeh; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Karimian, Hamed; Mun Lo, Kong; Ebrahimi Nigjeh, Siyamak; Swee Keong, Yeap; Soori, Rahman; May Chow, Kit; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Mohd Hashim, Najihah

    2016-01-01

    Monobenzyltin Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, C1, is an organotin non-platinum metal-based agent. The present study was conducted to investigate its effects on MCF-7 cells with respect to the induction of apoptosis and its inhibitory effect against MCF-7 breast cancer stem cells. As determined in a previous study, compound C1 revealed strong antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.5 μg/mL. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry indicated the induction of apoptosis in treated cells. Compound C1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and was mediated through the intrinsic pathway with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial cytochrome c release to cytosol. Complex C1 activated caspase 9 as a result of cytochrome c release. Subsequently, western blot and real time PCR revealed a significant increase in Bax and Bad expression and a significant decrease in the expression levels of Bcl2 and HSP70. Furthermore, a flow cytometric analysis showed that treatment with compound C1 caused a significant arrest of MCF-7 cells in G0/G1 phase. The inhibitory analysis of compound C1 against derived MCF-7 stem cells showed a significant reduction in the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population and a significant reduction in the population of MCF-7 cancer stem cells in primary, secondary, and tertiary mammospheres. Moreover, treatment with C1 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway. These findings indicate that complex C1 is a suppressive agent of MCF-7 cells that functions through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and the targeting of MCF-7-derived cancer stem cells. This work may lead to a better treatment strategy for the reduction of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:27529753

  17. Cucurbitacin E inhibits osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion through attenuation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Xu, Shumei; Wu, Yaochi; Zhang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E (CuE), a potent member of triterpenoid family isolated from plants, has been confirmed as an antitumour agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms of CuE on osteosarcoma (OS) have not been well understood. The present study aimed to test whether CuE could inhibit growth and invasion of OS cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. After various concentrations of CuE treatment, the anti-proliferative effect of CuE was assessed using the cell counting Kit-8 assay. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of OS cells. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by propidium iodide staining. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate the effect of CuE on invasion potential of OS cells. The protein levels were measured by western blot. In addition, the potency of CuE on OS cells growth inhibition was assessed in vivo. Our results showed that CuE inhibited cell growth and invasion, induced a cell cycle arrest and triggered apoptosis and modulated the expression of cell growth, cell cycle and cell apoptosis regulators. Moreover, CuE inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which suppressed the invasion and metastasis of OS. In addition, we also found that CuE inhibited OS cell growth in vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrated that CuE could inhibit OS tumour growth and invasion through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that CuE can be considered to be a promising anti-cancer agent for OS. PMID:27653525

  18. Efficient intracellular delivery of molecules with high cell viability using nanosecond-pulsed laser-activated carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aritra; Kelly, Sean C; Dwivedi, Nishant; Thadhani, Naresh; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-03-25

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5-9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability.

  19. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  20. Cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of Strobilanthes crispa Blume extracts on nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Rhun Yian; Sim, Yi Chi; Toh, Hwee Jin; Liam, Liang Kuan; Ong, Rachael Sze Lynn; Yew, Mei Yeng; Tiong, Yee Lian; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Ng, Khuen Yen

    2015-10-01

    The chemotherapeutic agents used to treat nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) exhibit low efficacy. Strobilanthes crispa Blume is widely used for its anticancer, diuretic and anti‑diabetic properties. The present study aimed to determine the cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of S. crispa on CNE‑1 NPC cells. A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of S. crispa against CNE‑1 cells. The rate of apoptosis was determined using propidium iodide staining and caspase assays. Ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform extracts of S. crispa leaves all exhibited cytotoxic effects on CNE‑1 cells, at a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 119, 123.5 and 161.7 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of S. crispa stems inhibited CNE‑1 cell proliferation, at a IC50 of 49.4, 148.3 and 163.5 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed an increased proportion of cells in the sub G1 phase and a decreased proportion of cells in the G2/M phase, following treatment with the extracts. However, the extracts did not alter the activities of caspase ‑3/7, ‑8 and ‑9. No cytotoxic effect was observed when the cells were treated with the methanol and water extracts of S. crispa stems and leaves. In conclusion, the S. crispa extracts were cytotoxic against CNE‑1 cells and these extracts were able to induce apoptosis, independent of caspase activation.

  1. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin-IX accumulation and associated phototoxicity in macrophages and oral cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sulbha; Jajoo, Anjana; Dube, Alok

    2007-09-25

    Studies were carried out on 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) synthesis in mice peritoneal macrophages and two human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines NT8e and 4451. Cells were treated with 200 microg/ml ALA for 15 h and PpIX accumulation was monitored by spectrofluorometry and phototoxicity to red light (630+/-20 nm) was measured by MTT assay. PpIX accumulation was higher in macrophages as compared to OSCC cells under both normal serum concentration (10%) and conditions of serum depletion. The results on phototoxicity measurements correlated well with the levels of PpIX accumulation in both macrophages and cancer cells. While red light caused 20% phototoxicity in macrophages, no phototoxicity was seen in 4451 cells at 10% serum. Decrease in serum concentration to 5% and 1% led to higher phototoxicity corresponding to 40% and 70% in macrophages and 10% and 15% in 4451 cells. Similar results were obtained in NT8e cell line. Propidium iodide staining followed by fluorescence microscopic observations on photodynamically treated co-culture of murine or human macrophages and cancer cells showed selective damage to macrophages. These results suggest that in OSCC, macrophages would contribute more to tumor PpIX level than tumor cells themselves and PDT may lead to selective killing of macrophages at the site of treatment. Since macrophages are responsible for production and secretion of various tumor growth mediators, the effect of selective macrophage killing on the outcome of PDT would be significant.

  2. Glycophenotype of breast and prostate cancer stem cells treated with thieno[2,3-b]pyridine anticancer compound

    PubMed Central

    Mastelić, Angela; Čikeš Čulić, Vedrana; Režić Mužinić, Nikolina; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Barker, David; Leung, Euphemia Y; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Markotić, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Tumor progression may be driven by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs characterized by CD44+/CD24− phenotype). We investigated the influence of a newly developed thienopyridine anticancer compound (3-amino-5-oxo-N-naphthyl-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-b]quinoline-2-carboxamide, 1) on the growth, survival and glycophenotype (CD15s and GM3 containing neuraminic acid substituted with acetyl residue, NeuAc) of breast and prostate cancer stem/progenitor-like cell population. MDA-MB-231 and Du-145 cells were incubated with compound 1 alone or in combination with paclitaxel. The cellular metabolic activity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The type of cell death induced by 48-h treatment was assessed using a combination of Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the percentage of CD44+/CD24− cells, and GM3 and CD15s positive CSCs, as well as the expression of GM3 and CD15s per one CSC, in both cell lines. Compound 1 produces a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, mediated mainly by apoptosis in breast cancer cells, and slightly (2.3%) but statistically significant lowering breast CSC subpopulation. GM3 expression per one breast CSC was increased, and the percentage of prostate GM3+ CSC subpopulation was decreased in cells treated with compound 1 compared with non-treated cells. The percentage of CD15s+ CSCs was lower in both cell lines after treatment with compound 1. Considering that triple-negative breast cancers are characterized by an increased percentage of breast CSCs and knowing their association with an increased risk of metastasis and mortality, compound 1 is a potentially effective drug for triple-negative breast cancer treatment. PMID:28352152

  3. Beclin 1 is involved in regulation of apoptosis and autophagy during replication of ectromelia virus in permissive L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Martyniszyn, Lech; Szulc, Lidia; Boratyńska, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek G

    2011-12-01

    Several reports have brought to light new and interesting findings on the involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in pathogenesis of viral and bacterial diseases, as well as presentation of foreign antigens. Our model studies focused on the involvement of apoptosis during replication of highly virulent Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-MOS). Here, we show evidence that autophagy is induced during mousepox replication in a cell line. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increase of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) aggregation in infected as opposed to non-infected control L929 cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that replication of ECTV-MOS in L929 cells led to the increase in LC3-II (marker of autophagic activity) expression. Beclin 1 strongly colocalized with extranuclear viral replication centers in infected cells, whereas expression of Bcl-2 decreased in those centers as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Loss of Beclin 1-Bcl-2 interaction may lead to autophagy in virus-infected L929 cells. To assess if Beclin 1 has a role in regulation of apoptosis during ECTV-MOS infection, we used small interfering RNA directed against beclin 1 following infection. Early and late apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry after AnnexinV and propidium iodide staining. Silencing of beclin 1 resulted in decreased percentage of early and late apoptotic cells in the late stage of ECTV-MOS infection in L929 cells. We conclude that Beclin 1 plays an important role in regulation of both, autophagy and apoptosis, during ECTV-MOS replication in L929 permissive cells.

  4. Resident bacteria on leaves enhance survival of immigrant cells of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Poza-Carrion, Cesar; Suslow, Trevor; Lindow, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Although Salmonella enterica apparently has comparatively low epiphytic fitness on plants, external factors that would influence its ability to survive on plants after contamination would be of significance in the epidemiology of human diseases caused by this human pathogen. Viable population sizes of S. enterica applied to plants preinoculated with Pseudomonas syringae or either of two Erwinia herbicola strains was ≥10-fold higher than that on control plants that were not precolonized by such indigenous bacteria when assessed 24 to 72 h after the imposition of desiccation stress. The protective effect of P. fluorescens, which exhibited antibiosis toward S. enterica in vitro, was only ≈50% that conferred by other bacterial strains. Although S. enterica could produce small cellular aggregates after incubation on wet leaves for several days, and the cells in such aggregates were less susceptible to death upon acute dehydration than solitary cells (as determined by propidium iodide staining), most Salmonella cells were found as isolated cells when it was applied to leaves previously colonized by other bacterial species. The proportion of solitary cells of S. enterica coincident with aggregates of cells of preexisting epiphytic species that subsequently were judged as nonviable by viability staining on dry leaves was as much as 10-fold less than those that had landed on uncolonized portions of the leaf. Thus, survival of immigrant cells of S. enterica on plants appears to be strongly context dependent, and the presence of common epiphytic bacteria on plants can protect such immigrants from at least one key stress (i.e., desiccation) encountered on leaf surfaces.

  5. β-catenin knockdown inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHONG; CHEN, QIANXUE

    2016-01-01

    β-catenin is a crucial oncogene that is capable of regulating cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether β-catenin was associated with the proliferation and progress of glioma. In order to knockdown the expression of β-catenin in human U251 glioma cells, three pairs of small interfering (si)RNA were designed and synthesized and the most effective siRNA was selected and used for silencing the endogenous β-catenin, which was detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proliferation was subsequently detected using a methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the results demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis rate was analyzed using flow cytometry and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining demonstrated that β-catenin siRNA significantly increased the apoptosis of U251 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, the results of an in vitro scratch assay demonstrated that β-catenin silencing suppressed the proliferation of U251 cells, as compared with the control group (P<0.01). In vivo, β-catenin expression levels in U251 cells were significantly inhibited (P<0.01) following β-catenin short hairpin (sh)RNA lentiviral-vector transfection, as detected by western blot analysis and RT-qPCR. Tumorigenicity experiments demonstrated that β-catenin inhibition significantly increased the survival rate of nude mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of β-catenin expression significantly inhibited the progression of human glioma cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo; thus suggesting that β-catenin silencing may be a novel therapy for the treatment of human glioma. PMID:26998037

  6. A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili; Sonis, Stephen T.; Lingen, Mark W.; Berger, Ann; Toback, F. Gary

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

  7. Selected novel 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1, 3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones arrest cell cycle of HCT-116 in G0/G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lalitha; Srinivasan, K. K.; Kumar, Nitesh; Reddy, Neetinkumar D.; Biswas, Subhankar; Rao, C. Mallikarjuna; Moorkoth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    A series of 5'-amino-2'-hydroxy-1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (AC1-AC15) were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 5'-acetamido-2'-hydroxy acetophenone with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry and evaluated for their selective cytotoxicity using MTT assay on two cancer cell lines namely breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and one normal kidney epithelial cell line (Vero). Among the tested compounds, AC-10 showed maximum cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value 74.7 ± 3.5 µM. On HCT-116 cells, AC-13 exhibited maximum cytotoxicity with IC50 value 42.1 ± 4.0 µM followed by AC-14 and AC-10 with IC50 values 62 ± 2.3 µM and 95.4 ± 1.7 µM respectively. All tested compounds were found to be safe on Vero cell line with IC50 value more than 200 µM. Based on their highest efficacy on HCT-116, AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 were selected for mechanistic study on this cell line by evaluating changes nucleomorphological characteristics using acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AOEB) dual stain and by analyzing cell cycle with flow cytometry using propidium iodide stain. In AOEB staining, all three tested compounds showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in percentage apoptotic nuclei compared to control cells, with highest increase in apoptotic nuclei by AC-13 treatment (31 %). Flow cytometric studies showed cell cycle arrest by AC-10 and AC-14 treatment in G0/G1 phase and by AC-13 in G0/G1 and G2/M phase. The study reflected the potential of AC-10, AC-13 and AC-14 to be the lead molecules for further optimization. PMID:27152112

  8. Activated Schwann Cell-Like Cells on Aligned Fibrin-Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Structures: A Novel Construct for Application in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Christina M A P; Morton, Tatjana J; Banerjee, Asmita; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Schmidhammer, Robert; Redl, Heinz; Ruenzler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration search for ways to support gold standard therapy (autologous nerve grafts) and to improve results by bridging nerve defects with different kinds of conduits. In this study, we describe electrospinning of aligned fibrin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers in an attempt to create a biomimicking tissue-like material seeded with Schwann cell-like cells (SCLs) in vitro for potential use as an in vivo scaffold. Rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were differentiated into SCLs and evaluated with flow cytometry concerning their differentiation and activation status [S100b, P75, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and protein 0 (P0)]. After receiving the proliferation stimulus forskolin, SCLs expressed S100b and P75; comparable to native, activated Schwann cells, while cultured without forskolin, cells switched to a promyelinating phenotype and expressed S100b, MAG, and P0. Human fibrinogen and thrombin, blended with PLGA, were electrospun and the alignment and homogeneity of the fibers were proven by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun scaffolds were seeded with SCLs and the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs was evaluated with phalloidin/propidium iodide staining. Carrier fibrin gels containing rASCs acted as a self-shaping matrix to form a tubular structure. In this study, we could show that rASCs can be differentiated into activated, proliferating SCLs and that these cells react to minimal changes in stimulus, switching to a promyelinating phenotype. Aligned electrospun fibrin-PLGA fibers promoted the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs, which also rolled the fibrin-PLGA matrix into a tubular scaffold. These in vitro findings favor further in vivo testing.

  9. Long-term leptin treatment exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on renal tubular cells via prostaglandin E2 augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Cheng, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Cheng-Hsien

    2012-08-15

    Adipokine leptin reportedly acts on the kidney in pathophysiological states. However, the influence of leptin on renal tubular epithelial cells is still unclear. Gentamicin, a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection, can cause nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the influence of long-term leptin treatment on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) and mice. We monitored apoptosis and molecular mechanisms using annexin V/ propidium iodide staining and small interfering RNA transfection. In NRK-52E cells, leptin reduced gentamicin-induced apoptosis at 24h, but significantly increased apoptosis at 48 h. Long-term treatment of leptin decreased Bcl-x(L) expression and increased caspase activity in gentamicin-treated NRK-52E cells. Leptin also increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in a dose-dependent manner. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS398 (N-[2-(Cyclohexyloxy)-4- nitrophenyl]methanesulfonamide), blocked PGE(2) augmentation and the pro-apoptotic effects of leptin. The addition of PGE(2) recovered the pro-apoptotic effect of leptin in NS398-treated NRK-52E cells. In a mouse animal model, a 10 day leptin treatment significantly increased gentamicin-induced apoptotic cells in proximal tubules. NS398 treatment inhibited this in vivo pro-apoptotic effect of leptin. Results reveal that long-term elevation of leptin induces COX-2-mediated PGE(2) augmentation in renal tubular cells, and then increases these cells' susceptibility to gentamicin-induced apoptosis.

  10. Characterization of antibody-containing vesicles shed from B-lymphoma cell lines: exposure of annexin V binding sites.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rosana B; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Mattes, M Jules

    2006-11-01

    Antibodies (Abs) to CD20 or HLA-DR, after binding to the B-lymphoma cell line RL following an overnight incubation at 37 degrees C, accumulate in the form of shed vesicles, which develop in the center of the cell clusters that are spontaneously formed by this cell line. These vesicles coalesce into fairly stable large structures, which we refer to as conglomerates of shed vesicles (CSVs). In the present study, we have extended our previous investigations into the nature of this material. Electron microscopy revealed a conglomerate of heterogeneous vesicles, which looked like pinched-off cytoplasmic projections. CSVs developed similarly either with or without Ab, demonstrating that CSV production is a spontaneous process that incorporates bound Abs if they are present. Before delivery to CSVs, the Abs capped on the cell surface. CSVs had high expression of annexin V binding sites, which are phagocytic signals that are exposed on damaged cells. For CSVs that were cell bound, which are frequently observed, the annexin V binding sites were only in the CSVs, and not on the surface of the intact cell. Although all CSVs contained both Abs and annexin V binding sites, the precise distribution of these two ligands was generally different. Annexin V binding sites were present on caps as well as on CSVs, and appear as soon as caps are formed. In cells incubated with anti-HLA-DR, CD20 was delivered to the CSVs together with HLA-DR, suggesting an association between these two molecules. CSVs prepared with anti-HLA-DR, but not CSVs prepared with anti-CD20, contained considerable numbers of nuclear fragments, identified by propidium iodide staining.

  11. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  12. Pharmacological evaluation of several major ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Pan, S L; Teng, C M; Guh, J H

    2003-08-01

    Long-dan-tan (Chinese name) is one of the most common herbal medicines used by Chinese people with chronic liver disease. Accumulated anecdotal evidence suggests that Long-dan-tan may show a beneficial effect in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-dan-tan is made from five plants: Gentiana root, Scutellaria root, Gardenia fruit, Alisma rhizome, and Bupleurum root. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic effects of the five major ingredients isolated from the above plants, i.e. gentiopicroside, baicalein, geniposide, alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d, respectively, on human hepatoma Hep3B cells. Annexin V immunofluorescence detection, DNA fragmentation assays and FACScan analysis of propidium iodide-staining cells showed that gentiopicroside, baicalein, and geniposide had little effect, whereas alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d profoundly induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Alisol B acetate, but not saikosaponin-d, induced G2/M arrest of the cell cycle as well as a significant increase in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, baicalein by itself induced an increase in H(2)O(2) generation and the subsequent NF-kappaB activation; furthermore, it effectively inhibited the transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1))-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. We suggest that alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d induced cell apoptosis through the caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. Instead of inducing apoptosis, baicalein inhibits TGF-beta(1)-induced apoptosis via increase in cellular H(2)O(2) formation and NF-kappaB activation in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  13. Protective effect of mitochondria‑targeted peptide MTP‑131 against oxidative stress‑induced apoptosis in RGC‑5 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Liu, Bingqian; Ma, Jian; Ge, Jian; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-04-01

    The retina of the human eye is extremely vulnerable to oxidative damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is the predominant mechanism associated with the pathogenesis of age‑related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa. MTP‑131, a novel mitochondria‑targeted peptide, has been demonstrated to specifically concentrate in the inner mitochondria membrane and to exhibit remarkable antioxidant effects both in vitro and in animal models. In the present study, the protective effect of MTP‑131 was evaluated in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative damage in a retinal ganglion cell line, RGC‑5. Cell viability was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was used for assessment of apoptosis. Release of cytochrome c was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Pretreatment of cells with MTP‑131 inhibited H2O2‑induced cytotoxicity and reduced LDH release in a dose‑dependent manner, compared with cells treated with H2O2 alone. Mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were also prevented by MTP‑131 pretreatment. In addition, MTP‑131 pretreatment inhibited cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and significantly reduced apoptosis in RGC‑5 cells, compared with cells treated with H2O2 alone. In conclusion, mitochondria‑targeted peptide MTP‑131 exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress‑induced apoptosis in RGC‑5 cells, which may provide a novel approach for the treatment of age‑associated retinal diseases.

  14. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2-associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms.

  15. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pálóczi, János; Varga, Zoltán V.; Szebényi, Kornélia; Sarkadi, Balázs; Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Csont, Tamás; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Görbe, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days) and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days), both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M), BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M), and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M). Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M) significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M) also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms. PMID:27403231

  16. α 1-antitrypsin enhances insulin secretion and prevents cytokine-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Kalis, Martins; Kumar, Rajesh; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Salehi, Albert; Cilio, Corrado M

    2010-01-01

    α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor, which recently has been shown to prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, to prolong islet allograft survival and to inhibit β-cell apoptosis in vivo. It has also been reported that T1D patients have significantly lower plasma concentrations of AAT suggesting the potential role of AAT in the pathogenesis of T1D. We have investigated whether plasma-purified AAT can affect β-cell function in vitro. INS-1E cells or primary rat pancreatic islets were used to study the effect of AAT on insulin secretion after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and forskolin stimulation and on cytokine-mediated apoptosis. The secreted insulin and total cyclic AMP (cAMP) were determined using radioimmunoassay and apoptosis was evaluated by propidium iodide staining followed by FACS analysis. We found that AAT increases insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, potentiates the effect of GLP-1 and forskolin and neutralizes the inhibitory effect of clonidine on insulin secretion. The effect of AAT on insulin secretion was accompanied by an increase in cAMP levels. In addition, AAT protected INS-1E cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Our findings show that AAT stimulates insulin secretion and protects β-cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, and these effects of AAT seem to be mediated through the cAMP pathway. In view of these novel findings we suggest that AAT may represent a novel anti-inflammatory compound to protect β-cells under the immunological attack in T1D but also therapeutic strategy to potentiate insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes (T2D).

  17. Modulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface abundance through structural determinants on the α1-subunit.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Sandrine V; Belliard, Aude; Sottejeau, Yoann

    2011-01-01

    Through their ion-pumping and non-ion-pumping functions, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase protein complexes at the plasma membrane are critical to intracellular homeostasis and to the physiological and pharmacological actions of cardiotonic steroids. Alteration of the abundance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase units at the cell surface is one of the mechanisms for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase regulation in health and diseases that has been closely examined over the past few decades. We here summarize these findings, with emphasis on studies that explicitly tested the involvement of defined regions or residues on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α1 polypeptide. We also report new findings on the effect of manipulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase membrane abundance by targeting one of these defined regions: a dileucine motif of the form [D/E]XXXL[L/I]. In this study, opossum kidney cells stably expressing rat α1 Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase or a mutant where the motif was disrupted (α1-L499V) were exposed to 30 min of substrate/coverslip-induced-ischemia followed by reperfusion (I-R). Biotinylation studies suggested that I-R itself acted as an inducer of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase internalization and that surface expression of the mutant was higher than the native Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase before and after ischemia. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release suggested that I-R injury was reduced in α1-L499V-expressing cells compared with α1-expressing cells. Hence, modulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface abundance through structural determinants on the α-subunit is an important mechanism of regulation of cellular Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, with a significant impact on cell survival in face of an ischemic stress.

  18. Effect of sertraline on [Ca2+](i) and viability of human MG63 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ko-Long; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Tseng, Li-Ling; Wang, Jue-Long; Lu, Yi-Chau; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2013-04-01

    The antidepressant, sertraline, has been shown to have diverse in vitro effects. This study examined whether sertraline altered [Ca(2+)](i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells by using fura-2 as a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye. At 50-200 µM, sertraline induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca(2+) response was decreased by removing extracellular Ca(2+), suggesting that Ca(2+) entry and release contributed to the [Ca(2+)](i) signal. Sertraline-induced Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by nifedipine, La(3+), Gd(3+), and SK&F96365. When extracellular Ca(2+) was removed, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished the sertraline-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with sertraline also abolished the thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished the sertraline-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At 20-30 µM, overnight treatment with sertraline killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of sertraline was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data demonstrate that sertraline (30 µM) evoked apoptosis. Sertraline (20 and 30 µM) also increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in human osteosarcoma cells, sertraline evoked a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by inducing PLC-dependent Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry by L-type Ca(2+) channels and store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Sertraline induced cell death that may involve apoptosis by mitochondrial pathways.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Context Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went (Monascaceae) NTU 568 (red mould rice) was found to contain antioxidants, including dimerumic acid (DMA) and deferricoprogen (DFC). Objective The effects of DMA and DFC on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and potential protective mechanisms in differentiated PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated. Materials and methods DMA (0-60 μM) or DFC (0-10 μM) was co-treated with 6-OHDA (200 μM, 24 h exposure) in differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell viability and intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of cell protein expression. Results DMA and DFC significantly increased cell viability to 72% and 81% in 6-OHDA-induced differentiated PC-12 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, DMA and DFC reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of extracellular and intercellular ROS by 25% and 20%, respectively, and decreased NADPH oxidase-2 expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspase-3 via regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 protein expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. Conclusion DMA and DFC may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting ROS formation and apoptosis. These results showed that the metabolites from M. purpureus NTU 568 fermentation were potential therapeutic agents for PD induced by oxidative damage and should be encouraged for further research.

  20. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  1. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (> or =1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity=96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity=86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity.

  2. Targeting of RUNX3 by miR-130a and miR-495 cooperatively increases cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Yuk Dong; Choi, Young Sun; Lee, You Mie

    2015-10-20

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 23 nucleotide noncoding RNA molecules that can downregulate multiple gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are considered to play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation during mammalian development. The Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) expression and activity are frequently downregulated by various mechanisms in gastric cancer. We have reported that RUNX3 inactivation is crucial for early tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of miRNAs targeting RUNX3 in early tumorigenesis. miR-130a and miR-495 upregulated under hypoxic conditions that bind to the RUNX3 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) were identified in gastric cancer cells by using microarray analysis and bioinformatics programs. Combination of miR-130a and miR-495 inhibited RUNX3 expression at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level. miR-130a and miR-495 significantly inhibited the RUNX3-3'UTR-luciferase activity. Combination of miR-130a and miR-495 significantly decreased apoptosis determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of Bim in SNU484 gastric cancer cells. In addition, p21 and Bim, RUNX3 target genes, were completely downregulated by the combination of miR-130a and miR-495. Using matrigel plug assay, we found that antagomiRs specific for miR-130a and miR-495 significantly reduced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, targeting miR-130a and miR-495 could be a potential therapeutics to recover RUNX3 expression under hypoxic conditions and in early tumorigenic progression.

  3. The D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF83959, attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in RGC-5 cells involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yu; Li, Ting; Fan, Bin; Zheng, Yong-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is widely implicated in the death of retinal ganglion cells associated with various optic neuropathies. Agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor have recently been found to be potentially neuroprotective against oxidative stress–induced injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether SKF83959, a next-generation high-affinity D1 receptor agonist, could protect retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells from H2O2-induced damage and the molecular mechanism involved. Methods We examined expression of the D1 receptor in RGC-5 cells with reverse-transcription–PCR and immunoblotting and assessed neuroprotection using propidium iodide staining and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, we monitored the activation and involvement of members of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, with western blot and specific inhibitors. Results We found that the D1 receptor was expressed in RGC-5 cells, but the sequence analysis suggested this cell line is from mouse and not rat origin. SKF83959 exhibited a remarkable neuroprotective effect on H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, which was blocked by the specific D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. ERK and p38 were activated by SKF83959, and pretreatment with their inhibitors U0126 and SB203580, respectively, significantly blunted the SKF83959-induced cytoprotection. However, the specific c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor, SP600125, had no effect on the SKF83959-induced protection. Conclusions We conclude that SKF83959 attenuates hydrogen peroxide–induced injury in RGC-5 cells via a mechanism involving activation of the ERK and p38 pathways and the D1 receptor is a potential molecular target for developing neuroprotective drugs. PMID:23233790

  4. Evaluation of the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenol on oxidative parameters and viability of human blood mononuclear cells (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Bukowska, B; Wieteska, P; Kwiatkowska, M; Sicińska, P; Michalowicz, J

    2016-07-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is formed in drinking water as a result of its chlorination, and it is created in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics such as triclosan or herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The molecular mechanism depicting the action of phenolic compounds on nucleated blood cells has been insufficiently studied, and therefore, we have assessed the effect of 2,4-DCP on the structure and viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic, and morphological changes (alterations in the size and granulation) in PBMCs incubated with 2,4-DCP in the concentration ranging from 10 to 500 µg mL(-1) for 4 h at 37°C. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation in the incubated cells. We have noted that 2,4-DCP increased ROS formation and lipid peroxidation (from 10 µg mL(-1)) and oxidized proteins (from 50 µg mL(-1)) in PBMCs. The compound studied also provoked apoptotic (from 50 µg mL(-1)), necrotic (from 100 µg mL(-1)) and alterations in the size and granulation (from 50 µg mL(-1)) in the incubated cells. The analysis of quinolinium 4-[(3-methyl-2(3H)-benzoxazolylidene)methyl]-1-[3-(trimethyl-ammonio)-propyl]-diiodide/propidium iodide staining revealed that 2,4-DCP (50-250 µg mL(-1)) more strongly increased the number of apoptotic than necrotic cells, which suggests that this cell death type is mainly provoked by this compound in PBMCs. The observed changes were caused by relatively high concentrations of 2,4-DCP, which cannot influence human organism during environmental exposure and thus may only occur as a result of acute or subacute poisoning with this compound.

  5. A novel manganese complex selectively induces malignant glioma cell death by targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ji; Li, Jing; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Kaidi; Chen, Qiuyun; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in treatment, malignant glioma commonly exhibits recurrence, subsequently leading to a poor prognosis. As manganese (Mn) compounds can be transported by the transferrin‑transferrin receptor system, the present study synthesized and examined the potential use of Adpa‑Mn as a novel antitumor agent. Adpa‑Mn time and dose‑dependently inhibited U251 and C6 cell proliferation; however, it had little effect on normal astrocytes. Apoptosis was significantly elevated following treatment with Adpa‑Mn, as detected by chromatin condensation, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and the activation of caspases‑9, ‑7 and ‑3 and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase. In addition, Adpa‑Mn enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine and elevated the expression levels of the autophagy‑related protein microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3‑methyladenine and chloroquine enhanced Adpa‑Mn‑induced cell inhibition, thus indicating that autophagy has an essential role in this process. Furthermore, evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the Adpa‑Mn‑treated group, including disrupted membrane potential, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted adenosine triphosphate. Conversely, treatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A reversed Adpa‑Mn‑induced ROS production, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis, thus suggesting that Adpa‑Mn may target the mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggested that Adpa‑Mn may be considered for use as a novel anti‑glioma therapeutic option.

  6. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZONGCHAO; MA, CHUAN; SHEN, JIELIANG; WANG, DAWU; HAO, JIE; HU, ZHENMING

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of lower back pain, and increased cell apoptosis is a key characteristic of IVDD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis on apoptosis in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). The expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in human intervertebral discs (IVD) were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis of primary cultured NPCs was quantified by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining following stimulation with SDF-1 and knockdown of CXCR4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The association with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was investigated using CXCR4-siRNA and NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), treatment. The results demonstrated that SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, were upregulated in degenerative IVD samples compared with normal samples. Stimulation with SDF-1 increased the level of apoptosis in cultured NPCs, and conversely, the apoptosis level was suppressed post-transfection with CXCR4 siRNA compared with SDF-1 stimulation alone. Furthermore, SDF-1 treatment increased the level of phosphorylated NF-κB subunit P65, which was downregulated following CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC treatment. In addition, CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65, which was induced by SDF-1. Taken together, SDF-1-mediated apoptosis was suppressed by NF-κB inhibition using PDTC. In conclusion, the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis promoted cell apoptosis in human degenerative NPCs via the NF-κB pathway, thus suggesting that SDF-1/CXCR signaling may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of degenerative IVD diseases. PMID:27220474

  7. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL) and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Bertolin, Thiago Carlos; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-01-01

    A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu); 92 (Ser/Leu); 93 (Ile/Thr); 95 (Arg/Gly) and 97 (Leu/Ser). CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM) and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM), but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å2). The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells). The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells. PMID:23823708

  8. SDF‑1/CXCR4 axis induces apoptosis of human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells via the NF‑κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongchao; Ma, Chuan; Shen, Jieliang; Wang, Dawu; Hao, Jie; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-07-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of lower back pain, and increased cell apoptosis is a key characteristic of IVDD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of the stromal cell‑derived factor‑1 (SDF‑1)/C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis on apoptosis in human degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). The expression levels of SDF‑1 and CXCR4 in human intervertebral discs (IVD) were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis of primary cultured NPCs was quantified by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining following stimulation with SDF‑1 and knockdown of CXCR4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The association with the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling pathway was investigated using CXCR4‑siRNA and NF‑κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), treatment. The results demonstrated that SDF‑1 and its receptor, CXCR4, were upregulated in degenerative IVD samples compared with normal samples. Stimulation with SDF‑1 increased the level of apoptosis in cultured NPCs, and conversely, the apoptosis level was suppressed post‑transfection with CXCR4 siRNA compared with SDF‑1 stimulation alone. Furthermore, SDF‑1 treatment increased the level of phosphorylated NF‑κB subunit P65, which was downregulated following CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC treatment. In addition, CXCR4 siRNA and PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65, which was induced by SDF‑1. Taken together, SDF‑1‑mediated apoptosis was suppressed by NF‑κB inhibition using PDTC. In conclusion, the SDF‑1/CXCR4 axis promoted cell apoptosis in human degenerative NPCs via the NF‑κB pathway, thus suggesting that SDF‑1/CXCR signaling may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of degenerative IVD diseases.

  9. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) on the cell cycle of CHO and Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.; Navara, Christopher; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to nano-second pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. Variations between cell lines in membrane and cytoskeletal structure as well as in survival of nsPEF exposure should correspond to unique line-dependent cell cycle effects. Additionally, phase of cell cycle during exposure may be linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations recovered similarly to sham populations postnsPEF exposure and did not exhibit a phase-specific change in response. Jurkat cells exhibited considerable apoptosis/necrosis in response to nsPEF exposure and were unable to recover and proliferate in a manner similar to sham exposed cells. Additionally, Jurkat cells appear to be more sensitive to nsPEFs in G2/M phases than in G1/S phases. Recovery of CHO populations suggests that nsPEFs do not inhibit proliferation in CHO cells; however, inhibition of Jurkat cells post-nsPEF exposure coupled with preferential cell death in G2/M phases suggest that cell cycle phase during exposure may be an important factor in determining nsPEF toxicity in certain cell lines. Interestingly, CHO cells have a more robust and rigid cytoskeleton than Jurkat cells which is thought to contribute to their ability to

  10. Bazedoxifene Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis and Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products by Reducing Oxidative Stress in MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Tomita, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Shun; Ozawa, Eiji; Yamamoto, Luis A; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-03-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level increases the risk of osteoporotic fracture by deteriorating bone quality. However, little is known about the effects of Hcy on osteoblast and collagen cross-links. This study aimed to investigate whether Hcy induces apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as well as affects enzymatic and nonenzymatic collagen cross-links and to determine the effects of bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on the Hcy-induced apoptosis and deterioration of collagen cross-links in the cells. Hcy treatments (300 μM, 3 mM, and 10 mM) increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining showed that 3 and 10 mM Hcy induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, the activities of caspases-8, 9, and 3 were increased by 3 mM Hcy. The detrimental effects of 3 mM Hcy on apoptosis and ROS production were partly reversed by bazedoxifene and 17β estradiol. In addition, real-time PCR, immunostaining and Western blot showed that 300 μM Hcy decreased the expression of lysyl oxidase (Lox). Furthermore, 300 μM Hcy increased extracellular accumulation of pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product. Treatment with bazedoxifene ameliorated Hcy-induced suppression of Lox expression and increase in pentosidine accumulation. These findings suggest that high-dose Hcy induces apoptosis of osteoblasts by increasing oxidative stress, and low-dose Hcy decreases enzymatic collagen cross-links and increases pentosidine accumulation, resulting in the deterioration of bone quality. Bazedoxifene treatment effectively prevents the Hcy-induced detrimental reactions of osteoblasts. Thus, bazedoxifene may be a potent therapeutic drug for preventing Hcy-induced bone fragility.

  11. Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using a Human Antibody Targeting the Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-IR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    mediated nick end labeling assay and propidium iodide staining using the ApoDirect kit (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) as previously described (4...after treatment cessation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated nick end labeling assay and propidium iodide staining. In animals that had...transferase ^ mediated nick end labeling assay and propidium iodide staining as described in Materials and Methods. Apoptosis is shownby FITC

  12. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  13. Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R.

    2007-03-15

    We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

  14. Differential nanoreprotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in male somatic cells and spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Choi, Yun-Jung; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Park, Jung Hyun; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possess unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. AgNPs have been increasingly used as anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antibacterial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections in open wounds as well as in ointments, bandages, and wound dressings. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two different sizes of AgNPs (10 nm and 20 nm) in male somatic Leydig (TM3) and Sertoli (TM4) cells and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Methods Here, we demonstrate a green and simple method for the synthesis of AgNPs using Bacillus cereus culture supernatants. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The toxicity of the synthesized AgNPs was evaluated by the effects on cell viability, metabolic activity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and expression of genes encoding steroidogenic and tight junction proteins. Results AgNPs inhibited the viability and proliferation of TM3 and TM4 cells in a dose- and size-dependent manner by damaging cell membranes and inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species, which in turn affected SSC growth on TM3 and TM4 as feeder cells. Small AgNPs (10 nm) were more cytotoxic than medium-sized nanoparticles (20 nm). TEM revealed the presence of AgNPs in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus, and detected mitochondrial damage and enhanced formation of autosomes and autolysosomes in the AgNP-treated cells. Flow cytometry analysis using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining showed massive cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that in TM3 and TM4 cells, AgNPs activated the p53, p38, and pErk1/2 signaling pathways and significantly downregulated the expression of genes related to testosterone synthesis (TM3) and tight junctions (TM4). Furthermore, the exposure of TM3

  15. Detecting inactivated endospores in fluorescence microscopy using propidium monoazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Mahnert, Alexander; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2012-04-01

    The differentiation between living and dead bacterial endospores is crucial in many research areas of microbiology. The identification of inactivated, non-pathogenic Bacillus anthracis spores is one reason why improvement of decontamination protocols is so desirable. Another field interested in spore viability is planetary protection, a sub-discipline of astrobiology that estimates the bioburden of spacecraft prior to launch in order to avoid interplanetary cross-contamination. We developed a dedicated, rapid and cost-effective method for identifying bacterial endospores that have been inactivated and consequently show a compromised spore wall. This novel protocol is culture-independent and is based on fluorescence microscopy and propidium monoazide (PMA) as a fluorescent marker, which is suggested to bind to DNA of spores with compromised spore coat, cortex and membranes based on our results. Inactivated preparations (treated with wet heat, irradiation, ultracentrifugation) showed a significant increase in spores that were PMA stained in their core; moreover, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus seemed to be best suited for this technique, as the spore cores of all these endospores could be positively stained after inactivation. Lastly, we describe an additional counter-staining protocol and provide an example of the application of the coupled staining methods for planetary protection purposes. The introduction of this novel protocol is expected to provide an initial insight into the various possible future applications of PMA as a non-viability marker for spores in, for example, B. anthracis-related studies, food microbiology and astrobiology.

  16. A simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay with propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W-J; Li, J

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a new simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay (SNVA) with propidium iodide (PI) to determine the status of nuclear vacuole (NV) of individual spermatozoa. After PI staining, sperm nuclei were classified into the 14 categories according to both nuclear morphology and the status of NV. The incidence was 57.8% (range 28-84%) in fertile controls (n = 40), and 85.1% (range 67-99%) in men with varicocele (n = 40). In the fertile group, normal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region were significantly more in comparison with the varicocele group. In the varicocele group, abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one large NV and with multiple NVs located in the ante-nuclear region were most frequent findings. Besides, spermatozoa with NVs in both ante- and post-nuclear regions in the varicocele group were significantly more than those in the fertile group. In both fertile and varicocele groups, normal or abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one or more vacuoles only located in the post-nuclear region occurred sparingly. The SNVA provides a useful additional approach to identify the status of NV in human spermatozoa for diagnostic purposes. A good sperm sample would have more spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region.

  17. Silencing of TBX20 gene expression in rat myocardial and human embryonic kidney cells leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiyan; Sun, Yueling; Qiu, Guangbin; Jiang, Hongkun; Qiu, Guangrong

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common birth defects due to abnormal cardiac development. The T-box 20 (TBX20) gene is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and encodes TBX20, which is essential for early heart development. In the present study, reduced TBX20 expression was observed in CHD tissue samples compared with normal tissues, and the function of TBX20 in Rattus norvegicus myocardial cells [H9c2(2-1)] and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) was investigated. TBX20 was silenced in H9c2 and HEK293 cells via transfection of small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA duplexes, respectively, and TBX20 mRNA and protein levels were subsequently examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was determined by western blotting. Analysis of cell apoptosis was achieved by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and a fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling system. Cell cycle analysis was achieved using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and, an RT-qPCR array was used to profile the expression of TBX20-related genes. Silencing of TBX20 in H9c2 and HEK293 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and led to G2/M cell cycle arrest. A reduction in cyclin B1 mRNA levels and an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B mRNA levels was observed, which indicated that cells were arrested in G2 phase. Concurrently, the mRNA levels of GATA binding protein 4 were increased in both cell lines, which may provide an explanation for the abnormal cardiac hypertrophy observed in patients with congenital heart disease. These results suggest that TBX20 is required for heart morphogenesis, and inhibition of TBX20 expression may lead to the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle

  18. Selective quantification of viable Escherichia coli bacteria in biosolids by quantitative PCR with propidium monoazide modification.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter(-1).

  19. Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Jun, Lu; Gang, Li; Lan, Cao; Na-Na, Wang; Xiao-Juan, Du; Li-Chao, Sun; Wen-Li, Zhao; Pei-Fang, Xiao; He, Zhao; Guang-Hao, Su; Yan-Hong, Li; Yi-Ping, Li; Yun-Yun, Xu; Hui-Ting, Zhou; Yi, Wu; Mei-Fang, Jin; Lin, Liu; Jian, Ni; Shao-Yan, Hu; Xue-Ming, Zhu; Xing, Feng; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC. Conclusions LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new “network” of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators

  20. Potent induction of apoptosis by beta-lapachone in human multiple myeloma cell lines and patient cells.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Li, C. J.; Yu, D.; Pardee, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological malignancy. We have reported that beta-lapachone, a pure compound derived from a plant, can induce cell death in a variety of human carcinoma cells, including ovary, colon, lung, prostate, pancreas, and breast, suggesting a wide spectrum of anticancer activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first studied antisurvival effects of beta-lapachone in human MM cells by colony formation assay. To determine whether the differential inhibition of colony formation occurs through antiproliferative activity, we performed MTT assays. The cytotoxicity of beta-lapachone on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also measured by MTT assay. To determine whether the cell death induced by beta-lapachone occurs through necrosis or apoptosis, we used the propidium iodide staining procedure to determine the sub-GI fraction, Annexin-V staining for externalization of phosphatidylserine, and fragmentation of cellular genomic DNA subjected to gel electrophoresis. To investigate the mechanism of anti-MM activity, we examined Bcl-2 expression, cytochrome C release, and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage by Western blot assay. RESULTS: We found that beta-lapachone (less than 4 microM) inhibits cell survival and proliferation by triggering cell death with characteristics of apoptosis in ARH-77, HS Sultan, and MM.1S cell lines, in freshly derived patient MM cells (MM.As), MM cell lines resistant to dexamethasone (MM.1R), doxorubicin (DOX.40), mitoxantrone (MR.20), and mephalan (LR5). Importantly, after treatment with beta-lapachone, we observed no apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in either quiescent or proliferative states, freshly isolated from healthy donors. In beta-lapachone treated ARH-77, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria to cytosol, and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase was cleaved, signature events of apoptosis. Finally, the apoptosis induced by beta-lapachone in MM cells was not blocked

  1. Overexpression of microRNA‑125a‑3p effectively inhibits the cell growth and invasion of lung cancer cells by regulating the mouse double minute 2 homolog/p53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenglei; Li, Xin; Zhao, Huasi; Gao, Ming; Wang, Feng; Li, Wencai

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that are 21‑24 nucleotides in length. Decreased expression of hsa‑miR‑125a‑3p is observed in a number of patients with non‑small cell lung cancer; however, it is not clear how this miRNA regulates the growth and invasion of lung tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to identify the function of hsa‑miR‑125a‑3p in the growth and invasion of lung cancer cells. The expression of hsa‑miR‑125a‑3p in the A549, NCI‑H460 and SPCA‑1 lung cancer cell lines was analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the human bronchiolar epithelium cell line (HBE) was used as a control. The results demonstrated that the expression of hsa‑miR‑125a‑3p was significantly lower in NCI‑H460, A549 and SPCA‑1 cells, compared with that in HBE cells. Overexpression of sense miR‑125a‑3p in the A549 lung cancer cell line inhibited cell proliferation for 5‑7 days (P<0.01), and transfection of antisense miR‑125a‑3p did not suppress the cell growth of the lung cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of miR‑125a‑3p in the NCI‑H460 lung cancer cell line markedly induced cell apoptosis, which was detected by fluorescence‑activated cell sorting with annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. The results of the Transwell migration assay also revealed that transfection of miR‑125a‑3p resulted in decreased migration of lung cancer tumor cells. The pro‑apoptotic gene p53 expression was detected by western blot analysis. The results revealed that the expression of mouse double minute (MDM)‑2 homolog, the principal cellular antagonist of p53, was decreased and p53 expression was upregulated in sense has‑miR‑125a‑3p transfected A549 cells. This was consistent with that observed in NCI‑H460 cells, suggesting that hsa‑miR‑125a‑3p may be involved in the regulation of the MDM2/p53 signaling pathway in lung cancer cells. In

  2. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V; Stock, Ulrich A; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose

  3. Sodium formate induces autophagy and apoptosis via the JNK signaling pathway of photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Xu, Shao-Lin; Xu, Wen-Jing; Yang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Ping; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-02-01

    Incidents associated with methanol intoxication resulting from the consumption of fake wine occur not infrequently worldwide. Certain individuals are made blind due to methanol poisoning. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium formate exposure on photoreceptor cells (661W cells). The 661W cells were exposed to sodium formate for 6‑24 h and cell viability was determined using a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyl‑2H‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Subsequently, the 661W cells were exposed to 15 or 30 mM sodium formate for 24 h. The level of apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, visualizing the cells under a fluorescence microscope, and annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate staining, using flow cytometric analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH‑DA) staining, followed by flow cytometric analysis. Autophagy of the 661W cells was measured by monodansylcadaverine staining. The activation of phosphorylated c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (p‑JNK), B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 (LC3) was assessed by western blotting. The effects of Z‑VAD‑fmk (a pan‑caspase inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) on the viability of the sodium formate‑induced 661W cells were determined using an MTT assay. Sodium formate treatment induced a decrease in the viability of the 661W cells in a time‑ and a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, sodium formate at concentrations of 15 or 30 mM markedly increased the level of apoptosis and the ROS levels, as measured by DCFH‑DA staining of the 661W cells. Additionally, 661W cells exposed to sodium formate for 24 h exhibited increased levels of p‑JNK, Bax, cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and LC3II (the phosphatidylethanolamine‑modified form

  4. Enumeration of viable non-culturable Vibrio cholerae using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2015-08-01

    The well-known human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, can enter a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The differentiation of VBNC cells and nonviable cells is essential for both disease prevention and basic research. Among all the methods for detecting viability, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time PCR is popular because of its specificity, sensitivity, and speed. However, the effect of PMA treatment is not consistent and varies among different species and conditions. In this study, with an initial cell concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/ml, time and dose-effect relationships of different PMA treatments were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR using live cell suspensions, dead cell suspensions and VBNC cell suspensions of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706. The results suggested that a PMA treatment of 20 μM PMA for 20 min was optimal under our conditions. This treatment maximized the suppression of the PCR signal from membrane-compromised dead cells but had little effect on the signal from membrane-intact live cells. In addition to the characteristics of PMA treatment itself, the initial concentration of the targeted bacteria showed a significant negative influence on the stability of PMA-PCR assay in this study. We developed a strategy that mimicked a 1×10(8) CFU/ml cell concentration with dead bacteria of a different bacterial species, the DNA of which cannot be amplified using the real time PCR primers. With this strategy, our optimal approach successfully overcame the impact of low cell density and generated stable and reliable results for counting viable cells of V. cholerae in the VBNC state.

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic field affects intrinsic and endoplasmatic reticulum apoptosis induction pathways in MonoMac6 cell line culture.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Chorobik, P; Juszczak, K; Zaraska, W; Thor, P J

    2012-10-01

    Current studies were aimed to elucidate influence of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on cell viability and apoptosis induction pathways. For the experimental model we have chosen monocytic cell line MonoMac6 and several apoptosis inducers with different mechanism of death induction like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline and hydrogen peroxide. MonoMac6 cell line was grown at density 1x10(5) cells/well in 96-well culture plates. To induce cell death cell cultures were treated with different apoptosis inducers like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, hydrogen peroxide and at the same time with pulsed electromagnetic field 50 Hz, 45±5 mT (PEMF) for 4 hour per each stimulation, three times, in 24 hours intervals. Afterwards, cells were harvested for flow cytometry analysis of cell viability measured by annexin V-APC labeled and propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis related genes was evaluated by semi quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. NuPAGE Novex Western blot analysis was carried out for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) abundance in cytosolic and nuclear extracts of MonoMac6 cells. Puromycin, colchicine and minocycline activated cells and simultaneously treated with PEMF have shown out diminished percentage of annexinV positive (AnV+) cells comparing to controls without PEMF stimulation. MonaMac6 cells puromycin/colchicyne and PEMF treated were to a higher extent double stained (AnV+,PI+), which means increased late apoptotic as well as necrotic (PI+) cells, than non-stimulated controls. On the other hand, minocycline activated cells prior to PEMF treatment showed diminished amount of apoptotic and necrotic (annexin V, annexin V and propidium iodide, propidium iodide positive staining) cells. The opposite effect of PEMF on the percentage of annexin V positively stained cells has been achieved after treatment of MonoMac6 culture with cyclophoshamide and hydrogen peroxide. PEMF enhanced early

  6. Discerning Viable from Nonviable Yersinia pestis pgm- and Bacillus anthracis Sterne using Propidium Monoazide in the Presence of White Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Becky M.; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Sydor, Michael A.; Wunschel, David S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-12-23

    ABSTRACT Aims To develop and optimize an assay to determine viability status of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and Yersinia pestis pgm- strains in the presence of white powders by coupling propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. Methods and Results PMA selectively enters nonviable cells and binds DNA, thereby increasing qPCR assay cycle threshold (CT) values compared to untreated samples. Dye concentration, cell number and fitness, incubation time, inactivation methods, and assay buffer were optimized for B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis pgm-. Differences in CT values in nonviable cells compared to untreated samples were consistently > 9 for both B. anthracis Sterne vegetative cells and Y. pestis pgm- in the presence and absence of three different white powders. Our method eliminates the need for a DNA extraction step prior to detection by qPCR. Conclusions The developed assay enables simultaneous identification and viability assessment for B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis pgm- under laboratory conditions, even in the presence of white powders. Eliminating the DNA extraction step that is typically used reduces total assay time and labor requirements for sample analysis. Significance and Impact of the Study The method developed for simultaneous detection and viability assessment for B. anthracis and Y. pestis can be employed in forming decisions about the severity of a biothreat event or the safety of food. Keywords Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Propidium Monoazide, qPCR, White Powders, Rapid Viability Detection

  7. Laccase purified from Cerrena unicolor exerts antitumor activity against leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    MATUSZEWSKA, ANNA; KARP, MARTA; JASZEK, MAGDALENA; JANUSZ, GRZEGORZ; OSIŃSKA-JAROSZUK, MONIKA; SULEJ, JUSTYNA; STEFANIUK, DAWID; TOMCZAK, WALDEMAR; GIANNOPOULOS, KRZYSZTOF

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most commonly observed adult hematological malignancy in Western countries. Despite the fact that recent improvements in CLL treatment have led to an increased percentage of complete remissions, CLL remains an incurable disease. Cerrena unicolor is a novel fungal source of highly active extracellular laccase (ex-LAC) that is currently used in industry. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports regarding its anti-leukemic activity have been published thus far. In the present study, it was hypothesized that C. unicolor ex-LAC may possess cytotoxic activity against leukemic cell lines and CLL primary cells. C. unicolor ex-LAC was separated using anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose-Sepharose and Sephadex G-50 columns. The cytotoxic effects of ex-LAC upon 24- and 48-h treatment on HL-60, Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and K562 cell lines, as well as CLL primary cells of nine patients with CLL, were evaluated using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining of Jurkat cells treated with ex-LAC was used to investigate apoptosis via flow cytometry. Ex-LAC induced changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, as visualized by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XTT assay revealed high cytotoxic rates following treatment with various concentrations of ex-LAC on all the cell lines and CLL primary cells analyzed, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/ml. Fluorescence microscopy and SEM observations additionally revealed apoptotic changes in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells treated with ex-LAC, compared with control cells. These results were in agreement with the apoptosis analysis of Jurkat cells on flow cytometry. In conclusion, C. unicolor ex-LAC was able to significantly induce cell apoptosis, and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of various hematological neoplasms. PMID

  8. Pro-apoptotic effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Hui; Shi, Da-Hua; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Er-Guang; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. METHODS: Tectorigenin, one of the main components of rhizome of Iris tectorum, was prepared by simple methods, such as extraction, filtration, concentration, precipitation and recrystallization. HepG2 cells were incubated with tectorigenin at different concentrations, and their viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observation of nuclear change, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA ladder, and flow cytometry with Hoechst 33342, Annexin V-EGFP and propidium iodide staining. Generation of reactive oxygen species was quantified using DCFH-DA. Intracellular Ca2+ was monitored by Fura 2-AM. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using Rhodamine 123. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol was detected by Western blotting. Activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were investigated by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. RESULTS: The viability of HepG2 cells treated by tectorigenin decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The concentration that reduced the number of viable HepG2 cells by 50% (IC50) after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation was 35.72 mg/L, 21.19 mg/L and 11.06 mg/L, respectively. However, treatment with tectorigenin at 20 mg/L resulted in a very slight cytotoxicity to L02 cells after incubation for 12, 24 or 48 h. Tectorigenin at a concentration of 20 mg/L greatly inhibited the viability of HepG2 cells and induced the condensation of chromatin and fragmentation of nuclei. Tectorigenin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared with the viability rate, induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of the anti-proliferation effect of tectorigenin in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, tectorigenin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, increased intracellular [Ca2+]i

  9. Ligation of CD40 in Human Müller Cells Induces P2X7 Receptor–Dependent Death of Retinal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Jose-Andres C.; Lopez Corcino, Yalitza; Dubyak, George R.; Kern, Timothy S.; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Subauste, Carlos S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) is required for retinal capillary degeneration in diabetic mice, a process mediated by the retinal endothelial cells (REC) death. However, CD40 activates prosurvival signals in endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to identify a mechanism by which CD40 triggers programmed cell death (PCD) of RECs and address this paradox. Methods Human RECs and Müller cells were incubated with CD154 and L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)lysine (L-Nil, nitric oxide synthase 2 inhibitor), α-lipoic acid (inhibitor of oxidative stress), anti-Fas ligand antibody, or A-438079 (P2X7 adenosine triphosphate [ATP] receptor inhibitor). Programmed cell death was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. Release of ATP was measured using a luciferase-based assay. Mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Expression of P2X7 was assessed by FACS, quantitative PCR, or immunohistochemistry. Results Ligation of CD40 in primary RECs did not induce PCD. In contrast, in the presence of primary CD40+ Müller cells, CD40 stimulation caused PCD of RECs that was not impaired by L-Nil, α-lipoic acid, or anti-Fas ligand antibody. We found CD40 did not trigger TNF-α or IL-1β secretion. Primary Müller cells released extracellular ATP in response to CD40 ligation. Inhibition of P2X7 (A-438079) impaired PCD of RECs; CD40 upregulated P2X7 in RECs, making them susceptible to ATP/P2X7–mediated PCD. Diabetic mice upregulated P2X7 in the retina and RECs in a CD40-dependent manner. Conclusions Cluster of differentiation 40 induces PCD of RECs through a dual mechanism: ATP release by Müller cells and P2X7 upregulation in RECs. These findings are likely of in vivo relevance since CD40 upregulates P2X7 in RECs in diabetic mice and CD40 is known to be required for retinal capillary degeneration. PMID:27893093

  10. Downregulation of HIF-1α inhibits the proliferation and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H157 cells

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, JIALIN; BAI, HAO; GAO, ZHIQIANG; DONG, YU; PEI, JUN; MA, MEILI; HAN, BAOHUI

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, specifically non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. In previous years, almost no significant advancements have been made towards the molecular characterization of NSCLC, which highlights the requirement for novel target genes. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is known to be essential in tumorigenesis, as it regulates the expression of numerous factors that are involved in angiogenesis, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. However, no direct association between HIF-1α and NSCLC treatment has previously been established. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effect of HIF-1α on NSCLC and to explore the possible mechanism. Additionally, HIF-1α small interfering (si)RNA and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) were used in combination to explore the combined effects on NSCLC cells. Lung carcinoma NCI-H157 cells were treated with HIF-1α small interfering (si)RNA, 5 µg/ml DDP or a combination of the two, and the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion ability of the cells were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a Transwell assay, respectively. In addition, the protein levels of caspase-3/9, anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)PI3K, protein kinase B (AKT), p-AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-ERK were detected using western blot analysis. Similar to DPP treatment, HIF-1α siRNA treatment may reduce cell proliferation and the invasiveness of tumor cells while promoting apoptosis. Additionally, HIF-1α siRNA may increase the levels of the apoptotic proteins caspases 3 and 9 and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2. These anti-tumor effects may be acting through the VEGF/PEDF, PI3K/AKT and Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways. The effects

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis Differentially Modulates Cell Death Profile in Ox-LDL and TNF-α Pre-Treated Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bugueno, Isaac Maximiliano; Khelif, Yacine; Seelam, Narendra; Morand, David-Nicolas; Tenenbaum, Henri; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Huck, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical studies demonstrated a potential link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the main periodontal pathogen, has been associated to atheromatous plaque worsening. However, synergism between infection and other endothelial stressors such as oxidized-LDL or TNF-α especially on endothelial cell (EC) death has not been investigated. This study aims to assess the role of Pg on EC death in an inflammatory context and to determine potential molecular pathways involved. Methods Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were infected with Pg (MOI 100) or stimulated by its lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) (1μg/ml) for 24 to 48 hours. Cell viability was measured with AlamarBlue test, type of cell death induced was assessed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. mRNA expression regarding caspase-1, -3, -9, Bcl-2, Bax-1 and Apaf-1 has been evaluated with RT-qPCR. Caspases enzymatic activity and concentration of APAF-1 protein were evaluated to confirm mRNA results. Results Pg infection and Pg-LPS stimulation induced EC death. A cumulative effect has been observed in Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs infected or stimulated. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells. Pg infection promotes EC necrosis, however, in infected Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, apoptosis was promoted. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells highlighting specificity of molecular pathways activated. Regarding mRNA expression, Pg increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes including caspases-1,-3,-9, Bax-1 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, Pg increased significantly the expression of Apaf-1. These results were confirmed at the protein level. Conclusion This study contributes to demonstrate that Pg and its Pg-LPS could exacerbate Ox-LDL and TNF-α induced endothelial injury through increase of EC death. Interestingly, molecular pathways are differentially modulated by the infection in function of the

  12. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10(6) to 10(5) cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk

  14. The effects of the novel, reversible epidermal growth factor receptor/ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, GW2016, on the growth of human normal and tumor-derived cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rusnak, D W; Lackey, K; Affleck, K; Wood, E R; Alligood, K J; Rhodes, N; Keith, B R; Murray, D M; Knight, W B; Mullin, R J; Gilmer, T M

    2001-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB-2 transmembrane tyrosine kinases are currently being targeted by various mechanisms in the treatment of cancer. GW2016 is a potent inhibitor of the ErbB-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase domains with IC50 values against purified EGFR and ErbB-2 of 10.2 and 9.8 nM, respectively. This report describes the efficacy in cell growth assays of GW2016 on human tumor cell lines overexpressing either EGFR or ErbB-2: HN5 (head and neck), A-431 (vulva), BT474 (breast), CaLu-3 (lung), and N87 (gastric). Normal human foreskin fibroblasts, nontumorigenic epithelial cells (HB4a), and nonoverexpressing tumor cells (MCF-7 and T47D) were tested as negative controls. After 3 days of compound exposure, average IC50 values for growth inhibition in the EGFR- and ErbB-2-overexpressing tumor cell lines were < 0.16 microM. The average selectivity for the tumor cells versus the human foreskin fibroblast cell line was 100-fold. Inhibition of EGFR and ErbB-2 receptor autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the downstream modulator, AKT, was verified by Western blot analysis in the BT474 and HN5 cell lines. As a measure of cytotoxicity versus growth arrest, the HN5 and BT474 cells were assessed in an outgrowth assay after a transient exposure to GW2016. The cells were treated for 3 days in five concentrations of GW2016, and cell growth was monitored for an additional 12 days after removal of the compound. In each of these tumor cell lines, concentrations of GW2016 were reached where outgrowth did not occur. Furthermore, growth arrest and cell death were observed in parallel experiments, as determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and propidium iodide staining. GW2016 treatment inhibited tumor xenograft growth of the HN5 and BT474 cells in a dose-responsive manner at 30 and 100 mg/kg orally, twice daily, with complete inhibition of tumor growth at the higher dose. Together, these results indicate that GW2016 achieves excellent potency on

  15. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  16. Stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene enhances apoptosis-inducing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Duan; Tong, Qiang-Song; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jun; Qian, Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of enhancing apoptosis-inducing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on human gastric cancer cells by stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene. METHODS: After Smac gene was transferred into gastric cancer cell line MKN-45, subclone cells were obtained by persistent G418 selection. Cellular Smac gene expression was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. After treatment with mitomycin (MMC) as an apoptotic inducer, in vitro cell growth activities were investigated by trypan blue-staining method and MTT colorimetry. Cell apoptosis and its rates were determined by electronic microscopy, annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. Cellular caspase-3 protein expression and its activities were assayed by Western blotting and colorimetry. RESULTS: When compared with MKN-45 cells, the selected subclone cell line MKN-45/Smac had significantly higher Smac mRNA (3.12±0.21 vs 0.82±0.14, t = 7.52, P<0.01) and protein levels (4.02±0.24 vs 0.98±0.11, t = 8.32, P<0.01). After treatment with 10 μg/mL MMC for 6-24 h, growth inhibition rate of MKN-45/Smac (15.8±1.2-54.8±2.9%) was significantly higher than that of MKN-45 (5.8±0.4- 24.0±1.5%, t = 6.42, P<0.01). Partial MKN-45/Smac cancer cells presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under the electronic microscope with an apoptosis rate of 36.4±2.1%, which was significantly higher than that of MKN-45 (15.2±0.8%, t = 9.25, P<0.01). Compared with MKN-45, caspase-3 expression levels in MKN-45/Smac were improved significantly (3.39±0.42 vs 0.96±0.14, t = 8.63, P<0.01), while its activities were 3.25 times as many as those of MKN-45 (0.364±0.010 vs 0.112±0.007, t = 6.34, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene and its over-expression in gastric cancer cell line can significantly enhance cellular caspase-3 expression and activities, ameliorate apoptosis-inducing effects of mitomycin C on cancer cells, which is a novel strategy to

  17. Effects of cordycepin on HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells: Potential antiproliferative, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haisheng; Li, Xiting; Zhang, Jianying; Shi, Hui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoshun

    2014-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays an important role in HCC development. Cordycepin, also known as 3'-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of adenosine, and numerous cellular enzymes cannot differentiate the two. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cordycepin regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) and in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). MTT was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). Transwell and wound healing assays were used to analyze the migration and invasion of HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells was assessed using a tube formation assay. Cordycepin strongly suppressed HepG2 and EA.hy926 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin induced EA.hy926 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (2,000 μg/ml: 50.20±1.55% vs. 0 μg/ml: 2.62±0.19%; P<0.01). Cordycepin inhibited EA.hy926 cell migration (percentage of wound healing area, 2,000 μg/ml: 3.45±0.29% vs. 0 μg/ml: 85.48±0.84%; P<0.05), as well as tube formation (total length of tubular structure, 1,000 μg/ml: 107±39 μm vs. 0 μg/ml: 936±56 μm; P<0.05). Cordycepin also efficiently inhibited HepG2 cell invasion and migration. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the cytosol from EA.hy926 cells showed that cordycepin was stable for 3 h. In conclusion, cordycepin not only inhibited human HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion, but also induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that cordycepin may be used as a novel anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC.

  18. Rheum emodin inhibits enterovirus 71 viral replication and affects the host cell cycle environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Li-ying; Wang, Zeng-yan; Wang, Yue; Song, Feng-mei; Zhang, Ya-hong; Yu, Jing-hua

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative agent of recent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia. Currently, there are no drugs available for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. In this study, we compared the anti-EV71 activities of three natural compounds, rheum emodin, artemisinin and astragaloside extracted from Chinese herbs Chinese rhubarb, Artemisia carvifolia and Astragalus, respectively, which have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases. Human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5 was mock-infected or infected with EV71, and treated with drugs. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was detected with MTT assay. The cytopathic effects such as cell death and condensed nuclei were morphologically observed. The VP1-coding sequence required for EV71 genome replication was assayed with qRT-PCR. Viral protein expression was analyzed with Western blotting. Viral TCID50 was determined to evaluate EV71 virulence. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of MRC5 cells. Rheum emodin (29.6 μmol/L) effectively protected MRC5 cells from EV71-induced cytopathic effects, which resulted from the inhibiting viral replication: rheum emodin treatment decreased viral genomic levels by 5.34-fold, viral protein expression by less than 30-fold and EV71 virulence by 0.33107-fold. The fact that inhibition of rheum emodin on viral virulence was much stronger than its effects on genomic levels and viral protein expression suggested that rheum emodin inhibited viral maturation. Furthermore, rheum emodin treatment markedly diminished cell cycle arrest at S phase in MRC5 cells, which was induced by EV71 infection and favored the viral replication. In contrast, neither astragaloside (50 μmol/L) nor artemisinin (50 μmol/L) showed similar anti-EV71 activities. Among the three natural compounds tested, rheum emodin effectively suppressed EV71 viral replication

  19. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Methods Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5–5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Results Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin

  20. Synergistic action of cisplatin and echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Czarnomysy, Robert; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Popławska, Bożena; Rysiak, Edyta; Pawłowska, Natalia; Czajkowska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Bielawska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of cisplatin in the presence echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells leads to a reduction of toxic effects associated with the use of cisplatin. The expression of β1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: protein kinase B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/ERK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and caspase-3 and -9 activity was measured after 24 h of incubation with tested compounds to explain detailed molecular mechanism of induction of apoptosis. The viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining assay was performed to detect the induction of apoptosis. Inhibition DNA biosynthesis was determined by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The expression of of β1-integrin, IGF-IR, AKT, ERK1/ERK2, NFκB, caspase-3 and -9 was evaluated using Western blot. The results suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h cisplatin plus echistatin severely inhibits cell growth and activates apoptosis by upregulation of caspase-3 and -9 expressions. The effect was stronger than treatment cisplatin and echistatin alone. In this study, we have found that cisplatin plus echistatin treatment decreases collagen biosynthesis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stronger than the individual compounds. The inhibition was found to be dependent on the β1-integrin and IGF receptor activation. A significant reduction of ERK1/ERK2, AKT expression in cancer cells after cisplatin plus echistatin treatment was also found. The cancer cells treated by echistatin, cisplatin, and in particular the combination of both compounds drastically increased expression of NFκB transcription factor. Our results suggest that combined therapy cisplatin plus echistatin is a possible way to improve selectiveness of cisplatin. This

  1. Rheum emodin inhibits enterovirus 71 viral replication and affects the host cell cycle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ying; Wang, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Yue; Song, Feng-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Yu, Jing-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative agent of recent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia. Currently, there are no drugs available for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. In this study, we compared the anti-EV71 activities of three natural compounds, rheum emodin, artemisinin and astragaloside extracted from Chinese herbs Chinese rhubarb, Artemisia carvifolia and Astragalus, respectively, which have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases. Human lung fibroblast cell line MRC5 was mock-infected or infected with EV71, and treated with drugs. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was detected with MTT assay. The cytopathic effects such as cell death and condensed nuclei were morphologically observed. The VP1-coding sequence required for EV71 genome replication was assayed with qRT-PCR. Viral protein expression was analyzed with Western blotting. Viral TCID50 was determined to evaluate EV71 virulence. Flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of MRC5 cells. Rheum emodin (29.6 μmol/L) effectively protected MRC5 cells from EV71-induced cytopathic effects, which resulted from the inhibiting viral replication: rheum emodin treatment decreased viral genomic levels by 5.34-fold, viral protein expression by less than 30-fold and EV71 virulence by 0.33107-fold. The fact that inhibition of rheum emodin on viral virulence was much stronger than its effects on genomic levels and viral protein expression suggested that rheum emodin inhibited viral maturation. Furthermore, rheum emodin treatment markedly diminished cell cycle arrest at S phase in MRC5 cells, which was induced by EV71 infection and favored the viral replication. In contrast, neither astragaloside (50 μmol/L) nor artemisinin (50 μmol/L) showed similar anti-EV71 activities. Among the three natural compounds tested, rheum emodin effectively suppressed EV71 viral replication

  2. Propidium iodide-based methods for monitoring drug action in the kinetoplastidae: comparison with the Alamar Blue assay.

    PubMed

    Gould, Matthew K; Vu, Xuan Lan; Seebeck, Thomas; de Koning, Harry P

    2008-11-15

    The urgent need for new drug development for African trypanosomiasis is widely recognized. This requires reliable and informative high-throughput assays. Currently, drug action is determined with a fluorimetric/colorimetric assay based on the metabolism of the dye Alamar Blue (resazurin) by live cells. However, this assay does not easily distinguish between cell death and growth arrest, or supply information about the rate at which test compounds affect these parameters. We report here an alternative fluorimetric assay, based on the interaction of propidium iodide with DNA, that allows either real-time monitoring of cell viability or the generation of EC(50) values at a predetermined time-point. The assay is highly sensitive and fluorescence readings easily correlate to numbers of parasites or DNA content. The EC(50) values were highly similar to those obtained with the standard Alamar Blue assay. The procedure lends itself readily to applications in drug development or resistance monitoring.

  3. Novel Tissue Protective Agents for the Treatment of Acute Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    inhibition of the hERG potassium channel was evident at the highest concentration tested, 30 micromolar (38 mg/ml), in an in-vitro assay using hERG...Incubated for 10 min at room temperature. Cells were then washed 3 times and stained with propidium Iodide staining solution (Nexcelom). Cells were...C.E., Winkler, I.G., Nowlan, B., Barbier, V., Walkinshaw, G., and Levesque, J.-P. (2013). Pharmacologic stabilization of HIF-1α increases

  4. Liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 DNA into human prostate cancer cells is improved by low-frequency ultrasound combined with microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    BAI, WEN-KUN; ZHANG, WEI; HU, BING; YING, TAO

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in elderly men. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound exposure in combination with SonoVue microbubbles on liposome-mediated transfection of wild-type P53 genes into human prostate cancer cells. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells were exposed to ultrasound; duty cycle was controlled at 20% (2 sec on, 8 sec off) for 5 min with and without SonoVue microbubble echo-contrast agent using a digital sonifier (frequency, 21 kHz; intensity, 46 mW/cm2). The cells were divided into eight groups, as follows: Group A (SonoVue + wild-type P53), group B (ultrasound + wild-type P53), group C (SonoVue + ultrasound + wild-type P53), group D (liposome + wild-type P53), group E (liposome + SonoVue + wild-type P53), group F (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound), group G (liposome + wild-type P53 + ultrasound + SonoVue) and the control group (wild-type P53). Following treatment, a hemocytometer was used to measure cell lysis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to detect P53 gene transfection efficiency, Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed to reveal cell proliferation and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to determine cell apoptosis. Cell lysis was minimal in each group. Wild-type P53 gene and protein expression were significantly increased in the PC-3 cells in group G compared with the control and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed in group G compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Cell apoptosis levels in group G were significantly improved compared with the control group and all other groups (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study indicate that the use of low-frequency and low-energy ultrasound in combination with SonoVue microbubbles may be a potent physical method for increasing liposome gene delivery efficiency. PMID:27313702

  5. Studying the Role of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E) Phosphorylation by MNK1/2 Kinases in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    dual annexin V–propidium iodide staining. No difference in the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells was observed between WT and KI MEFs after...the statistical environment R and the package lumi (4). Data were transformed using Variance Stabilizing Transformation and normalized using Robust...Slc24a3 1.56 Solute carrier family 24 (sodium/ potassium /calcium exchanger), member 3 Mtvr2 1.55 Mammary tumor virus receptor 2 Mmp9 1.53 Matrix

  6. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  7. Thymoquinone from Nigella sativa Seeds Promotes the Antitumor Activity of Noncytotoxic Doses of Topotecan in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Khalife, Rana; Hodroj, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhoury, Rajaa; Rizk, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Topotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is an anticancer drug widely used in the therapy of lung, ovarian, colorectal, and breast adenocarcinoma. Due to the primary dose-limiting toxicity of topotecan, which is myelosuppressive, it is necessary to identify other chemotherapeutic agents that can work synergistically with topotecan to increase its efficacy and limit its toxicity. Many studies have shown synergism upon the combination of topotecan with other chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine. Other studies have demonstrated that pre-exposing cells to naturally occurring compounds such as thymoquinone, followed by gemcitabine or oxaliplatin, resulted in higher growth inhibition compared to treatment with gemcitabine or oxaliplatin alone. Our aim was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action of topotecan in the survival and apoptotic pathways in human colon cancer cell lines in comparison to thymoquinone, to study the proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects of thymoquinone on the effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic agent topotecan, and to investigate the potential synergistic effect of thymoquinone with topotecan. Cells were incubated with different topotecan and thymoquinone concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in order to determine the IC50 for each drug. Combined therapy was then tested with ± 2 values for the IC50 of each drug. The reduction in proliferation was significantly dose- and time-dependent. After determining the best combination (40 µM thymoquinone and 0.6 µM topotecan), cell proteins were extracted after treatment, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 and of its associated X protein, proteins p53 and p21, and caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-8 were studied by Western blot. In addition, cell cycle analysis and annexin/propidium iodide staining were performed. Both drugs induced apoptosis through a p53-independent mechanism, whereas the expression of p21 was only seen in thymoquinone treatment. Cell cycle arrest in the S

  8. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  9. ROS-Dependent Mitochondria Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Antitumor Activity of Pleurotus abalonus Acidic Polysaccharides in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yan; Jiao, Yadong; Shi, Tengrui; Yang, Xingbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A greater reduction in cancer risk associated with mushroom diet rich in fungus polysaccharides is generally accepted. Meanwhile, edible Pleurotus abalonus as a member of Abalone mushroom family is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly prevents cancer occurrence. However, these anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing tumor-inhibitory responses to the promising polysaccharides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties have not yet been elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings We here fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus into three fractions, namely PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3, and tested these fractions for antiproliferative activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The largest PAP-3, an acidic polysaccharide fraction with a molecular mass of 3.68×105 Da, was the most active in inhibiting MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 of 193 µg/mL. The changes in cell normal morphology were observed by DAPI staining and the PAP-3-induced apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The apoptosis was involved in mitochondria-mediated pathway including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-9/3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, as well as intracellular ROS production. PAP-3 also induced up-regulation of p53, and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The incubation of MCF-7 cells with antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis caused by PAP-3, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially acidic PAP-3, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for, at least in part, the anticancer health benefits of P. abalonus via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It is a

  10. Effect of hypoxia and Beraprost sodium on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation: the role of p27kip1

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Maiko; Mizuno, Shiro; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Miyamori, Isamu; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypoxia induces the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) in vivo and in vitro, and prostacyclin analogues are thought to inhibit the growth of PASMC. Previous studies suggest that p27kip1, a kind of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, play an important role in the smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of hypoxia and the subcellular interactions between p27kip1 and prostacyclin analogues in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (HPASMC) are not fully understood. Methods We investigated the role of p27kip1 in the ability of Beraprost sodium (BPS; a stable prostacyclin analogue) to inhibit the proliferation of HPASMC during hypoxia. To clarify the biological effects of hypoxic air exposure and BPS on HPASMC, the cells were cultured in a hypoxic chamber under various oxygen concentrations (0.1–21%). Thereafter, DNA synthesis was measured as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. The p27kip1 mRNA and protein expression and it's stability was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Further, we assessed the role of p27kip1 in HPASMC proliferation using p27kip1 gene knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Results Although severe hypoxia (0.1% oxygen) suppressed the proliferation of serum-stimulated HPASMC, moderate hypoxia (2% oxygen) enhanced proliferation in accordance with enhanced p27kip1 protein degradation, whereas BPS suppressed HPASMC proliferation under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions by suppressing p27kip1 degradation with intracellular cAMP-elevation. The 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), a cAMP analogue, had similar action as BPS in the regulation of p27kip1. Moderate hypoxia did not affect the stability of p27kip1 protein expression, but PDGF, known as major hypoxia-induced growth factors, significantly decreased p27kip1 protein stability. We also demonstrated that

  11. Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Miglio, Gianluca; Mesturini, Riccardo; Varsaldi, Federica; Mocellin, Marco; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Chiara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Lombardi, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of L-glutamate on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of human activated (1 μg ml−1 phytohemagglutinin plus 2 U ml−1 interleukin-2; 8 days) T lymphocytes were studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (10 μg ml−1; 18 h)-induced cell apoptosis (Annexin V and propidium iodide staining). L-Glutamate (1 × 10−8–1 × 10−4 M) significantly (P⩽0.01) inhibited AICD in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=6.3 × 10−8 M; maximum inhibition 54.8±6.3% at 1 × 10−6 M). The L-glutamate inhibitory effect was pharmacologically characterized as mediated by group I mGlu receptors, since mGlu receptor agonists reproduced this effect. The EC50 values were: 3.2 × 10−7 M for (1S,3R)-ACPD; 4.5 × 10−8 M for quisqualate; 1.0 × 10−6 M for (S)-3,5-DHPG; 2.0 × 10−5 M for CHPG. Group I mGlu receptor antagonists inhibited the effects of quisqualate 1.0 × 10−6 M. The IC50 values calculated were: 8.7 × 10−5, 4.3 × 10−6 and 6.3 × 10−7 M for AIDA, LY 367385 and MPEP, respectively. L-Glutamate (1 × 10−6 M; 18 h) significantly (P⩽0.05) inhibited FasL expression (40.8±11.3%) (cytofluorimetric analysis), whereas it did not affect Fas signalling. Expression of both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA by T lymphocytes and T-cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis, suggests that L-glutamate-mediated inhibition of AICD was exerted on T cells. These data depict a novel role for L-glutamate in the regulation of the immune response through group I mGlu receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16751798

  12. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA).

    PubMed

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2008-02-01

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees C or held at 5 degrees C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  13. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01) at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V—fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001), indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01) while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001) compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01), while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01). The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001) while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001). Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the fraction

  14. Isoeugenol destabilizes IL-8 mRNA expression in THP-1 cells through induction of the negative regulator of mRNA stability tristetraprolin.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Valentina; Carne, Alice; Mitjans, Montserrat; Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela

    2012-02-01

    We previously demonstrated in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 that all allergens tested, with the exception of the prohapten isoeugenol, induced a dose-related release of interleukin-8 (IL-8). In the present study, we investigated whether this abnormal behavior was regulated by the AU-rich element-binding proteins HuR and tristetraprolin (TTP) or by the downstream molecule suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3. The contact allergens isoeugenol, diethylmaleate (DEM), and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and the irritant salicylic acid were used as reference compounds. Chemicals were used at concentrations that induced a 20% decrease in cell viability as assessed by propidium iodide staining, namely 100 μg/ml (0.61 mM) for isoeugenol, 100 μg/ml (0.58 mM) for DEM, 3 μg/ml (14.8 μM) for DNCB, and 250 μg/ml (1.81 mM) for salicylic acid. Time course experiments of IL-8 mRNA expression and assessment of IL-8 mRNA half-life, indicated a decreased IL-8 mRNA stability in isoeugenol-treated cells. We could demonstrate that a combination and regulation of HuR and TTP following exposure to contact allergens resulted in a different modulation of IL-8 mRNA half-life and release. The increased expression of TTP in THP-1 cells treated with isoeugenol results in destabilization of the IL-8 mRNA, which can account for the lack of IL-8 release. In contrast, the strong allergen DNCB failing to up-regulate TTP, while inducing HuR, resulted in longer IL-8 mRNA half-life and protein release. SOCS-3 was induced only in isoeugenol-treated cells; however, its modulation did not rescue the lack of IL-8 release, indicating that it is unlikely to be involved in the lack of IL-8 production. Finally, the destabilization effect of isoeugenol on IL-8 mRNA expression together with SOCS-3 expression resulted in an anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by the ability of isoeugenol to modulate LPS or ionomycin-induced cytokine release.

  15. Parthenolide generates reactive oxygen species and autophagy in MDA-MB231 cells. A soluble parthenolide analogue inhibits tumour growth and metastasis in a xenograft model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    D'Anneo, A; Carlisi, D; Lauricella, M; Puleio, R; Martinez, R; Di Bella, S; Di Marco, P; Emanuele, S; Di Fiore, R; Guercio, A; Vento, R; Tesoriere, G

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are clinically aggressive forms associated with a poor prognosis. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect exerted on triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells both by parthenolide and its soluble analogue dimethylamino parthenolide (DMAPT) and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. The drugs induced a dose- and time-dependent decrement in cell viability, which was not prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. In particular in the first hours of treatment (1–3 h), parthenolide and DMAPT strongly stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The drugs induced production of superoxide anion by activating NADPH oxidase. ROS generation caused depletion of thiol groups and glutathione, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and downregulation of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB). During this first phase, parthenolide and DMAPT also stimulated autophagic process, as suggested by the enhanced expression of beclin-1, the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and the increase in the number of cells positive to monodansylcadaverine. Finally, the drugs increased RIP-1 expression. This effect was accompanied by a decrement of pro-caspase 8, while its cleaved form was not detected and the expression of c-FLIPS markedly increased. Prolonging the treatment (5–20 h) ROS generation favoured dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and the appearance of necrotic events, as suggested by the increased number of cells positive to propidium iodide staining. The administration of DMAPT in nude mice bearing xenografts of MDA-MB231 cells resulted in a significant inhibition of tumour growth, an increment of animal survival and a marked reduction of the lung area invaded by metastasis. Immunohistochemistry data revealed that treatment with DMAPT reduced the levels of NF-kB, metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and vascular endothelial growth factor, while induced upregulation of phosphorylated

  16. Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells Are Inhibited by Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, by the Attenuation of the Wnt β-Catenin Signaling via the Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G.; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Dharmarajan, Arun; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan P.; Warrier, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of breast cancer stem cells as the chemo-resistant and tumor-initiating population represents an important milestone in approaching anticancer therapies. Targeting this minor subpopulation of chemo- and radio-resistant stem-like cells, termed as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their eradication could significantly enhance clinical outcomes. Most of the presently administered chemotherapeutics target the tumor bulk but are ineffective against the CSCs. We report here that diosgenin (DG), a naturally occurring steroidal saponin, could effectively inhibit CSCs from three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the CSC associated phenotypes. Methods: CSCs were enriched in these cells lines, characterized for CSC traits by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in these breast CSCs in the presence of DG to obtain the inhibitory concentration. Apoptosis was confirmed with gene expression analysis, Western blotting and propidium iodide staining. TCF-LEF reporter assay, sFRP overexpression and RNAi silencing studies were performed to study regulation of the Wnt pathway. Statistical significance was evaluated by a two-sided Student’s t-test. Results: Using the TCF-LEF reporter system, we show the effect of DG on CSCs is predominantly through the network regulating CSC self renewal, the Wnt β-catenin pathway. Specifically, the Wnt antagonist, the secreted frizzled related protein 4, (sFRP4), had a defining role in the action of DG. Gain-of-function of sFRP4 in CSCs could improve the response to DG wherein CSC mediators were inhibited, β-catenin was down regulated and the effectors of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and pro-invasive markers were repressed. Conversely, the loss-of-function of sFRP4 had a reverse effect on the CSC population which therein became enriched, their response to DG treatment was modest, β-catenin levels increased

  17. Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells Are Inhibited by Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, by the Attenuation of the Wnt β-Catenin Signaling via the Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled Related Protein-4.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Dharmarajan, Arun; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan P; Warrier, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identification of breast cancer stem cells as the chemo-resistant and tumor-initiating population represents an important milestone in approaching anticancer therapies. Targeting this minor subpopulation of chemo- and radio-resistant stem-like cells, termed as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their eradication could significantly enhance clinical outcomes. Most of the presently administered chemotherapeutics target the tumor bulk but are ineffective against the CSCs. We report here that diosgenin (DG), a naturally occurring steroidal saponin, could effectively inhibit CSCs from three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the CSC associated phenotypes. Methods: CSCs were enriched in these cells lines, characterized for CSC traits by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed in these breast CSCs in the presence of DG to obtain the inhibitory concentration. Apoptosis was confirmed with gene expression analysis, Western blotting and propidium iodide staining. TCF-LEF reporter assay, sFRP overexpression and RNAi silencing studies were performed to study regulation of the Wnt pathway. Statistical significance was evaluated by a two-sided Student's t-test. Results: Using the TCF-LEF reporter system, we show the effect of DG on CSCs is predominantly through the network regulating CSC self renewal, the Wnt β-catenin pathway. Specifically, the Wnt antagonist, the secreted frizzled related protein 4, (sFRP4), had a defining role in the action of DG. Gain-of-function of sFRP4 in CSCs could improve the response to DG wherein CSC mediators were inhibited, β-catenin was down regulated and the effectors of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and pro-invasive markers were repressed. Conversely, the loss-of-function of sFRP4 had a reverse effect on the CSC population which therein became enriched, their response to DG treatment was modest, β-catenin levels increased

  18. Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine exerts a protective effect on cell-mediated immunity in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Liang; Yan, Hong-Dan; Liu, Ya-Yang; Sun, Bao-Zhu; Huang, Rui; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Lei, Wei-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Surgical procedures cause a decrease in lymphocyte proliferation rate, an increase in apoptosis and shifts the balance of T‑helper (Th)1/Th2 cells towards anti‑cell‑mediated immunity (CMI) Th2 dominance, which is relevant to the immunosuppressive effects of CMI, postoperative septic complications and the formation of tumor metastasis. Previous studies have revealed that lidocaine exhibits antibacterial actions; regulating inflammatory responses, reducing postoperative pain and affecting the duration spent in hospital. Thus, the present study hypothesized that lidocaine may exert a protective effect on the CMI of patients undergoing surgery for the removal of a primary tumor. A total of 30 adult female patients diagnosed with cervical cancer were recruited to the present study and were randomized into two groups. The lidocaine group received an intravenous bolus dose of 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine, followed by continuous infusion at 1.5 mg/kg/h until discharge from the operating room. The control group received the same volume of normal saline. A 10 ml sample of venous blood was drawn, and the lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll‑paque 1 day prior to surgery, at discharge from the operating room and 48 h post‑surgery. The proliferation rate of the lymphocytes was assessed using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and was found to be higher in the lidocaine group. The early apoptosis of lymphocytes was attenuated following lidocaine treatment at 48 h post‑surgery, as detected using flow cytometry with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. The level of interferon (IFN)‑γ in the serum at 48 h was significantly decreased following surgery in the control group, compared with the pre‑surgical values (3.782 ± 0.282, vs. 4.089 ± 0.339 pg/ml, respectively) and the ratio of IFN‑γ to interleukin‑4 was well preserved in the lidocaine group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the intraoperative systemic administration of

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields and the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.

    Exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. The phase of the cell cycle at the time of exposure is linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Additionally, nsPEFs are capable of activating cell cycle checkpoints, which could lead to apoptosis or slow population growth. NsPEFs are emerging as a method for treating tumors via apoptotic induction; therefore, investigating the relevance of nsPEFs and the cell cycle could translate into improved efficacy in tumor treatment. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate the role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations appeared similar to sham populations post-nsPEFs but exhibited arrest in the G1 phase at 6h after exposure. Jurkat cells exhibited increased cell death after nsPEFs compared to CHO cells but did not exhibit checkpoint arrest at any observed time point. The G1/S phase checkpoint is partially controlled by the action of p53; the lack of an active p53 response in Jurkat cells could contribute to their ability to pass this checkpoint and resist cell cycle arrest. Both cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to nsPEFs in G2/M phase. Live imaging of CHO cells after nsPEF exposure supports the theory of G1/S phase arrest, as a reduced number of cells undergo mitosis within 24 h when

  20. From red to green: the propidium iodide-permeable membrane of Shewanella decolorationis S12 is repairable

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yonggang; Xiang, Yinbo; Xu, Meiying

    2015-01-01

    Viability is a common issue of concern in almost all microbial processes. Fluorescence-based assays are extensively used in microbial viability assessment, especially for mixed-species samples or biofilms. Propidium iodide (PI) is the most frequently used fluorescence indicator for cell viability based on the membrane permeability. Our results showed that the accumulation of succinate from fumarate respiration could induce PI-permeability in Shewanella decolorationis biofilm cells. Confocal laser scanning microscope further showed that the PI-permeable membrane could be repaired in situ when the extracellular succinate was eliminated by switching fumarate respiration to electrode respiration. Simultaneously with the membrane repair, the electrode respiring capacity of the originally PI-permeable cells was recovered. Agar-colony counts suggested that a major portion of the repaired cells were viable but nonculturable (VBNC). The results evidenced that S. decolorationis S12 has the capacity to repair PI-permeable membranes which suggests a reevaluation of the fate and function of the PI-permeable bacteria and expanded our knowledge on the flexibility of bacterial survival status in harsh environments. PMID:26687136

  1. Gene-silencing effects of anti-survivin siRNA delivered by RGDV-functionalized nanodiamond carrier in the breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanzhao; Zhang, Yifan; Cui, Chunying; Ren, Lulu; Jiang, Xueyun

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) is a renowned material in nonviral small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier field due to its unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. In our previous work, it was proven that ND could deliver siRNA into cells efficiently and downregulate the expression of desired protein. However, synthesizing a high-efficient tumor-targeting carrier using ND is still a challenge. In this study, a novel carrier, NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR, was synthesized for siRNA delivery, and its properties were characterized with methods including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gel retardation assay, differential scanning calorimetry, confocal microscopy, releasing test, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assay, and gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR/survivin-siRNA-induced tumor apoptosis was evaluated via flow cytometer assay using Annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining method. The NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR/survivin-siRNA nanoparticle with 60–110 nm diameter and 35.65±3.90 mV zeta potential was prepared. For real-time PCR assay, the results showed that the expression of survivin mRNA was reduced to 46.77%±6.3%. The expression of survivin protein was downregulated to 48.49%±2.25%, as evaluated by ELISA assay. MTT assay showed that NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR/survivin-siRNA had an inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation. According to these results, the survivin-siRNA could be delivered, transported, and released stably, which benefits in increasing the gene-silencing effect. Therefore, as an siRNA carrier, NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR was suggested to be used in siRNA delivery system and in cancer treatments. PMID:27853365

  2. Propidium Iodide Competes with Ca2+ to Label Pectin in Pollen Tubes and Arabidopsis Root Hairs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Lubeck, Eric; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    We have used propidium iodide (PI) to investigate the dynamic properties of the primary cell wall at the apex of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hairs and pollen tubes and in lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes. Our results show that in root hairs, as in pollen tubes, oscillatory peaks in PI fluorescence precede growth rate oscillations. Pectin forms the primary component of the cell wall at the tip of both root hairs and pollen tubes. Given the electronic structure of PI, we investigated whether PI binds to pectins in a manner analogous to Ca2+ binding. We first show that Ca2+ is able to abrogate PI growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. PI fluorescence itself also relies directly on the amount of Ca2+ in the growth solution. Exogenous pectin methyl esterase treatment of pollen tubes, which demethoxylates pectins, freeing more Ca2+-binding sites, leads to a dramatic increase in PI fluorescence. Treatment with pectinase leads to a corresponding decrease in fluorescence. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PI binds to demethoxylated pectins. Unlike other pectin stains, PI at low yet useful concentration is vital and specifically does not alter the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient or growth oscillations. These data suggest that pectin secretion at the apex of tip-growing plant cells plays a critical role in regulating growth, and PI represents an excellent tool for examining the role of pectin and of Ca2+ in tip growth. PMID:21768649

  3. Effect of exposure to stress conditions on propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR based Campylobacter enumeration in broiler carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A; Botteldoorn, N; Coucke, W; Denayer, S; Dierick, K; Uyttendaele, M

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter quantification by qPCR is unable to distinguish viable vs. dead cells in contrast to the culture-based ISO 10272-2 reference method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this disadvantage. A Campylobacter PMA-qPCR enumeration method was evaluated for its consistency and compared to the culture-based enumeration for both artificially and natural contaminated broiler carcass rinses. The PMA effect was further evaluated on stressed cells. Five conditions, commonly encountered during the slaughter process and storage (acid, heat, cold, oxidation and freezing), were inflicted to the broiler carcass rinses artificially contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. A better correlation between the reference method and the qPCR enumeration was obtained when PMA was used. The two cultured-based methods used showed a significant CFU reduction for heat, cold and acid stresses although the PMA-qPCR enumeration showed that viable bacteria were underestimated. Freezing showed the highest reduction effect, while the reduction extend was also overestimated by the microbiological enumeration procedure. Exposure to a mild oxidative stress was the only stress condition applied at temperatures permitting adaptation of Campylobacter and did not lead to either reduction in CFU nor in the PMA-qPCR signal.

  4. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique’s inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not

  5. Rapid detection of viable salmonellae in produce by coupling propidium monoazide with loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyi; Wang, Fei; Beaulieu, John C; Stein, Rebecca E; Ge, Beilei

    2011-06-01

    Recent outbreaks linked to Salmonella-contaminated produce heightened the need to develop simple, rapid, and accurate detection methods, particularly those capable of determining cell viability. In this study, we examined a novel strategy for the rapid detection and quantification of viable salmonellae in produce by coupling a simple propidium monoazide sample treatment with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PMA-LAMP). We first designed and optimized a LAMP assay targeting Salmonella. Second, the performance of PMA-LAMP for detecting and quantifying viable salmonellae was determined. Finally, the assay was evaluated in experimentally contaminated produce items (cantaloupe, spinach, and tomato). Under the optimized condition, PMA-LAMP consistently gave negative results for heat-killed Salmonella cells with concentrations up to 10(8) CFU/ml (or CFU/g in produce). The detection limits of PMA-LAMP were 3.4 to 34 viable Salmonella cells in pure culture and 6.1 × 10(3) to 6.1 × 10(4) CFU/g in spiked produce samples. In comparison, PMA-PCR was up to 100-fold less sensitive. The correlation between LAMP time threshold (T(T)) values and viable Salmonella cell numbers was high (R(2) = 0.949 to 0.993), with a quantification range (10(2) to 10(5) CFU/reaction in pure culture and 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g in produce) comparable to that of PMA in combination with quantitative real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR). The complete PMA-LAMP assay took about 3 h to complete when testing produce samples. In conclusion, this rapid, accurate, and simple method to detect and quantify viable Salmonella cells in produce may present a useful tool for the produce industry to better control potential microbial hazards in produce.

  6. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products.

  7. Rapid Detection of Viable Salmonellae in Produce by Coupling Propidium Monoazide with Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyi; Wang, Fei; Beaulieu, John C.; Stein, Rebecca E.; Ge, Beilei

    2011-01-01

    Recent outbreaks linked to Salmonella-contaminated produce heightened the need to develop simple, rapid, and accurate detection methods, particularly those capable of determining cell viability. In this study, we examined a novel strategy for the rapid detection and quantification of viable salmonellae in produce by coupling a simple propidium monoazide sample treatment with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PMA-LAMP). We first designed and optimized a LAMP assay targeting Salmonella. Second, the performance of PMA-LAMP for detecting and quantifying viable salmonellae was determined. Finally, the assay was evaluated in experimentally contaminated produce items (cantaloupe, spinach, and tomato). Under the optimized condition, PMA-LAMP consistently gave negative results for heat-killed Salmonella cells with concentrations up to 108 CFU/ml (or CFU/g in produce). The detection limits of PMA-LAMP were 3.4 to 34 viable Salmonella cells in pure culture and 6.1 × 103 to 6.1 × 104 CFU/g in spiked produce samples. In comparison, PMA-PCR was up to 100-fold less sensitive. The correlation between LAMP time threshold (TT) values and viable Salmonella cell numbers was high (R2 = 0.949 to 0.993), with a quantification range (102 to 105 CFU/reaction in pure culture and 104 to 107 CFU/g in produce) comparable to that of PMA in combination with quantitative real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR). The complete PMA-LAMP assay took about 3 h to complete when testing produce samples. In conclusion, this rapid, accurate, and simple method to detect and quantify viable Salmonella cells in produce may present a useful tool for the produce industry to better control potential microbial hazards in produce. PMID:21498750

  8. Evaluation of propidium monoazide real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Oketič, K; Matijašić, B Bogovič; Obermajer, T; Radulović, Z; Lević, S; Mirković, N; Nedović, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate real-time PCR coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for enumeration of microencapsulated probiotic lactobacilli microencapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (CCM 7710) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CCM 7712) were analysed by plate counting and PMA real-time PCR during storage at 4 °C for 90 days. PMA was effective in preventing PCR amplification of the target sequences of DNA released from heat-compromised bacteria. The values obtained by real-time PCR of non-treated samples were in general higher than those obtained by real-time PCR of PMA-treated samples or by plate counting, indicating the presence of sub-lethally injured cells. This study shows that plate count could not be completely replaced by culture independent method PMA real-time PCR for enumeration of probiotics, but may rather complement the well-established plate counting, providing useful information about the ratio of compromised bacteria in the samples.

  9. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-01-17

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells.

  10. Use of propidium monoazide and increased amplicon length reduce false-positive signals in quantitative PCR for bioburden analysis.

    PubMed

    Schnetzinger, Franz; Pan, Youwen; Nocker, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) as an alternative to conventional cultivation-based bioburden analysis are receiving increasing attention although no single technology is currently able to satisfy the needs of the health care industry. Among the RMMs, quantitative PCR (qPCR) seems particularly suited. Its implementation is, however, hampered by false-positive signals originating from free DNA in PCR reagents or from dead cells in the samples to be analysed. In this study, we assessed the capability of propidium monoazide (PMA) to inactivate exogenous DNA in PCR reagents and thus to minimise its impact in bioburden analysis. PMA is a membrane-impermeant dye that intercalates into DNA and covalently binds to it upon photoactivation leading to strong inhibition of PCR amplification. PMA is currently used mainly for treatment of microbiological samples to exclude signals from membrane-compromised cells, but is also very useful for suppression of exogenous DNA signals. In addition to testing the effect of different PMA concentrations on non-template controls and target DNA, we demonstrate the effect of amplicon length on the exclusion of background amplification. Targeting a 1,108-bp 16S rRNA gene fragment using universal bacterial primers and PCR reagents treated with 5 μM PMA resulted in complete suppression of signals from exogenous DNA within 50 cycles of amplification, while a limit of detection of 10 copies of Escherichia coli genomic DNA per PCR reaction was achieved. A combined PMA treatment of sample and PCR reagents furthermore improved the selective detection of live cells making this method appear a highly attractive RMM.

  11. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  12. Discrimination of infectious hepatitis A viruses by propidium monoazide real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gloria; Elizaquível, Patricia; Aznar, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    The discrimination of infectious and inactivated viruses remains a key obstacle when using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) to quantify enteric viruses. In this study, propidium monoazide (PMA) and RNase pretreatments were evaluated for the detection and quantification of infectious hepatitis A virus (HAV). For thermally inactivated HAV, PMA treatment was more effective than RNase treatment for differentiating infectious and inactivated viruses, with HAV titers reduced by more than 2.4 log(10) units. Results showed that combining 50 μM of PMA and RT-qPCR selectively quantify infectious HAV in media suspensions. Therefore, PMA treatment previous to RT-qPCR detection is a promising alternative to assess HAV infectivity.

  13. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  14. Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture independent methods: (1) LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (LD) and (2) propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were f...

  15. Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/dead BacLight methods.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Wulfeck-Kleier, Karen A; Pressman, Jonathan G

    2009-09-01

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure-culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture-independent methods, namely, Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were first verified with mixtures of heat-killed (nonviable) and non-heat-killed (viable) cells before a series of batch disinfection experiments with stationary-phase cultures (batch grown for 7 days) at pH 8.0, 25 degrees C, and 5, 10, and 20 mg Cl(2)/liter monochloramine. Two data sets were generated based on the viability method used, either (i) LD or (ii) PMA-qPCR. These two data sets were used to estimate kinetic parameters for the delayed Chick-Watson disinfection model through a Bayesian analysis implemented in WinBUGS. This analysis provided parameter estimates of 490 mg Cl(2)-min/liter for the lag coefficient (b) and 1.6 x 10(-3) to 4.0 x 10(-3) liter/mg Cl(2)-min for the Chick-Watson disinfection rate constant (k). While estimates of b were similar for both data sets, the LD data set resulted in a greater k estimate than that obtained with the PMA-qPCR data set, implying that the PMA-qPCR viability measure was more conservative than LD. For N. europaea, the lag phase was not previously reported for culture-independent methods and may have implications for nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. This is the first published application of a PMA-qPCR method for disinfection kinetic model parameter estimation as well as its application to N. europaea or monochloramine. Ultimately, this PMA-qPCR method will allow evaluation of monochloramine disinfection kinetics for mixed-culture bacteria in drinking water distribution systems.

  16. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of total and propidium monoazide-resistant fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Field, R; Stinson, M; Rukovets, B; Wymer, L; Haugland, R

    2009-11-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. These methods were used in the analyses of wastewater samples to investigate their feasibility as alternatives to current fecal indicator bacteria culture methods for predicting the efficiency of viral pathogen removal by standard treatment processes. PMA treatment was effective in preventing qPCR detection of target sequences from non-viable cells. Concentrates of small volume, secondary-treated wastewater samples, collected from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) under normal operating conditions, had little influence on this effectiveness. Higher levels of total suspended solids, such as those associated with normal primary treatment and all treatment stages during storm flow events, appeared to interfere with PMA effectiveness under the sample preparation conditions employed. During normal operating conditions at three different POTWs, greater reductions were observed in PMA-qPCR detectable target sequences of both Enterococcus and Bacteroidales than in total qPCR detectable sequences. These reductions were not as great as those observed for cultivable fecal indicator bacteria in response to wastewater disinfection. Reductions of PMA-qPCR as well as total qPCR detectable target sequences from enterococci and, to a lesser extent, Bacteroidales correlated well with reductions in infectious viruses during both normal and storm flow operating conditions and therefore may have predictive value in determining the efficiency at which these pathogens are removed.

  17. Effects of Propidium Monoazide (PMA) Treatment on Mycobiome and Bacteriome Analysis of Cystic Fibrosis Airways during Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh Do Ngoc; Deschaght, Pieter; Merlin, Sophie; Loywick, Alexandre; Audebert, Christophe; Van Daele, Sabine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Delhaes, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose Propidium monoazide (PMA)-pretreatment has increasingly been applied to remove the bias from dead or damaged cell artefacts, which could impact the microbiota analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Our study aimed to determine whether a PMA-pretreatment coupled with high-throughput sequencing analysis provides a different picture of the airway mycobiome and bacteriome. Results and Discussion We compared deep-sequencing data of mycobiota and microbiota of 15 sputum samples from 5 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with and without prior PMA-treatment of the DNA-extracts. PMA-pretreatment had no significant effect on the entire and abundant bacterial community (genera expressed as operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a relative abundance greater than or equal to 1%), but caused a significant difference in the intermediate community (less than 1%) when analyzing the alpha biodiversity Simpson index (p = 0.03). Regarding PMA impact on the airway mycobiota evaluated for the first time here; no significant differences in alpha diversity indexes between PMA-treated and untreated samples were observed. Regarding beta diversity analysis, the intermediate communities also differed more dramatically than the total and abundant ones when studying both mycobiome and bacteriome. Our results showed that only the intermediate (or low abundance) population diversity is impacted by PMA-treatment, and therefore that abundant taxa are mostly viable during acute exacerbation in CF. Given such a cumbersome protocol (PMA-pretreatment coupled with high-throughput sequencing), we discuss its potential interest within the follow-up of CF patients. Further studies using PMA-pretreatment are warranted to improve our “omic” knowledge of the CF airways. PMID:28030619

  18. Comparative analysis of bacterial community composition in bulk tank raw milk by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods using the viability dye propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mareike; Geißert, Janina; Kruse, Myriam; Lipski, André

    2014-11-01

    Microbial diversity of 3 raw milk samples after 72 h of storage at 4 °C in a bulk tank was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The culture-dependent approach was based on the isolation of bacteria on complex and selective media, chemotaxonomic differentiation of isolates, and subsequent identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach included the treatment of raw milk with the dye propidium monoazide before direct DNA extraction by mechanic and enzymatic cell lysis approaches, and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The selective detection of viable bacteria improved the comparability between bacterial compositions of raw milk based on culture-dependent and -independent methods, which was the major objective of this study. Several bacterial species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were detected by the culture-dependent method, whereas mainly bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria as well as low proportions of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were detected by the culture-independent method. This led to the conclusion that the phylum Firmicutes was strongly discriminated by the culture-independent approach. Generally, species richness detected by the culture-dependent method was higher than that detected by the culture-independent method for all samples. However, few taxa could be detected solely by the direct DNA-based method. In conclusion, the combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods led to the detection of the highest bacterial diversity for the raw milk samples analyzed. It was shown that DNA extraction from raw milk as the essential step in culture-independent methods causes the discrimination of taxa by incomplete cell lysis. Treatment of raw milk with the viability dye propidium monoazide was optimized for the application in raw milk without former removal of milk ingredients and proved to be a suitable tool to ensure comparability

  19. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.001). However, although the heat-treatment caused an abatement of CFU/mL ≤1 to 1 log10 unit, the comparison between untreated and heat-treated samples analysed by vPCR highlighted non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable.

  20. Consequences of stoichiometric error on nuclear DNA content evaluation in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using DAPI and propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Noirot, Michel; Barre, Philippe; Louarn, Jacques; Duperray, Christophe; Hamon, Serge

    2002-04-01

    The genome size of coffee trees (Coffea sp.) was assessed using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA was stained with two dyes [4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. Fluorescence in coffee tree nuclei (C-PI or C-DAPI) was compared with that of the standard, petunia (P-PI or P-DAPI). If there is no stoichiometric error, then the ratio between fluorescence of the target nuclei and that of the standard nuclei (R-PI or R-DAPI) is expected to be proportional to the genome size. Between-tree differences in target : standard fluorescence ratios were noted in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using propidium iodide and DAPI. For both dyes, between-tree differences were due to a lack of proportionality when comparing locations of the coffee peak and the petunia peak. Intraspecific genome size variations clearly cannot explain variations in the target : standard fluorescence ratio. The origin of the lack of proportionality between target and standard fluorescences differed for the two dyes. With propidium iodide, there was a regression line convergence point, and no between-tree differences were noted in this respect, whereas there was no such convergence with DAPI. An accurate estimate of genome size can thus be obtained with PI. Implications with respect to accessibility and binding mode are discussed.

  1. Consequences of Stoichiometric Error on Nuclear DNA Content Evaluation in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using DAPI and Propidium Iodide

    PubMed Central

    NOIROT, MICHEL; BARRE, PHILIPPE; LOUARN, JACQUES; DUPERRAY, CHRISTOPHE; HAMON, SERGE

    2002-01-01

    The genome size of coffee trees (Coffea sp.) was assessed using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA was stained with two dyes [4′,6‐diamino‐2‐phenylindole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. Fluorescence in coffee tree nuclei (C‐PI or C‐DAPI) was compared with that of the standard, petunia (P‐PI or P‐DAPI). If there is no stoichiometric error, then the ratio between fluorescence of the target nuclei and that of the standard nuclei (R‐PI or R‐DAPI) is expected to be proportional to the genome size. Between‐tree differences in target : standard fluorescence ratios were noted in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using propidium iodide and DAPI. For both dyes, between‐tree differences were due to a lack of proportionality when comparing locations of the coffee peak and the petunia peak. Intraspecific genome size variations clearly cannot explain variations in the target : standard fluorescence ratio. The origin of the lack of proportionality between target and standard fluorescences differed for the two dyes. With propidium iodide, there was a regression line convergence point, and no between‐tree differences were noted in this respect, whereas there was no such convergence with DAPI. An accurate estimate of genome size can thus be obtained with PI. Implications with respect to accessibility and binding mode are discussed. PMID:12096798

  2. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative PCR for selective detection of live Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables after inactivation by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Aznar, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) is enjoying increased popularity among researchers in different fields of microbiology. Its use in combination with real-time PCR (qPCR) represents one of the most successful approaches to detect viable cells. PMA-qPCR has successfully been used to evaluate the efficacy of various disinfection technologies in different microorganisms. Initially, in this study the effect of four essential oils (EOs), cumin, clove, oregano and cinnamon, was evaluated on suspensions of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PMA-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD BacLight flow cytometry analysis (LIVE/DEAD-FCM), and plate count. E. coli O157:H7 cells treated with EOs at killing concentrations were permeable to PMA which was confirmed by LIVE/DEAD-FCM. However, the PMA-qPCR assay allows specific quantification among the autochthonous microbiota of food products. Therefore, the PMA-qPCR assay was used to evaluate its applicability in artificially contaminated iceberg lettuce and soya sprouts. Amplification signal was negative for the spiking tests performed with any of the EO-killed E. coli cells. It demonstrates that the PMA-qPCR assay is a suitable technique for monitoring E. coli O157:H7 inactivation by essential oils in fresh-cut vegetables.

  3. Propidium Monoazide Integrated with qPCR Enables the Detection and Enumeration of Infectious Enteric RNA and DNA Viruses in Clam and Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Quijada, Narciso M.; Fongaro, Gislaine; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-01-01

    The increase of foodborne viral outbreaks highlights the need for a rapid and sensitive method for the prediction of viral infectivity in food samples. This study assesses the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR methods (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) in the determination of viral infectivity in complex animal-related food matrices. Clam and Spanish fermented sausage (“chorizo”) samples were spiked with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) and mengovirus (vMC0). PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR discriminated infective virus particles, with significant reductions (>2.7 log10 or 99.7%). Additionally, infectious HAdV-2 and vMC0 were quantified by plaque assay (in plaque forming units, PFU), and compared with those in virus genomes copies (GCs) quantified by PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR. A consistent correlation (R2 > 0.92) was showed between PFU and GCs along serial 10-fold dilutions in both DNA and RNA virus and in both food matrices. This study shows the use of PMA coupled to qPCR/RT-qPCR as a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in food samples in comparison to more expensive and time-consuming methods and for those viruses that are not able to grow under available cell culture techniques. PMID:28018329

  4. [Evaluation of pathogen disinfection efficacy by chlorine and monochloramine disinfection based on quantitative PCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR)].

    PubMed

    Tong, Tie-Zheng; Wu, Shu-Xu; Li, Dan; He, Miao; Yang, Tian; Shi, Han-Chang

    2011-04-01

    A novel detection method of quantitative PCR combined with a DNA intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) was developed and then applied to analyze inactivation efficacy of chlorine and monochloramine on E. coli as a representative organism. The results shows that PMA removed 99.94% and 99.99% DNA from non-viable E. coli and Salmonella cells respectively and PMA-qPCR could effectively differentiate viable bacteria from non-viable bacteria; According to the first-order kinetic model, the inactivation coefficients on E. coli obtained by PMA-qPCR were 2.24 L x (mg x min)-1 and 0.0175 L x (mg x min)-1 for chlorine and monochloramine respectively, both of which were lower than those obtained by traditional plating counting method. In order to inactivate 99% of E. coli, the ct values by PMA-qPCR were 0.9 mg L(-1) min and more than 100 mg x L(-1) x min for chlorine and monochloramine while those by plating counting method were only 0.6 mg x L(-1) x min and 20 mg x L(-1) min, respectively; E. coli concentration detected by conventional qPCR kept almost the same when ct value increased, indicating that conventional qPCR was unable to evaluate inactivation efficacy of both chlorine and monochloramine disinfection. In summary, PMA-qPCR shows to be a promising method for evaluating disinfection efficacy by chlorine and monochloramine more accurately.

  5. Propidium Monoazide Integrated with qPCR Enables the Detection and Enumeration of Infectious Enteric RNA and DNA Viruses in Clam and Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Quijada, Narciso M; Fongaro, Gislaine; Barardi, Célia R M; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-01-01

    The increase of foodborne viral outbreaks highlights the need for a rapid and sensitive method for the prediction of viral infectivity in food samples. This study assesses the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR methods (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) in the determination of viral infectivity in complex animal-related food matrices. Clam and Spanish fermented sausage ("chorizo") samples were spiked with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) and mengovirus (vMC0). PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR discriminated infective virus particles, with significant reductions (>2.7 log10 or 99.7%). Additionally, infectious HAdV-2 and vMC0 were quantified by plaque assay (in plaque forming units, PFU), and compared with those in virus genomes copies (GCs) quantified by PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR. A consistent correlation (R(2) > 0.92) was showed between PFU and GCs along serial 10-fold dilutions in both DNA and RNA virus and in both food matrices. This study shows the use of PMA coupled to qPCR/RT-qPCR as a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in food samples in comparison to more expensive and time-consuming methods and for those viruses that are not able to grow under available cell culture techniques.

  6. Click-iT proliferation assay with improved DNA histograms.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Awtar; Hamelik, Ronald M

    2010-04-01

    The Click-iT EdU cell proliferation assay (Invitrogen) for detection of replicating cells is based on incorporation of EdU into newly synthesized DNA and its recognition by azide dyes via a copper mediated "click" reaction. In the protocol provided by Invitrogen, cells are fixed with paraformaldehyde and stained with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) for DNA content analysis. Both of these procedures result in DNA histograms with a broad coefficient of variation. We have modified this protocol and show that after EdU incorporation, nuclei isolated by hypotonic lysis of cells can be directly labeled using the Click-iT Alexa Fluor 488 Assay kit and stained with propidium iodide. This modified procedure using isolated nuclei and propidium iodide staining results in DNA histograms with better resolution (lower coefficient of variation of the G(1) peak) and shorter processing time by eliminating the fixation and permeabilization steps.

  7. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress

  8. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  9. Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) improve DNA array and high-throughput sequencing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identification.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Boyle, Brian; Charette, Steve J; Harel, Josée; L'Homme, Yvan; Masson, Luke; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-09-15

    Pan-viral DNA array (PVDA) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) are useful tools to identify novel viruses of emerging diseases. However, both techniques have difficulties to identify viruses in clinical samples because of the host genomic nucleic acid content (hg/cont). Both propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) have the capacity to bind free DNA/RNA, but are cell membrane-impermeable. Thus, both are unable to bind protected nucleic acid such as viral genomes within intact virions. However, EMA/PMA modified genetic material cannot be amplified by enzymes. In order to assess the potential of EMA/PMA to lower the presence of amplifiable hg/cont in samples and improve virus detection, serum and lung tissue homogenates were spiked with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) and were processed with EMA/PMA. In addition, PRRSV RT-qPCR positive clinical samples were also tested. EMA/PMA treatments significantly decreased amplifiable hg/cont and significantly increased the number of PVDA positive probes and their signal intensity compared to untreated spiked lung samples. EMA/PMA treatments also increased the sensitivity of HTS by increasing the number of specific PRRSV reads and the PRRSV percentage of coverage. Interestingly, EMA/PMA treatments significantly increased the sensitivity of PVDA and HTS in two out of three clinical tissue samples. Thus, EMA/PMA treatments offer a new approach to lower the amplifiable hg/cont in clinical samples and increase the success of PVDA and HTS to identify viruses.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  11. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods.

  12. Rapid detection of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 encapsulated spores using novel propidium monoazide-linked fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R; La Duc, Myron T

    2012-07-01

    The survival of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores to standard industrial clean room sterilization practices necessitates the development of rapid molecular diagnostic tool(s) for detection and enumeration of viable bacterial spores in industrial clean room environments. This is of importance to maintaining the sterility of clean room processing products. This paper describes the effect of propidium monoazide (PMA) on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting and enumerating B. pumilus SAFR-032 viable spores having been artificially encapsulated within poly(methylmethacrylate) (Lucite, Plexiglas) and released via an organic solvent (PolyGone-500). The results of the PMA-FISH experiments discussed herein indicate that PMA was able to permeate only the compromised coat layers of non-viable spores, identifying PMA treatment of bacterial spores prior to FISH analysis as a novel method for selecting out the fraction of the spore population that is non-viable from fluorescence detection. The ability of novel PMA-FISH to selectively distinguish and enumerate only the living spores present in a sample is of potential significance for development of improved strategies to minimize spore-specific microbial burden in a given environment.

  13. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples.

    PubMed

    Parshionikar, Sandhya; Laseke, Ian; Fout, G Shay

    2010-07-01

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since only infectious viruses are a public health concern, methods that not only are rapid but also provide information on the infectivity of viruses are of interest. The intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used for distinguishing between viable and nonviable bacteria with DNA genomes, but it has not been used to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses with RNA genomes. In this study, PMA in conjunction with RT-PCR (PMA-RT-PCR) was used to determine the infectivity of enteric RNA viruses in water. Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, echovirus, and Norwalk virus were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment with heat (72 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 19 degrees C) or hypochlorite. Infectious or native and noninfectious or inactivated viruses were treated with PMA. This was followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The PMA-RT-PCR results indicated that PMA treatment did not interfere with detection of infectious or native viruses but prevented detection of noninfectious or inactivated viruses that were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment at 72 degrees C and 37 degrees C and by hypochlorite treatment. However, PMA-RT-PCR was unable to prevent detection of enteroviruses that were rendered noninfectious by treatment at 19 degrees C. After PMA treatment poliovirus that was rendered noninfectious by treatment at 37 degrees C was undetectable by qRT-PCR, but PMA treatment did not affect detection of Norwalk virus. PMA-RT-PCR was also shown to be effective for detecting infectious poliovirus in the presence of noninfectious virus and in an environmental matrix. We concluded that PMA can be used to differentiate

  14. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas O; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol-chloroform-isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations.

  15. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas O.; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol–chloroform–isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations. PMID:26339125

  16. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat...staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat...membrane, we chose to monitor the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by utilizing FITC

  17. Development of propidium iodide as a fluorescence probe for the on-line screening of non-specific DNA-intercalators in Fufang Banbianlian Injection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanyan; Li, Sensen; Lin, Zongtao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Daidong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-09-09

    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor prescription. To understand the relationships between its bioactive ingredients and pharmacological efficacies, our previous study has been successfully identified some DNA-binding compounds in FBI using an established on-line screening system, in which 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was developed as a probe. However, DAPI can be only used to screen ATT-specific DNA minor groove binders, leaving the potential active intercalators unknown in FBI. As a continuation of our studies on FBI, here we present a sensitive analytical method for rapid identification and evaluation of DNA-intercalators using propidium iodide (PI) as a fluorescent probe. We have firstly established the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multistage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-propidium iodide-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-PI-FLD) system. As a result, 38 of 58 previously identified compounds in FBI were DNA-intercalation active. Interestingly, all previously reported DNA-binders also showed intercalative activities, suggesting they are dual-mode DNA-binders. Quantitative study showed that flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids were the main active compounds in FBI, and displayed similar DNA-binding ability using either DAPI or PI. In addition, 13 active compounds were used to establish the structure-activity relationships. In this study, PI was developed into an on-line method for identifying DNA-intercalators for the first time, and thus it will be a useful high-throughput screening technique for other related samples.

  18. Metabolomic evaluation of pulsed electric field-induced stress on potato tissue.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Federico Gómez; Dejmek, Petr; Lundgren, Krister; Rasmusson, Allan G; Vicente, António; Moritz, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Metabolite profiling was used to characterize stress responses of potato tissue subjected to reversible electroporation, providing insights on how potato tissue responds to a physical stimulus such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), which is an artificial stress. Wounded potato tissue was subjected to field strengths ranging from 200 to 400 V/cm, with a single rectangular pulse of 1 ms. Electroporation was demonstrated by propidium iodide staining of the cell nucleae. Metabolic profiling of data obtained through GC/TOF-MS and UPLC/TOF-MS complemented with orthogonal projections to latent structures clustering analysis showed that 24 h after the application of PEF, potato metabolism shows PEF-specific responses characterized by the changes in the hexose pool that may involve starch and ascorbic acid degradation.

  19. The Effects of Allicin, a Reactive Sulfur Species from Garlic, on a Selection of Mammalian Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gruhlke, Martin C. H.; Nicco, Carole; Batteux, Frederic; Slusarenko, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as a spice and medicinal plant since ancient times. Garlic produces the thiol-reactive defence substance, allicin, upon wounding. The effects of allicin on human lung epithelium carcinoma (A549), mouse fibroblast (3T3), human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), human colon carcinoma (HT29) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines were tested. To estimate toxic effects of allicin, we used a standard MTT-test (methylthiazoltetrazolium) for cell viability and 3H-thymidine incorporation for cell proliferation. The glutathione pool was measured using monobromobimane and the formation of reactive species was identified using 2′,7′-dichlorofluoresceine-diacetate. The YO-PRO-1 iodide staining procedure was used to estimate apoptosis. Allicin reduced cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. In the bimane test, it was observed that cells treated with allicin showed reduced fluorescence, suggesting glutathione oxidation. The cell lines tested differed in sensitivity to allicin in regard to viability, cell proliferation and glutathione oxidation. The 3T3 and MCF-7 cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis compared to the other cell types. These data show that mammalian cell lines differ in their sensitivity and responses to allicin. PMID:28035949

  20. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  1. Determination of the Effects of Medium Composition on the Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by the Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various media compositions (phosphate 1-50 mM; ionic strength 2.8-150 meq/L) significantly affected Nitrosomonas europaea monochloramine disinfection kinetics determined by Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) methods (lag coefficient 37-490...

  2. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

  3. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine and beer by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Marco; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe; Bertrand, Julien; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2014-09-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a current problem in winemaking all over the world, and the question if B. bruxellensis has a positive or negative impact on wine is one of the most controversial discussions in the world. The presence of live B. bruxellensis cells represents the risk of growth and an increase in cell numbers, which is related to the potential production of volatile phenols. In this work, the optimisation of a PMA-quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate only viable cells was carried out using the standard strain B. bruxellensis DSMZ 70726. The obtained detection limits were 0.83 log CFU/mL in red wine, 0.63 log CFU/mL in white wine and 0.23 log CFU/mL in beer. Moreover, the quantification was also performed by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and the results showed a higher detection limit for all of the trials.

  4. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Alireza; Amini, Elaheh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Jalali, Zahra; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sanjar-Mousavi, Naghmeh; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae) has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml). Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue(®) assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05). The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted.

  5. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Amini, Elaheh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Jalali, Zahra; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sanjar-Mousavi, Naghmeh; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae) has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml). Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue® assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05). The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted. PMID:27051435

  6. Shifts of live bacterial community in secondary effluent by chlorine disinfection revealed by Miseq high-throughput sequencing combined with propidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Xu, Yang; Huo, Zheng-Yang; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Chlorine disinfection is a commonly used disinfection process in wastewater treatment, but its effects on the indigenous bacterial community in treated wastewater have not been fully elucidated. In this study, secondary effluent samples collected in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were selected for chlorine disinfection. Shifts in the bacterial community compositions in secondary effluent samples upon chlorine disinfection, both immediately and after 24 h of storage, were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. The results showed that the phylum Proteobacteria was sensitive to chlorine, with the relative proportions of Proteobacteria decreased from 39.2 to 75.9 % in secondary effluent samples to 7.5 to 62.2 % immediately after chlorine disinfection. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the most dominant genera belonging to Proteobacteria were sensitive to chlorine. In contrast, the phyla Firmicutes and Planctomycetes showed a certain resistance to chlorine, with their relative proportions increasing from 5.1 to 23.1 % and 0.8 to 9.3 % to 11.3 to 44.6 % and 1.5 to 13.3 %, respectively. Most dominant genera belonging to Firmicutes showed resistance to chlorine. A significant reduction in the richness and diversity of the bacterial community was observed after 24 h of storage of chlorinated secondary effluent. During the 24-h storage process, the relative proportions of most dominant phyla shifted in reverse from the changes induced by chlorine disinfection. Overall, chlorine disinfection not only changes the bacterial community compositions immediately after the disinfection process but also exerts further impacts over a longer period (24 h).

  7. Silymarin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Ma, Yalin; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Dongping; Huang, Guangrong

    2014-11-15

    The polyphenolic flavonoid silymarin that is the milk thistle extract has been found to possess an anti-cancer effect against various human epithelial cancers. In this study, to explore the regulative effect of silymarin on human ovarian cancer line A2780s and PA-1 cells, 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were respectively used to determine the inhibitory effect of silymarin on the both cell lines, and to measure their cell cycle progression. Apoptosis induction and mitochondrial membrane potential damage were separately detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling assay and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide staining. Additionally, western blotting was applied to determine cytochrome C release and expression levels of p53, p21, p27, p16, CDK2, Bax, Bcl-2, procaspase-9, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins. The activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was measured using Caspase-Glo-9 and Caspase-Glo-3 assay. The results indicated that silymarin effectively suppressed cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and arrested cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in A2780s and PA-1 cells via up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27 protein expression, and down-regulation of CDK2 protein expression. Additionally, silymarin treatment for 24h at 50 and 100µg/ml resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release, and significantly induced apoptosis in A2780s and PA-1 cells by increasing Bax and decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, silymarin is a possible potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer.

  8. Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ina, I V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Chefonov, O V; Sitnikov, D S; Agranat, Mikhail B; Mikaelyan, A S

    2013-04-30

    IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  9. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia.

  10. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 promotes proliferation and insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells via activating Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suijun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Ying; Li, Quanzhong; Su, Yong; Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Yun; Man, Hua; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic β-cells is closely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an intractable disease affecting numerous patients. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) is a potential modulator of insulin secretion in β-cells. This study aims at revealing roles and possible mechanisms of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells. Mouse pancreatic β-cell line NIT-1 was used for high glucose treatment and PKM2 overexpression by its specific expression vector. Cell proliferation by Thiazolyl blue assay, cell apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/prodium iodide staining and insulin secretion assay by ELISA were performed in each group. The mRNA and protein levels of related factors were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. Results showed that Pkm2 was inhibited under high glucose conditions compared to the untreated cells (P < 0.01). Its overexpression significantly suppressed NIT-1 cell apoptosis (P < 0.01), and induced cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and insulin secretion (P < 0.05). Related factors showed consistent mRNA expression changes. Protein levels of β-catenin (CTNNB1), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 were all promoted by PKM2 overexpression (P < 0.01), indicating the activated Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling. These results indicated the inductive roles of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cell NIT-1, including promoting cell proliferation and insulin secretion, and inhibiting cell apoptosis, which might be achieved via activating the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling and downstream factors. This study offers basic information on the role and mechanism of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells, and lays the foundation for using PKM2 as a potential therapeutic target in T2DM. PMID:26823761

  11. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 promotes proliferation and insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells via activating Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suijun; Yang, Zhen; Gao, Ying; Li, Quanzhong; Su, Yong; Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Yun; Man, Hua; Liu, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic β-cells is closely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an intractable disease affecting numerous patients. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) is a potential modulator of insulin secretion in β-cells. This study aims at revealing roles and possible mechanisms of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells. Mouse pancreatic β-cell line NIT-1 was used for high glucose treatment and PKM2 overexpression by its specific expression vector. Cell proliferation by Thiazolyl blue assay, cell apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/prodium iodide staining and insulin secretion assay by ELISA were performed in each group. The mRNA and protein levels of related factors were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. Results showed that Pkm2 was inhibited under high glucose conditions compared to the untreated cells (P < 0.01). Its overexpression significantly suppressed NIT-1 cell apoptosis (P < 0.01), and induced cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and insulin secretion (P < 0.05). Related factors showed consistent mRNA expression changes. Protein levels of β-catenin (CTNNB1), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 were all promoted by PKM2 overexpression (P < 0.01), indicating the activated Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling. These results indicated the inductive roles of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cell NIT-1, including promoting cell proliferation and insulin secretion, and inhibiting cell apoptosis, which might be achieved via activating the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling and downstream factors. This study offers basic information on the role and mechanism of PKM2 in pancreatic β-cells, and lays the foundation for using PKM2 as a potential therapeutic target in T2DM.

  12. Overestimation of the Legionella spp. load in environmental samples by quantitative real-time PCR: pretreatment with propidium monoazide as a tool for the assessment of an association between Legionella concentration and sanitary risk.

    PubMed

    Ditommaso, Savina; Ricciardi, Elisa; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Arauco Rivera, Susan R; Ceccarelli, Adriano; Zotti, Carla M

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Legionella in environmental water samples. In this study, qPCR and qPCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) were both applied to hot-water system samples and compared to traditional culture techniques. In addition, we evaluated the ability of PMA-qPCR to monitor the efficacy of different disinfection strategies. Comparison between the quantification obtained by culture and by qPCR or PMA-qPCR on environmental water samples confirms that the concentration of Legionella estimated by GU/L is generally higher than that estimated in CFU/L. Our results on 57 hot-water-system samples collected from 3 different sites show that: i) qPCR results were on average 178-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=2.25), ii) PMA-qPCR results were on average 27-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=1.43), iii) propidium monoazide-induced signal reduction in qPCR were nearly 10-fold (Δ log10=0.95), and that iv) different degrees of correlations between the 3 methods might be explained by different matrix properties, but also by different disinfection methods affecting cultivability of Legionella. In our study, we calculated the logarithmic differences between the results obtained by PMA-qPCR and those obtained by culture, and we suggested an algorithm for the interpretation of PMA-qPCR results for the routine monitoring of healthcare water systems using a commercial qPCR system (iQ-check real-time PCR kit; Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France).

  13. Polyethylenimine-cationized beta-catenin protein transduction activates the Wnt canonical signaling pathway more effectively than cationic lipid-based transduction.

    PubMed

    Kitazoe, Midori; Futami, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Yamada, Hidenori; Maeda, Yoshitake

    2010-04-01

    The Wnt canonical signaling pathway is essential for the early development of eukaryotic organisms and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Moreover, the Wnt canonical signaling pathway contributes to the self-renewal of mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate artificial activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway by beta-catenin protein transduction. Constitutively active beta-catenin protein was introduced into human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells using a polyethylenimine (PEI) cationization method, or with the BioPORTER protein transduction reagent. We have previously shown that modification with PEI effectively causes proteins to be internalized by living mammalian cells. PEI-cationized, constitutively active beta-catenin protein was added to HEK-293 cells, and induction of several Wnt/beta-catenin target genes was detected by real-time PCR. However, using BioPORTER to introduce active beta-catenin did not activate the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Introduction of eGFPNuc (enhanced green fluorescent protein variant containing a nuclear localization signal) into HEK-293 cells using the BioPORTER reagent caused significant cell death, as determined by propidium iodide staining. In contrast, the PEI-modified eGFPNuc did not impair survival of HEK-293 cells. These results indicate that the Wnt canonical signaling pathway could be successfully activated by transduction of PEI-cationized active beta-catenin, and the PEI-cationization method is an effective and safe technology for protein transduction into mammalian cells.

  14. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7): a novel anti-tumor gene for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mhashilkar, A. M.; Schrock, R. D.; Hindi, M.; Liao, J.; Sieger, K.; Kourouma, F.; Zou-Yang, X. H.; Onishi, E.; Takh, O.; Vedvick, T. S.; Fanger, G.; Stewart, L.; Watson, G. J.; Snary, D.; Fisher, P. B.; Saeki, T.; Roth, J. A.; Ramesh, R.; Chada, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mda-7 gene (melanoma differentiation associated gene-7) is a novel tumor suppressor gene. The anti-proliferative activity of MDA-7 has been previously reported. In this report, we analyze the anti-tumor efficacy of Ad-mda7 in a broad spectrum of cancer lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ad-mda7-transduced cancer or normal cell lines were assayed for cell proliferation (tritiated thymidine incorporation assay, Alamar blue assay, and trypan-blue exclusion assay), apoptosis (TUNEL, and Annexin V staining visualized by fluorescent microscopy or FACs analysis), and cell cycle regulation (Propidium Iodide staining and FACs analysis). RESULTS: Ad-mda7 treatment of tumor cells resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a temporal and dose-dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects were independent of the genomic status of p53, RB, p16, ras, bax, and caspase 3 in these cells. In addition, normal cell lines did not show inhibition of proliferation or apoptotic response to Ad-mda7. Moreover, Ad-mda7-transduced cancer cells secreted a soluble form of MDA-7 protein. Thus, Ad-mda7 may represent a novel gene-therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The potent and selective killing activity of Ad-mda7 in cancer cells but not in normal cells makes this vector a potential candidate for cancer gene therapy. PMID:11471572

  15. Effects of X‑ray irradiation in combination with ascorbic acid on tumor control.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Terashima, Shingo; Nakano, Manabu; Toshima, Keisuke; Saga, Ryo; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the combination of treatment with ascorbic acid (AsA) and X‑ray irradiation results in increased apoptosis in HL60 cells. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the combined use of AsA and X‑ray irradiation on epithelial cancer and sarcoma cells, and its potential use in future clinical treatment. X‑ray irradiation combined with AsA treatment resulted in increased suppression of cell growth of HT1080, SAS and A549 cells in vitro compared with X‑ray irradiation alone. The combined treatment also suppressed tumor growth in implanted HT‑1080 cells in vivo. Using annexin V/propidium iodide staining and the detection of activated caspase 3, it was found that X‑ray irradiation increased the apoptotic rate of HT1080 cells and resulted in G2/M arrest. However, apoptosis in the HT1080 cells treated with 5 mM AsA remained unchanged, and no changes were observed in the G2/M fraction. By contrast, AsA treatment caused increased suppression of proliferation compared with X‑ray irradiation. These results suggested that 5 mM AsA slowed the cell cycle and reduced tumor growth. Therefore, X‑ray irradiation combined with AsA treatment may be effective against epithelial cancer and sarcoma cells.

  16. Immunologic and biochemical effects of the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar.

    PubMed

    Illmer, Christoph; Madlener, Sibylle; Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Saiko, Philipp; Losert, Annemarie; Herbacek, Irene; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to have antitumor effects. Avemar has the potential to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from malignant colon tumors. We studied its effects in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. Avemar had an inhibiting effect on colonies of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 118 microg/ml (7 days of incubation); this value could be decreased to 100 and 75 microg/ml in the presence of vitamin C. In the cell line examined, Avemar induced both necrosis and apoptosis, as demonstrated by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. The incubation of cells with 3200 microg/ml Avemar for 24 hrs caused necrosis in 28% and the induction of apoptosis in 22% of the cells. Avemar inhibited the cell-cycle progression of HT-29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, Avemar inhibited the activity of the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, we determined the effects of Avemar on the activity of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. Both enzymes were significantly inhibited by Avemar with IC50 values of 100 and 300 microg/ml, respectively. We outline new explanations for its antitumor activity, which might serve as the basis for further studies using Avemar.

  17. Determination of yeast viability during a stress-model alcoholic fermentation using reagent-free microscopy image analysis.

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, Pierre; Ghommidh, Charles; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated microscopy imaging system including automated positioning, focusing, image acquisition, and image analysis was developed to characterize a yeast population with regard to cell morphology. This method was used to monitor a stress-model alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Combination of dark field and epifluorescence microscopy after propidium iodide staining for membrane integrity showed that cell death went along with important changes in cell morphology, with a cell shrinking, the onset of inhomogeneities in the cytoplasm, and a detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall. These modifications were significant enough to enable a trained human operator to make the difference between dead and viable cells. Accordingly, a multivariate data analysis using an artificial neural network was achieved to build a predictive model to infer viability at single-cell level automatically from microscopy images without any staining. Applying this method to in situ microscope images could help to detect abnormal situations during a fermentation course and to prevent cell death by applying adapted corrective actions.

  18. Calibrating the imaging and therapy performance of magneto-fluorescent gold nanoshells for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Adam; Chen, Wenxue; Biswal, Nrusingh; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Giuliano, Mario; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2012-03-01

    Gold nanoshells with NIR plasmon resonance can be modified to simultaneously enhance conjugated NIR fluorescence dyes and T2 contrast of embedded iron-oxide nanoparticles, and molecularly targeted to breast and other cancers. We calibrated the theranostic performance of magneto-fluorescent nanoshells, and contrasted the performance of molecularly targeted and untargeted nanoshells for breast cancer therapy, employing MCF-7L and their HER2 overexpressing derivative MCF-7/HER2-18 breast cancer cells as in vitro model systems. Silica core gold nanoshells with plasmon resonance on ~810 nm were doped with NIR dye ICG and ~10 nm iron-oxide nanoparticles in a ~20 nm epilayer of silica. A subset of nanoshells was conjugated to antibodies targeting HER2. Cell viability with varying laser power levels in presence and absence of bare and HER2-targeted nanoshells was assessed by calcein and propidium iodide staining. For MCF-7L cells, increasing power resulted in increased cell death (F=5.63, p=0.0018), and bare nanoshells caused more cell death than HER2-targeted nanoshells or laser treatment alone (F=30.13, p<0.001). For MCF-7/HER2-18 cells, death was greater with HER2-targeted nanoshells and was independent of laser power. This study demonstrates the capability of magneto-fluorescent nanocomplexes for imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells, and the advantages of targeting receptors unique to cancer cells.

  19. A microneedle array able to inject tens of thousands of cells simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Burnett, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a biological microelectromechanical system for injecting foreign particles into thousands of cells simultaneously. The system inserts an array of microneedles into a monolayer of cells, and the foreign particles enter the cells by diffusion. The needle array is fabricated using a series of deep reactive ion etches and produces about 4 million needles that average 1 μm in diameter and 8 μm in length with 10 μm spacing. The insertion of the needles is controlled through a compliant suspension. The compliant suspension was designed to provide for needle motion into the cells while restraining rotations or transverse motions that could result in tearing of the cell membranes. Testing was performed using propidium iodide, a membrane impermeable dye, injected into HeLa cells. Average cell survivability was found to be 97.7%, and up to 97.9% of the surviving cells received the propidium iodide.

  20. Targeting apoptotic signalling pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression as therapeutic intervention in TPE induced lung damage.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kishore; Krishnamoorthy, Bhavani; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Balakrishnan, Arun

    2003-01-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is an occult manifestation of filariasis, brought about by helminth parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Treatment of patients suffering from TPE involves the administration of diethyl carbamazine and Ivermectin. Although the drugs are able to block acute inflammation, they are not able to alleviate chronic basal inflammation. We have attempted to examine the disease by targeting two important components; namely filarial parasitic sheath proteins (FPP) induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in human laryngeal carcinoma cells of epithelial origin (HEp-2) cells an epithelial cell line. Earlier studies by us have shown that FPP exposure induced apoptosis in these cells. In this study with hydrocortisone, calpain inhibitor (ALLN) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatments we demonstrate that apoptosis is inhibited as shown by [3H] thymidine incorporation studies, propidium iodide staining and Annexin V staining. Hydrocortisone at a dose, which inhibits cell death also down regulated, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings give us insights into the multifaceted approach one may adopt to target critical signalling molecules using appropriate inhibitors, which could eventually be used to reduce lung damage in TPE.

  1. DBS-relevant electric fields increase hydraulic conductivity of in vitro endothelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Quintero, S V; Datta, A; Amaya, R; Elwassif, M; Bikson, M; Tarbell, J M

    2010-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) achieves therapeutic outcome through generation of electric fields (EF) in the vicinity of energized electrodes. Targeted brain regions are highly vascularized, and it remains unknown if DBS electric fields modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, either through electroporation of individual endothelial cells or electro-permeation of barrier tight junctions. In our study, we calculated the intensities of EF generated around energized Medtronic 3387 and 3389 DBS leads by using a finite element model. Then we designed a novel stimulation system to study the effects of such fields with DBS-relevant waveforms and intensities on bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers, which were used as a basic analog for the blood-brain barrier endothelium. Following 5 min of stimulation, we observed a transient increase in endothelial hydraulic conductivity (Lp) that could be related to the disruption of the tight junctions (TJ) between cells, as suggested by zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein staining. This 'electro-permeation' occurred in the absence of cell death or single cell electroporation, as indicated by propidium iodide staining and cytosolic calcein uptake. Our in vitro results, using uniform fields and BAEC monolayers, thus suggest that electro-permeation of the BBB may occur at electric field intensities below those inducing electroporation and within intensities generated near DBS electrodes. Further studies are necessary to address potential BBB disruption during clinical studies, with safety and efficacy implications.

  2. Rapid test for distinguishing membrane-active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Prakash Singh, Maya

    2006-10-01

    In the search for antibacterial agents with a novel mode-of-action (MOA) many targeted cellular and cell-free assays are developed and used to screen chemical and natural product libraries. Frequently, hits identified by the primary screens include compounds with nonspecific activities that can affect the integrity and function of bacterial membrane. For a rapid dereplication of membrane-active compounds, a simple method was established using a commercially available Live/Dead(R) Bacterial Viability Kit. This method utilized two fluorescent nucleic acid stains, SYTO9 (stains all cells green) and propidium iodide (stains cells with damaged membrane red) for the drug-treated bacterial cells. The cells were then either examined visually by fluorescence microscopy or their fluorescence emissions were recorded using a multi-label plate reader set to measure emissions at two different wavelengths. The ratio of green versus red was compared to a standard curve indicating the percentage of live versus dead bacteria. Nine known antibiotics and 14 lead compounds from various antibacterial screens were tested with results consistent with their MOA.

  3. Rigosertib Is a More Effective Radiosensitizer Than Cisplatin in Concurrent Chemoradiation Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma, In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Agoni, Lorenzo; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Seema; Alfieri, Alan; Gambino, Angela; Goldberg, Gary L.; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Guha, Chandan

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare rigosertib versus cisplatin as an effective radiosensitizing agent for cervical malignancies. Methods and Materials: Rigosertib and cisplatin were tested in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and C33A. A 24-hour incubation with rigosertib and cisplatin, before irradiation (2-8 Gy), was used for clonogenic survival assays. Cell cycle analysis (propidium iodide staining) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX expression) were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter cytometry. Rigosertib was also tested in vivo in tumor growth experiments on cervical cancer xenografts. Results: Rigosertib was demonstrated to induce a G{sub 2}/M block in cancer cells. Survival curve comparison revealed a dose modification factor, as index of radiosensitization effect, of 1.1-1.3 for cisplatin and 1.4-2.2 for rigosertib. With 6-Gy irradiation, an increase in DNA damage of 15%-25% was achieved in both HeLa and C33A cells with cisplatin pretreatment, and a 71-108% increase with rigosertib pretreatment. In vivo tumor growth studies demonstrated higher performance of rigosertib when compared with cisplatin, with 53% longer tumor growth delay. Conclusions: Rigosertib was more effective than cisplatin when combined with radiation and caused minimal toxicity. These data support the need for clinical trials with rigosertib in combination therapy for patients with cervical carcinoma.

  4. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. Methods: The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. Results: The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone. PMID:27563423

  5. Evans blue staining of cardiomyocytes induced by myocardial contrast echocardiography in rats: evidence for necrosis instead of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Li, Peng; Dou, Chunyan; Armstrong, William F; Gordon, David

    2007-12-01

    High mechanical index (MI) echocardiography with contrast agent has been shown to induce Evans blue staining of cardiomyocytes, seen 1 d after exposure, in addition to contraction band necrosis, seen immediately after exposure. This research examined the roles of necrosis vs. apoptosis in these bioeffects. Myocardial contrast echocardiography at high MI with 1:4 electrocardiogram triggering was performed in anesthetized rats at 1.5 MHz. Histologically observable cell injury was accumulated by infusing a high dose of 50 microL/kg ultrasound contrast media via tail vein for 5 min at the start of 10 min of scanning. Evans blue dye or propidium iodide was injected as an indicator of cardiomyocyte plasma membrane integrity. Histologic sections were stained using the terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method for labeling nuclei with DNA degradation (e.g., apoptosis). Evans blue fluorescent cells were counted on frozen sections or on hematoxylin-stained and TUNEL-labeled paraffin sections. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to assess potential apoptotic nuclei. Hypercontraction and propidium iodide staining were observed immediately after imaging exposure. Although TUNEL-positive cells were evident after 4 h, these also had indications of contraction band necrosis, and features of apoptosis were not confirmed by electron microscopy. Inflammatory cell infiltration was evident after 24 h. A second, more subtle injury was recognized by Evans blue staining, with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration at the morphologically intact stained cells after 24 h. Apoptosis was not detected by the TUNEL method in the cardiomyocytes stained with Evans blue at 24 h. However, Evans blue-stained cell numbers declined after 48 h, with continued inflammatory cell infiltration. The initial insult for Evans blue-stained cardiomyocytes apparently induced partial permeability of the plasma membrane, which led to gradual degeneration (but not apoptosis) and necrosis

  6. Determination of the effects of medium composition on the monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by the propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight methods.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Schrantz, Karen A; Pressman, Jonathan G

    2010-12-01

    Various medium compositions (phosphate, 1 to 50 mM; ionic strength, 2.8 to 150 meq/liter) significantly affected Nitrosomonas europaea monochloramine disinfection kinetics, as determined by the Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) methods (lag coefficient, 37 to 490 [LD] and 91 to 490 [PMA-qPCR] mg·min/liter; Chick-Watson rate constant, 4.0 × 10(-3) to 9.3 × 10(-3) [LD] and 1.6 × 10(-3) to 9.6 × 10(-3) [PMA-qPCR] liter/mg·min). Two competing effects may account for the variation in disinfection kinetic parameters: (i) increasing kinetics (disinfection rate constant [k] increased, lag coefficient [b] decreased) with increasing phosphate concentration and (ii) decreasing kinetics (k decreased, b increased) with increasing ionic strength. The results support development of a standard medium for evaluating disinfection kinetics in drinking water.

  7. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction.

  8. Enhanced gene disruption by programmable nucleases delivered by a minicircle vector.

    PubMed

    Dad, A-B K; Ramakrishna, S; Song, M; Kim, H

    2014-11-01

    Targeted genetic modification using programmable nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) is of great value in biomedical research, medicine and biotechnology. Minicircle vectors, which lack extraneous bacterial sequences, have several advantages over conventional plasmids for transgene delivery. Here, for the first time, we delivered programmable nucleases into human cells using transient transfection of a minicircle vector and compared the results with those obtained using a conventional plasmid. Surrogate reporter assays and T7 endonuclease analyses revealed that cells in the minicircle vector group displayed significantly higher mutation frequencies at the target sites than those in the conventional plasmid group. Quantitative PCR and reverse transcription-PCR showed higher vector copy number and programmable nuclease transcript levels, respectively, in 293T cells after minicircle versus conventional plasmid vector transfection. In addition, tryphan blue staining and flow cytometry after annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed that cell viability was also significantly higher in the minicircle group than in the conventional plasmid group. Taken together, our results show that gene disruption using minicircle vector-mediated delivery of ZFNs and TALENs is a more efficient, safer and less toxic method than using a conventional plasmid, and indicate that the minicircle vector could serve as an advanced delivery method for programmable nucleases.

  9. Development of a confocal ultrasound device using an inertial cavitation control for transfection in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas, J. L.; Chettab, K.; Roux, S.; Prieur, F.; Lafond, M.; Dumontet, C.; Lafon, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. We developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (peGFP- C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The frequency spectrum of the signal receive by a hydrophone is used to compute a cavitation index (CI) representative of the inertial cavitation activity. The influence of the CI on transfection efficiency, as well as reproducibility were determined. A real-time feedback loop control on CI was integrated in the process to regulate the cavitation level during sonoporation. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device produced a highly efficient transfection of peGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. Moreover, the sonoporation of non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 was found to be equivalent to nucleofection in terms of efficiency and toxicity while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection with lipofection.

  10. Antimicrobial Mechanism of Monocaprylate

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Sundh, Maria; Mygind, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Monoglyceride esters of fatty acids occur naturally and encompass a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Monocaprylate is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and can function both as an emulsifier and as a preservative in food. However, knowledge about its mode of action is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the mechanism behind monocaprylate's antimicrobial effect. The cause of cell death in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated by examining monocaprylate's effect on cell structure, membrane integrity, and its interaction with model membranes. Changes in cell structure were visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and propidium iodide staining showed membrane disruption, indicating the membrane as a site of action. This indication was confirmed by measuring calcein leakage from membrane vesicles exposed to monocaprylate. AFM imaging of supported lipid bilayers visualized the integration of monocaprylate into the liquid disordered, and not the solid ordered, phase of the membrane. The integration of monocaprylate was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance measurements, showing an abrupt increase in mass and hydration of the membrane after exposure to monocaprylate above a threshold concentration. We hypothesize that monocaprylate destabilizes membranes by increasing membrane fluidity and the number of phase boundary defects. The sensitivity of cells to monocaprylate will therefore depend on the lipid composition, fluidity, and curvature of the membrane. PMID:22344642

  11. Solvent assisted formation of ruthenium(III) and ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes in one-pot with potential in vitro cytotoxicity and enhanced LDH, NO and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, Eswaran; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanatha Vijaya; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2016-01-28

    A set each of new bivalent and trivalent ruthenium complexes, [Ru(III)(HL)Cl2(EPh3)2] and [Ru(II)(L)(CO)(EPh3)2] (E = P (complexes and ) or As (complexes and )) were synthesised from the reactions of [Ru(III)Cl3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde benzoic acid hydrazone (H2L) in methanol-chloroform and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral data and XRD study. A suitable mechanism to account for the formation of bivalent ruthenium carbonyl complexes from the corresponding trivalent precursors is provided by considering the role of added base in the reaction. Interaction of complexes with CT-DNA/bovine serum albumin was analysed with absorption and emission spectral titration studies. In vitro cytotoxic potential of the above ruthenium hydrazone complexes assayed against the A549 cell line revealed a significant growth inhibition. The test complexes added in IC50 concentration into the cell culture medium enhanced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, NO and reactive oxygen species in comparison with the control. Cell death induced by the complexes was studied using a propidium iodide staining assay and showed noticeable changes in the cell morphology which resembled apoptosis.

  12. Antimicrobial mechanism of monocaprylate.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Sutherland, Duncan S; Sundh, Maria; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-04-01

    Monoglyceride esters of fatty acids occur naturally and encompass a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Monocaprylate is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and can function both as an emulsifier and as a preservative in food. However, knowledge about its mode of action is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the mechanism behind monocaprylate's antimicrobial effect. The cause of cell death in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated by examining monocaprylate's effect on cell structure, membrane integrity, and its interaction with model membranes. Changes in cell structure were visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and propidium iodide staining showed membrane disruption, indicating the membrane as a site of action. This indication was confirmed by measuring calcein leakage from membrane vesicles exposed to monocaprylate. AFM imaging of supported lipid bilayers visualized the integration of monocaprylate into the liquid disordered, and not the solid ordered, phase of the membrane. The integration of monocaprylate was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance measurements, showing an abrupt increase in mass and hydration of the membrane after exposure to monocaprylate above a threshold concentration. We hypothesize that monocaprylate destabilizes membranes by increasing membrane fluidity and the number of phase boundary defects. The sensitivity of cells to monocaprylate will therefore depend on the lipid composition, fluidity, and curvature of the membrane.

  13. Proteasome inhibition reverses hedgehog inhibitor and taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Steg, Adam D; Burke, Mata R; Amm, Hope M; Katre, Ashwini A; Dobbin, Zachary C; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Landen, Charles N

    2014-08-30

    The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively. Studies demonstrated that GSI-I, but not Compound E, inhibited proteasome activity, similar to bortezomib. Proteasome inhibition decreased hedgehog target genes (PTCH1, GLI1 and GLI2) and increased LDE225 sensitivity in vitro. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, increased paclitaxel sensitivity through apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Expression of the multi-drug resistance gene ABCB1/MDR1 was decreased and acetylation of α-tubulin, a marker of microtubule stabilization, was increased following bortezomib treatment. HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin-a demonstrated that microtubule effects are associated with hedgehog inhibition and sensitization to paclitaxel and LDE225. These results suggest that proteasome inhibition, through alteration of microtubule dynamics and hedgehog signaling, can reverse taxane-mediated chemoresistance.

  14. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  15. Toxicity of purified terephthalic acid manufacturing wastewater on reproductive system of male mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Yao; Liu, Bo; Yang, Liu-Yan; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2010-04-15

    Reproductive toxicity of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) manufacturing wastewater on the male mice (Mus musculus) was investigated after 35-day intragastric perfusion treatment with the wastewater. Fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining, and flow cytometry were used to assess the toxicity of PTA wastewater on spermatogenic cells. PTA wastewater induced significant variations in the relative percentages of immature haploid, diploid, tetraploid and S-phase spermatogonia. Percentage of viable spermatogenic cells was reduced from 93.1+/-2.3 in control group to 90.4+/-1.9 in the wastewater-treated group. Testicular histopathology revealed expansion of interstitial space and reduction in the number and size of Leydig cells induced by the wastewater, which was further certified by the decrease (10.6%) in relative testes weight and the increase (101.3%) in sperm shape abnormality in the wastewater-treated group. In this study, PTA wastewater was found to have reproductive toxicity on male mice, and public health problems may potentially arise from the discharge of the wastewater into the environment.

  16. Discovery of an algicidal compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and its effect on a harmful algal bloom-causing species, Alexandrium tamarense

    PubMed Central

    An, Xinli; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Zhiming; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense have become worldwide phenomena and have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this study, a culture supernatant of the marine actinomycete BS01 exerted a strong algicidal effect on A. tamarense (ATGD98-006). The target algicide from BS01 was separated by adsorption chromatography and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. The results suggested that the purified algicidal component corresponded to a hydrophobic compound (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine (C10H15NO) with a molecular weight of 165 Da, which exhibited a significant algicidal effect (64.5%) on A. tamarense. After incubation in 5 μg/mL of (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine for 24 h, the algae lost mobility and sank to the bottom of the flasks, and 56.5% of the algae cells lost vitality at a concentration of 20 μg/mL (p < 0.01) despite having intact cell profiles. Morphological analysis revealed that the cell structure of A. tamarense was altered by (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine resulting in cytoplasm degradation and the loss of organelle integrity. The images following propidium iodide staining suggested that the algal nucleus was also severely damaged and eventually degraded due to exposure to the algicidal compound. All of the results indicate that (2-isobutoxyphenyl)amine from the actinomycete might be a candidate for the control of bloom-forming A. tamarense. PMID:26594205

  17. Antitumor activity of jujuboside B and the underlying mechanism via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei-Ying; Lee, So Young; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2014-02-28

    Jujuboside B (1) is one of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, which are used as a well-known traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety in East Asian countries. This is the first study to investigate the antitumor mechanism of 1 in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that 1 induced apoptosis and autophagy in AGS and HCT 116 human cancer cells and also effectively suppressed tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model bearing HCT 116 cells. The apoptosis-inducing effect of 1 was characterized by annexin V/propidium iodide staining, sub-G1 phase increase, and caspase-3 activation. Mechanistic studies showed that 1-induced apoptosis is associated with the extrinsic pathway through an increase in FasL and caspase-8 activation. Moreover, 1 activated p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis was attenuated by both SB202190 (a p38 inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor). The autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 II (LC3-II) conversion. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BaF) decreased 1-induced cell viability and increased pp38, pJNK, FasL, caspase-8 activation, and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 1 induced protective autophagy to retard extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis.

  18. A Study of Aberrant Glycosylation in Simulated Microgravity Using Laser Induced AutoFluorescence and Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, B. DeSales

    1999-01-01

    A number of pathologies and cellular dysfunctions including neoplasms have been correlated with autofluorescence. The complications of aging and diabetes have been associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic glycosylations of tissue macromolecules. These products are known as the Advanced Glycosylated End Products (AGEs). A physical property associated with AGEs is the emission of 570 mn or 630 nm light energy (autofluorescence) following the absorption of 448 mm energy associated with the argon laser. This investigation sought to assess the induction of argon-laser induced autofluorescence in a variety of in vitro culture systems. Different fluorescence intensities distinguished tumor lines from normal cell populations. Laser-stimulated autofluorescence discriminated primary cultures of lymphocytes grown in the presence of excess glucose as opposed to normal glucose concentrations. The effects of deglycosylating agents upon laser-induced autofluorescence were also assessed. The studies included studies of cell cycle analysis using Propidium Iodide stained DNA of cells grown in simulated microgravity using NASA Bioreactor Vessels in media of normal and elevated glucose concentrations.

  19. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  20. Preparation of single-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylchloride membrane and its antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fangbo; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yu, Shuili; Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung; Takizawa, Satoshi; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) ultrafiltration membranes were modified by blending with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to improve the membranes' antibacterial property. Both modified and control samples were characterized for pore structure, roughness, hydrophilicity, permeability and mechanical properties. The membranes' antibacterial property was accessed with Escherichia coli as the model microbes by several methods. It was found that, after being blended with SWCNTs, the surface roughness of the modified membrane increased. Also, the surface hydrophilicity was improved. The membrane flux increased accordingly. But the membrane elongation decreased obviously with the SWCNTs addition. The modified membranes did not show the antibacterial property as expected in this research. There was no bacterial inhibition circle around the SWCNTs/PVC membrane coupons in the culture plates. There were no morphological differences of the cells on the control and the modified membranes. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide stain test showed that there were more than 90% living bacterial cells which could grow on the SWCNTs/PVC membranes. This study suggests that the polymer wrapping may reduce the SWCNTs' antibacterial property greatly.

  1. Primary DNA damage in chrome-plating workers.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, A; Piccinini, R; Ambrogi, M; Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Marchetti, C; Abbritti, G; Muzi, G

    2003-06-30

    In order to evaluate the primary DNA damage due to occupational exposure to chromium (VI), DNA strand-breaks and apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes were measured in a group of 19 chrome-plating workers. DNA strand-breaks was assessed by alkaline (pH>13) single-cell microgel electrophoresis ('comet') assay, while apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry after propidium iodide staining of the cells. Concentrations of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes were investigated as biological indicators of exposure. A group of 18 hospital workers (control group I) and another 20 university personnel (control group II) without exposure to chromium were also studied as controls. The results of the study show that chrome-plating workers have higher levels of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes than unexposed workers. Comet tail moment values, assumed as index of DNA damage, are increased in chromium-exposed workers and results are significantly correlated to chromium lymphocyte concentrations. No difference emerged in the percentage of apoptotic nuclei in exposed and unexposed workers. The study confirms that measurements of chromium in erythrocytes and lymphocytes may provide useful information about recent and past exposure to hexavalent chromium at the workplace. The increase in DNA strand-breaks measured by comet assay suggests this test is valid for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to genotoxic compounds such as chromium (VI).

  2. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury.

  3. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation.

  4. The influence of selected antimicrobial peptides on the physiology of the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golab, Karolina; Mittag, Anja; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Bocsi, Jozsef; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential part of the innate immune system that serves as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recently, immunomodulatory activities of AMPs have begun to be appreciated, implying the usefulness of AMPs in the treatment of infectious disease. The aim of this strategy is the modulation of host immune responses to enhance clearance of infectious agents and reduce tissue damage due to inflammation. Although AMPs could be used as therapeutic agents, a more detailed understanding of how they affect host cells is needed. Hence, several AMPs have been investigated for their potential as a new class of antimicrobial drugs in this study. Synthetic AMPs and AMPs of natural origin were tested on human leukocytes by flow cytometry. Dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects could be observed by propidium iodide staining. Different leukocyte subtypes seem to be susceptible to AMP treatment while others were not affected, even in high concentrations. In conclusion, AMPs have an impact on host immune cells. However, their role in stimulation of chemokine production and enhanced leukocyte recruitment remains a crucial aspect and further studies are needed.

  5. Sequence of apoptosis and inflammatory necrosis within the formative ovulatory site of sheep follicles.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, W J; Wilken, C; Young, D A

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial patterns of apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation within preovulatory ovine follicles. A gonadotrophin surge was induced in pro-oestrous ewes by GnRH, and isolated follicles were hemisected into apical and basal segments at 0, 10, 18 and 22 h (the time of ovulatory stigma development) after GnRH. Ovarian surface epithelial and granulosa cells were isolated and assessed by fluorescence microscopy for membrane phosphatidylserine translocation-annexin V (early-stage apoptosis), oligonucleosomal DNA nick endlabelling (advanced apoptosis), and nuclear propidium iodide incorporation (necrotic membrane disruption). Thecal shells were analysed for interstitial blood cells. Preovulatory follicles were also hemisected and subjected to electrophoretic DNA degradation analysis. Annexin V binding and in situ DNA fragmentation among ovarian surface epithelial and granulosa cells along the follicular apex were high 18 and 22 h after GnRH. Propidium iodide staining of apical ovarian surface and granulosa cells was apparent at 22 h. There was a coincident increase within the apical theca as the time of ovulation approached in extravasated leucocytes (18 and 22 h) and erythrocytes (22 h). Apoptotic DNA laddering and necrotic DNA smears within the follicular apex were evident on agarose gels at 18 and 22 h, respectively. In contrast, ovarian surface epithelium not associated with the ovulation site and the basal follicular wall were largely unafflicted. It is suggested that both modalities of cellular death, apoptosis and necrosis (with acute inflammation and vascular injury), contribute progressively to follicular stigma formation and ovarian rupture.

  6. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  7. The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mohibbullah, Md.; Hannan, Md. Abdul; Choi, Ji-Young; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26106876

  8. Photodynamic activity of a glucoconjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanine on human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Crystal M H; Lo, Pui-Chi; Yeung, Sin-Lui; Ng, Dennis K P; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2010-07-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of a non-toxic photosensitizer which exhibits a killing effect upon activation by light. In the past few years, we have synthesized a number of novel second generation photosensitizers with superior properties, most of them are phthalocyanines. Among them, the glucoconjugated silicon(IV) phthalocyanine (SiPcGlu) shows potent phototoxicity against human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells. In the present study, its action mechanism was investigated. The initiation of apoptosis by SiPcGlu-PDT, subsequent to reactive oxygen species production, was shown by the results of TUNEL assay, annexin V and propidium iodide staining and DNA ladder pattern analysis. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of SiPcGlu in lysosome, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. SiPcGlu-PDT did not cause any damage to the lysosomal membrane; whereas in the mitochondria, it caused membrane depolarization and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which subsequently brought about caspase-3 activation. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the treatment led to Ca(2+) release and an increase in the expression level of the chaperone protein GRP78. These observations suggest that SiPcGlu-PDT triggered the apoptotic pathways in both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, but not the lysosome. A preliminary study of the photodynamic activity of SiPcGlu in the in vivo animal model was also carried out. It retarded tumor growth in HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice while causing no apparent toxicity to the animal.

  9. Comparison of assessment of pigeon sperm viability by contrast-phase microscope (eosin-nigrosin staining) and flow cytometry (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) staining) [evaluation of pigeon sperm viability].

    PubMed

    Klimowicz-Bodys, M D; Batkowski, F; Ochrem, A S; Savič, M A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare the conventional, microscopic method of evaluating pigeon sperm viability to sperm assessed by flow cytometry. Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons. In every group were 20 males (Group I: meat-type breed; Group II: fancy pigeon breed). Semen was collected using the lumbosacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected from each group were pooled and diluted to 10 × 10(6) sperm/ml in BPSE solution. Samples were divided into three equal parts and estimated after collection as well as after in vitro storage for 3, 6 and 24 h. The first part was using for semen motility evaluation. The proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) of fresh and stored semen were evaluated using the CASA-system. The second part was examined subjectively by microscope (eosin-nigrosin (EN), eosin-nigrosin staining), the third one was assessed using dual fluorescence SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry (FC). There were not any significant differences in sperm viability and motility between the groups at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h post collection. The percentage of viable spermatozoa in fresh semen determined by EN and FC was not different in Groups I and II (I - 88.71 ± 5.42 and 84.01 ± 3.19, respectively; II-90.87 ± 6.01 and 87.38 ± 5.57, respectively). Significantly lower percentages of viable spermatozoa were detected by FC compared to the EN method in both groups after 6 h (P ≤ 0.05) as well as 24 h (P ≤ 0.01) of storage. Moreover, the dual fluorescent SYBR-14/PI staining allowed for the identification a third population of double stained, moribund spermatozoa. High positive correlations in percentage of live spermatozoa were noted between EN and FC methods in both groups of birds. Evaluation of sperm viability by FC is a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and objective method for the assessment of pigeon sperm viability in fresh as well as stored semen.

  10. Quantitative determination of transformed cells in a mixed population by stimultaneous fluorescence analysis of cell surface and DNA an individual cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, S P; Bartholomew, J C

    1977-01-01

    Cell-surface labeling with fluorescamine indicates that the fluorescence of Balb 3T3 A31 cells in considerably decreased after both viral and chemical transformation. This phenomenon, coupled with the technique of flow microfluorometry, enabled nontransformed and transformed cells to be distinguished. A second fluroescent probe, propidium iodide, which intercalates into DNA, was used in combination with fluorescamine in order to obtain a ratio of cell-surface labeling to DNA content. This manipulation allowed enhanced resolution of two populations and the detection of small numbers of transformants in a predominantly normal population. PMID:193110

  11. B Lymphocyte Subpopulation Defined by a Rat Monoclonal Antibody, 14G8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Bethesda. MO). Proprtis an exresion f mmbrae atigns (, 2 In The goat anti-p antiserum from which the specifically purified antibodies and xpresio of embane...cell * Independent responses in B-cell defective CsA/N mice to Brucella abortus cycle by ProPiumn iodide staining. J. Cell. Bil. 66:188. and to TNP

  12. Silver ions disrupt K+ homeostasis and cellular integrity in intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Schulze, Lasse M.; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metals silver, gold, and mercury can strongly inhibit aquaporin-mediated water flow across plant cell membranes, but critical examinations of their side effects are rare. Here, the short-lived radiotracer 42K is used to demonstrate that these metals, especially silver, profoundly change potassium homeostasis in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants, by altering unidirectional K+ fluxes. Doses as low as 5 μM AgNO3 rapidly reduced K+ influx to 5% that of controls, and brought about pronounced and immediate increases in K+ efflux, while higher doses of Au3+ and Hg2+ were required to produce similar responses. Reduced influx and enhanced efflux of K+ resulted in a net loss of >40% of root tissue K+ during a 15 min application of 500 μM AgNO3, comprising the entire cytosolic potassium pool and about a third of the vacuolar pool. Silver also brought about major losses of UV-absorbing compounds, total electrolytes, and NH4+. Co-application, with silver, of the channel blockers Cs+, TEA+, or Ca2+, did not affect the enhanced efflux, ruling out the involvement of outwardly rectifying ion channels. Taken together with an examination of propidium iodide staining under confocal microscopy, the results indicate that silver ions affect K+ homeostasis by directly inhibiting K+ influx at lower concentrations, and indirectly inhibiting K+ influx and enhancing K+ efflux, via membrane destruction, at higher concentrations. Ni2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, three heavy metals not generally known to affect aquaporins, did not enhance K+ efflux or cause propidium iodide incorporation. The study reveals strong and previously unknown effects of major aquaporin inhibitors and recommends caution in their application. PMID:21948852

  13. Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, exhibits anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic effects in endometrial cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Schointuch, Monica N.; Gilliam, Timothy P.; Stine, Jessica E.; Han, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Chunxiao; Gehrig, Paola A.; Kim, Kenneth; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells. METHODS Cell proliferation in the ECC-1 and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by Annexin V assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Reactive oxygen species and cell adhesion were assessed using ELISA assays. Invasion was analyzed using a transwell invasion assay. Mitochondrial DNA damage was confirmed using qPCR. The effects of simvastatin on the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS Simvastatin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both endometrial cancer cell lines and 5/8 primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells. Simvastatin treatment resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, a reduction in the enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA, induction of apoptosis as well as DNA damage and cellular stress. Treatment with simvastatin resulted in inhibition of the MAPK pathway and exhibited differential effects on the AKT/mTOR pathway in the ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells. Minimal change in AKT phosphorylation was seen in both cell lines. An increase in phosphorylated S6 was seen in ECC-1 and a decrease was seen in Ishikawa. Treatment with simvastatin reduced cell adhesion and invasion (p<0.01) in both cell lines. CONCLUSION Simvastatin had significant anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects in endometrial cancer cells, possibly through modulation of the MAPK and AKT/mTOR pathways, suggesting that statins may be a promising treatment strategy for endometrial cancer. PMID:24880141

  14. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  15. Molecular Characterization of Squamous Cell Carcinomas Derived from Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    of tetracycline to induce transgene expression and then treated with Alamar BlueTM. As determined by this assay overexpression of either sense or...AS cells were grown in the 0 o-absence of tetracycline for 2 days 20o and then labeled with either Mo4 k Alamar Blue (A) or propidium Mock Sense...during mitosis. (A) Yeast two hybrid system revealed interaction between the MTA1 bait and the REV7 protein. (B) We generated bacterially produced

  16. Developing Strategies to Block Beta-Catenin Action in Signaling and Cell Adhesion During Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia (visible as small propidium iodide-positive bodies), we saw an additional APC2 localization. Wolbachia associate MT...actin condensations appear in cell apex. In mitotic domains of a Wolbachia -infected interphase and prophase above each nucleus, forming an strain, we...centrosome (arrows). (D) dAPC2 (red), 3-tubulin (green). In embryos infected by Wolbachia , dAPC2 colocalizes with the bacteria at the asters. Bars: (A

  17. Cellular taurine release triggered by stimulation of the Fas(CD95) receptor in Jurkat lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lang, F; Madlung, J; Uhlemann, A C; Risler, T; Gulbins, E

    1998-08-01

    One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is cell shrinkage which appears to be important for cell death. The mechanisms mediating cell volume decrease have, however, not been addressed. Mechanisms employed by swollen cells to decrease their cell volume include activation of ion transport pathways, such as ion channels and KCl cotransport, and release of cellular osmolytes, such as taurine, sorbitol, betaine and inositol. The present study has been performed to test for release of taurine. To this end Jurkat human T-lymphocytes were loaded with [3H]taurine and apoptotic cell death induced by triggering the Fas(CD95) receptor with monoclonal crosslinking antibody. Triggering the Fas(CD95) receptor led to a release of 60+/-5% of cellular taurine within 90 min. The release did not occur prior to 45 min. The release coincided with cell shrinkage as evidenced from forward scatter in FACS analysis and preceeded DNA fragmentation according to propidium iodide staining. The delay of taurine release was not influenced by exchange of medium and thus was not due to extracellular accumulation of a stimulator. The Fas(CD95)-induced taurine release, cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation were blunted by lowering of ambient temperature to 23 degreesC. Following pretreatment of cells with Fas(CD95) antibody at 23 degreesC rewarming led to rapid taurine release, cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation, indicating that the temperature-sensitive step is distal to the mechanisms accounting for the delay. Osmotic cell swelling led to an immediate release of taurine. In conclusion, Fas(CD95) triggering leads to delayed taurine release through a temperature-sensitive mechanism.

  18. Steroidal glycosides with antiproliferative activities from Digitalis trojana.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Masullo, Milena; Festa, Michela; Capasso, Anna; Piacente, Sonia

    2014-04-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Digitalis trojana led to the isolation of two cardiac glycosides (1, 2), one pregnane glycoside (3), three furostanol type saponins (4-6), along with three cleroindicins (7-9), four phenylethanoid glycosides (10-13), two flavonoids (14, 15) and two phenolic acid derivatives (16, 17). The structure elucidation of the isolates was carried out by NMR experiments as well as ESI-MS. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-13 against a small panel of cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, T98G, HT-29, PC-3, A375 and SH-SY5Y, was investigated. Compounds 1-6 showed antiproliferative activity against human breast MCF-7 and colon HT-29 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.3 to 50 μM. In order to understand the mechanism involved in the cell death, the active compounds were tested as pro-apoptotic agents using propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry method. No significant increase was observed in the apoptosis of the MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cells. Moreover, the effects of the active compounds on cell proliferation were assessed on the same cancer cell lines by cell cycle analysis of DNA content using flow cytometry. No significative changes were observed in the cell cycle of MCF-7, while significant changes in G2 /M cell cycle phase of HT-29 cells were observed after treatment with digitalin (1), cariensoside (3) and 22-O-methylparvispinoside B (6) at 10 μM.

  19. MLN4924, a novel protein neddylation inhibitor, suppresses proliferation and migration of human urothelial carcinoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kuan Lin; Ho, I Lin; Shi, Chung Sheng; Wu, June Tai; Lin, Wei Chou; Tsai, Yu Chieh; Chang, Hong Chiang; Chou, Chien Tso; Hsu, Chen Hsun; Hsieh, Ju Ton; Chang, Shih Chen; Pu, Yeong Shiau; Huang, Kuo How

    2015-07-28

    MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), has been reported to elicit an anti-tumor effect on various malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of MLN4924 in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) in vitro and in vivo by using three human UC cell lines of various grading (T24, NTUB1 and RT4). The impact of MLN4924 on UC cells was determined by measuring viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), cell cycle progression (flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining) and apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling). The cell cycle regulatory molecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. The influence of tumor cell migration and invasion was analyzed by Transwell and wound healing assays. We also evaluated the effects of MLN4924 on tumor growth by a SCID xenograft mouse model. The data show that MLN4924 induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, anti-proliferation, anti-migration, anti-invasion and apoptosis in human UC cells, accompanied by activations of Bad, phospho-histone H2A.X, caspase-3, 7 and PARP, decreased level of phospho-Bcl2, and caused cell cycle retardation at the G2M phase. Moreover, MLN4924 activated endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules (caspase-4, phospho-eIF2α, ATF-4 and CHOP) and other stress responses (JNK and c-Jun activations). Finally, we confirmed MLN4924 inhibited tumor growth in a UC xenograft mouse model with minimal general toxicity. We concluded that MLN4924 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as activation of cell stress responses in human UC. These findings imply MLN4924 provides a novel strategy for the treatment of UC.

  20. XBP1, Unfolded Protein Response, and Endocrine Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    iodide staining, increased ter- minal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme PARP-1 are associated with late...Flessate- Harley , R. Clarke, High throughput gene expression profiles associated with antiestrogen respon- sive vs. resistant breast cancer cells, Proc

  1. Enhanced egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites by splenic lymphocytes from coccidian-infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Abdelnabi, Ghada H; Lee, Sung H; Li, Guangxing; Jin, Hong; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Suo, Xun

    2011-08-01

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment.

  2. Enhanced Egress of Intracellular Eimeria tenella Sporozoites by Splenic Lymphocytes from Coccidian-Infected Chickens▿

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Abdelnabi, Ghada H.; Lee, Sung H.; Li, Guangxing; Jin, Hong; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment. PMID:21628515

  3. Karenitecin (bnp1350) and flavopridol as radiosensitizers in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Deepika; Robins, H. Ian; Howard, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The poor prognosis of malignant glioma patients highlights the need to develop low toxicity, tumor specific agents with the ability to synergize with proven efficacious treatment modalities, e.g., ionizing irradiation. This paper investigates the potential of BNP1350 (karenitecin), a topoisomerase I-targeting anticancer agent, and flavopridol a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor as radiosensitizers at clinically relevant doses in glioblastoma cell lines. A clonogenic survival and apoptosis assays were performed to test the effect of karenitecin (0.1 nM to 10 nM), flavopridol, (50 nM to 500 nM), radiation (1 Gy to 5.5 Gy) and a combination of radiation and karenitecin or radiation and flavopridol on the glioma cell lines T986 and M059K. Cells were stained for cyclins B and D using antibodies followed by flow cytometry. Propidium Iodide staining was used to reveal the various phases of the cell cycle; cyclin staining in the G0/G1 and G2/M phase of the cell cycle was estimated as the Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) after subtracting the MFI recorded by the isotype controls. Results demonstrated that in irradiated cells, pretreatment with karenitecin induced apoptosis, a transient arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and increased the expression of cyclin B1. Flavopridol treatment also induced apoptosis and a transient block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The combined effects of karenitecin and flavopridol displayed synergistic effects. The unique radiosensitizing activity of orally administrable karenitecin and flavopridol is consistent with continued investigation of these compounds preclinically, as well as in the clinical setting. PMID:28111642

  4. Identification of candidate anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of Compound Kushen Injection using functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhipeng; Aung, Thazin Nwe; Feng, Qianjin; Raison, Joy M.; Kortschak, Robert Daniel; Adelson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) has been clinically used in China for over 15 years to treat various types of solid tumours. However, because such Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are complex mixtures of plant secondary metabolites, it is essential to explore their underlying molecular mechanisms in a systematic fashion. We have used the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line as an initial in vitro model to identify CKI induced changes in gene expression. Cells were treated with CKI for 24 and 48 hours at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/mL total alkaloids), and the effect of CKI on cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using XTT and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining assays respectively. Transcriptome data of cells treated with CKI or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) for 24 and 48 hours were subsequently acquired using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq technology. In this report we show that CKI inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. We integrated and applied a series of transcriptome analysis methods, including gene differential expression analysis, pathway over-representation analysis, de novo identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) as well as co-expression network reconstruction, to identify candidate anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of CKI. Multiple pathways were perturbed and the cell cycle was identified as the potential primary target pathway of CKI in MCF-7 cells. CKI may also induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via a p53 independent mechanism. In addition, we identified novel lncRNAs and showed that many of them might be expressed as a response to CKI treatment. PMID:27602759

  5. The first characterization of free radicals formed from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Law, Benedict; Qian, Steven Y

    2013-04-01

    Through free radical-mediated peroxidation, cyclooxygenase (COX) can metabolize dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to form well-known bioactive metabolites, namely, the 1-series of prostaglandins (PGs1) and the 2-series of prostaglandins (PGs2), respectively. Unlike PGs2, which are generally viewed as proinflammatory and procarcinogenic PGs, PGs1 may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Previous studies using ovine COX along with spin trapping and the LC/ESR/MS technique have shown that certain exclusive free radicals are generated from different free radical reactions in DGLA and AA peroxidation. However, it has been unclear whether the differences were associated with the contrasting bioactivity of DGLA vs AA. The aim of this study was to refine the LC/MS and spin trapping technique to make it possible for the association between free radicals and cancer cell growth to be directly tested. Using a colon cancer cell line, HCA-7 colony 29, and LC/MS along with a solid-phase extraction, we were able to characterize the reduced forms of radical adducts (hydroxylamines) as the free radicals generated from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation. For the first time, free radicals formed in the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA vs DGLA and their association with cancer cell growth were assessed (cell proliferation via MTS and cell cycle distribution via propidium iodide staining) in the same experimental setting. The exclusive free radicals formed from the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA and DGLA were shown to be correlated with the cell growth response. Our results indicate that free radicals generated from the distinct radical reactions in COX-catalyzed peroxidation may represent the novel metabolites of AA and DGLA that correspond to their contrasting bioactivity.

  6. Immunomodulatory properties and anti-apoptotic effects of zinc and melatonin in an experimental model of chronic Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Azevedo, Angela Palamin; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; de Morais, Fabiana Rossetto; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2015-05-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of melatonin and zinc during chronic experimental Chagas' disease were studied. Early and late apoptosis by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining were evaluated. The expression of CD28, CD80, CD86, CD45RA and CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells were also evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. The combination of zinc and melatonin notably reduced the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells in the infected and treated animals when compared to untreated rats, during early and late stages of apoptosis. The percentages of CD8(+)T cells in Zn, Mel or Zn and Mel treated rats were reduced when compared to infected and untreated animals. Higher percentages of CD28 expression in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were observed in control and infected Zn-treated group as compared to untreated ones. Zn, Mel or the combination of both did not induce any statistically significant differences for B cells when comparing to treated control and infected groups. Zinc or Mel-treated animals presented a lower expression of CD86 when compared to untreated counterparts. According to our data, this work strongly suggest that the modulation of the immune system operated by zinc and melatonin administration affected the balance among T cell immune response, apoptosis and expression of co-stimulatory molecules during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, inducing important changes in the host's immune response against the parasite. Future experiments in this field should be focused in improving our understanding of the key mechanisms underlying the involvement of melatonin and zinc in the immune response during chronic Chagas' disease.

  7. Cryopreservation method affects DNA fragmentation in trophectoderm and the speed of re-expansion in bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasushi; Miyashita, Satoshi; Somfai, Tamás; Geshi, Masaya; Matoba, Satoko; Dochi, Osamu; Nagai, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated re-expansion dynamics during culture of bovine blastocysts cryopreserved either by slow-freezing or vitrification. Also, the extent and localization of membrane damage and DNA fragmentation in re-expanded embryos were studied. Frozen-thawed embryos showed a significantly lower re-expansion rate during 24 h of post-thawing culture compared to vitrified embryos. Vitrified embryos reached the maximum level of re-expansion rate by 12 h of culture whereas frozen embryos showed a gradual increase in re-expansion rate by 24 h of culture. When assayed by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining there was no difference in the numbers and ratio of membrane damaged cells between re-expanded frozen and vitrified embryos; however, the extent of membrane damage in blastomeres was significantly higher in both groups compared with non-cryopreserved embryos (control). TUNEL assay combined with differential ICM and TE staining revealed a significantly higher number and ratio of TE cells showing DNA-fragmentation in frozen-thawed re-expanded blastocysts compared to vitrified ones; however, vitrification also resulted in an increased extent of DNA fragmentation in TE cells compared with control blastocysts. In frozen-thawed blastocysts increased extent of DNA fragmentation was associated with reduced numbers and proportion of TE cells compared with vitrified and control embryos. The number and ratio of ICM cells and the extent of DNA fragmentation in ICM did not differ among control, frozen and vitrified groups. In conclusion, compared with vitrified embryos, blastocysts preserved by slow-freezing showed a delayed timing of re-expansion which was associated with an increased frequency of DNA fragmentation in TE cells.

  8. Overexpression of MN1 Confers Resistance to Chemotherapy, Accelerates Leukemia Onset, and Suppresses p53 and Bim Induction

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The transcriptional co-activator MN1 confers a worse prognosis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when highly expressed; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We sought to model the effects of high MN1 expression in AML models to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We used cell lines and a genetically defined mouse model of AML to examine the effects of MN1 overexpression on prognosis and response to cytarabine and doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. Murine AML that was engineered to overexpress MN1 became more aggressive in vivo, leading to shortened survival in both treated and control groups. In vitro murine AML cells that overexpressed MN1 became resistant to treatment with cytarabine and highly resistant to doxorubicin. This resistant phenotype was also seen in vivo, where treatment with the combination of cytarabine and doxorubicin selected for cells expressing MN1. When therapy-induced DNA damage levels were assessed by γH2AX foci, no reduction was seen in MN1 expressing cells arguing against a drug efflux mechanism. Despite no reduction in DNA damage, MN1-expressing cells showed less apoptosis as assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Following treatment, p53 and BIM induction were markedly reduced in cells expressing MN1. Pharmacologic inhibition of the p53 E3 ligase MDM2 resulted in increased p53 levels and improved response to doxorubicin in vitro. Conclusions/Significance MN1 overexpression accelerates an already aggressive leukemia, confers resistance to chemotherapy, and suppresses p53 and BIM induction, resulting in decreased apoptosis. This provides a mechanistic explanation of the poor prognosis observed with high MN1 expression and suggests that therapies directed at increasing p53 function may be useful for these patients. PMID:22905229

  9. Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lizard, G.; Fournel, S.; Genestier, L.; Dhedin, N.

    1995-11-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of cytoplasmic membrane and swelling of mitochondria. In this study we assessed by flow cytometry the sequential alterations of forward angle light scatter, 90{degrees} light scatter, and fluorescence associated with fluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123, and propidium iodide in two human B cell lines undergoing apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by sodium azide. At the same time intervals, cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy and by UV microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342. We report that sequential changes in light scatters and fluorescein diacetate are similar in cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, whereas apoptosis is characterized by a slightly delayed decrease of mitochondrial activity as assessed by rhodamine 123 staining. Surprisingly, a part of cells undergoing apoptosis displayed an early uptake of propidium iodide followed by a condensation and then a fragmentation of their nuclei. It is concluded that uptake of propidium iodide is a very early marker of cell death which does not discriminate between necrosis and apoptosis. Along with biochemical criteria, nuclear morphology revealed by staining with Hoechst 33342 would seem to be of the most simple and most discriminative assay of apoptosis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC(50) of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

  11. Ley specific antibody with potent anti-tumor activity is internalized and degraded in lysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, J.; Garrigues, U.; Hellström, I.; Hellström, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    BR96 is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) that recognizes many human carcinomas and can kill antigen-positive tumor cells in vitro. Using both gold and radiolabeled MAb, the distribution and cellular processing of BR96 during cytolysis has been determined. After a brief (< 3 minutes) MAb treatment, cells in suspension are stained by the nuclear viability dye propidium iodide. Whole MAb and F(ab')2 fragments are equally cytotoxic; monovalent F(ab) fragments, however, have no effect on dye uptake unless cross-linked with goat anti-mouse IgG. The level of toxicity is dependent on both MAb dose and on cell surface receptor density. Cell contact may regulate receptor expression. BR96 receptors are more abundant on cells migrating into the open areas of a scratch wounded confluent culture than on the adjacent contact-inhibited cells. BR96 can also inhibit the anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in soft agar showing that its effects on propidium iodide staining are not due to transient changes in membrane permeability. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that, after a 1-minute treatment, BR96 induces significant infolding of the plasma membrane and that internalized MAb is localized to these structures. Immediately thereafter, large cell surface and intracellular vesicles form, mitochondria are swollen, and membrane integrity is lost. Therefore, BR96 seems to cause morphological changes characteristic of necrosis rather than apoptosis. When bound to adherent carcinoma cells, BR96 is distributed uniformly on the apical surface of cells labeled at 4 C and is enriched at points of cell substratum contact. Upon warming of the cells to 37 C, BR96 localizes in small perinuclear clusters and the cell margin is now devoid of label. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals that BR96 undergoes receptor mediated internalization and is localized within the same coated pits, endosomes, and lysosomes as the transferrin receptor. Quantitative studies using iodinated BR96 show that

  12. Spatial and Temporal Control of Cavitation Allows High In Vitro Transfection Efficiency in the Absence of Transfection Reagents or Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Chettab, Kamel; Roux, Stéphanie; Mathé, Doriane; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Lafond, Maxime; Lafon, Cyril; Dumontet, Charles; Mestas, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Sonoporation using low-frequency high-pressure ultrasound (US) is a non-viral approach for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device designed for spatial and temporal control of ultrasound cavitation. The regulation system incorporated in the device allowed a real-time control of the cavitation level during sonoporation. This device was evaluated for the in vitro transfection efficiency of a plasmid coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (pEGFP-C1) in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the device was compared to those observed with lipofection and nucleofection methods. In both adherent and non-adherent cell lines, the sonoporation device allowed high rate of transfection of pEGFP-C1 (40-80%), as determined by flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression, along with a low rate of mortality assessed by propidium iodide staining. The transfection efficiency and toxicity of sonoporation on the non-adherent cell lines Jurkat and K562 were similar to those of nucleofection, while these two cell lines were resistant to transfection by lipofection. Moreover, sonoporation was used to produce three stably transfected human lymphoma and leukemia lines. Significant transfection efficiency was also observed in two fresh samples of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. In conclusion, we developed a user-friendly and cost-effective ultrasound device, well adapted for routine in vitro high-yield transfection experiments and which does not require the use of any transfection reagent or gas micro-bubbles.

  13. Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization and ATP Depletion in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gergely, Peter; Grossman, Craig; Niland, Brian; Puskas, Ferenc; Neupane, Hom; Allam, Fatme; Banki, Katalin; Phillips, Paul E.; Perl, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Objective Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased spontaneous and diminished activation-induced apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that key biochemical checkpoints, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), mediate the imbalance of apoptosis in SLE. Methods We assessed the ΔΨm with potentiometric dyes, measured ROI production with oxidation-sensitive fluorochromes, and monitored cell death by annexin V and propidium iodide staining of lymphocytes, using flow cytometry. Intracellular glutathione levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, while ATP and ADP levels were assessed by the luciferin–luciferase assay. Results Both ΔΨm and ROI production were elevated in the 25 SLE patients compared with the 25 healthy subjects and the 10 rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intracellular glutathione contents were diminished, suggesting increased utilization of reducing equivalents in SLE. H2O2, a precursor of ROIs, increased ΔΨm and caused apoptosis in normal PBLs. In contrast, H2O2-induced apoptosis and ΔΨm elevation were diminished, particularly in T cells, and the rate of necrotic cell death was increased in patients with SLE. The intracellular ATP content and the ATP:ADP ratio were reduced and correlated with the ΔΨm elevation in lupus. CD3:CD28 costimulation led to transient elevation of the ΔΨm, followed by ATP depletion, and sensitization of normal PBLs to H2O2-induced necrosis. Depletion of ATP by oligomycin, an inhibitor of F0F1–ATPase, had similar effects. Conclusion T cell activation and apoptosis are mediated by ΔΨm elevation and increased ROI production. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization and the resultant ATP depletion sensitize T cells for necrosis, which may significantly contribute to inflammation in patients with SLE. PMID:11817589

  14. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  15. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy.

    PubMed

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L F; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-21

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  16. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sanhu; Yang, Yanyong; Liu, Wen; Xuan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shouming; Yu, Shunfei; Mei, Ke; Huang, Yijuan; Zhang, Pei; Cai, Jianming; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Yaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H(2) was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological analysis were used to evaluate the splenic structural damage. Spleen superoxide dismutase, GSH, MDA were measured to appraise the antioxidant capacity and a DCF assay for the measurement of radical oxygen species. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by an Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining method as well as the apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and c-caspase-3. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subtypes were detected by flow cytometry with FITC-labelled antimouse CD4 and PE antimouse CD8 staining. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the CD4+ T cell subtypes and related cytokines. Our study demonstrated that pre-treatment with H(2) could increase the spleen index and attenuate the radiation damage on splenic structure. Radical oxygen species level was also reduced by H(2) treatment. H(2) also inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in splenocytes and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins in living mice. Radiation-induced imbalance of T cells was attenuated by H(2). Finally, we found that H(2) could regulate the polarization of CD4+ T cells and the level of related cytokines. This study suggests H(2) as an effective radioprotective agent on immune system by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Triphenylphosphonium Salts with Broad-Spectrum Activity

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Melissa; Pathania, Divya; Shabaik, Yumna; Taheri, Laleh; Deng, Jinxia; Neamati, Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of interest in developing compounds selectively targeting mitochondria for the treatment of neoplasms. The critical role of mitochondria in cellular metabolism and respiration supports this therapeutic rationale. Dysfunction in the processes of energy production and metabolism contributes to attenuation of response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and increased ROS production both of which are implicated in the initiation and progression of most human cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings A high-throughput MTT-based screen of over 10,000 drug-like small molecules for anti-proliferative activity identified the phosphonium salts TP187, 197 and 421 as having IC50 concentrations in the submicromolar range. TP treatment induced cell cycle arrest independent of p53 status, as determined by analysis of DNA content in propidium iodide stained cells. In a mouse model of human breast cancer, TP-treated mice showed significantly decreased tumor growth compared to vehicle or paclitaxel treated mice. No toxicities or organ damage were observed following TP treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from TP187-treated tumors demonstrated a decrease in cellular proliferation and increased caspase-3 cleavage. The fluorescent properties of analog TP421 were exploited to assess subcellular uptake of TP compounds, demonstrating mitochondrial localization. Following mitochondrial uptake cells exhibited decreased oxygen consumption and concomittant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. Proteomics analysis of results from a 600 target antibody microarray demonstrated that TP compounds significantly affected signaling pathways relevant to growth and proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Through our continued interest in designing compounds targeting cancer-cell metabolism, the Warburg effect, and mitochondria we recently discovered a series of novel, small-molecule compounds containing a triphenylphosphine moiety that

  18. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer.

  19. The treatment effects of flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglycoside and its metabolite enterolactone on benign prostatic hyperplasia involve the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guan-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yang; Chen, Wei-Guo; Huang, Ya; Qin, Li-Qiang; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a lignan extracted from flaxseed, has been shown to suppress benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, little is known about the mechanistic basis for its anti-BPH activity. The present study showed that enterolactone (ENL), the mammalian metabolite of SDG, shared the similar binding site of G1 on a new type of membranous estrogen receptor, G-protein-coupled estrogen eceptor 1 (GPER), by docking simulations method. ENL and G1 (the specific agonist of GPER) inhibited the proliferation of human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 as shown by MTT assay and arrested cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, which was displayed by propidium iodide staining following flow cytometer examination. Silencing GPER by short interfering RNA attenuated the inhibitory effect of ENL on WPMY-1 cells. The therapeutic potential of SDG in the treatment of BPH was confirmed in a testosterone propionate-induced BPH rat model. SDG significantly reduced the enlargement of the rat prostate and the number of papillary projections of prostatic alveolus and thickness of the pseudostratified epithelial and stromal cells when comparing with the model group. Mechanistic studies showed that SDG and ENL increased the expression of GPER both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ENL-induced cell cycle arrest may be mediated by the activation of GPER/ERK pathway and subsequent upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of cyclin D1. This work, in tandem with previous studies, will enhance our knowledge regarding the mechanism(s) of dietary phytochemicals on BPH prevention and ultimately expand the scope of adopting alternative approaches in BPH treatment.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not neurotrophin-3, prevents ischaemia-induced neuronal cell death in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Pringle, A K; Sundstrom, L E; Wilde, G J; Williams, L R; Iannotti, F

    1996-06-28

    We have investigated the neuroprotective actions of neurotrophins in a model of ischaemia using slice cultures. Ischaemia was induced in organotypic hippocampal cultures by simultaneous oxygen and glucose deprivation. Cell death was assessed 24 h later by propidium iodide fluorescence. Pre- but not post-ischaemic addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced a concentration-dependent reduction in neuronal damage. Neurotrophin-3 was not neuroprotective. These data suggest that BDNF may form part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism.

  1. Effect of a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor on oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptotic signalling of cultured cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Röth, E; Marczin, N; Balatonyi, B; Ghosh, S; Kovács, V; Alotti, N; Borsiczky, B; Gasz, B

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are crucial in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) is responsible for the high-capacity metabolic inactivation of electrophilic compounds and toxic substrates. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of GST inhibition (with the administration of ethacrynic acid [EA]) on the viability and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes when these cells are exposed to various stress components of I/R and mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]) inhibitors. The primary culture of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was divided into six experimental groups: control group of cells (group 1), cells exposed to H2O2 (group 2), I/R (group 3), I/R and EA (group 4), H2O2 coupled with EA (group 5), and EA alone (group 6). The viability of cardiomyocytes was determined using a colorimetric MTT assay. The apoptosis ratio was evaluated via fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled annexin V and propidium iodide staining. c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, Akt/protein kinase B and ERK/p42-p44 transcription factors were monitored with flow cytometry. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation increased due to GST inhibition during I/R. EA administration led to a significant increase in p38 activation following both H2O2 treatment and I/R. ERK phosphorylation increased when GST was exposed to I/R. A pronounced decrease in Akt phosphorylation was observed when cells were cotreated with EA and H2O2. GST plays an important role as a regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in I/R injury. PMID:22065940

  2. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract inhibits both the metastasis and osteolytic components of mammary cancer 4T1 lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Wang; Ko, Chun-Hay; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Kai-Kai; Lee, Michelle; Li, Gang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-04-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis, CS), a kind of Chinese tea commonly consumed as a healthy beverage, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities, including antioxidation, antiobesity and anticancer. Our study aims to investigate the antitumor, antimetastasis and antiosteolytic effects of CS aqueous extract both in vitro and in vivo using metastasis-specific mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. Our results showed that treatment of 4T1 cells with CS aqueous extract resulted in significant inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation. CS extract induced 4T1 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Western blot analysis showed that CS increased the expression of Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio and activated caspase-8 and caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. CS also inhibited 4T1 cell migration and invasion at 0.06-0.125 mg/ml. In addition, CS extract (0.6 g/kg, orally fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 34.8% in female BALB/c mice against water treatment control (100%). Apart from the antitumor effect, CS extract significantly decreased lung and liver metastasis in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors by 54.5% and 72.6%, respectively. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography and in vitro osteoclast staining analysis suggested that CS extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the CS aqueous extract, which closely mimics green tea beverage, has potent antitumor and antimetastasis effects in breast cancer and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction.

  3. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Ray, Doel; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2015-11-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. Liver dysfunction is associated with this syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin treatment on metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage. After induction of metabolic syndrome in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks, the rats were treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight, single intra-peritoneal injection). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect blood samples and liver tissues. Compared to normal, elevated activities of serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase, increased levels of liver advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, protein kinase Cα, NADPH oxidase-2, and decreased glutathione cycle components established liver damage and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Activation of nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in liver cell apoptosis. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12 proteins suggested hepatic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome caused hepatic DNA damage and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting using annexin V/propidium iodide staining confirmed the apoptotic hepatic cell death. Histology of liver tissue also supported the experimental findings. Treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and apoptotic cell death in fructose-fed rats. The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome.

  4. The role of heat shock protein 90 in the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Belkina, M V; Maroshkina, A N

    2011-02-01

    Programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells was studied under conditions of culturing with 17-AAG selective inhibitor of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa and etoposide. Apoptosis realization was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Activity of caspase-3 was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Inhibition of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa activated the apoptotic program in Jurkat tumor cells and etoposide-induced apoptosis. The heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa acted as apoptosis inhibitor in tumor cells.

  5. Development of a single cell electroporation method using a scanning ion conductance microscope with a theta nanopipette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Koji; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Iwata, Futoshi

    2015-08-01

    We developed a novel electroporation method using a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) with a theta capillary nanopipette probe that has two apertures at the edge of the pipette. One aperture of the pipette probe was used to control the pipette-surface distance and to apply pulse voltage for electroporation. The other was used to eject material over the cell by local electrophoresis. Using the nanopipette, propidium iodide was successfully introduced into a targeted single Hela cell without influencing the surrounding cells. Furthermore, by scanning the theta nanopipette probe using the SICM, the morphological behaviors of the electroporated cells could be observed.

  6. Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed human and swine wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, M Y; Cliver, D O

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the persistence of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed septic tank effluent and swine manure slurry and to correlate fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining of G. lamblia cysts with their morphology under low-voltage scanning electron microscopy. Under field conditions, G. lamblia cysts were degraded more rapidly in the mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For total and viable cysts, the mixed waste had D values (time for a 90% reduction in number of cysts) of 18.3 and 15.5 days, and the Dulbecco's PBS control had D values of 41.6 and 26.8 days. The rates of cyst degradation in septic tank effluent and in Dulbecco's PBS were similar. Increasing the proportion of swine manure slurry in the mixed waste favored degradation of the parasite. These results indicate that the mixed waste treatment was the predominant factor affecting the cyst persistence and that it was swine manure slurry that played the role of degrading the parasite. Visualization of viable and nonviable Giardia cysts with low-voltage scanning electron microscopy revealed an excellent correlation between the viability of the cysts determined by fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining and their electron microscopic morphology. Images PMID:1381171

  7. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  8. Inter-laboratory comparison of the in vivo comet assay including three image analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Guérard, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    To compare the extent of potential inter-laboratory variability and the influence of different comet image analysis systems, in vivo comet experiments were conducted using the genotoxicants ethyl methanesulfonate and methyl methanesulfonate. Tissue samples from the same animals were processed and analyzed-including independent slide evaluation by image analysis-in two laboratories with extensive experience in performing the comet assay. The analysis revealed low inter-laboratory experimental variability. Neither the use of different image analysis systems, nor the staining procedure of DNA (propidium iodide vs. SYBR® Gold), considerably impacted the results or sensitivity of the assay. In addition, relatively high stability of the staining intensity of propidium iodide-stained slides was found in slides that were refrigerated for over 3 months. In conclusion, following a thoroughly defined protocol and standardized routine procedures ensures that the comet assay is robust and generates comparable results between different laboratories.

  9. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin–fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  10. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline derivatives for cytotoxic and anti-leishmanial potential.

    PubMed

    Lunagariya, Nitin A; Gohil, Vikrantsinh M; Kushwah, Varun; Neelagiri, Soumya; Jain, Sanyog; Singh, Sushma; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, 23 derivatives of 1,3,6-trisubstituted β-carboline were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic potential against four human cancer cells, namely A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 as well as anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani (MHOM/80/IN/Dd8) promastigotes. Among the studied compounds, compounds 13c and 13q showed potent cytotoxic activity better than the parent compound 10. For instance, compound 13c was found to be the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 4.72, 3.59, 3.65 and 4.17 μM against A-549, HeLa, Hep G2 and MCF-7 respectively, while for compound 13q, IC50 were 15.47, 5.30, 6.15 and 13.39 μM against the same cancer cells respectively. Further, these two compounds were found to be apoptotic in A-549 and MCF-7 cells when observed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining under confocal microscope. All the compounds were also tested for anti-leishmanial potential. In which, compounds 13u and 13c were found to show moderate inhibition with IC50 of 23.5±9.0 and 68.0±0.0 μM respectively, while compound 10 was the most active with IC50 of 9.0±2.8 μM, suggesting the modification at C-6 detrimental for anti-leishmanial activity. Interestingly, amongst all, compound 13c was found to be the most active for cytotoxic and moderately active for anti-leishmanial activity which can be further developed as a lead for these disease areas.

  11. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J A; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Pinkney, A E; Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S

    2015-03-15

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin-fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  12. The Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Epsilon-Poly-l-Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S.; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ε-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ε-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ε-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ε-PL's binding efficiency. ε-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ε-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ε-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ε-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ε-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles. PMID:25304506

  13. The Calpain Inhibitor MDL28170 Induces the Expression of Apoptotic Markers in Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Fernanda A.; Gonçalves, Keyla C. S.; Oliveira, Simone S. C.; Gonçalves, Diego S.; Matteoli, Filipe P.; Seabra, Sergio H.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina S.; Bellio, Maria; Oliveira, Selma S.; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M.; Santos, André L. S.; Branquinha, Marta H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by distinct species, including Leishmania amazonensis. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory due to increases in drug resistance and relapses, and toxicity of compounds to the host. As a consequence for this situation, the development of new leishmanicidal drugs and the search of new targets in the parasite biology are important goals. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the mechanism of death pathway induced by the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 on Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms. The combined use of different techniques was applied to contemplate this goal. MDL28170 treatment with IC50 (15 µM) and two times the IC50 doses induced loss of parasite viability, as verified by resazurin assay, as well as depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, which was quantified by JC-1 staining. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic images revealed drastic alterations on the parasite morphology, some of them resembling apoptotic-like death, including cell shrinking, surface membrane blebs and altered chromatin condensation pattern. The lipid rearrangement of the plasma membrane was detected by Annexin-V labeling. The inhibitor also induced a significant increase in the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase, as quantified by propidium iodide staining, as well as genomic DNA fragmentation, detected by TUNEL assay. In cells treated with MDL28170 at two times the IC50 dose, it was also possible to observe an oligonucleossomal DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions/Significance The data presented in the current study suggest that MDL28170 induces apoptotic marker expression in promastigotes of L. amazonensis. Altogether, the results described in the present work not only provide a rationale for further exploration of the mechanism of action of calpain inhibitors against trypanosomatids, but may also widen the investigation of the

  14. The antimicrobial mechanism of action of epsilon-poly-l-lysine.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E; Meyer, Rikke L

    2014-12-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ε-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ε-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ε-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ε-PL's binding efficiency. ε-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ε-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ε-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ε-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ε-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles.

  15. FTIR spectral signature of anticancer drug effects on PC-3 cancer cells: is there any influence of the cell cycle?

    PubMed

    Derenne, Allison; Mignolet, Alix; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2013-07-21

    FTIR spectroscopy was recently demonstrated to be a useful tool to obtain a unique fingerprint of several anticancer drugs. While cell responses to anticancer drugs are related to their "mode of action", it is obvious that some of the drugs used in the previous studies affect the cell cycle. For example, antimicrotubules disable the mitotic apparatus by disrupting the formation or the depolymerisation of microtubules. Cells are thus mostly blocked in the G2/M phase. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the changes observed in the cell spectra due to treatments could be related to the cell cycle. The aim of the present study is to examine this hypothesis and to investigate whether spectral variations induced by a treatment reflect the cell cycle behaviour or the metabolic perturbations induced by the drug. To answer this question, a method was developed that allows an unambiguous identification of the cell cycle phase for each individual cell. This method is based on the superimposition of three types of images: visible, infrared and propidium iodide fluorescence images. Propidium iodide intercalates the bases of the DNA. As the DNA amount in a cell is correlated with the cell cycle phase, the exact phase of each individual cell could be identified. On IR images, mean spectra corresponding to single cells were calculated and associated with the cycle stage defined using fluorescence images. Statistical analyses were applied on these IR spectra, first in order to compare spectra of cells from different stages of the cycle and second, to investigate to what extent the modifications related to the cell cycle contribute to the spectral variations due to paclitaxel treatment. Results demonstrate that the FTIR cell cycle signature is very small with respect to the changes induced by paclitaxel.

  16. Nutrient reserves may allow for genome size increase: evidence from comparison of geophytes and their sister non-geophytic relatives

    PubMed Central

    Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genome size of an organism is determined by its capacity to tolerate genome expansion, given the species' life strategy and the limits of a particular environment, and the ability for retrotransposon suppression and/or removal. In some giant-genomed bulb geophytes, this tolerance is explained by their ability to pre-divide cells in the dormant stages or by the selective advantage of larger cells in the rapid growth of their fleshy body. In this study, a test shows that the tendency for genome size expansion is a more universal feature of geophytes, and is a subject in need of more general consideration. Methods Differences in monoploid genome sizes were compared using standardized phylogenetically independent contrasts in 47 sister pairs of geophytic and non-geophytic taxa sampled across all the angiosperms. The genome sizes of 96 species were adopted from the literature and 53 species were newly measured using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Key Results The geophytes showed increased genome sizes compared with their non-geophytic relatives, regardless of the storage organ type and regardless of whether or not vernal geophytes, polyploids or annuals were included in the analyses. Conclusions The universal tendency of geophytes to possess a higher genome size suggests the presence of a universal mechanism allowing for genome expansion. It is assumed that this is primarily due to the nutrient and energetic independence of geophytes perhaps allowing continuous synthesis of DNA, which is known to proceed in the extreme cases of vernal geophytes even in dormant stages. This independence may also be assumed as a reason for allowing large genomes in some parasitic plants, as well as the nutrient limitation of small genomes of carnivorous plants. PMID:23960044

  17. Celastrol Potentiates Radiotherapy by Impairment of DNA Damage Processing in Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Yao; DeSano, Jeffrey T.; Meng Yang; J, Qing; Ljungman, Mats; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Xu Liang

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Celastrol is an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine and has recently been identified as a potent natural proteasome inhibitor. In the present study, we evaluated the radiosensitizing potential of celastrol in the human prostate cancer PC-3 model. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the radiosensitizing effect of celastrol. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and by a caspase-3 activation assay. DNA damage processing was examined by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot for phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX). The PC-3 xenograft model in the athymic nude mouse was used for the determination of the in vivo efficacy of celastrol combined with radiotherapy. The tumor samples were also analyzed for apoptosis and angiogenesis. Results: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to ionizing radiation (IR) in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, in which pretreatment with celastrol for 1 h followed by IR achieved maximal radiosensitization. Celastrol significantly prolonged the presence of IR-induced {gamma}H2AX and increased IR-induced apoptosis. Celastrol, combined with fractionated radiation, significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth in vivo without obvious systemic toxicity. The combination treatment increased {gamma}H2AX levels and apoptosis, induced cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase and Mcl-1, and reduced angiogenesis in vivo compared with either treatment alone. Conclusion: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo by impairing DNA damage processing and augmenting apoptosis. Celastrol might represent a promising new adjuvant regimen for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  18. Response of mouse thymic cells to radiation after transfusion of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Ling; Guo, Chunlong; Tong, Zhimin; Liu, Yue; Meng, Xiangkuan; Feng, Hu; Chen, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thymic lymphoma is a highly invasive and even metastatic cancer. This study investigated the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfusion on cell cycle, cell proliferation, CD3 expression, mutation frequency of T cell receptor using mouse model of thymic lymphoma. C57BL/6J young mouse models of thymoma were injected with MSCs. Six months later, the thymus was taken for pathological examination and flow cytometry studies. The cells were labeled with anti-CD4, CD8, CD3, propidium iodide, or CFDA-SE, cell cycle, proliferation kinetics, and mutation frequency of T cell receptor, respectively. Pathologic results showed that control had clear corticomedular structure with regularly shaped lymphocytes. After radiation, the thymus structure was completely destroyed, with lymphoid tumor cells diffusely distributed and heavily stained, and large nuclei. Transfusion of MSCs resulted in normal thymus structure. Cytometry studies showed that there were more CD4-/CD8- T cells in the thymus of irradiated mice than in control; transfusion of MSCs led to reduced CD4-/CD8- T cells. In irradiated mice, there were less CD4+/CD8+ T cells than in control and MSCs transfusion groups. It was observed that there were more cells arrested in G1 phase in the thymus cells and CD4-/CD8- T cells in irradiated mice than in other 2 groups, whereas there were more cells arrested in S phase in CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+/CD8- T cells in irradiated mice than in the other mice. In the thymus cells, and CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+/CD8- T cells, irradiated mice group had significantly less parent, G2, G3, and G4 cells, and more cells at higher generations, and also higher proliferation index. In CD4-/CD8- T cells, irradiated mice had significantly more parent, G2, and G3 cells, and less G4, G5, G6, and propidium iodide, as compared with the other 2 groups. The expression of CD3 in CD4/CD8 T cells was significantly higher than in control. MSCs transfusion improved CD3 expression, but was still less than

  19. Response of mouse thymic cells to radiation after transfusion of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Ling; Guo, Chunlong; Tong, Zhimin; Liu, Yue; Meng, Xiangkuan; Feng, Hu; Chen, Yubing

    2016-12-01

    Thymic lymphoma is a highly invasive and even metastatic cancer. This study investigated the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfusion on cell cycle, cell proliferation, CD3 expression, mutation frequency of T cell receptor using mouse model of thymic lymphoma.C57BL/6J young mouse models of thymoma were injected with MSCs. Six months later, the thymus was taken for pathological examination and flow cytometry studies. The cells were labeled with anti-CD4, CD8, CD3, propidium iodide, or CFDA-SE, cell cycle, proliferation kinetics, and mutation frequency of T cell receptor, respectively.Pathologic results showed that control had clear corticomedular structure with regularly shaped lymphocytes. After radiation, the thymus structure was completely destroyed, with lymphoid tumor cells diffusely distributed and heavily stained, and large nuclei. Transfusion of MSCs resulted in normal thymus structure. Cytometry studies showed that there were more CD4-/CD8- T cells in the thymus of irradiated mice than in control; transfusion of MSCs led to reduced CD4-/CD8- T cells. In irradiated mice, there were less CD4+/CD8+ T cells than in control and MSCs transfusion groups. It was observed that there were more cells arrested in G1 phase in the thymus cells and CD4-/CD8- T cells in irradiated mice than in other 2 groups, whereas there were more cells arrested in S phase in CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+/CD8- T cells in irradiated mice than in the other mice. In the thymus cells, and CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+/CD8- T cells, irradiated mice group had significantly less parent, G2, G3, and G4 cells, and more cells at higher generations, and also higher proliferation index. In CD4-/CD8- T cells, irradiated mice had significantly more parent, G2, and G3 cells, and less G4, G5, G6, and propidium iodide, as compared with the other 2 groups. The expression of CD3 in CD4/CD8 T cells was significantly higher than in control. MSCs transfusion improved CD3 expression, but was still less than the control

  20. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  1. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-08-09

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.

  2. Increased Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes from Alzheimer Patients Correlates with Dementia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Daniela P.; Salech, Felipe; SanMartin, Carol D.; Silva, Monica; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Henriquez, Mauricio; Quest, Andrew F.; Behrens, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on enhanced susceptibility to death of lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and an increased resistance to death in those of patients with a history of skin cancer. This is consistent with our hypothesis proposing that the cellular machinery controlling cell death is deregulated in opposite directions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer, to explain the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether the observed increased susceptibility correlates with the degree of dementia severity. Peripheral lymphocytes from 23 AD patients, classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) into severe dementia (CDR 3, n=10) and mild-to-moderate dementia (CDR 1–2, n=13), and 15 healthy controls (HC) (CDR 0), were exposed to H2O2 for 20 hours. Lymphocyte death was determined by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. The greatest susceptibility to H2O2-induced death was observed for lymphocytes from severe dementia patients, whereas those with mild-to-moderate dementia exhibited intermediate values, compared to healthy controls. A significant increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio was found in AD patients. Poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition significantly protected from H2O2-induced death of lymphocytes, whereby a lower degree of protection was observed in severe AD patients. Moreover, inhibition of PARP-1 abolished the differences in apoptosis/necrosis ratios observed between the three groups of patients. These results support the notion that AD is a systemic disorder, whereby enhanced susceptibility to H2O2-induced death in peripheral lymphocytes correlates with dementia severity and enhanced death in AD patients is attributable to a PARP-dependent increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio. PMID:25274115

  3. Neuroprotective effects of nicotinamide and 1-methylnicotinamide in acute excitotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Marta; Zieminska, Elzbieta; Salinska, Elzbieta; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W

    2008-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM), an important cofactor in many metabolic pathways, exhibits at high doses neuroprotective abilities of an unclear mechanism. In the present study we evaluated the unknown protective capability of its immediate metabolite 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) in comparison to NAM in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) submitted to acute excitotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was evaluated with propidium iodide staining 24 h after 30 min exposure to glutamate (GLU) and NMDA. NAM and MNA reduced NMDA toxicity only at 25 mM concentration, while neurotoxicity of 0.5 mM GLU was slightly diminished only by 25 mM NAM. Both compounds at 25 mM reduced GLU-induced 45Ca uptake and dose-dependently inhibited NMDA-induced 45Ca accumulation. Neither NAM nor MNA interfered with GLU-evoked intracellular calcium transients evaluated with calcium orange fluorescent probe or inhibited [3H]MK-801 binding to rat cortical membranes. NAM and MNA failed to change GLU-evoked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential monitored using the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123. Analysis with a hydroperoxide-sensitive fluorescent probe demonstrated significant reduction by 20 and 25 mM MNA, but not NAM, of oxidative stress in cultures after 1 h treatment with GLU. CGC accumulated radiolabelled NAM and MNA in a time and concentration dependent manner, NAM being transported more rapidly. These findings demonstrate that weak neuroprotective ability of MNA in excitotoxicity, accompanied by incomplete stabilization of calcium imbalance and lessening of oxidative stress, is not connected with direct inhibition of NMDA receptors. The exact mechanisms of these effects require further investigation.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of various carbonyl compounds against cyanide toxicity with particular reference to alpha-ketoglutaric acid.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Tulsawani, Rajkumar

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that necessitates immediate, vigorous therapy. The commonly used treatment regimen for cyanide includes the intravenous administration of sodium nitrite (SN) and sodium thiosulphate (STS). Due to many limitations of these antidotes, a search for more effective, safer molecules continues. Cyanide is known to react with carbonyl compounds to form the cyanohydrin complex. The present study addresses the efficacy of several carbonyl compounds and their metabolites or nutrients with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (A-KG), citric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, fumaric and oxaloacetic acid, glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannitol, sorbitol, dihydroxyacetone, and glyoxal (5 or 10 mM; -10 min) against toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN; 10 mM) in rat thymocytes in vitro. Six hours after KCN, cell viability measured by MTT assay and crystal violet dye exclusion revealed maximum cytoprotection by A-KG, followed by oxaloacetic acid. A-KG also resolved the leakage of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase, loss in nuclear integrity (propidium iodide staining), and altered mitochondrial membrane potential (rhodamine 123 assay) as a result of cyanide toxicity. Protection Index (ratio of LD(50) of KCN in protected and unprotected animals; PI) of all the compounds (oral; 1.0 g/kg; -10 min) determined in male mice, revealed that maximum protection was afforded by A-KG (7.6 PI), followed by oxaloacetic acid (6.4 PI). Comparative evaluation of various salts of A-KG alone or with STS (intraperitoneal; 1.0 g/kg; -15 min) showed that maximum protection was conferred by disodium anhydrous salt of A-KG, which also significantly prevented the inhibition of brain cytochrome oxidase caused by 0.75 LD(50) KCN. This study indicates the potential of A-KG as alternative cyanide antidote.

  5. Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum β-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

    2014-10-01

    The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 μg/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

  6. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein inhibits neuron apoptosis through the suppression of mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Xue, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Kong, Hai-Bo; Liu, Ai-Jun; Li, Shou-Chun; Xu, Dong-Gang

    2015-10-05

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is induced by mild hypothermia in several mammals, but the precise mechanism by which CIRP mediates hypothermia-induced neuroprotection remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which CIRP protects the nervous system during mild hypothermia. Rat cortical neurons were isolated and cultured in vitro under mild hypothermia (32°C). Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, visualized by flow cytometry. Neuron ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. CIRP overexpression and knockdown were achieved via infection with pL/IRES/GFP-CIRP and pL/shRNA/F-CIRP-A lentivirus. RT(2) Profiler PCR Array Pathway Analysis and western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of CIRP overexpresion/knockdown on the neurons׳ transcriptome. Neuron late apoptosis was significantly reduced at day 7 of culture by 12h hypothermia, but neuron ultrastructure remained relatively intact. RT(2) Profiler PCR Array Pathway Analysis of 84 apoptosis pathway-associated factors revealed that mild hypothermia and CIRP overexpression induce similar gene expression profiles, specifically alterations of genes implicated in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Mild hypothermia-treated neurons up-regulated 12 and down-regulated 38 apoptosis pathway-associated genes. CIRP-overexpressing neurons up-regulated 15 and down-regulated 46 genes. CIRP-knocked-down hypothermia-treated cells up-regulated 9 and down-regulated 40 genes. Similar results were obtained at the protein level. In conclusion, CIRP may inhibit neuron apoptosis through the suppression of the mitochondria apoptosis pathway during mild hypothermia.

  7. Delayed treatment of hemoglobin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Raymond F; Rogers, Bret

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin is an oxidative neurotoxin that may contribute to cell injury after CNS trauma and hemorrhagic stroke. Prior studies have demonstrated that concomitant treatment with iron-chelating antioxidants prevents its neurotoxicity. However, the efficacy of these agents when applied hours after hemoglobin has not been determined, and is the subject of the present investigation. Consistent with prior observations, an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation, was observed when mixed neuronal/astrocyte cultures prepared from mouse cortex were exposed to hemoglobin alone. However, this oxidative stress developed slowly. A significant increase in the dichlorofluorescein signal compared with control, untreated cultures was not observed until four hours after addition of hemoglobin, and was followed by loss of membrane integrity and propidium iodide staining. Treating cultures with the 21-aminosteroid U74500A or the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine four hours after initiating hemoglobin treatment markedly attenuated reactive oxygen species production within 2 h. Continuous exposure to 5 micro M hemoglobin for 24 h resulted in death of about three-quarters of neurons, without injuring astrocytes. Most neuronal loss was prevented by concomitant treatment with U74500A; its effect was not significantly attenuated if treatment was delayed for 2-4 h, and it still prevented over half of neuronal death if treatment was delayed for 8 h. Similar neuroprotection was produced by delayed treatment with deferoxamine or the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline. None of these agents had any effect on neuronal death when added to cultures 12 h after hemoglobin. These results suggest that hemoglobin is a potent but slowly-acting neurotoxin. The delayed onset of hemoglobin neurotoxicity may make it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to

  9. Parallel single-cell analysis microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Floris T G; Gool, Elmar; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Bomer, Johan; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2011-11-01

    We report a PDMS microfluidic platform for parallel single-cell analysis (PaSCAl) as a powerful tool to decipher the heterogeneity found in cell populations. Cells are trapped individually in dedicated pockets, and thereafter, a number of invasive or non-invasive analysis schemes are performed. First, we report single-cell trapping in a fast (2-5  min) and reproducible manner with a single-cell capture yield of 85% using two cell lines (P3x63Ag8 and MCF-7), employing a protocol which is scalable and easily amenable to automation. Following this, a mixed population of P3x63Ag8 and MCF-7 cells is stained in situ using the nucleic acid probe (Hoechst) and a phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibody directed at EpCAM present on the surface of the breast cancer cells MCF-7 and absent on the myeloma cells P3x63Ag8 to illustrate the potential of the device to analyze cell population heterogeneity. Next, cells are porated in situ using chemicals in a reversible (digitonin) or irreversible way (lithium dodecyl sulfate). This is visualized by the transportation of fluorescent dyes through the membrane (propidium iodide and calcein). Finally, an electrical protocol is developed for combined cell permeabilization and electroosmotic flow (EOF)-based extraction of the cell content. It is validated here using calcein-loaded cells and visualized through the progressive recovery of calcein in the side channels, indicating successful retrieval of individual cell content.

  10. Cell death detection and ionic homeostasis monitoring with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavillon, Nicolas; Kühn, Jonas; Jourdain, Pascal; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is an interferometric technique enabling the measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cell bodies. We correlate the phase signal measured on neurons with calcium imaging measured by fluorescence on cells loaded with Fluo-4, to monitor responses to glutamate challenges, which provoke well-known calcium increases through activation of various membrane receptors. A very good correspondence can be identified between the two signals, showing the links between the phase signal, being a measure of the intracellular dilution, and the calcium concentration within cells. We then check cell viability by employing propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent indicator relying on the cell membrane integrity loss to assess cell death. Strong intracellular calcium concentration is indeed known to induce excitotoxic effects, potentially inducing cell death. This enables showing that some cells cannot sustain the calcium saturation identified in our measurements, leading to subsequent cell death.

  11. Xanthohumol induces apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Wai Kuan; Ho, Yen Fong; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthohumol, a major prenylated chalcone found in female hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was reported to have various chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties. However, its apoptotic effect on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of xanthohumol on apoptosis in A549 human NSCLC cells. Materials and Methods: A549 cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Morphological changes of the cells were studied via phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activity studies. Results: Xanthohumol was found to decrease cell proliferation in A549 cells but had relatively low cytotoxicity on normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Typical cellular and nuclear apoptotic features were also observed in A549 cells treated with xanthohumol. Onset of apoptosis in A549 cells was further confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells after treatment. Xanthohumol induced accumulation of cells in sub G1 and S phase based on cell cycle analysis and also increased the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Conclusion: This work suggests that xanthohumol as an apoptosis inducer, may be a potent therapeutic compound for NSCLC. PMID:26664015

  12. The Cellular Basis for Biocide-Induced Fluorescein Hyperfluorescence in Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bakkar, May M.; Hardaker, Luke; March, Peter; Morgan, Philip B.; Maldonado-Codina, Carole; Dobson, Curtis B.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical examination of the ocular surface is commonly carried out after application of sodium fluorescein in both veterinary and medical practice by assessing the resulting ‘staining’. Although localized intensely stained regions of the cornea frequently occur after exposure to ‘adverse’ clinical stimuli, the cell biology underlying this staining is unknown, including whether intense fluorescein staining indicates the presence of damaged cells. Ocular exposure to certain contact lens multipurpose solutions (MPS) gives rise to intense fluorescein staining referred to as solution induced corneal staining (SICS), and we have made use of this phenomenon with Vero and L929 cell culture models to investigate the fundamental biology of fluorescein interactions with cells. We found that all cells take up fluorescein, however a sub-population internalize much higher levels, giving rise to brightly staining ‘hyperfluorescent’ cells within the treated cultures, which contain fluorescein throughout the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. The numbers of these hyperfluorescent cells are significantly increased after exposure to MPS associated with SICS. Surprisingly, hyperfluorescent cells did not show higher levels of staining with propidium iodide, a marker of lysed cells. Consistently, treatment with the cytolytic toxin benzalkonium chloride resulted in almost all cells staining with propidium iodide, and the complete abolition of fluorescein hyperfluorescence. Finally we found that internalization of fluorescein and its loss from treated cells both require cellular activity, as both processes were halted after incubation at 4°C. We conclude that fluorescein hyperfluorescence can be replicated in three diverse cell cultures, and is increased by MPS-treatment, as occurs clinically. The process involves the concentration of fluorescein by a sub-population of cells that are active, and does not occur in lysed cells. Our data suggest that corneal staining in the clinic

  13. Nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells following ultrashort electric pulse exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Payne, Jason A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrashort or nanosecond electrical pulses (USEP) cause repairable damage to the plasma membranes of cells through formation of nanopores. These nanopores are able to pass small ions such as sodium, calcium, and potassium, but remain impermeable to larger molecules like trypan blue and propidium iodide. What remains uncertain is whether generation of nanopores by ultrashort electrical pulses can inhibit action potentials in excitable cells. In this paper, we explored the sensitivity of excitable cells to USEP using Calcium Green AM 1 ester fluorescence to measure calcium uptake indicative of nanopore formation in the plasma membrane. We determined the threshold for nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells for three pulse parameters (amplitude, pulse width, and pulse number). Measurement of such thresholds will guide future studies to determine if USEP can inhibit action potentials without causing irreversible membrane damage.

  14. Assessment of cell viability in primary neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Aras, Mandar A; Hartnett, Karen A; Aizenman, Elias

    2008-07-01

    This unit contains five protocols for assaying cell viability in vitro using primary neuronal cultures, including a novel method for use with transfected neurons. Three of the assays are based on the principle that cell death cascades alter membrane permeability. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay measures the amount of the cytoplasmic enzyme released into the bathing medium, while the trypan blue and propidium iodide assays measure the ability of cells to exclude dye from their cytoplasm. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay measures the mitochondrial activity of viable cells by quantifying the conversion of the tetrazolium salt to its formazan product. Finally, the fifth assay details the measurement of luciferase expression as an indication of neuronal viability within a relatively small population of transfected neurons.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy discloses different types of cell death in flow cytometrically sorted cells.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, K; Prinsloo, L C; Meyer, D

    2015-10-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a label free methodology showing promise in characterizing different types of cell death. Cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and African monkey kidney (Vero) cells were treated with a necrosis inducer (methanol), novel apoptotic inducers (diphenylphosphino gold (I) complexes) and positive control, auranofin. Following treatment, cells stained with annexin-V and propidium iodide were sorted using a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS Aria) to obtain populations consisting of either viable, necrotic or apoptotic cells. Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed successful sorting of all three populations. Four bands were identified which could discriminate between viable and necrotic cells namely 989 cm(-1), 2852 cm(-1), 2875 cm(-1) and 2923 cm(-1). In HeLa cells viable and induced apoptosis could be distinguished by 1294 cm(-1), while four bands were different in Vero cells namely; 1626 cm(-1), 1741 cm(-1), 2852 cm(-1) 2923 cm(-1). Principal Component Analysis showed separation between the different types of cell death and the loadings plots indicated an increase in an additional band at 1623 cm(-1) in dead cells. FTIR spectroscopy can be developed into an invaluable tool for the assessment of specific types of chemically induced cell death with notably different molecular signatures depending on whether the cells are cancerous and mechanism of cell death.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial activity and DNA content in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, T; Löffler, M

    1989-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were permeabilized using low concentrations of digitonin, 8 micrograms/10(6) cells. Permeabilization was monitored by the assay of lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium and of hexokinase partially bound to mitochondria. Integrity of the cellular organelles was unaffected as determined by assay of the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Cells were stained with rhodamine 123 as a mitochondrial specific dye and propidium iodide/mithramycin as DNA specific dyes. The green fluorescence of bound rhodamine 123 versus red fluorescence of DNA in individual cells was analysed by dual parameter flow cytometry. Incubation of cells with inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as, potassium cyanide and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished binding of rhodamine 123. Flow cytometric data allowed a correlation between cell position in the mitotic cycle with total mitochondrial activity. In addition, comparison of the characteristics of propidium iodide and ethidium bromide staining further elucidated the molecular basis of the staining with the positively-charged fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

  17. Anticancer effect of ethanol Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) extract on human breast cancer T47D cell line.

    PubMed

    Wawruszak, Anna; Czerwonka, Arkadiusz; Okła, Karolina; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The anticancer activity of ethanol extract isolated from Goji berry (EEGB) on T47D human breast cancer cell line has been reported. Cell viability and cell proliferation were examined with the use of BrdU, MTT and NR methods. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle control and regulation of transcription was estimated using Western blotting analysis. EEGB inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a time-, and dose-dependent manner. The study confirmed the lack of EEGB cytotoxic activity to normal human skin fibroblasts. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increase in pro-apoptotic and a decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins' expression in cells treated with the extract. Anticancer activity and lack of toxicity against normal cells indicate a chemopreventive potential of Goji berries in breast cancer treatment.

  18. Bax is not involved in the resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a natural plant polyphenol widely present in foods such as grapes, wine, and peanuts. Previous studies indicate that RV has an ability to inhibit various stages of carcinogenesis and eliminate preneoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell. In this report, we analyzed whether Bax translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria during RV-induced apoptosis in single living cell using onfocal microscopey. Cells were transfected with GFP-Bax plasmid. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibition of RV on the cells viability. Apoptotic activity of RV was detected by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Our results showed that RV induced a dose-dependent apoptosis in which Bax did not translocate to mitochondrias.

  19. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUE-YONG; HUANG, HONG-YAN; WU, YIN-LIAN

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose-dependent, as well as time-dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose-dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  20. Nucleic acid specificity of an acridine derivative permits its use for flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Jayat-Vignoles, C; Ratinaud, M H

    1997-02-01

    3-amino-6-methoxy-9-(2-hydroxyethylamine) acridine (AMHA) is an acridine derivative, which is easily excited in near ultraviolet and which emits a bright green fluorescence. The dye was preferentially incorporated into nucleic structures as attested by microscopic and cytometric analyses after RNase and DNase treatments. The affinity for RNA seemed low and similar to that observed for propidium iodide. AMHA was quickly accumulated in fixed cells, and in appropriate concentrations (10-50 microM) was a DNA- and RNA-specific dye. AMHA probably exhibits an adenine-thymine specificity, as suggested by its quenching after bromodeoxyuridine uptake: the fluorescence quenching was similar to that obtained for Hoechst 33258. After cell treatment by RNase and in the presence of MgCl2, AMHA staining allowed flow cytometric analysis of the cell-cycle distribution. The resulting histograms were similar to those obtained with propidium iodide (CV near 3.5%, and similar cell cycle distribution). Thus, AMHA is a suitable fluorescent dye for efficient analysis of the cell cycle by flow cytometry.

  1. SMND-309 promotes neuron survival through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/CREB-signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youlei; Zhang, Jinjin; Han, Meng; Liu, Bo; Gao, Yulin; Ma, Peng; Zhang, Songzi; Zheng, Qingyin; Song, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    Context In clinical practice, the promotion of neuron survival is necessary to recover neurological functions after the onset of stroke. Objective This study aimed to investigate the post-ischaemic neuroprotective effect of SMND-309, a novel metabolite of salvianolic acid, on differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and methods SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated by pre-treating with 5 μM all-trans-retinoic acid for 6 d. The differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 h and reperfusion (R) for 24 h to induce OGD/R injury. After OGD injury, differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were treated with or without SMND-309 (5, 10, 20 μM) for another 24 h. Cell viability was detected through Cell counting kit-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay. Apoptosis was evaluated through flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay. Changes in protein levels were assessed through Western blot. Results SMND-309 ameliorated the degree of injury in the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells by increasing cell viabilities (5 μM, 65.4% ± 4.1%; 10 μM, 69.8% ± 3.7%; 20 μM, 75.3% ± 5.1%) and by reducing LDH activity (20 μM, 2.5 fold) upon OGD/R stimulation. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining results suggested that apoptotic rate of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells decreased from 43.8% induced by OGD/R injury to 19.2% when the cells were treated with 20 μM SMND-309. SMND-309 significantly increased the Bcl-2 level of the injured differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but decreased the caspase-3 activity of these cells by 1.6-fold. In contrast, SMND-309 did not affect the Bax level of these cells. SMND-309 evidently increased the protein expression of BDNF when Akt and CREB were activated. This function was antagonized by the addition of LY294002. Conclusion SMND-309 can prevent neuronal cell death in vitro. This process may be related to the activation of the PI3K/Akt/CREB-signalling pathway.

  2. Electrical field manipulation of cancer cell behavior monitored by whole cell biosensing device.

    PubMed

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Melnick, Steven J; Zhang, Xueji; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    All living cells possess electrical characteristics and are thus responsive to, and even generate electric fields and currents. It has been shown that the electrical properties of cancer cells differ from normal proliferating cells, thus electric fields may induce differential effects in normal and cancer cells. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful direct and/or adjuvant therapeutic option for cancer. A whole cell impedance-based biosensor to monitor the effects of a range of different frequencies (50 kHz-2 MHz) at low-intensity (<2 V/cm) on the growth rate of human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells versus non-cancerous HUVECs is reported. Rapid real-time monitoring of the SKOV3 behavior was observed as the alternating electric fields were applied and the impedimetric response of the cells was recorded. The cells were also labeled with propidium iodide to examine morphological changes and cell viability with fluorescence microscopy with trypan blue for comparison. A noticeable decrease in the growth profile of the SKOV3 was observed with the application of 200 kHz alternating electric fields indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture in contrast to the HUVECs. The outcome of this research will improve our fundamental understanding of the behavior of cancer cells when exposed to alternating electric fields at specific frequencies and foster the development strategies and optimal parameters for alternating electric field therapies for clinical and drug delivery applications.

  3. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (p<0.0001, MTT-assay) and migration (p<0.05; scratch-assay), and increased apoptosis (p<0.05; caspase-3/7-assay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, DDNDBeQ treatment showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.01, MTT-assay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (p<0.05) as compared to DDN-control. This was further verified by cell cycle analysis (propidium-iodide-staining) that demonstrated significant cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase (p<0.001) by DDNDBeQ treatment as compared to control-DDN. Moreover

  4. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (p<0.0001, MTT-assay) and migration (p<0.05; scratch-assay), and increased apoptosis (p<0.05; caspase-3/7-assay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, DDNDBeQ treatment showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.01, MTT-assay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (p<0.05) as compared to DDN-control. This was further verified by cell cycle analysis (propidium-iodide-staining) that demonstrated significant cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase (p<0.001) by DDNDBeQ treatment as compared to control-DDN. Moreover

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v surface-bound GAPDH: a new insight into enzyme cell walls location.

    PubMed

    Saad, N; Urdaci, M; Vignoles, C; Chaignepain, S; Tallon, R; Schmitter, J M; Bressollier, P

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new insight into the mechanism whereby the housekeeping enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) locates to cell walls of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. After purification, cytosolic and cell wall GAPDH (cw-GAPDH) forms were characterized and shown to be identical homotetrameric active enzymes. GAPDH concentration on cell walls was growth-time dependent. Free GAPDH was not observed on the culture supernatant at any time during growth, and provoked cell lysis was not concomitant with any reassociation of GAPDH onto the cell surface. Hence, with the possibility of cw-GAPDH resulting from autolysis being unlikely, entrapment of intracellular GAPDH on the cell wall after a passive efflux through altered plasma membrane was investigated. Flow cytometry was used to assess L. plantarum 299v membrane permeabilization after labeling with propidium iodide (PI). By combining PI uptake and cw-GAPDH activity measurements, we demonstrate here that the increase in cw-GAPDH concentration from the early exponential phase to the late stationary phase is closely related to an increase in plasma membrane permeability during growth. Moreover, we observed that increases in both plasma membrane permeability and cw-GAPDH activity were delayed when glucose was added during L. plantarum 299v growth. Using a double labeling of L. plantarum 299v cells with anti-GAPDH antibodies and propidium iodide, we established unambiguously that cells with impaired membrane manifest five times more cw-GAPDH than unaltered cells. Our results show that plasma membrane permeability appears to be closely related to the efflux of GAPDH on the bacterial cell surface, offering new insight into the understanding of the cell wall location of this enzyme.

  6. Spatial organization of dual-species bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monier, J-M; Lindow, S E

    2005-09-01

    The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% +/- 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% +/- 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial

  7. Curcumin inhibits growth potential by G1 cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in p53-mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dasiram, Jade Dhananjay; Ganesan, Ramamoorthi; Kannan, Janani; Kotteeswaran, Venkatesan; Sivalingam, Nageswaran

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound and it is isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, have been reported to possess anticancer effect against stage I and II colon cancer. However, the effect of curcumin on colon cancer at Dukes' type C metastatic stage III remains still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of curcumin on p53 mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from Dukes' type C metastatic stage. The cellular viability and proliferation were assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay, respectively. The cytotoxicity effect was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by DNA fragmentation analysis, Hoechst and propidium iodide double fluorescent staining and confocal microscopy analysis. Cell cycle distribution was performed by flow cytometry analysis. Here we have observed that curcumin treatment significantly inhibited the cellular viability and proliferation potential of p53 mutated COLO 320DM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin treatment showed no cytotoxic effects to the COLO 320DM cells. DNA fragmentation analysis, Hoechst and propidium iodide double fluorescent staining and confocal microscopy analysis revealed that curcumin treatment induced apoptosis in COLO 320DM cells. Furthermore, curcumin caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, decreased the cell population in the S phase and induced apoptosis in COLO 320DM colon adenocarcinoma cells. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts anticancer effects and induces apoptosis in p53 mutated COLO 320DM human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from Dukes' type C metastatic stage.

  8. Apoptosis and cell cycle disturbances induced by coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin on human lung carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Molina-Guarneros, Juan A; Morales-Fuentes, Jorge; Mandoki, Juan Jose

    2004-03-01

    Coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin have anti-tumour actions in vitro and in vivo. There are no previous reports on the cytostatic and apoptotic actions of coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. Here we report on: (1) the inhibition of cell proliferation, (2) the phase in which cell cycle arrest occurs, and (3) the induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The effects on cell cycle phases were determined at 100 microg/ml of coumarin or 7-hydroxycoumarin using propidium iodide and flow cytometry. Higher concentrations were used to study apoptosis, detected by: (1) morphological cell changes, (2) subG1 peak detection and (3) Annexin-V assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin were used as controls. The actions of these compounds depended on drug concentrations and on histological cell type. Coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin inhibited cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in all the lung carcinoma cell lines. Apoptosis required large concentrations of the coumarin compounds and was observed in adenocarcinomas. Apoptosis was not associated with intra-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis was not observed in squamous lung carcinoma cell lines, but an increase in G1 cell cycle arrest was detected. In PBMC, only large concentrations of the coumarin compounds elicited a cystostatic action. Coumarins in combination with other anti-neoplastic drugs might increase the effectiveness of NSCLC treatments.

  9. Effects of air transient spark discharge and helium plasma jet on water, bacteria, cells, and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Karol; Kučerová, Katarína; Tarabová, Barbora; Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Sano, Kaori; Mihai, Cosmin Teodor; Ciorpac, Mitică; Gorgan, Lucian Dragos; Jijie, Roxana; Pohoata, Valentin; Topala, Ionut

    2015-06-06

    Atmospheric pressure DC-driven self-pulsing transient spark (TS) discharge operated in air and pulse-driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (PJ) operated in helium in contact with water solutions were used for inducing chemical effects in water solutions, and the treatment of bacteria (Escherichia coli), mammalian cells (Vero line normal cells, HeLa line cancerous cells), deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), and protein (bovine serum albumin). Two different methods of water solution supply were used in the TS: water electrode system and water spray system. The effects of both TS systems and the PJ were compared, as well as a direct exposure of the solution to the discharge with an indirect exposure to the discharge activated gas flow. The chemical analysis of water solutions was performed by using colorimetric methods of UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometry. The bactericidal effects of the discharges on bacteria were evaluated by standard microbiological plate count method. Viability, apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed in normal and cancerous cells. Viability of cells was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion test, apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, and cell cycle progression by propidium iodide/RNase test. The effect of the discharges on deoxyribonucleic acid and protein were evaluated by fluorescence and UV absorption spectroscopy. The results of bacterial and mammalian cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle clearly show that cold plasma can inactivate bacteria and selectively target cancerous cells, which is very important for possible future development of new plasma therapeutic strategies in biomedicine. The authors found that all investigated bio-effects were stronger with the air TS discharge than with the He PJ, even in indirect exposure.

  10. Coordination of Intercellular Ca2+ Signaling in Endothelial Cell Tubes of Mouse Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Matthew J.; Domeier, Timothy L.; Behringer, Erik J.; Segal, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that Ca2+ responses to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation are coordinated between neighboring endothelial cells of resistance arteries. Methods Endothelial cell tubes were freshly isolated from superior epigastric arteries of C57BL/6 mice. Intercellular coupling was tested using microinjection of propidium iodide. Following loading with fluo-4 dye, intracellular Ca2+ responses to ACh were imaged with confocal microscopy. Results Cell-to-cell transfer of propidium iodide confirmed functional gap junction channels. 1 μM ACh evoked Ca2+ responses [9.8±0.8/min, (F/F0)=3.11±0.2] which pseudo-linescan analysis revealed to be composed of Ca2+ waves and spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events. 100 nM ACh induced Ca2+ responses of lower frequency (4.5±0.7/min) and amplitude (F/F0=1.95±0.11) composed primarily of spatially-restricted events. The interval between Ca2+ waves in Adjacent cells (0.79±0.12 s) was shorter (P<0.05) than between Nonadjacent cells (1.56±0.25 s). Spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events had similar frequencies and latencies between Adjacent and Nonadjacent cells. Inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ release with 2-APB, Xestospongin C or thapsigargin eliminated Ca2+ responses. Conclusions With moderate GPCR stimulation, localized Ca2+ release events predominate among cells. Greater GPCR stimulation evokes coordinated intercellular Ca2+ waves via the endoplasmic reticulum. Calcium signaling during GPCR activation is complex among cells, varying with stimulus intensity and proximity to actively signaling cells. PMID:22860994

  11. Role of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jiang; Song, Xiuqi

    2016-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline, appearing to be overexpressed in numerous carcinomas. The current study aimed to investigate the expression of PADI4 in gastric cancer tissues and its effect on the biological activities of SGC-7901 and AGS tumor cell lines. The expression of PADI4 was determined in gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa tissues using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gastric cancer cell lines were divided into the following groups: Mock group (subjected to transfection reagent); negative group [subjected to small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection]; PADI4 siRNA group (subjected to PADI4 siRNA transfection); 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) group (subjected to 5-Fu); and 5-Fu + siRNA transfection group (subjected to 5-Fu and PADI4 siRNA transfection). The effects of silencing PADI4 with the above measures on the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were determined by MTT and Transwell chamber assays. In addition, propidium iodide staining was performed to detect the effects of PADI4 on the cell cycle. A significant increase in the expression of PADI4 mRNA in gastric cancer tissue compared with normal mucosa tissue was identified (P<0.05). The proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were significantly decreased in the PADI4 siRNA group. Furthermore, flow cytometry DNA analysis revealed that silencing PADI4 resulted in significant S phase arrest and marked decrease of cells in the G2/M phase. PADI4 siRNA coupled with 5-Fu significantly enhanced its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, PADI4 demonstrated high expression in gastric cancer and served an important role in the biological activities of gastric cancer cells involving cell proliferation, invasion and cell cycle. As a result, PADI4 may be a valid cancer susceptibility gene and potential target for cancer

  12. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  13. Synchronization of Mammalian Cells and Nuclei by Centrifugal Elutriation.

    PubMed

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2017-01-01

    Synchronized populations of large numbers of cells can be obtained by centrifugal elutriation on the basis of sedimentation properties of small round particles, with minimal perturbation of cellular functions. The physical characteristics of cell size and sedimentation velocity are operative in the technique of centrifugal elutriation also known as counterstreaming centrifugation. The elutriator is an advanced device for increasing the sedimentation rate to yield enhanced resolution of cell separation. A random population of cells is introduced into the elutriation chamber of an elutriator rotor running in a specially designed centrifuge. By increasing step-by-step the flow rate of the elutriation fluid, successive populations of relatively homogeneous cell size can be removed from the elutriation chamber and used as synchronized subpopulations. For cell synchronization by centrifugal elutriation, early log S phase cell populations are most suitable where most of the cells are in G1 and S phase (>80 %). Apoptotic cells can be found in the early elutriation fractions belonging to the sub-Go window. Protocols for the synchronization of nuclei of murine pre-B cells and high-resolution centrifugal elutriation of CHO cells are given. The verification of purity and cell cycle positions of cells in elutriated fractions includes the measurement of DNA synthesis by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and DNA content by propidium iodide flow cytometry.

  14. Cytolethal distending toxin induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Masaru; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Tamaki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2008-10-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) induces apoptosis using the caspase-dependent classical pathway in the majority of human leukemic T cells (MOLT-4). However, we found the process to cell death is only partially inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with a general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Flow cytometric analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide showed that a 48-h CDT treatment decreased the living cell population by 35% even in the presence of z-VAD-fmk. z-VAD-fmk completely inhibited caspase activity in 24 h CDT-intoxicated cells. Further, CDT with z-VAD-fmk treatment clearly increased the cell population that had a low level of intracellular reactive oxygen. This is a characteristic opposite to that of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl2 almost completely inhibited cell death using CDT treatment in the presence of z-VAD-fmk. The data suggest there are at least two different pathways used in CDT-induced cell death: conventional caspase-dependent (early) apoptotic cell death and caspase-independent (late) death. Both occur via the mitochondrial membrane disruption pathway.

  15. Radiation-induced changes in nucleoid halo diameteres of aerobic and hypoxic SF-126 human brain tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Basu, H.S.; Hu, L.; Feuerstein, B.G.; Deen, D.F.

    1995-02-01

    Nucleoid halo diameters were measured to assay changes in DNA supercoiling in human brain tumor cell line SF-126 after irradiation under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. In unirradiated aerobic cells, a typical propidium iodide titration curve showed that with increasing concentrations of propodium iodide, the halo diameter increased and then decreased with the unwinding and subsequent rewinding of DNA supercoils. In irradiated cells, the rewinding of DNA supercoils was inhibited, resulting in an increased halo diameter, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. To produce equal increases in halo diameter required about a threefold higher radiation dose in hypoxic cells than in aerobic cells. Quantitatively similiar differences in the radiation sensitivities of hypoxic and aerobic cells were demonstrated by a colony-forming efficiency assay. These findings suggest that the nucleoid halo assay may be used as a rapid measure of the inherent radiation sensitivity of human tumors. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The antiproliferative effect of C2-ceramide on lung cancer cells through apoptosis by inhibiting Akt and NFκB

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The anticancer effects of ceramide have been reported in many types of cancers but less in lung cancer. In this study, we used C2-ceramide to further investigate its possible anticancer effects and mechanisms on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H1299 cells. The result of cell proliferation in terms of trypan blue assay showed high dose of C2-ceramide inhibited cell survival after 24 h treatment. The flow cytometry-based assays indicated the effect of apoptosis, chromatin condensation, and G1 arrest in terms of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), DAPI, and PI stainings, respectively. Moreover, the decreased protein level of p-Akt, p-NFκB, survivin and cyclin A2 were detected by Western blot assay. Taken together, these results indicated the antiproliferative effect of C2-ceramide is majorly responsible for cell apoptosis in lung cancer H1299 cells. PMID:24393431

  17. Pt-Mal-LHRH, a Newly Synthesized Compound Attenuating Breast Cancer Tumor Growth and Metastasis by Targeting Overexpression of the LHRH Receptor.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Keeling, Jonathan K; Rollins, Joseph; Black, Carrie A; Collins, Kendall; Arnold, Nova; Vance, Diane E; Ndinguri, Margaret W

    2017-02-15

    A new targeting chemotherapeutic agent, Pt-Mal-LHRH, was synthesized by linking activated cisplatin to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). The compound's efficacy and selectivity toward 4T1 breast cancer cells were evaluated. Carboplatin was selected as the comparative platinum complex, since the Pt-Mal-LHRH malonate linker chelates platinum in a similar manner to carboplatin. Breast cancer and normal cell viability were analyzed by an MTT assay comparing Pt-Mal-LHRH with carboplatin. Cells were also treated with either Pt-Mal-LHRH or carboplatin to evaluate platinum uptake by ICP-MS and cell migration using an in vitro scratch-migration assay. Tumor volume and metastasis were evaluated using an in vivo 4T1 mouse tumor model. Mice were administered Pt-Mal-LHRH (carboplatin molar equivalent dosage) through ip injection and compared to those treated with carboplatin (5 (mg/kg)/week), no treatment, and LHRH plus carboplatin (unbound) controls. An MTT assay showed a reduction in cell viability (p < 0.01) in 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with Pt-Mal-LHRH compared to carboplatin. Pt-Mal-LHRH was confirmed to be cytotoxic by flow cytometry using a propidium iodide stain. Pt-Mal-LHRH displayed a 20-fold increase in 4T1 cellular uptake compared to carboplatin. There was a decrease (p < 0.0001) in 4T1 cell viability compared to 3T3 normal fibroblast cells. Treatment with Pt-Mal-LHRH also resulted in a significant decrease in cell-migration compared to carboplatin. In vivo testing found a significant reduction in tumor volume (p < 0.05) and metastatic tumor colonization in the lungs with Pt-Mal-LHRH compared to carboplatin. There was a slight decrease in lung weight and no difference in liver weight between treatment groups. Together, our data indicate that Pt-Mal-LHRH is a more potent and selective chemotherapeutic agent than untargeted carboplatin.

  18. Morphological changes of post-isolation of caprine pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina; Othman, Abas Mazni

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is commonly used to treat diabetes. Cell isolation and purification methods can affect the structure and function of the isolated islet cells. Thus, the development of cell isolation techniques that preserve the structure and function of pancreatic islet cells is essential for enabling successful transplantation procedures. The impact of purification procedures on cell function can be assessed by performing ultrastructure and in vivo studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caprine islets purification procedure on islet cell ultrastructure and functional integrity prior to and post-isolation/purification. The islets were isolated from caprine pancreas by using an optimized collagenase XI-S concentration, and the cells were subsequently purified using Euro-Ficoll density gradient. In vitro viability of islets was determined by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. Static incubation was used to assess functionality and insulin production by islet cells in culture media when exposed to various levels of glucose. Pancreatic tissues were examined by using light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo viability and functionality of caprine islets were assessed by evaluating the transplanted islets in diabetic mice. Insulin assay of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test showed that the insulin levels increased with increasing concentration of glucose. Thus, purified islets stimulated with high glucose concentration (25 mM) secreted higher levels of insulin (0.542 ± 0.346 μg/L) than the insulin levels (0.361 ± 0.219, 0.303 ± 0.234 μg/L) secreted by exposure to low glucose concentrations (1.67 mM). Furthermore, insulin levels of recipient mice were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those prior to xenotransplantation. In addition, following islets transplantation, there was significant enhancement in blood glucose

  19. Synergistic Interactions between HDAC and Sirtuin Inhibitors in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Michele; Soncini, Debora; Fruscione, Floriana; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Garuti, Anna; Emionite, Laura; Moran, Eva; Magnone, Mirko; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Reverberi, Daniele; Caffa, Irene; Salis, Annalisa; Cagnetta, Antonia; Bergamaschi, Micaela; Casciaro, Salvatore; Pierri, Ivana; Damonte, Gianluca; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gobbi, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins) in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527) and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited. PMID:21818379

  20. Experimental Adaptation of Rotaviruses to Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A.; Guerrero, Rafael A.; Silva, Elver; Acosta, Orlando; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A number of viruses show a naturally extended tropism for tumor cells whereas other viruses have been genetically modified or adapted to infect tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses have become a promising tool for treating some cancers by inducing cell lysis or immune response to tumor cells. In the present work, rotavirus strains TRF-41 (G5) (porcine), RRV (G3) (simian), UK (G6-P5) (bovine), Ym (G11-P9) (porcine), ECwt (murine), Wa (G1-P8), Wi61 (G9) and M69 (G8) (human), and five wild-type human rotavirus isolates were passaged multiple times in different human tumor cell lines and then combined in five different ways before additional multiple passages in tumor cell lines. Cell death caused by the tumor cell-adapted isolates was characterized using Hoechst, propidium iodide, 7-AAD, Annexin V, TUNEL, and anti-poly-(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and -phospho-histone H2A.X antibodies. Multiple passages of the combined rotaviruses in tumor cell lines led to a successful infection of these cells, suggesting a gain-of-function by the acquisition of greater infectious capacity as compared with that of the parental rotaviruses. The electropherotype profiles suggest that unique tumor cell-adapted isolates were derived from reassortment of parental rotaviruses. Infection produced by such rotavirus isolates induced chromatin modifications compatible with apoptotic cell death. PMID:26828934

  1. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2014-08-21

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice.

  2. Sapodilla Plum (Achras sapota) Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cell Lines and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2014-01-01

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice. PMID:25142835

  3. Effect of Semax peptide on survival of cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Safarova, E R; Shram, S I; Zolotarev, Yu A; Myasoedov, N F

    2003-03-01

    We studied the effects of Semax (antiinsulin peptide with neuroprotective effect) on the survival of cultured rat pheochromocytoma cell after oxidative stress induced by short-term incubation with hydrogen peroxide. Studies with fluorescent dyes propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 showed that cell incubation with hydrogen peroxide led to the formation of damaged cells with characteristic signs of necrosis. Semax dose-dependently reduced the number of cells damaged by oxidative stress. The efficiency of Semax depended on the time of its addition to the culture medium. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of Semax in ischemic stroke can be due to its capacity to protect neurons from damage caused by oxidative stress.

  4. Non-homologous End Joining Inhibitor SCR-7 to Exacerbate Low-dose Doxorubicin Cytotoxicity in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Bhatkar, Devyani; Jahagirdar, Devashree; Sharma, Nilesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Among the genotoxic drug regimens, doxorubicin (DOX) is known for its high-dose side effects in several carcinomas, including cervical cancer. This study reports on testing the combined use of a DOX genotoxic drug and SCR-7 non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) inhibitor for HeLa cells. An in vitro DNA damaging assay of DOX was performed on plasmid and genomic DNA substrate. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated using trypan blue dye exclusion, DNA metabolizing, and propidium iodide-based flow cytometric assays. DOX (between 20–100 μM) displayed clear DNA binding and interaction, such as the shearing and smearing of plasmid and genomic DNA. DNA metabolizing assay data indicate that HeLa lysate with DOX and SCR-7 treatment exhibited better in vitro plasmid DNA stability compared with DOX treatment alone. SCR-7 augmented the effects of low-dose DOX by demonstrating enhanced cell death from 15% to 50%. The flow cytometric data also supported that the combination of SCR-7 with DOX lead to a 23% increase in propidium iodide-based HeLa staining, thus indicating enhanced death. In summary, the inhibition of NHEJ DNA repair pathway can potentiate low-dose DOX to produce appreciable cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. PMID:28382286

  5. Caspofungin kills Candida albicans by causing both cellular apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Binghua; Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2013-01-01

    Caspofungin exerts candidacidal activity by inhibiting cell wall (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthesis. We investigated the physiologic mechanisms of caspofungin-induced Candida albicans cell death. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis were studied after C. albicans SC5314 cells were exposed to caspofungin at 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 μg/ml (0.5×, 1×, and 4× the MIC, respectively) for 3 h. Caspofungin at 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml reduced cellular viability by >50%, as measured by colony counts and methylene blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis were demonstrated by annexin V and propidium iodide staining for phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of membrane integrity, respectively. At all concentrations of caspofungin, 20 to 25% and 5 to 7% of C. albicans cells exhibited early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis, respectively (P value was not significant [NS]). Necrosis, on the other hand, was significantly greater at 0.125 (43%) and 0.5 (48%) μg/ml than at 0.06 μg/ml (26%) (P values of 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). The induction of apoptosis at concentrations less than or equal to the MIC was corroborated by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining (reactive oxygen species production), JC-1 staining (mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining (DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation). Moreover, electron microscopy of cells exposed to 0.125 μg/ml of caspofungin showed hallmark apoptotic features like chromatin margination and condensation and nuclear blebs. Apoptosis was associated with metacaspase 1 activation, as demonstrated by D2R staining. Caspofungin exerts activity against C. albicans by directly killing cells (resulting in necrosis) and causing others to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Apoptosis is initiated at subinhibitory concentrations, suggesting that strategies to target

  6. Capillarisin Exhibits Anticancer Effects by Inducing Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Loss in Osteosarcoma Cancer Cells (HOS).

    PubMed

    Chen, N-J; Hao, F-Y; Liu, H; Zhao, H; Li, J-M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anticancer activity of capillarisin against human osteosarcoma (HOS) cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability after capillarisin drug treatment and evaluated by MTT assay. The extent of cell death induced by capillarisin was estimated by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The effect of capillarisin on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) was demonstrated via flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) DNA-binding fluorescent dyes respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to examine the morphological changes in osteosarcoma cancer cells and presence of apoptotic bodies following capillarisin treatment. The results of this study revealed that capillarisin induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of these cancer cells after 12-h of incubation. Further, capillarisin induced significant release of LDH from these cell cultures and this LDH release was much more noticeable at higher concentrations of capillarisin. Hoechst 33258 staining revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis triggered by capillarisin treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed that capillarisin induced dose-dependent G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Capillarisin also trigerred a progressive and dose-dependent reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, capillarisin inhibits cancer cell growth of osteosarcoma cells by inducing apoptosis accompanied with G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest and loss in mitochondrial membrane potential.

  7. K562 cells display different vulnerability to H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress in differing cell cycle phases.

    PubMed

    Akcakaya, Handan; Dal, Fulya; Tok, Sabiha; Cinar, Suzan-Adin; Nurten, Rustem

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the increase of oxidizing agents like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or the imbalance between the antioxidative defense mechanism and oxidants. Cell cycle checkpoint response can be defined as the arrest of the cell cycle functioning after damaging chemical exposure. This temporary arrest may be a period of time given to the cells to repair the DNA damage before entering the cycle again and completing mitosis. In order to determine the effects of oxidative stress on several cell cycle phases, human erytroleukemia cell line (K562) was synchronized with mimosine and genistein, and cell cycle analysis carried out. Synchronized cells were exposed to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at several concentrations and different times. Changes on mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) of K562 cells were analyzed in G1, S, and G2 /M using Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). To determine apoptosis and necrosis, stressed cells were stained with Annexin V (AnnV) and propidium iodide (PI) for flow cytometry. Changes were observed in the ΔΨm of synchronized and asynchronized cells that were exposed to oxidative stress. Synchronized cells in S phase proved resistant to the effects of oxidative stress and synchronized cells at G2 /M phase were sensitive to the effects of H2O2 -induced oxidative stress at 500 μM and above.

  8. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer.

  9. Effect of hormonal manipulation and doxorubicin administration on cell cycle kinetics of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bontenbal, M.; Sieuwerts, A. M.; Klijn, J. G.; Peters, H. A.; Krijnen, H. L.; Sonneveld, P.; Foekens, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dual-parameter flow cytometry, following bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation and propidium iodide (PI) uptake into DNA, was used to study the effects of oestradiol and/or insulin on cell cycle kinetics of human breast cancer cells in vitro. After a lag-period of 6-12 h, an optimum in the percentage of S-phase cells was reached between 18 and 24 h after hormone administration. A 1 h pulse of oestradiol was as effective as the continuous presence of oestradiol in pushing the cells from quiescent growing cultures into the cell cycle. A 1 h pulse of insulin was less effective than continuous administration. The addition of doxorubicin resulted in an accumulation of the cells in the late S/G2M-phases. It is concluded that dual-parameter flow cytometry allows accurate assessment of the effects of hormones and chemotherapy on the cell cycle. Therefore this method is very suitable for studying the interaction of hormones and chemotherapy on cell growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:2679851

  10. Heat shock protein 27 protects against aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Sarah A; Loucks, Cherisse; Madsen, Steen J; Carper, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    This study utilized two breast cancer cell lines differing only in their expression of heat shock protein 27 (hsp27). The DB46 cell line was engineered to express high constitutive levels of hsp27, while the DC4 cell line expresses normal low levels of hsp27. The cells were incubated in 1 mM aminolevlinic acid (ALA) 4 hr prior to light exposures (635 nm) ranging from 1 to 20 J/cm2. Both cell lines displayed a dose response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) as assayed by clonogenic survival. LD50s of 2.68 and 1.27 J/cm2 were observed for DB46 and DC4 cells respectively. ALA-PDT-induced resistance to both apoptosis and necrosis in the DB46 cell line was found from TUNEL assays and fluorescence microscopy studies using propidium iodide and Hoechst staining.

  11. In vitro effect of two commercial anti-coccidial drugs against myxospores of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Meejung; Won, Seunghwan; Kang, Bongjo; Gong, Po; Yoo, Eunho; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Jang, Yeounghwan

    2017-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) myxospores infect the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, two popular commercially formulated anti-coccidial drugs (amprolium hydrochloride and toltrazuril) were serially diluted and incubated with purified mature Kudoa septempunctata myxospores. The viability of K. septempunctata spores was determined after a 2-day incubation followed by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Amprolium hydrochloride significantly decreased spore viability (18% of control) at a concentration of 920 μg/mL, whereas toltrazuril showed almost no effect (83% of control). Viability of the control (untreated spores) was 90%. In vivo studies are required to confirm the efficacy of amprolium hydrochloride in fish infected with K. septempunctata myxospores on their growth and immune system performance. PMID:28322722

  12. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.M.B.D.; Seabra, S.H.; Vallim, D.C.; Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L.; Vommaro, R.C.; Domingues, R.M.C.P.

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila induced head kidney macrophage apoptosis in Clarias batrachus involves the activation of calpain and is caspase-3 mediated.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Verma, Gaurav; Datta, Malabika; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of macrophage cytotoxicity induced by Aeromonas hydrophila is yet unresolved. We observed A. hydrophila induces Head Kidney Macrophage (HKM) apoptosis in Clarias batrachus, as evident from Hoechst 33342 and AnnexinV-Propidium Iodide staining and presence of oligonucleosomal DNA ladder. Initiation of apoptosis required the bacteria to be alive, be actively phagocytosed into HKM and was dependent on host proteins. Elevated cytosolic calcium and consequent calpain activity that declined following pre-incubation with EGTA, verapamil and nifedipine implicates the role of calcium influx through voltage gated calcium channels and calpain in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. Though, calpain-1 and -2 were involved, calpain-2 appeared to be more important in the process. EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and calpain-2 inhibitor reduced caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. We conclude that A. hydrophila alters cytosolic calcium homeostasis initiating the activation of calpains, more specifically calpain-2, which leads to caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  14. Construction and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 using DNA immunization method.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Fatemeh; Mostafaie, Ali; Parvaneh, Shahram; Gholami Rad, Farah; Mohammadi, Pantea; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2017-02-01

    To date, several new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for potential efficacies compared with familiar mAb rituximab. Despite the recent advances in development of anti-CD20 mAbs for the treatment of B cell malignancies, the efforts should be continued to develop novel antibodies with improved properties. However, the development of mAbs against CD20 as a multi-transmembrane protein is challenging due to the difficulty of providing a lipid environment that can maintain native epitopes. To overcome this limitation, we describe a simple and efficient DNA immunization strategy for the construction of a novel anti-CD20 mAb with improved anti-tumour properties. Using a DNA immunization strategy that includes intradermal (i.d.) immunization with naked plasmid DNA encoding the CD20 gene, we generated the hybridoma cell line D4, which secretes functional mAbs against an extracellular epitope of CD20. Immunocytochemistry analysis and a cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line showed that D4 mAbs are capable of binding to native extracellular epitopes of CD20. Moreover, the binding specificity of D4 mAbs was determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by the annexin V/propidium iodide staining and dye exclusion assay. The results showed that D4 anti-CD20 mAbs produced by DNA immunization exhibit potent growth inhibitory activity and have superior direct B-cell cytotoxicity compared to rituximab. We propose that antibody-induced apoptosis is one of the mechanisms of cell growth inhibition. Taken together, the data reported here open the path to DNA-based immunization for generating pharmacologically active monoclonal antibodies against CD20. In addition, the data support future in vivo animal testing and subsequent procedures to produce a potential therapeutic mAb.

  15. Inhibition of VDAC1 prevents Ca²⁺-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated sonodynamic therapy in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haibo; Gao, Weiwei; Yang, Yang; Guo, Shuyuan; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuisheng; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Haobo; Yao, Jianting; Tian, Zhen; Li, Bicheng; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Ye

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound combined with endogenous protoporphyrin IX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-SDT) is known to induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells and macrophages. Persistent retention of macrophages in the plaque has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the effects of inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis. Cells were pre-treated with VDAC1 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) disodium salt for 1 h or downregulated VDAC1 expression by small interfering RNA and exposed to ultrasound. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis along with necrosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Levels of cytochrome c release was assessed by confocal microscope and Western blot. The levels of full length caspases, caspase activation, and VDAC isoforms were analyzed by Western blot. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)]i levels were measured with fluorescent probes. We confirmed that the pharmacological inhibition of VDAC1 by DIDS notably prevented ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Additionally, DIDS significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and apoptotic biochemical changes such as inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, ALA-SDT elevated the [Ca(2+)]i levels and it was also notably reduced by DIDS. Furthermore, both of intracellular ROS generation and cell apoptosis were predominately inhibited by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. Intriguingly, ALA-treatment markedly augmented VDAC1 protein levels exclusively, and the downregulation of VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA also significantly abolished cell apoptosis. Altogether, these

  16. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in safingol-induced endonuclease G-mediated apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Ken; Masui, Atsushi; Iwai, Soichi; Imai, Tomoaki; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-17

    Safingol, a L-threo-dihydrosphingosine, induced the nuclear translocation of a mitochondrial apoptogenic mediator--endonuclease G (endo G)--and apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Upstream mediators remain largely unknown. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in cultured oral SCC cells were measured. Treatment with safingol increased intracellular H2O2 levels but not extracellular H2O2 levels, indicating the production of H2O2. The cell killing effect of safingol and H2O2 was diminished in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Dual staining of cells with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) revealed that apoptotic cell death occurred by treatment with H2O2 and safingol. The number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the presence of NAC. In untreated cells, endo G distributed in the cytoplasm and an association of endo G with mitochondria was observed. After treatment with H2O2 and safingol, endo G was distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating the nuclear translocation of the mitochondrial factor. NAC prevented the increase of apoptotic cells and the translocation of endo G. Knock down of endo G diminished the cell killing effect of H2O2 and safingol. These results suggest that H2O2 is involved in the endo G-mediated apoptosis of oral SCC cells by safingol.

  17. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  18. Gold nanoparticle sensitize radiotherapy of prostate cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Wilson; Zhang, Xiaojing; Guo, Linghong; Shaw, Andrew; Hu, Xiuying; Xiong, Yeping; Gulavita, Sunil; Patel, Samir; Sun, Xuejun; Chen, Jie; Moore, Ronald; Xing, James Z.

    2009-09-01

    Glucose-capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) have been used to improve cellular targeting and radio-sensitization. In this study, we explored the mechanism of Glu-GNP enhanced radiation sensitivity in radiation-resistant human prostate cancer cells. Cell survival and proliferation were measured using MTT and clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry with staining by propidium iodide (PI) was performed to study the cell cycle changes induced by Glu-GNPs, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of p53 and cyclin proteins that correlated to cell cycle regulation. With 2 Gy of ortho-voltage irradiation, Glu-GNP showed a 1.5-2.0 fold enhancement in growth inhibition when compared to x-rays alone. Comparing the cell cycle change, Glu-GNPs induced acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase at 29.8% versus 18.4% for controls at 24 h. G2/M arrest was accompanied by decreased expression of p53 and cyclin A, and increased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin E. In conclusion, Glu-GNPs trigger activation of the CDK kinases leading to cell cycle acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation in the G2/M phase. This activation is accompanied by a striking sensitization to ionizing radiation, which may have clinical implications.

  19. Interactions with DCAF1 and DDB1 in the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase are required for Vpr-mediated G2 arrest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest is dependent on the interaction of Vpr with an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), Cullin 4A (Cul4A), DDB1 and Cul4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1), and Rbx1. Vpr is thought to associate directly with DCAF1 in the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex although the exact interaction pattern of the proteins in the complex is not completely defined. The Vpr of SIVagm induces G2 arrest of cognate African Green Monkey (AGM) cells but not human cells. The molecular mechanism by which SIVagm Vpr exhibits its species-specific function remained unknown. Methods Physical interaction of proteins in the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation followed by western blotting. In addition, co-localization of the proteins in cells was investigated by confocal microscopy. The cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. DNA damage response elicited by Vpr was evaluated by detecting phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker for DNA damage response. Results We show that RNAi knock-down of DCAF1 prevented the co-immunoprecipitation of DDB1 with HIV-1 Vpr while DDB1 knock-down did not influence the binding of Vpr to DCAF1. HIV-1 Vpr mutants with a L64P or a R90K mutation maintained the ability to associate with DCAF1 but did not appear to be in a complex with DDB1. SIVagm Vpr associated with AGM DCAF1 and DDB1 while, in human cells, it binds to human DCAF1 but hardly binds to human DDB1, resulting in the reduced activation of H2AX. Conclusions The identification of Vpr mutants which associate with DCAF1 but only poorly with DDB1 suggests that DCAF1 is necessary but the simple binding of Vpr to DCAF1 is not sufficient for the Vpr association with DDB1-containing E3 ligase complex. Vpr may interact both with DCAF1 and DDB1 in the E3 ligase complex. Alternatively, the interaction of Vpr and DCAF1 may induce a conformational change in DCAF1 or Vpr that promotes the

  20. Real-time detection of viable microorganisms by intracellular phototautomerism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, the detection of live microorganisms present in the environment or involved in infections is carried out by enumeration of colony forming units on agar plates, which is time consuming, laborious and limited to readily cultivable microorganisms. Although cultivation-independent methods are available, they involve multiple incubation steps and do mostly not discriminate between dead or live microorganisms. We present a novel generic method that is able to specifically monitor living microorganisms in a real-time manner. Results The developed method includes exposure of cells to a weak acid probe at low pH. The neutral probe rapidly permeates the membrane and enters the cytosol. In dead cells no signal is obtained, as the cytosolic pH reflects that of the acidic extracellular environment. In live cells with a neutral internal pH, the probe dissociates into a fluorescent phototautomeric anion. After reaching peak fluorescence, the population of live cells decays. This decay can be followed real-time as cell death coincides with intracellular acidification and return of the probe to its uncharged non-fluorescent state. The rise and decay of the fluorescence signal depends on the probe structure and appears discriminative for bacteria, fungi, and spores. We identified 13 unique probes, which can be applied in the real-time viability method described here. Under the experimental conditions used in a microplate reader, the reported method shows a detection limit of 106 bacteria ml-1, while the frequently used LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ Syto9 and propidium iodide stains show detection down to 106 and 107 bacteria ml-1, respectively. Conclusions We present a novel fluorescence-based method for viability assessment, which is applicable to all bacteria and eukaryotic cell types tested so far. The RTV method will have a significant impact in many areas of applied microbiology including research on biocidal activity, improvement of preservation strategies and

  1. [Apoptotic cell death induced by actinomycin D arisen at different levels and cell cycle stages according to human cultured cell species].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Sakai, N; Maruhashi, Y; Enn, P; Uchide, N; Yamakawa, T

    2000-05-01

    Nine kinds of human cultured cells, including fetus cells (smooth chorion trophoblast cells, amnion epithelial cells and HE-21), adult non-carcinoma cells (HCF), and carcinoma cells (KATO-III, COLO 201, Lu-134-AH, SK-OV-3 and SKG-3a) were stimulated with Actinomycin (Act.) D for 24 h. Apoptosis induction was investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation analysis and by flow cytometric analysis of stained cells using in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling TUNEL) staining techniques for the quantification of apoptosis, and simultaneously using propidium iodide for the gain of some information about cell cycle. By agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragmentation of these cells except amnion epithelial and SKG-3a cells was detected, depending on concentration of Act. D. Using flow cytometric analysis, these cells were separated into four groups according to the information about cell cycle. Group 1 included amnion epithelial and SKG-3a cells, which were TUNEL negative. In group 2, all cell populations at G0/G1 and G2/M phases of HCC, KATO-III and SK-OV-3 were TUNEL staining positive. A portion of each G0/G1 or G2/M phase cell of Lu-134-AH and COLO 201 in group 3 was TUNEL stain positive. In group 4, G2/M phase cells of smooth chorion trophoblast cells and HE-21 were mostly stained and a small population of G0/G1 phase cells were also TUNEL stain positive. These results show that the stages of the cell cycle at which apoptosis was arisen by Act. D stimulation were significantly different depending on the cells types.

  2. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors.

  3. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors. PMID:26367709

  4. Naphthazarin suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the B-cell lymphoma 2/B-cell associated X protein signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Dong; Li, Hui; Li, Yong-Chun; Zeng, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the USA. Naphthazarin, one of the naturally available 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, is a natural bioactive molecule that exhibits an antitumor effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of naphthazarin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human SW480 colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to assess the effect of napthazarin on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of SW430 cells, respectively. In addition, an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis assay and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used to analyze cell and nuclei apoptosis of SW480 cells, respectively, following treatment with naphthazarin. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell associated X protein (Bax) protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Furthermore, caspase-3 activation was analyzed using a commercial kit. The results revealed that naphthazarin exhibited cell growth inhibition, an increase in cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in SW480 cells, which was associated with activation of the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway and cleaved caspase-3 activation. However, no significant differences in PARP expression were identified following treatment with naphthazarin in SW480 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that naphthazarin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of SW480 cells, indicating that naphthazarin may present a potential therapeutic agent for human colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:28101239

  5. Dose-related effects of psoralen and ultraviolet light on the cell cycle of murine melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, J.M.; Wiesehahn, G.; Bartholomew, J.C.; Hearst, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Cloudman (S91) murine melanoma cells were treated with 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen (HMT), a bifunctional psoralen and exposed to long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet light. DNA content of the cells stained with propidium iodide was measured by flow cytometry, and cell cycle phases were delineated from the DNA histograms by using a curve-fitting routine. Researchers found that HMT in combination with long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet irradiation blocked melanoma cells in different phases of the cell cycle, depending on the dose of long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet light and the concentration of HMT. The binding of (/sup 3/H)HMT to DNA was measured parallel with cell cycle analyses. Treatments with HMT at concentrations corresponding to about 1 HMT bound per 10(6) base pairs of DNA led to the accumulation of cells with predominantly G2 DNA content. At higher concentrations (2 to 3 HMT/10(6) base pairs), the cells were blocked in the S and G1 phases. In conclusion, it was shown that extremely sparse substitution of HMT to DNA blocks melanoma cells in the G2 phase or other phases of the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Acetic acid induces a programmed cell death process in the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Ludovico, Paula; Sansonetty, Filipe; Silva, Manuel T; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2003-03-01

    Here we show that 320-800 mM acetic acid induces in Zygosaccharomyces bailii a programmed cell death (PCD) process that is inhibited by cycloheximide, is accompanied by structural and biochemical alterations typical of apoptosis, and occurs in cells with preserved mitochondrial and plasma membrane integrity (as revealed by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively). Mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, namely decrease of the cristae number, formation of myelinic bodies and swelling were also seen. Exposure to acetic acid above 800 mM resulted in killing by necrosis. The occurrence of an acetic acid-induced active cell death process in Z. bailii reinforces the concept of a physiological role of the PCD in the normal yeast life cycle.

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of metal salts at sub-toxic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Carmen; Diegel, Christoph; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gründemann, Carsten; Huber, Roman

    2016-10-07

    Because different metals are used in complementary medicine for the treatment of diseases related to a dysfunction of the immune system, this study aimed at determining the immunomodulatory potential of Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 , AgNO3 , SnCl2 , AsCl3 and SbCl3 at sub-toxic concentrations and at assessing possible toxic side effects of low-concentrated metal preparations. The influence of the metal salts on primary human mononuclear cells was analyzed by measuring cell viability using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, apoptosis and necrosis induction by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and proliferation by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining and flow cytometry. Effects on T-cell activation were assessed with CD69 and CD25 expression using flow cytometry whereas CD83, CD86 and CD14 expression was measured to evaluate the influence on dendritic cell maturation. Alterations of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ secretion were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotoxic effects were analyzed using the comet assay. At sub-toxic concentrations retardation of T-cell proliferation was caused by Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 and Cu(NO3 )2 and inhibitory effects on interleukin-2 secretion were measured after incubation with Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 and AsCl3. Cu(NO3 )2 had immunosuppressive activity at dosages within the serum reference range for copper. All other metal salts showed effects at dosages above upper serum limits of normal. Therefore, only low-concentrated copper preparations are promising to have immunomodulatory potential. Toxic side effects of metal preparations used in complementary medicine are improbable because upper limits of metals set in the drinking water ordinance are either not exceeded or the duration of their application is limited. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines exposed to an extract of the seed kernel of Mangifera pajang (bambangan).

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Mohamad, Maryati; Rahmat, Asmah; Burr, Steven A; Fry, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    An extract of Mangifera pajang kernel has been previously found to contain a high content of antioxidant phytochemicals. The present research was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of this kernel extract. The results showed that the kernel crude extract induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 (hormone-dependent breast cancer) cells and MDA-MB-231 (non-hormone dependent breast cancer) cells with IC50 values of 23 and 30.5 microg/ml, respectively. The kernel extract induced cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase of the cell cycle in a time-dependent manner. For MDA-MB-231 cells, the kernel extract induced strong G2-M arrest in cell cycle progression at 24h, resulting in substantial sub-G1 (apoptosis) arrest after 48 and 72 h of incubation. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide revealed that this apoptosis occurred early in both cell types, 36 h for MCF-7 cells and 24 h for MDA-MB-231 cells, with 14.0% and 16.5% of the cells respectively undergoing apoptosis at these times. This apoptosis appeared to be dependent on caspase-2 and -3 in MCF-7 cells, and on caspase-2, -3 and -9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that M. pajang kernel extract has potential as a potent cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Induction of cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by nimbolide in human renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Jen-Pi

    2015-09-01

    Nimbolide is a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves and flowers of Azadirachta indica which has been shown to exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-invasive properties in a variety of cancer cells. However, the anti-tumor effect on human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells is unknown. In this study, we found that nimbolide treatment had a cytotoxic effect on 786-O and A-498 RCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. According to flow cytometric analysis, nimbolide treatment resulted in G2/M arrest in 786-O and A-498 cells accompanied with an increase in the phosphorylation status of p53, cdc2, cdc25c, and decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin B, cdc2, and cdc25c. Nimbolide also caused DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as determined by comet assay and measurement of γ-H2AX. In addition, apoptotic cells were observed in an Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double-stained assay. The activities of caspase-3, -9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were increased, and the expression of pro-caspase-8 was decreased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of intrinsic-related apoptotic proteins Bax and extrinsic-related proteins (DR5, CHOP) were significantly increased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. In addition, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were decreased in 786-O and A-498 cells after nimbolide treatment. We conclude that nimbolide can inhibit the growth of human RCC cells by inducing G2/M phase arrest by modulating cell cycle-related proteins and cell apoptosis by regulating intrinsic and extrinsic caspase signaling pathways. Nimbolide may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RCC.

  10. Vital staining for cell death identifies Atg9a-dependent necrosis in developmental bone formation in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Imagawa, Yusuke; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death has a crucial role in various biological events, including developmental morphogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that necrosis contributes to programmed cell death in addition to apoptosis, but it is unclear whether necrosis acts as a compensatory mechanism for failure of apoptosis or has an intrinsic role during development. In contrast to apoptosis, there have been no techniques for imaging physiological necrosis in vivo. Here we employ vital staining using propidium iodide to identify cells with plasma membrane disruption (necrotic cells) in mouse embryos. We discover a form of necrosis at the bone surface, which does not occur in embryos with deficiency of the autophagy-related gene Atg9a, although it is unaffected by Atg5 knockout. We also find abnormalities of the bone surface in Atg9a knockout mice, suggesting an important role of Atg9a-dependent necrosis in bone surface formation. These findings suggest that necrosis has an active role in developmental morphogenesis. PMID:27811852

  11. Optical injection of mammalian cells using a microfluidic platform

    PubMed Central

    Marchington, Robert F.; Arita, Yoshihiko; Tsampoula, Xanthi; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2010-01-01

    The use of a focused laser beam to create a sub-micron hole in the plasma membrane of a cell (photoporation), for the selective introduction of membrane impermeable substances (optical injection) including nucleic acids (optical transfection), is a powerful technique most commonly applied to treat single cells. However, particularly for femtosecond photoporation, these studies have been limited to low throughput, small-scale studies, because they require sequential dosing of individual cells. Herein, we describe a microfluidic photoporation system for increased throughput and automated optical injection of cells. Hydrodynamic focusing is employed to direct a flow of single-file cells through a focused femtosecond laser beam for photoporation. Upon traversing the beam, a number of transient pores potentially open across the extracellular membrane, which allows the uptake of the surrounding fluid media into the cytoplasm, also containing the chosen injection agent. The process is entirely automated and a rate of 1 cell/sec could readily be obtained, enabling several thousand cells to be injected per hour using this system. The efficiency of optically injecting propidium iodide into HEK293 mammalian cells was found to be 42 ± 8%, or 28 ± 4% taking into account the requirement of post-injection viability, as tested using Calcein AM. This work now opens the way for combining photoporation with microfluidic analyses, sorting, purification or on-chip cell culture studies. PMID:21258487

  12. Allyl-isatin suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weihua; An, Yukuan; Qu, Huiqing; Yang, Yue; Yang, Junhou; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-06-01

    The anticancer effect of the newly synthesized isatin derivative, N-allyl-isatin (Allyl-I), was evaluated in vitro with human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining was used to observe the cell morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effects of Allyl-I on the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blot analysis was performed to detect the influence of Ally1-I on the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c), Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Allyl-I significantly inhibited HepG2 cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Allyl-I can induce cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the G2/M phase. Apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed after AO/EB double staining. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) double staining showed that the apoptotic rates significantly increased in the presence of Allyl-I. Rhodamine 123 staining indicated that Allyl-I can decrease the MMP. Allyl-I also altered the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins. Protein levels of cyt c and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated following Allyl-I treatment. By contrast, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased. Results suggest that Allyl-I suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis might be correlated with the mitochondrial pathway.

  13. β-Adrenoceptor activation depresses brain inflammation and is neuroprotective in lipopolysaccharide-induced sensitization to oxygen-glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation acting in synergy with brain ischemia aggravates perinatal ischemic brain damage. The sensitizing effect of pro-inflammatory exposure prior to hypoxia is dependent on signaling by TNF-α through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1. Adrenoceptor (AR) activation is known to modulate the immune response and synaptic transmission. The possible protective effect of α˜ and β˜AR activation against neuronal damage caused by tissue ischemia and inflammation, acting in concert, was evaluated in murine hippocampal organotypic slices treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequently subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Method Hippocampal slices from mice were obtained at P6, and were grown in vitro for 9 days on nitrocellulose membranes. Slices were treated with β1(dobutamine)-, β2(terbutaline)-, α1(phenylephrine)- and α2(clonidine)-AR agonists (5 and 50 μM, respectively) during LPS (1 μg/mL, 24 h) -exposure followed by exposure to OGD (15 min) in a hypoxic chamber. Cell death in the slice CA1 region was assessed by propidium iodide staining of dead cells. Results Exposure to LPS + OGD caused extensive cell death from 4 up to 48 h after reoxygenation. Co-incubation with β1-agonist (50 μM) during LPS exposure before OGD conferred complete protection from cell death (P < 0.001) whereas the β2-agonist (50 μM) was partially protective (p < 0.01). Phenylephrine was weakly protective while no protection was attained by clonidine. Exposure to both β1- and β2-agonist during LPS exposure decreased the levels of secreted TNF-α, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prevented microglia activation in the slices. Dobutamine remained neuroprotective in slices exposed to pure OGD as well as in TNFR1-/- and TNFR2-/- slices exposed to LPS followed by OGD. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that activation of both β1- and β2-receptors is neuroprotective and may offer mechanistic insights valuable for development of neuro-protective strategies

  14. Bi-directional effects of the elevation of intracellular calcium on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in J774 macrophages exposed to low and to high concentrations of endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, R; Kankaanranta, H; Lahti, A; Lähde, M; Knowles, R G; Moilanen, E

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide produced through the action of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an important mediator in immune responses of the host. Various extracellular factors, including inflammatory stimuli, affect intracellular free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+](i)), modulating cellular signalling and gene expression. In the present study we investigated the effects of increased ([Ca2+](i)) on NO production through the iNOS pathway in J774 macrophages. Thapsigargin (TG), a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were used as tools to induce an increase in ([Ca2+](i)) in the cytosol. This increase was confirmed by the fura 2 method. The production of NO was measured as accumulated nitrite in the cell culture medium; iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA were detected by Western blotting and reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR respectively. The activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) was investigated by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. TG (100 nM) induced a marked synthesis of iNOS mRNA, iNOS protein and NO in cells primed with a low concentration of endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 ng/ml], which on its own induced barely detectable NO synthesis. Stimulation by a high concentration of LPS (100 ng/ml) induced a marked expression of iNOS and NO production. Under these conditions, treatment with TG hindered the synthesis of iNOS protein and NO production by accelerating the degradation of iNOS mRNA. Treatment with TG (100 nM) did not affect the NF-kappaB activity induced by low (1 ng/ml) or high (100 ng/ml) concentrations of LPS. Viability of the cells was confirmed by the 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyaniline ("XTT") method; apoptosis was ruled out by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. A23187 (1 microM) also transiently increased ([Ca2+](i)) and had opposite effects on NO production depending on the LPS concentration. Our results show that increased ([Ca2+](i)) induced the stimulation or suppression of NO production

  15. Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jingjing; Zheng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. Purpose In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. Methods The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. Results Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and

  16. Carfilzomib Inhibits Constitutive NF-κB Activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma B Cells and Leads to the Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Guang, Matthew Ho Zhi; Zhuo, Hui-Qin; Min, Xiang-Hui; Yao, Qin; Gu, Ai-Qi; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Dai-Bo; Lu, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Yu-Han; Zhang, Ke-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains incurable and new treatments are needed, especially in the relapsed/refractory setting. We therefore investigated the effects of carfilzomib, a novel, long-acting, second-generation proteasome inhibitor, in MCL cells. Eight established MCL cell lines and freshly isolated primary MCL cells were treated with carfilzomib. Cell proliferation was assessed by a 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry with annexin V and propidium iodide. Electrophoresis mobility shift (EMSA), Western blot, and luciferase assays were used to analyze NF-κB activation and related signaling proteins. Carfilzomib inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in both established MCL cell lines and freshly isolated primary MCL cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, carfilzomib was less toxic to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. The carfilzomib-induced apoptosis of MCL cells occurred in a caspase-dependent manner through both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. In addition, carfilzomib inhibited constitutive activation of the NF-κB signaling cascade, both in MCL cell lines and primary MCL cells, by completely blocking the phosphorylation of IκBα. Our results demonstrate that carfilzomib can induce growth arrest and apoptosis in MCL cells and that the mechanism may involve the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  17. Comparative cytoprotective effects of carbocysteine and fluticasone propionate in cigarette smoke extract-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Cipollina, Chiara; Gerbino, Stefania; Cigna, Diego; Caputo, Valentina; Balsamo, Rossella; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) induce oxidative stress, an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oxidative stress contributes to the poor clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in COPD patients. Carbocysteine, an antioxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on CSE-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells as well as the comparison of these antioxidant effects of carbocysteine with those of fluticasone propionate are unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of carbocysteine (10(-4) M) in cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by flow cytometry) as well as total glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression/activation in CSE-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) and to compare these effects with those of fluticasone propionate (10(-8) M). CSE, carbocysteine or fluticasone propionate did not induce cell necrosis (propidium positive cells) or cell apoptosis (annexin V-positive/propidium-negative cells) in 16-HBE. CSE increased ROS production, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 in 16-HBE. Fluticasone propionate did not modify intracellular ROS production, GSH and HDCA-2 but reduced Nrf2 and HO-1 in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE. Carbocysteine reduced ROS production and increased GSH, HO-1, Nrf2 and HDAC-2 nuclear expression/activity in CSE-stimulated cells and was more effective than fluticasone propionate in modulating the CSE-mediated effects. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the use of carbocysteine may be considered a promising strategy in diseases associated with corticosteroid resistance.

  18. Comparative anti-proliferative activity of some new 2-(arylazo)phenolate-palladium (II) complexes and cisplatin against some human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P; Majumder, P; Halder, S; Drew, M G B; Bhattacharya, S; Mazumder, S

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of four 2-(arylazo)phenol-Pd(II) complexes and their anti-proliferative property against the human lung cancer (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), and ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1) cell lines with cisplatin as the gold standard. One of the complexes, [Pd(L(2))2], induced robust apoptosis in all the chosen cells, as revealed by annexin-V-positive/propidium iodide dual staining, increased sub-G1 cell cycle population, and significant morphological changes in the treated cells. The Pd complex inflicted mitochondrial dysfunction leading to mitochondrial membrane potential loss, reactive oxygen species generation and release of cytosolic cytochrome c that activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins which finally caused programmed cell death.

  19. Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+