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Sample records for propose rapid test

  1. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  2. Strep Test: Rapid (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... test can show the presence of group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause strep throat and other infections (including scarlet fever, abscesses, and pneumonia). Strep throat is a bacterial infection that affects ...

  3. Testing for Controlled Rapid Pressurization

    DOE Data Explorer

    Steven Knudsen

    2014-09-03

    Borehole W1 is a NQ core hole drilled at our test site in Socorro. The rock is rhyolite. Borehole W1 which was used to test gas-gas explosive mixtures is 55 feet deep with casing (pinkish in the drawing) set to 35 feet. The model is a representation of the borehole and the holes we cored around the central borehole after the test. The brown colored core holes showed dye when we filled W1 with water and slightly pressurized it. This indicates there was some path between W1 and the colored core hole. The core holes are shown to their TD in the drawing. The green plane is a fracture plane which we believe is the result of the explosions of the gas mixture in W1. Data resource is a 2D .pdf Solid Works Drawing of borehole w-1

  4. A rapid online telepathy test.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beharee, Ashwin

    2009-06-01

    In an automated online telepathy test, each participant had four senders, two actual and two virtual, generated by the computer. In a series of 12 30-sec. trials, the computer selected one of the senders at random and asked him to write a message to the subject. After 30 sec., the participant was asked to guess who had written a message. After the computer had recorded his guess, it sent him the message. In a total of 6,000 trials, there were 1,559 hits (26.7%), significantly above the chance expectation of 25%. In filmed tests, the hit rate was very similar. The hit rate with actual senders was higher than with virtual senders, but there was a strong guessing bias in favour of actual senders. When high-scoring subjects were retested, hit rates generally declined, but one subject repeatedly scored above chance.

  5. Rapid testing of pulse transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Quality-control testing of pulse transformers is speeded up by method for determining rise time and droop. Instead of using oscilloscope and square-wave generator to measure these characteristics directly, method uses voltmeter and sine-wave generator to measure them indirectly in about one-tenth time. Droop and rise time are determined by measuring input/output voltage ratio at just four frequencies.

  6. Detection sensitivity of influenza rapid diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamada, Shinya; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sugaya, Norio; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) currently available in Japan for various influenza virus strains, including human H7N9 and H5N1 isolates. We found that all of the IRDTs examined detected these viruses, but their detection sensitivities differed. PMID:25079880

  7. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  8. Research on testing software for rapid cloud deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanjin; Huang, Junfei; Ji, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Software testing is an important way to ensure the quality of software systems and services, but the ever-changing needs of software testing, in particular the size of the dynamic test requirements getting stronger. The traditional deployment way of testing software is complex and it is difficult to scale to meet the dynamic test requirements. With the rapid development of cloud computing technology, traditional testing software after modified can run in the cloud as well. This paper proposed building a cloud service platform based on cloud service provider, which combines several of cloud service to adapt to software testing. With this cloud service platform, software developer can run their testing software in the cloud quickly and test scale can stretch dynamically. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce the cost of testing because of the pay-for-use cloud computing.

  9. Two Proposed Test Methods and Guidance for Antimicrobial Efficacy Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing the availability for public comment of two proposed test methods and associated testing guidance for evaluating antimicrobial pesticides against two biofilm bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria ---Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-10-29

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is endemic to Haiti and remains a major concern for residents, including displaced persons, and emergency responders in the aftermath of the January 12, 2010 earthquake. Microscopy has been the only test approved in the national policy for the diagnosis and management of malaria in Haiti; however, the use of microscopy often has been limited by lack of equipment or trained personnel. In contrast, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) require less equipment or training to use. To assist in the timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Haiti, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), in collaboration with CDC, conducted a field assessment that guided the decision to approve the use of RDTs. This data-driven policy change greatly expands the opportunities for accurate malaria diagnosis across the country, allows for improved clinical management of febrile patients, and will improve the quality of malaria surveillance in Haiti.

  11. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays.

  12. Review of rapid diagnostic tests used by antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Karri A; Perez, Katherine K; Forrest, Graeme N; Goff, Debra A

    2014-10-15

    Rapid microbiologic tests provide opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship programs to improve antimicrobial use and clinical and economic outcomes. Standard techniques for identification of organisms require at least 48-72 hours for final results, compared with rapid diagnostic tests that provide final organism identification within hours of growth. Importantly, rapid microbiologic tests are considered "game changers" and represent a significant advancement in the management of infectious diseases. This review focuses on currently available rapid diagnostic tests and, importantly, the impact of rapid testing in combination with antimicrobial stewardship on patient outcomes.

  13. Rapid flow cytometric susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, R; Ramani, A; Wong, S J

    1997-01-01

    A rapid flow cytometric assay for in vitro antifungal drug susceptibility testing was developed by adapting the proposed reference method for broth macrodilution testing of yeasts. Membrane permeability changes caused by the antifungal agent were measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide, a nucleic acid-binding fluorochrome largely excluded by the intact cell membrane. We determined the in vitro susceptibility of 31 Candida albicans isolates and two quality control strains (Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and Candida krusei ATCC 6258) to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Amphotericin B MICs ranged from 0.03 to 2.0 microg/ml, while fluconazole MICs ranged from 0.125 to 128 microg/ml. This method results in clear-cut endpoints that were reproducible. Four-hour incubation was required for fluconazole, whereas a 2-h incubation was sufficient for amphotericin B to provide MICs comparable to the reference macrodilution method developed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests. Results of these studies show that flow cytometry provides a rapid and sensitive in vitro method for antifungal susceptibility testing of C. albicans. PMID:9276410

  14. A Proposed Framework of Test Administration Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread application of personal computers to educational and psychological testing has substantially increased the number of test administration methodologies available to testing programs. Many of these mediums are referred to by their acronyms, such as CAT, CBT, CCT, and LOFT. The similarities between the acronyms and the methods…

  15. Rapid Field Toxicity Test for Water Supplies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    four hours to allow toxins to react with the cells, bioluminescent bacteria , and for the cells to regain their ight-producing powers. In 1993, the...chart bioluminescent bacteria . recorder, where it is depicted as a cumulative curve (Fig. 5). Mud testing uses the suspended particulate phase (SPP, Fig...in perfect Correlation with the bioluminescent bacteria assay agreement. Correlation of E50 with LC50 is shown (Fig. 10) is good below an EC50 (half

  16. Rapid Bacterial Testing for Spacecraft Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, John T.; Pyle, Barry H.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluations of the fluorogenic stains and probes will continue. E. coli 0157:H7 will be used as the reference strain for optimizing protocols. We anticipate the continued use of the fluorescent antibodies (TRITC and FITC labeled) in conjunction with CTC, Rhl23, DiBAC4(3), DAPI and acridine orange. Chemunex, the manufacturer of the ChemScan analyzer system, also makes a fluorogenic probe, Chemchrome B, which will be incorporated into the suite of probes to evaluate once their system is on site. Regardless of the combination of stains and probes all will be evaluated on membrane filters. Development of a FISH protocol that will be applicable to our conditions will be continued. Complimentary 16s rRNA probes to Ps. aeruginosa and currently in our laboratory will be evaluated first. Once this protocol has been adequately optimized other probes will be ordered for u a select number of other species. Currently, protocols to evaluate the effects of disinfection and the resulting lethality, injury on stain and/or probe specificity and reliability are being developed. E. coli 0157:H7 is the reference strain and chlorine the disinfectant the reference protocol is being developed around. Upon completion of this work, the resulting protocol will be extended to other species and disinfectants (e.g., iodine). Similar disinfectant experiments will then be conducted on the same species after starvation to evaluate the effects of starvation on disinfection resistance and the applicability of the stains and probes. Development of the immunomagnetic separation system will continue. Combined with the rapid methods described above, with enumeration by the ChemScan, we anticipate that this will provide a highly sensitive technique for the detection of specific, active bacteria.

  17. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    clincial trial conditions . In addition, the test strips are currently not recommended to be used without a parallel blood smear sample being examined...diagnostiques ne sont pas approuvés par Santé Canada et ils ne doivent être utilisés que dans des conditions d’essais cliniques appropriés. De plus, il n’est...small amount of laboratory equipment is unsuitable for a field medic, requiring removal of the patient (or his blood sample) from front -line duties. It

  18. An Analysis of Test And Evaluation in Rapid Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    United States. Chemical testing took place at Dugway Proving Grounds and the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, trace explosive testing took place...system in controlled conditions where measurable data was collected. Several instruments were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds using Chemical ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT AN ANALYSIS OF TEST AND EVALUATION IN RAPID ACQUISITION

  19. Static testing and proposed standard specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, E P

    1920-01-01

    Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.

  20. Testing techniques for mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanical property testing techniques are reviewed for rapidly solidified materials. Mechanical testing of rapidly solidified materials is complicated by the fact that in most cases at least one dimension of the material is very small (less than 100 microns). For some geometries, i.e., powder or thin surface layers, microhardness is the only feasible mechanical test. The ribbon geometry which is obtained by the melt-spinning method, however, has been used for a variety of mechanical property measurements including elastic properties, tensile properties, fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. These techniques are described with emphasis placed on the precautions required by the restricted geometry of rapidly solidified specimens.

  1. Proposed Ground Testing Standard Methods and Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodnight, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The methodologies used for prediction for on-orbit microgravity environment needs to be ground validated. The data and models for such validation will be coming from diverse sources. No standardized methodologies have been validated which cover the entire 0 - 300 Hz range. Current ground test data feeds into this process and therefore should be standardized to support both narrow and third octave band analysis.

  2. Improved bacterial growth test for rapid water toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Slabbert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    Bacteria have several attributes which make them attractive as test organisms for the rapid screening of chemical pollution in natural waters. They have relatively short life cycles and, therefore, respond rapidly to environmental change. The degree of toxicity of chemicals to bacteria is normally established by measuring viability or growth. A very sensitive test has been described measuring cell multiplication inhibition of Pseudomonas putida, results being obtained after a 16 h incubation period. Because of their short generation time it is possible, however, that bacteria are capable of manifesting measurable growth within a shorter incubation period. In the present study P. putida was cultured under modified test conditions aiming at an equally sensitive but more rapid growth test. Subsequent to initial tests, using different growth media, a toxicity test procedure was developed which uses a medium with low complexing capacity, a standardized inoculum and a 6 h incubation period.

  3. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide.

  4. Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of site plan for proposed Test Stand "D" in 1958. The contemporary site plans of test stands "A," "B," and "C" are also visible, along with the interconnecting tunnel system. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering "Site Plan for Proposed Test Stand "D" - Edwards Test Station," drawing no. ESP/22-0, 14 November 1958 - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific. PMID:16494761

  6. Rapid Model Fabrication and Testing for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced methods for rapid fabrication and instrumentation of hypersonic wind tunnel models are being developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center. Rapid aeroheating model fabrication and measurement techniques using investment casting of ceramic test models and thermographic phosphors are reviewed. More accurate model casting techniques for fabrication of benchmark metal and ceramic test models are being developed using a combination of rapid prototype patterns and investment casting. White light optical scanning is used for coordinate measurements to evaluate the fabrication process and verify model accuracy to +/- 0.002 inches. Higher-temperature (<210C) luminescent coatings are also being developed for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping, providing global pressure as well as global aeroheating measurements. Together these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles.

  7. Rapid diagnostic tests for neurological infections in central Africa.

    PubMed

    Yansouni, Cedric P; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Lutumba, Pascal; Winkler, Andrea S; Lynen, Lut; Büscher, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Gillet, Philippe; Lejon, Veerle; Alirol, Emilie; Polman, Katja; Utzinger, Jürg; Miles, Michael A; Peeling, Rosanna W; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Chappuis, François; Boelaert, Marleen

    2013-06-01

    Infections are a leading cause of life-threatening neuropathology worldwide. In central African countries affected by endemic diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and schistosomiasis, delayed diagnosis and treatment often lead to avoidable death or severe sequelae. Confirmatory microbiological and parasitological tests are essential because clinical features of most neurological infections are not specific, brain imaging is seldom feasible, and treatment regimens are often prolonged or toxic. Recognition of this diagnostic bottleneck has yielded major investment in application of advances in biotechnology to clinical microbiology in the past decade. We review the neurological pathogens for which rapid diagnostic tests are most urgently needed in central Africa, detail the state of development of putative rapid diagnostic tests for each, and describe key technical and operational challenges to their development and implementation. Promising field-suitable rapid diagnostic tests exist for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. For other infections-eg, syphilis and schistosomiasis-highly accurate field-validated rapid diagnostic tests are available, but their role in diagnosis of disease with neurological involvement is still unclear. For others-eg, tuberculosis-advances in research have not yet yielded validated tests for diagnosis of neurological disease.

  8. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Methods Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. Results In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. Conclusion In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are

  9. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains.

  10. Development of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay for biocidal susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2010-10-01

    An ATP-based biocide susceptibility assay for mycobacteria was developed by optimizing the cell lysis and assay conditions. Compared to the conventional agar plating method, the assay was rapid (1.5 h) and showed high sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The test species, Mycobacterium immunogenum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus, showed various susceptibilities to the glutaraldehyde- and isothiazolone-based test biocides.

  11. A rapid latex agglutination test for detection of leptospiral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, P; Samuel, B; Nachimuthu, K

    1999-10-01

    A rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination test (LAT) has been standardized for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in serum samples of man and animals. The efficacy of the LAT was compared with the plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 276 human serum samples were analyzed by both LAT and ELISA and percentage positives were 84.8 and 85.9%, respectively. Similarly, of 65 animal samples tested, 63.1 and 69.2% positivity were observed in LAT and ELISA, respectively. Even though the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than LAT, the rapidity, simplicity and economics of the LAT were found to fulfill the requirements of a screening test for leptospiral antibodies.

  12. 9 CFR 147.2 - The rapid serum test. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The rapid serum test. 2 147.2 Section 147.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood...

  13. 9 CFR 147.2 - The rapid serum test. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The rapid serum test. 2 147.2 Section 147.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood...

  14. 9 CFR 147.2 - The rapid serum test. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The rapid serum test. 2 147.2 Section 147.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood...

  15. 30. SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED TEST STAND FOR THE ORDNANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED TEST STAND FOR THE ORDNANCE GUIDED MISSILE CENTER AT REDSTONE ARSENAL (PRE-DATING NASA). JUNE, 1951, HANS LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Temperature-based rapid toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Jun, B H; Lee, S I; Ryu, H D; Kim, Y J

    2006-01-01

    Toxicants, which may cause the inhibition to the biological process in sewage/wastewater treatment plant, need to be monitored within short time to prevent from serious damage. A new method, Temperature-based rapid toxicity test (TempTox test) using Ceriodaphnia dubia, was developed and compared with the standard 48 hr acute bioassay (Std. 48-hr test). Inorganic toxicants of cadmium, zinc, copper, cyanide, chromium (III), chromium (VI) and organic toxicants of phenol, PCP and pesticides of BPMC, Diazinon, Fenitrothion were tested for TempTox test and Std. 48-hr test. Because the TempTox test is based on just temperature control, C. dubia neonates were exposed to toxicants under high temperature (35.5 degrees C) condition without any complicated pretreatment. After given exposure time of 1, 1.25, 1.5 hours, the number of the live (no toxic effect) or the dead (toxic effect) was counted with eye without the aid of any microscope and median effective concentrations (EC50 values) were determined. From the results for all toxicants, the TempTox test was proved to be as sensitive as the Std. 48-hr test with shorter-time of just 1.25-1.5 hours. Moreover, the TempTox test was further much more sensitive than alternative bioassays such as the 1-hour l.Q. test and 30-minute Microtox. The TempTox test showed a high applicability of toxicity bioassay for real sewage/wastewater treatment plant by its easiness, rapidity and sensitivity. Finally, the prototype for short-term TempTox test was introduced.

  17. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  18. An embedded barcode for "connected" malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Thomas F; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2017-03-29

    Many countries are shifting their efforts from malaria control to disease elimination. New technologies will be necessary to meet the more stringent demands of elimination campaigns, including improved quality control of malaria diagnostic tests, as well as an improved means for communicating test results among field healthcare workers, test manufacturers, and national ministries of health. In this report, we describe and evaluate an embedded barcode within standard rapid diagnostic tests as one potential solution. This information-augmented diagnostic test operates on the familiar principles of traditional lateral flow assays and simply replaces the control line with a control grid patterned in the shape of a QR (quick response) code. After the test is processed, the QR code appears on both positive or negative tests. In this report we demonstrate how this multipurpose code can be used not only to fulfill the control line role of test validation, but also to embed test manufacturing details, serve as a trigger for image capture, enable registration for image analysis, and correct for lighting effects. An accompanying mobile phone application automatically captures an image of the test when the QR code is recognized, decodes the QR code, performs image processing to determine the concentration of the malarial biomarker histidine-rich protein 2 at the test line, and transmits the test results and QR code payload to a secure web portal. This approach blends automated, sub-nanomolar biomarker detection, with near real-time reporting to provide quality assurance data that will help to achieve malaria elimination.

  19. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  20. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B.

  1. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Eggman, Ashley A.; Leff, Jared A.; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Methods Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Results Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. Conclusion An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes. PMID:26862232

  2. Field test of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.; Amaro, C.R.

    1993-12-01

    A field test of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was conducted as part of a demonstration sponsored by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The RTML is a mobile, field- deployable laboratory developed for use at buried radioactive waste remediation sites to allow onsite preparation and analysis of soil, smear, and air filter samples for alpha and gamma-emitting contaminants. Analytical instruments installed in the RTML include an extended range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer, two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, and four alpha continuous air monitors. The performance of the RTML was tested at the Test Reactor Area and Cold Test Pit near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL. Objectives, experimental procedures, and an evaluation of the performance of the RTML are presented.

  3. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described.

  4. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  5. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  6. A rapid immunochromatographic test to detect the lily mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Wanrong; Xie, Zhongkui; Wang, Ruoyu; Kutcher, Hadley Randal; Guo, Zhihong

    2015-08-01

    We developed a rapid immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for lily mottle virus (LMoV). The test is based on a double-antibody sandwich format and employs two distinct anti-LMoV polyclonal antibodies (IgG3 and IgG4). The first antibody, IgG3 was conjugated with colloidal gold, and the second antibody, IgG4 was used as the capture antibody at the test line. The performance of the ICS test was evaluated and the results obtained were compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. When serial dilutions of purified LMoV were tested, the LMoV detection limit of the ICS test was 8.0 × 10(-9) mg/mL, which was in complete agreement with the results of quadruplex RT-PCR. Compared with quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of ICS were 98.7 and 100%, respectively. There was therefore significant agreement between the results obtained from the two tests (κ = 0.982). The ICS test therefore appears to be broadly applicable, and will be especially useful in the field, as well as in areas without laboratory facilities, to support efforts to detect and control LMoV.

  7. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  8. A multiplexed microfluidic platform for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Ritika; Mukherjee, Arnab; Sevgen, Selami E; Sanpitakseree, Chotitath; Lee, Jaebum; Schroeder, Charles M; Kenis, Paul J A

    2013-11-15

    Effective treatment of clinical infections is critically dependent on the ability to rapidly screen patient samples to identify antibiograms of infecting pathogens. Existing methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing suffer from several disadvantages, including long turnaround times, excess sample and reagent consumption, poor detection sensitivity, and limited combinatorial capabilities. Unfortunately, these factors preclude the timely administration of appropriate antibiotics, complicating management of infections and exacerbating the development of antibiotic resistance. Here, we seek to address these issues by developing a microfluidic platform that relies on fluorescence detection of bacteria that express green fluorescent protein for highly sensitive and rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing. This platform possesses several advantages compared to conventional methods: (1) analysis of antibiotic action in two to four hours, (2) enhanced detection sensitivity (≈ 1 cell), (3) minimal consumption of cell samples and antibiotic reagents (<6 µL), and (4) improved portability through the implementation of normally closed valves. We employed this platform to quantify the effects of four antibiotics (ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) and their combinations on Escherichia coli. Within four hours, the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics can be determined by detecting variations in maxima of local fluorescence intensity over time. As expected, cell density is a major determinant of antibiotic efficacy. Our results also revealed that combinations of three or more antibiotics are not necessarily better for eradicating pathogens compared to pairs of antibiotics. Overall, this microfluidic based biosensor technology has the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies by identifying the antibiograms of pathogens.

  9. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    PubMed

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  10. Test Structures Applied to the Rapid Prototyping of Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Chang, L-J.; Martin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, test structures were used to aid in the rapid development of a gas sensor and pressure sensor. These sensors were fabricated using co-fired ceramic technology and a multiproject approach. This talk will describe results obtained from a ceramic substrate which contained 36 chips with six variants including the sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect chip. As far as the authors know, this is the first implementation of multi-projects in co-fired ceramic substrate. The gas sensor is being developed for the Space Shuttle and the pressure gage is being developed as a Martian barometer.

  11. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  12. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  13. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  14. Rapid test for the detection of hazardous microbiological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordmueller, Mario; Bohling, Christian; John, Andreas; Schade, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    After attacks with anthrax pathogens have been committed since 2001 all over the world the fast detection and determination of biological samples has attracted interest. A very promising method for a rapid test is Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is an optical method which uses time-resolved or time-integrated spectral analysis of optical plasma emission after pulsed laser excitation. Even though LIBS is well established for the determination of metals and other inorganic materials the analysis of microbiological organisms is difficult due to their very similar stoichiometric composition. To analyze similar LIBS-spectra computer assisted chemometrics is a very useful approach. In this paper we report on first results of developing a compact and fully automated rapid test for the detection of hazardous microbiological material. Experiments have been carried out with two setups: A bulky one which is composed of standard laboratory components and a compact one consisting of miniaturized industrial components. Both setups work at an excitation wavelength of λ=1064nm (Nd:YAG). Data analysis is done by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with an adjacent neural network for fully automated sample identification.

  15. Rapid Runway Repair (RRR) In-House Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    AG Allaother editions are obsolete. 1I~rI ABSCT FIED "UNCLASSIFIED 59CUMIl", CLASSIPICATIONi OF rMiS V&G9 The final test series evaluated the proposed...Before Traffic, 0 F-4 Loadcart Cover- ages ’Repositioned Slabs), 12 F-4 Loadcart Cover- ages ,% ?4 F-4 Loadcar-t Cover- ages ). Longitudinal C Test 2A-2 -0- 0...57 ’Leveling Course (Before Traffic, (3 F-4 Loadcar-t .overaqps ’Reoositioned Slabs), 1*? F-4 Loadcart Cov-ros ?’ ’-4 oadcart Cover- ages ). 50 0j

  16. Proposed hydraulic pump testing for hydraulic fluid qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Melief, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    The current ASTM D-2882 hydraulic vane pump test does not provide the necessary correlation required for the prediction of the lubricating properties of a hydraulic fluid in various piston pump operations. All too often, a fluid will exhibit excellent wear properties in the Vickers V-104 vane pump used in the ASTM D-2882 test, yet produce catastrophic failure at various wear interfaces in a piston pump which may consist of different material pairs, contact loading, configuration or speed. In this paper, a new piston pump test, which is conducted under cycled pressure testing conditions, is proposed. The new test will provide an excellent assessment of the lubricating properties of a hydraulic fluid under a wide variety of wear conditions.

  17. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-08-07

    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  18. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  19. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  20. Vibrational testing of trabecular bone architectures using rapid prototype models.

    PubMed

    Mc Donnell, P; Liebschner, M A K; Tawackoli, Wafa; Mc Hugh, P E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if standard analysis of the vibrational characteristics of trabecular architectures can be used to detect changes in the mechanical properties due to progressive bone loss. A cored trabecular specimen from a human lumbar vertebra was microCT scanned and a three-dimensional, virtual model in stereolithography (STL) format was generated. Uniform bone loss was simulated using a surface erosion algorithm. Rapid prototype (RP) replicas were manufactured from these virtualised models with 0%, 16% and 42% bone loss. Vibrational behaviour of the RP replicas was evaluated by performing a dynamic compression test through a frequency range using an electro-dynamic shaker. The acceleration and dynamic force responses were recorded and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses were performed to determine the response spectrum. Standard resonant frequency analysis and damping factor calculations were performed. The RP replicas were subsequently tested in compression beyond failure to determine their strength and modulus. It was found that the reductions in resonant frequency with increasing bone loss corresponded well with reductions in apparent stiffness and strength. This suggests that structural dynamics has the potential to be an alternative diagnostic technique for osteoporosis, although significant challenges must be overcome to determine the effect of the skin/soft tissue interface, the cortex and variabilities associated with in vivo testing.

  1. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kristine; Olsen, Bonnie; Thomas, Christopher; Norn, Dora; Tam, Milton; Elkins, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted disease that increases the rate of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Chancroid ulcerations are difficult to distinguish from those produced by syphilis and herpes. Diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is inaccurate, and culture is insensitive. Highly sensitive PCR has largely superseded culture as the preferred method of laboratory diagnosis; however, neither culture nor PCR is feasible where chancroid is endemic. We developed a rapid (15-min) diagnostic test based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the hemoglobin receptor of H. ducreyi, HgbA. This outer membrane protein is conserved in all strains of H. ducreyi tested and is required for the establishment of experimental human infection. MAbs to HgbA were generated and tested for cross-reactivity against a panel of geographically diverse strains. Three MAbs were found to be unique and noncompetitive and bound to all strains of H. ducreyi tested. Using an immunochromatography format, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the test using geographically diverse strains of H. ducreyi, other Haemophilus strains, and other bacteria known to superinfect genital ulcers. All H. ducreyi strains were positive, and all other bacteria were negative, resulting in a specificity of 100%. The minimum number of CFU of H. ducreyi detected was 2 × 106 CFU, and the minimum amount of purified HgbA protein detected was 8.5 ng. Although this level of sensitivity may not be sufficient to detect H. ducreyi in all clinical specimens, further work to increase the sensitivity could potentially make this a valuable bedside tool in areas where chancroid is endemic. PMID:12354868

  2. Macroscopic Agglutination Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Angela P.; Camargo, Eide D.; da Silva, Emilson D.; Silva, Marcos V.; Abrão, Rui V.

    1998-01-01

    A commercially available slide agglutination test (SAT) for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis was evaluated by comparing it to an immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). For all 108 patients, leptospirosis was diagnosed on the basis of a fourfold or greater increase in titer by MAT (seroconversion), and all but 1 of 245 controls were MAT negative (titers, <1:100). Both SAT and the IgM ELISA failed to detect one case of infection (sensitivity, 99%). Only 3 of 145 blood donors and none of the 100 patients with other illnesses were SAT positive (specificity, 99%). The overall results were similar for the three tests; however, SAT and ELISA were statistically more sensitive as initial screening tests. For 22% of the patients, the diagnosis of leptospirosis was made earlier by SAT than by MAT. SAT detected 27 (44%) of 62 MAT-negative patients with the first serum sample. ELISA and SAT had very similar results. Follow-up of patients for 1 year after the onset of symptoms showed a decreasing rate of positivity by SAT from the third month on. The rate of positivity by ELISA decreased more slowly, to about 67% by the end of the study. By MAT all patients were persistently reactive. SAT and ELISA seem to be convenient methods for the rapid and early screening for leptospirosis and could replace the less sensitive MAT. ELISA gives less subjective results than SAT and provides information on IgM kinetics, but it can be performed only by the more sophisticated laboratories. SAT is inexpensive, can be performed more quickly and more easily than ELISA, and could be used by the less well equipped laboratories. PMID:9774553

  3. Integrated Rapid-Diagnostic-Test Reader Platform on a Cellphone

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based Rapid-Diagnostic-Test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 grams, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting-diode (LED) based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 sec/image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application running on the cellphone then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data) to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world-map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) as well as HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android based smart-phones as well as an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist health-care professionals and policy makers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  4. 75 FR 3962 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Proposed Bay Area Rapid Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Area Rapid Transit (BART) Connector Project at Oakland International Airport (OAK), Oakland, Alameda... for the proposed construction and operation of the proposed BART connector project at OAK. The ROD evaluated the proposed BART-OAK connector project at OAK, Oakland, Alameda County, California....

  5. Rapid space hardware development through computer-automated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.S.; Ruud, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    FORTE, the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events small satellite designed and built by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, is scheduled for launch in August, 1997. In the spirit of {open_quotes}better, cheaper, faster{close_quotes} satellites, the RF experiment hardware (receiver and trigger sub-systems) necessitated rapid prototype testing and characterization in the development of space-flight components. This was accomplished with the assembly of engineering model hardware prior to construction of flight hardware and the design of component-specific, PC-based software control libraries. Using the LabVIEW{reg_sign} graphical programming language, together with off-the-shelf PC digital I/O and GPIB interface cards, hardware control and complete automation of test equipment was possible from one PC. Because the receiver and trigger sub-systems employed complex functions for signal discrimination and transient detection, thorough validation of all functions and illumination of any faults were priorities. These methods were successful in accelerating the development and characterization of space-flight components prior to integration and allowed more complete data to be gathered than could have been accomplished without automation. Additionally, automated control of input signal sources was carried over from bench-level to system-level with the use of networked Linux workstation utilizing a GPIB interface.

  6. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  7. Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Skalsey, M.

    1986-04-15

    A ..beta.. decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the ..beta.. electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of /sup 203/Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed.

  8. Rapid toxicity testing based on mitochondrial respiratory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haubenstricker, M.E. ); Holodnick, S.E.; Mancy, K.H. ); Brabec, M.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The need exists for rapid and inexpensive methods to determine the health effects of environmental contaminants on biological systems. One of the current research approaches for assessing cytotoxicity is to monitor the respiratory activity of the mitochondrion, a sensitive, nonspecific subcellular target site. Detected changes in mitochondrial function after the addition of a test chemical could be correlated to toxic effects. Mitochondrial respiration can be characterized by three indices: state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR). State 4, the idle or resting state, results when coupled mitochondrial respire in a medium containing inorganic phosphate and a Kreb's cycle substrate in the absence of a phosphate acceptor such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). In the presence of ADP the respiration rate increases to a maximum (state 3), accompanied by phosphorylation of ADP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ratio of state 3 to state 4, or RCR, indicates how tightly the oxidative phosphorylation process is coupled. The synthesis of ATP by mitochondria is influenced by a number of compounds, most of which are either uncouplers or inhibitors.

  9. Rapid Bead-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Optical Diffusometry

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chih-Yao; Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study combined optical diffusometry and bead-based immunoassays to develop a novel technique for quantifying the growth of specific microorganisms and achieving rapid AST. Diffusivity rises when live bacteria attach to particles, resulting in additional energy from motile microorganisms. However, when UV-sterilized (dead) bacteria attach to particles, diffusivity declines. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical model predicted according to the equivalent volume diameter. Using this diffusometric platform, the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the antibiotic gentamicin was tested. The result suggests that the proliferation of bacteria is effectively controlled by gentamicin. This study demonstrated a sensitive (one bacterium on single particles) and time-saving (within 2 h) platform with a small sample volume (~0.5 μL) and a low initial bacteria count (50 CFU per droplet ~ 105 CFU/mL) for quantifying the growth of microorganisms depending on Brownian motion. The technique can be applied further to other bacterial strains and increase the success of treatments against infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:26863001

  10. Rapid test for distinguishing membrane-active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Prakash Singh, Maya

    2006-10-01

    In the search for antibacterial agents with a novel mode-of-action (MOA) many targeted cellular and cell-free assays are developed and used to screen chemical and natural product libraries. Frequently, hits identified by the primary screens include compounds with nonspecific activities that can affect the integrity and function of bacterial membrane. For a rapid dereplication of membrane-active compounds, a simple method was established using a commercially available Live/Dead(R) Bacterial Viability Kit. This method utilized two fluorescent nucleic acid stains, SYTO9 (stains all cells green) and propidium iodide (stains cells with damaged membrane red) for the drug-treated bacterial cells. The cells were then either examined visually by fluorescence microscopy or their fluorescence emissions were recorded using a multi-label plate reader set to measure emissions at two different wavelengths. The ratio of green versus red was compared to a standard curve indicating the percentage of live versus dead bacteria. Nine known antibiotics and 14 lead compounds from various antibacterial screens were tested with results consistent with their MOA.

  11. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  12. Counseling and testing for HIV prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more rapid screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G; Gorsky, R D; Holtgrave, D R; Jones, W K; Guinan, M E

    1996-01-01

    New rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests permit many individuals to receive test results and appropriate counseling at one clinic visit. Because currently used tests require significant time for processing, all individuals must return for a second visit for test results and counseling. Since return rates for the second visit are low, the more rapid tests present an opportunity to improve the efficiency of HIV counseling and testing. The authors compared the costs and effectiveness of the currently used counseling and testing procedure and a streamlined procedure made possible by the new, more rapid screening tests. When test-positive clients are given preliminary screening test results, the rapid procedure is more cost-effective than the current procedure. Since over 90% of the clients in most clinics will test negative, the rapid counseling and testing procedure allows the vast majority of clients to be counseled and tested and to receive their results and posttest counseling in one visit. However, in the case where the goal of HIV counseling and testing is to focus only on infected individuals, if information regarding a positive result from the rapid screening test is not given to clients at the initial visit before a confirmatory test is performed, then the rapid counseling and testing procedure is not more cost-effective than the current procedure. PMID:8610190

  13. Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

  14. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  15. Impact of the introduction of rapid HIV testing in the Voluntary Counselling and Testing sites network of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Lopez, L; Rifà, B; Pujol, F; Becerra, J; Pérez, M; Meroño, M; Zaragoza, K; Rafel, A; Díaz, O; Avellaneda, A; Casado, M J; Giménez, A; Casabona, J

    2010-06-01

    Rapid HIV antibody tests, which provide results within 15-60 minutes, can help reduce the number of unrecognized infections by improving access to testing facilities and increase the number of people tested who know their results. After an acceptability study, rapid HIV testing was first implemented in Catalonia in 2007 within the community-based Voluntary Counselling and Testing sites network. One year after implementation, an increase of 102.9% has been observed in the number of tests performed, ranging from 8.4% to 328.3% according to the site. Despite the important immediate impact of rapid HIV testing on the number of tests performed, there was no significant change in the proportion of tests that were positive. Rapid HIV testing can help increase access to testing, but it should be complemented with specific outreach programmes targeting the most vulnerable subgroups.

  16. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-12-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing.

  17. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    PubMed Central

    Potthoff, Annegret; Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing. PMID:27877848

  18. Modification of Central Solenoid Model Coil Test Facility for Rapid Testing of CICC

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Daniel R; Miller, John L; Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Kenney, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    This document describes preliminary design modifications to the CSMC Test Facility in JAEA, Naka, Japan that will allow rapid test and change-out of CS conductor samples while simultaneously achieving more precise and reliable characterization of those samples than is presently achievable elsewhere. The current philosophy for CS conductor testing is to test an Insert in CSMC followed by SULTAN testing. The SULTAN facility has very short length in field and a short length between the High Field Zone and the joints. This makes it difficult to obtain uniform distribution of current in the cable at low voltage levels, which defines the current sharing temperature. In a real magnet, like ITER CS, there is a long length of conductor in the highest field. Such conditions provide a more uniform current distribution near current sharing. The modified facility will serve as an economical tool for ITER conductor testing. The test item will be a three turn sample, approximately 15 m long, placed in the background field of the CSMC. This new mode of operation will reduce the time of cool-down, warm-up and installation of the sample into the CSMC facility, which should significantly reduce the cost of a test per sample.

  19. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests

    PubMed Central

    Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline; Lindegren, Gunnel; Stoltz, Malin Lundahl; Salata, Cristiano; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Dudman, Susanne Gjeruldsen; Mirazimi, Ali; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using the QIAamp viral RNA minikit. We present an easy and convenient method for bedside inactivation using available blood collection vacuum tubes and reagents. We propose to use this simple method for fast, safe, and easy bedside inactivation of Ebola virus for safe transport and routine nucleic acid detection. PMID:27466385

  20. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Samuel C.; Cestellos-Blanco, Stefano; Inoue, Keisuke; Zare, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm) that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922) treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method. PMID:27025635

  1. Modeling & Testing of Inflatable Structures for Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and Mulberry 21 (Summer ’08) have shown potential to facilitate logistics operations through rapidly deployable, inflatable and water filled flexible...elastic analysis of the MOSES/ Mulberry concepts represents further development of inflatable structures technology in terms of concept, size...The team should review previous MODES and Mulberry 21 projects; The team will review requirements and then brainstorm potential ideas

  2. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  3. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  4. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  5. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  6. Comparison of point-of-care rapid HIV testing in three clinical venues.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Sabrina R; Kroc, Karen A; Couture, Eileen; Weinstein, Robert A

    2004-11-05

    Rapid HIV testing with same-visit results should increase the number of individuals who know they are HIV infected. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of point-of-care rapid testing in three public venues, a sexually transmitted disease clinic, a county jail, and an emergency department. Over 98% of all participants received their results, and 82% of newly identified HIV-positive participants entered care. Point-of-care rapid testing was feasible, acceptable, and may improve entry into care.

  7. Field trials of a rapid test for G6PD deficiency in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Tantular, I S; Iwai, K; Lin, K; Basuki, S; Horie, T; Htay, H H; Matsuoka, H; Marwoto, H; Wongsrichanalai, C; Dachlan, Y P; Kojima, S; Ishii, A; Kawamoto, F

    1999-04-01

    A rapid single-step screening method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6 PD) deficiency was evaluated on Halmahera Island, Maluku Province, Indonesia, and in Shan and Mon States, Myanmar, in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria by an acridine orange staining method. Severe deficiency was detected by the rapid test in 45 of 1126 volunteers in Indonesia and 54 of 1079 in Myanmar, but it was difficult to distinguish blood samples with mild deficiency from those with normal activity. 89 of 99 severely deficient cases were later confirmed by formazan ring method in the laboratory, but 5 with mild and 5 with no deficiency were misdiagnosed as severe. Of the samples diagnosed as mild and no deficiency on-site, none was found to be severely deficient by the formazan method. Malaria patients were simultaenously++ detected on-site in 273 samples on Halmahera island and 277 samples from Shan and Mon States. In Mon State, primaquine was prescribed safely to G6 PD-normal malaria patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and/or gametocytes of P. falciparum. The new rapid test for G6 PD deficiency may be useful for detecting severe cases under field conditions, and both rapid tests combined are can be useful in malaria-endemic areas, facilitating early diagnosis, prompt and radical treatment of malaria and suppression of malaria transmission.

  8. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  9. Is Serial Testing Required to Diagnose Imported Malaria in the Era of Rapid Diagnostic Tests?

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Janet M.; Juneja, Surender; Manitta, Joseph; Whitehead, Susan; Maxwell, Ellen; Goh, Wai-Keong; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Eisen, Damon P.

    2013-01-01

    Exclusion of malaria traditionally requires three negative serial thick and thin blood films. However, many clinical laboratories now routinely perform rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to blood films when malaria is suspected. We sought to determine whether serial testing is necessary in this setting. We examined 388 cases of malaria diagnosed during 1999–2010 at three laboratories in Melbourne, Australia. For each case, we ascertained whether the diagnosis was made on initial or follow-up testing. Nine cases (3.5%) were diagnosed after a negative initial blood film and RDT: 7 Plasmodium vivax, 1 P. ovale, and 1 P. falciparum. Of four case-patients with P. vivax in which clinical data were available, all had recent exposure to antimalarial medication. Our data suggest that among patients who have not received recent anti-malarial therapy, and when RDTs are performed and blood films are prepared, most malaria diagnoses are made by using the first set of tests. PMID:23208885

  10. Comparison of rapid tests for assessing UHT milk sterility.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, J A; Demkow, M R

    1990-05-01

    Samples of UHT milk were contaminated at two levels (10(2) and 10(4) cfu/ml) with 52 bacterial strains associated with spoilage. Samples were assayed, using various tests, to determine efficiency in detecting non-sterility after an incubation period shorter than that advised in standard procedures. The tests performed were colony count, titratable acidity and pH modification, organoleptic assessment, stability towards ethanol (68, 80 and 88% v/v), resazurin and nitrate reduction. After 3 d incubation at 30 degrees C every case was detected by the resazurin test with a good statistical probability (P = 0 x 999). Reliability was not so high in all other tests, even after 14 d incubation.

  11. Performance Evaluation Test of the Rapid Area Preparation Tool (RAPTOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    13 4.2 Krause 4830-730F In-line Ripper (Chisel Plow) ............................................... 15 4.3 Miskin Parabolic...knives 20 4 Figure 3: Krause 4830 Chisel Plow Table 3: Krause 4830 Chisel Plow Specifications Krause Chisel ( Ripper ) Plow 4830-730F...4.2 Krause 4830-730F In-line Ripper (Chisel Plow) A plowing test of the Krause 4839-730F in-line ripper (chisel plow) was conducted at Test Site B

  12. RAPID HOME-BASED HIV TESTING TO REDUCE COSTS IN A LARGE TUBERCULOSIS COHORT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Galea, Jerome T; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Shin, Sonya; Lobatón, Raúl; Zhang, Zibiao; Calderón, Roger; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-21

    To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based HIV testing with home-based rapid testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Though the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were lower with the home-based rapid testing strategy compared to the original approach. Rapid testing could be used in similar research or routine care settings.

  13. Rapid Test for Infliximab Drug Concentration Allows Immediate Dose Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Van Stappen, Thomas; Bollen, Lize; Vande Casteele, Niels; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Van Assche, Gert; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab improves treatment outcomes, but available assays to monitor infliximab lack speed to implement treatment algorithms immediately. Our aim is to validate a rapid, lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for quantitative determination of infliximab and to assess thresholds associated with mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Samples (n=190) from 29 anti-tumor necrosis factor naive patients with ulcerative colitis starting infliximab induction therapy between June 2010 and February 2012 were prospectively collected. All patients had a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≥2 at baseline. Mucosal healing (MH), defined as a Mayo endoscopic sub-score ≤1, was evaluated at week 10–14. Infliximab trough concentrations (TC) were determined with a novel LFA, which was benchmarked with the RIDASCREEN infliximab Monitoring (ELISA). RESULTS: The LFA showed an excellent agreement with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of infliximab, as observed from Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.95 during induction and 0.93 and 0.87 during maintenance therapy, respectively. In total, 45% of patients achieved MH. Using the LFA, week 14 TC ≥2.1 μg/ml (AUROC: 0.819, P=0.008) were associated with MH. After 2 years follow-up, 77% of patients with MH were still receiving infliximab therapy vs. 25% of patients without MH. CONCLUSIONS: We validated a LFA for quantification of infliximab and identified TC associated with MH. With a time-to-result of 20 min, individual sample analysis and user-friendliness, the LFA outplays ELISA as a rapid, accurate tool to monitor infliximab concentrations. PMID:27929524

  14. Quantum dot based rapid tests for zearalenone detection.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, N V; Speranskaya, E S; De Saeger, S; Hens, Z; Abé, S; Goryacheva, I Yu

    2012-07-01

    Three different kinds of immunosorbent assays with luminescence detection were developed for the determination of zearalenone (ZEN), a secondary toxic metabolite of Fusarium fungi. CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) were used as a label in quantitative micro-well plate immunoassays (fluorescent-labeled immunosorbent assay, FLISA) and in qualitative column test methods. As carriers for QD-based column tests, sepharose gel (for covalent binding of antibody) and polyethylene frits (for physical absorption of antibody) were used and compared. The application of QDs as a label resulted in a fourfold decrease in the IC(50) value with FLISA (0.1 ng mL(-1)) with a detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) when compared with the traditional immunosorbent assay which makes use of horseradish peroxidase as the enzyme label. The cutoff levels for both qualitative column test methods were selected based on the maximum level for ZEN in unprocessed cereals established by the European Commission (100 μg kg(-1)) as 5 ng mL(-1) taking into account extraction and dilution. The different developed immumoassays were tested for ZEN determination in raw wheat samples. As a confirmatory method, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used. The obtained results allow using FLISA and both qualitative column test methods for the analysis of analytes with very low established maximum limits, even in very complicated food matrices, owing to the high dilution of the sample extract.

  15. Development of a rapid, reliable genetic test for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanggu; Terry, Sharon F; Terry, Patrick F; Bercovitch, Lionel G; Gerard, Gary F

    2007-02-01

    Mutations in the human ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a hereditary disorder that impacts the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. Currently, the diagnosis of PXE is based on physical findings and histological examination of a biopsy of affected skin. We have combined two simple, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to develop a rapid, reliable genetic assay for the majority of known PXE mutations. After PCR amplification and heteroduplex formation, mutations in exon 24 and exon 28 of the ABCC6 gene were detected with Surveyor nuclease, which cleaves double-stranded DNA at any mismatch site. Mutations originating from deletion of a segment of the ABCC6 gene between exon 23 and exon 29 (ex23_ex29del) were detected by long-range PCR. Size analysis of digestion fragments and long-range PCR products was performed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The methods accurately identified mutations or the absence thereof in 16 affected individuals as confirmed by DNA sequencing. Fifteen patients had one or two point mutations, and two of these individuals carried the ex23_ex29del in their second allele. This mutation detection and mapping strategy provides a simple and reliable genetic assay to assist in diagnosis of PXE, differential diagnosis of PXE-like conditions, and study of PXE genetics.

  16. North Field 󈨛 Rapid Runway Repair Test Report. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    the grass, south of the repair site. Paint, polymer, and solvent, as well as storage drums for paint and polymer wastes, were stored in a designated ...events began. Fire and crash rescue support was provided by North Auxiliary Field. A "hot brakes" area was designated at the intersection of the NE/SW...upheaval and sag limits for each repair. Computer simulations, using the results of a runway survey and a test limit of 80 percent design limit load for

  17. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay.

  18. ON THE RELATIVISTIC PRECESSION AND OSCILLATION FREQUENCIES OF TEST PARTICLES AROUND RAPIDLY ROTATING COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Pachon, Leonardo A.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not analytic exact vacuum (electrovacuum) solutions of the Einstein (Einstein-Maxwell) field equations can accurately describe the exterior space-time of compact stars still remains an interesting open question in relativistic astrophysics. As an attempt to establish their level of accuracy, the radii of the innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) of test particles given by analytic exterior space-time geometries have been compared with those given by numerical solutions for neutron stars (NSs) obeying a realistic equation of state (EOS). It has been so shown that the six-parametric solution of Pachon et al. (PRS) more accurately describes the NS ISCO radii than other analytic models do. We propose here an additional test of accuracy for analytic exterior geometries based on the comparison of orbital frequencies of neutral test particles. We compute the Keplerian, frame-dragging, and precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles for the Kerr and PRS geometries and then compare them with the numerical values obtained by Morsink and Stella for realistic NSs. We identify the role of high-order multipole moments such as the mass quadrupole and current octupole in the determination of the orbital frequencies, especially in the rapid rotation regime. The results of this work are relevant to cast a separatrix between black hole and NS signatures and to probe the nuclear-matter EOS and NS parameters from the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in low-mass X-ray binaries.

  19. Ebola Preparedness: Diagnosis Improvement Using Rapid Approaches for Proficiency Testing.

    PubMed

    Lau, Katherine A; Theis, Torsten; Gray, Joanna; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-03-01

    The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods. The most commonly used gene regions (nucleoprotein [NP], glycoprotein [GP], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [L]) were selected for the design of in vitro RNA transcripts to be included in the simulated EBOV specimens used for EBOV detection with PCR-based assays. Specimens were tested for stability and found to be stable on long-term storage (1 year) at -80°C and on shorter-term storage in lyophilized form (1 week at ambient temperature and a subsequent week at -80°C). These specimens were used in three EBOV PTs offered from April 2014 to March 2016. In the first and third PTs, all laboratories (3/3 and 9/9, respectively) correctly identified specimens containing EBOV RNA transcripts, while in the second PT, all but one laboratory (5/6) correctly confirmed the presence of EBOV. The EBOV PT panel was useful for ensuring the competency of laboratories in detecting EBOV in the absence of readily available clinical samples. The simulated EBOV specimen was safe, stable, and reliable and can be used in lyophilized form for future EBOV PT programs, allowing simplicity of transport.

  20. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Guerin, P.

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  1. The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Edward S.

    1994-01-01

    All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.

  2. Proposed Performance Evaluation Acceptance Test for Heat Recovery Incinerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1985). D 3176, Method for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke (1984). D 3180, Method for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Differ...or approval of the use of such commercial products . The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position...such as coal or oil fired boilers, no standard performance test is available to assess field performance or to use as an acceptance test for the HRI

  3. Development of a rapid equine serological test (REST) by modified agar-gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Cutrufelli, M E; Mageau, R P; Schwab, B; Johnston, R W

    1991-01-01

    A rapid equine serological test (REST) has been developed for detection of horse meat in a wide variety of raw meat products. The test is an adaptation of previously developed field screening immunodiffusion tests for beef, poultry, pork, and sheep detection. Results show that the REST test was specific, sensitive, and accurate in the analysis of 101 samples.

  4. Revisiting the rare earth elements in foraminiferal tests [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Brian A.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Mix, Alan C.

    2005-10-01

    Are the rare earth elements (REEs) in foraminifera a valuable proxy for use in paleoceanographic and climate change studies? In order to investigate this, we attempted a comprehensive study of REEs in planktonic and benthic foraminifera. Several different cleaning protocols were tested. Although the hydroxylamine used to clean all foraminifera in this study removes an unidentified source of REE contamination, it seems to remobilize metal oxides that are otherwise unaffected in flow-through dissolution. The calculated REE distribution coefficients, KD(REE)s, are between 100 and 500 for both planktonic and benthic foraminifera. These KDs are high compared to other elements in biogenic calcite but can be explained through a general model of element incorporation during foraminiferal calcification. From data taken from eight core tops in the southeast Pacific, we conclude that the REEs in planktonic foraminifera are, indeed, useful as a proxy for upper ocean water mass and mixed layer biogenic productivity. Alternatively, the REEs in benthic foraminifera are useful as a proxy for carbon flux to the sea floor. These proxies should be robust down core unless the sediments have undergone anoxic diagenesis, which stabilizes Fe carbonate thus overprinting the primary REE signature. However, it is clear from REE distributions in foraminiferal tests if anoxic conditions have occurred.

  5. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    deployment. This project is to develop a rapid "self-test kit" for common, treatable cervical / vaginal and urinary tract infections. We have completed...rapid diagnosis of the common, treatable cervical / vaginal and urinary tract infections. Testing is performed on self-collected vaginal (introital...presence of cervical / vaginal or urinary tract infections; 5. To test subjects’ ability to select appropriate single dose treatment based on symptom

  6. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  7. Factors associated with declining a rapid human immunodeficiency virus test in labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kathrine R; Lampe, Margaret A; Danner, Susan P; Kissinger, Patricia; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Mardge H; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Nesheim, Steven; Jamieson, Denise J

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend routine rapid HIV testing in labor and delivery (L&D) for women with undocumented HIV status using an opt-out approach. Identifying factors associated with declining a rapid HIV test in L&D will be helpful in developing strategies to improve rapid HIV testing uptake. Data from the Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention at Delivery study were analyzed. Women ≥24 weeks gestation, in labor, with undocumented HIV status were offered rapid HIV testing using informed consent. Women who declined rapid HIV testing (decliners) but agreed to be interviewed were compared to women who accepted testing (acceptors). 102 decliners and 478 acceptors met inclusion criteria for analysis. Decliners of rapid HIV testing were more likely to have had prenatal care (PNC), after adjusting for age, Hispanic ethnicity, high-school education and city of enrollment (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.06-5.58). Having had PNC was collinear with prior HIV education and previous offer of an HIV test during the current pregnancy, so these factors were not part of the model. During PNC, standard informed consent may involve discussions that negatively affect later uptake of testing in L&D. Therefore an opt-out approach to testing may improve testing rates. Furthermore, decliners may have felt that testing in L&D was redundant because of previous testing during PNC; however, if previous testing occurred, this was undocumented at L&D. Documentation and timely communication of HIV status is critical to provide appropriate HIV prophylaxis.

  8. Dual specimens increase the diagnostic accuracy and reduce the reaction duration of rapid urease test

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie SW; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Chang, Ching-Wen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Yang, Yuan-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Kuo, Fu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of multiple samplings during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) on the accuracy of the rapid urease test, and the validity of newly developed rapid urease tests, HelicotecUT plus test and HelicotecUT test, CLO test and ProntoDry test. METHODS: A total of 355 patients undergoing EGD for dyspepsia were included. Their Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment status was either naïve or eradicated. Six biopsy specimens from antrum and gastric body, respectively, were obtained during EGD. Single antral specimens and dual (antrum + body) specimens were compared. Infection status of H. pylori was evaluated by three different tests: culture, histology, and four different commercially available rapid urease tests (RUTs)-including the newly developed HelicotecUT plus test and HelicotecUT test, and established CLO test and ProntoDry test. H. pylori status was defined as positive when the culture was positive or if there were concordant positive results among histology, CLO test and ProntoDry test. RESULTS: When dual specimens were applied, sensitivity was enhanced and RUT reaction time was significantly reduced, regardless of their treatment status. Thirty minutes were enough to achieve an agreeable positive rate in all the RUTs. Both newly developed RUTs showed comparable sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to the established RUTs, regardless of patient treatment status, RUT reaction duration, and EGD biopsy sites. CONCLUSION: Combination of antrum and body biopsy specimens greatly enhances the sensitivity of rapid urease test and reduces the reaction duration to 30 min. PMID:20556840

  9. Some design considerations for the proposed Dixie Valley tracer test

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1988-06-01

    A tracer test for the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal resource is planned for the summer of 1988, in order to study the fluid flow paths that will develop under typical operating conditions. During the test six production wells will provide the power plant with steam sufficient for generation of 60 MWe, requiring fluid production at a rate of approximately 600 kg/sec. Up to 75% by mass of the extracted fluid will be reinjected into the reservoir, using four injection wells. Tracer will be added to the injected fluid for a twenty-minute period, and subsequently the produced fluid will be monitored for the tracer. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  11. [Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Toledano-Sierra, Pilar; Arriola-Hernández, Maite; Orueta-Sánchez, Ramón

    2015-01-19

    Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  12. Rapid screening tests for determining in vitro susceptibility of herpes simplex virus clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, P; Melón, S; López, B; Rodriguez, M; Blanco, M I; Mellado, P; de Oña, M

    1998-08-01

    The susceptibility of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) to acyclovir (ACV) was determined with the use of a single dose of the drug (1 and 2 micrograms of ACV per ml for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) in two rapid assays: a rapid cytopathic effect inhibitory assay (Rapid CIA) and a rapid dye uptake assay (Rapid DUA). These tests allow the simultaneous determination of virus titer and susceptibility to ACV at a determined viral concentration (100 50% tissue culture infective doses and 100 50% dye uptake units). These tests were compared with a conventional susceptibility assay (dye uptake assay) and showed similar results. Indeterminate results with the Rapid CIA appeared in 3 of 30 samples. With the use of both Rapid CIA and Rapid DUA, we were able to determine the susceptibility of 100% of the isolates. The rapid tests, unlike conventional assays, are able to provide susceptibility results within 3 days after the virus has been isolated from a clinical specimen and could thus play a direct role in therapeutic decisions.

  13. The Proposed NASA Pyroshock Test Criteria Standard - Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himelblau, H.; Kern, D. L.; Piersol, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has traditionally left the task of specifying design and test criteria to each of the several NASA Centers. Faced with the wide variety fo resulting criteria used for resolving similar or identical problems, the NASA Office of Chief Engineer initiated a program to develop consistent NASA-wide standards if the various NASA Centers could agree to a set of common requirements.

  14. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  15. A Pilot Study of Rapid Hepatitis C Testing in Probation and Parole Populations in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Nickolas D; Patry, Emily J; Bazerman, Lauri B; Noska, Amanda; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects between five and seven million individuals in the United States and chronic infection can lead to liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Probation/parole offices are a novel setting for rapid HCV testing, providing outreach to populations at increased risk for HCV infection and/or transmitting HCV to others. While some correctional facilities offer HCV testing, many individuals who present to probation/parole offices are never or briefly incarcerated and may not access medical services. We conducted a rapid HCV testing pilot at probation/parole offices in Rhode Island. Overall, 130 people accepted rapid HCV testing, of whom 12 had reactive tests. Only four of these individuals presented to a community-based clinic for confirmatory testing, despite being offered a monetary incentive. Identifying and addressing barriers to HCV confirmatory testing and follow-up care is critical to increasing the uptake of HCV care and treatment in this vulnerable population.

  16. A pilot study of rapid hepatitis C virus testing in the Rhode Island Department of Corrections

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Kurth, Ann E.; Bazerman, Lauri B.; Patry, Emily J.; Cates, Alice; Tran, Liem; Noska, Amanda; Kuo, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Background The correctional population bears a heavy burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection necessitating expansion of HCV testing and treatment opportunities. Rapid HCV testing provides point-of-care antibody results and may be ideal for correctional facilities, particularly jails, where persons are often incarcerated for short periods of time, yet feasibility has not been established. Methods We conducted a pilot study of a rapid HCV testing algorithm among short-term inmates with unknown HCV status. Participants completed a questionnaire, viewed an informational video and underwent rapid HCV testing and confirmatory testing, when indicated. Persons with chronic infection were referred to community care after release. Baseline characteristics, risk behaviors, test results and linkage were examined by descriptive analyses. Results Two hundred and fifty-two inmates were enrolled and 249 completed all study activities. Twenty-five participants (10%) had reactive rapid tests and 23 (92%) completed confirmatory testing. 15/23 (65%) had detectable HCV RNA, but only 4 linked to care after release. Persons with reactive HCV tests were more likely to be White (P = 0.01) and to have ever injected (P < 0.0001) and/or recently injected (P < 0.0001) drugs. Conclusions Rapid HCV testing within jails is feasible, identifies previously unrecognized cases of HCV infection, and implementation should be considered. Low rates of linkage to care after release remain a barrier to care. PMID:25736438

  17. Final Focus Test Team Alighment - A Draft Proposal -

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    In its present form, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to transmit 50 GeV electron beams of SLC emittance (3 x 10{sup -10} radian-meters) straight through the central arm of the Beam Switchyard (BSY C line) with a final focus point out in the Research Yard but relatively near the end of the switchyard tunnel. The axis of the incident beam coincides with that of the SLAC linear accelerator; the final focus, some 300 meters downstream of the end of the accelerator, is displaced from this axis by about 2 meters horizontally.

  18. Evaluation of a new rapid test for carbapenemase detection in carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Koga, Paula Célia Mariko; Pasternak, Jacyr; Doi, André Mario; Ciola, Claudete Silvia; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Delfino Silva; da Silva, Itacy Gonçalves Siqueira; de Araújo, Maria Rita Elmor

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a new phenotypic test for carbapenemase detection. A total of 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected. The test was compared with conventional PCR for bla(KPC) and bla(NDM) detection. We found 100% sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that this test may be a feasible alternative for rapid carbapenemase detection.

  19. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure... Secretary of Agriculture. (b) A loop for measuring the correct quantity of blood can usually be...

  20. Evaluation of novel second-generation RSV and influenza rapid tests at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Ryan; Weick, Anja; Schwarz, Wiebke Sabrina; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Seeber, Lea; Tief, Franziska; Muehlhans, Susann; Karsch, Katharina; Peiser, Christian; Duwe, Susanne; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Rath, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Acute respiratory infections represent common pediatric emergencies. Infection control warrants immediate and accurate diagnoses. In the past, first-generation respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rapid tests (strip tests) have shown suboptimal sensitivities. In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration licensed a second-generation RSV rapid test providing user-independent readouts (SOFIA™-RSV) using automated fluorescence assay technology known to yield superior results with influenza rapid testing. We are reporting the first point-of-care evaluation of the SOFIA™-RSV rapid test. In the Charité Influenza-Like Disease Cohort, 686 nasopharyngeal samples were tested in parallel with SOFIA™-RSV and SOFIA™-Influenza A+B. Compared to real-time PCR, SOFIA™-RSV sensitivities/specificities were 78.6%/93.9%, respectively (SOFIA™-Influenza A: 80.6%/99.3%). Performance was greatest in patients below 2 years of age with a test sensitivity of 81.8%. RSV sensitivities were highest (85%) in the first 2 days of illness and with nasopharyngeal compared to nasal swabs (P=0.055, McNemar's test). Second-generation RSV and influenza rapid testing provides highly accurate results facilitating timely patient cohortation and management.

  1. Clinton reform proposal faces Congressional test on covered services, cost.

    PubMed

    1994-01-13

    Common to most of the health care reform proposals currently under consideration in the US Congress is an emphasis on preventive services such as well-baby visits. The Clinton plan, formally known as the Health Security Act (HSA), would exempt preventive care from the deductibles and co-payments applicable to other covered health care services. A weakness of the HSA is its failure to regard the reproductive health benefits package as preventive. Although prenatal and postpartum care are classified as such, family planning visits and other services for pregnant women are subject to deductibles and cost-sharing stipulations for recipients with incomes above the poverty level. Also problematic is the HSA's failure to define the scope of services beyond "voluntary family planning services" and medical devices subject to federal approval. This ambiguity leaves the status of abortion unclear, and implies that drugs, such as oral contraceptives, are not covered. Thus, a woman who attends a family planning clinic to obtain a prescription for oral contraceptives could be required to meet deductibles both for medical visits and outpatient prescription drugs. Similarly, the HSA makes no mention of sexually transmitted diseases prevention. Instead, coverage is provided for "fertility related infectious illness"--a stipulation that enables annual screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia but excludes syphilis. Managed care providers who receive a flat fee regardless of the amount of care provided might be inclined to eliminate screening for all sexually transmitted diseases. Also of concern is the threat that low-income women who currently receive free prenatal medical care through Medicaid would be required to pay a share of their premiums to receive HSA coverage for other areas. The extension of Medicaid benefits to pregnant women with incomes up to 185% of the poverty level substantially increased use of prenatal care by the working poor--a trend that would be reversed under the

  2. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  3. Rapid HIV testing for individuals on probation/parole: outcomes of an intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-07-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.

  4. Rapid identification of bacteria and yeast: summary of a National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards proposed guideline.

    PubMed

    Baron, E J

    2001-07-15

    Using colony morphology on selected agars, Gram-stain morphology, and a number of 1-step biochemical or enzymatic tests, skilled microbiologists can identify the species of the majority of isolates seen routinely in a clinical laboratory. These results are often available more quickly than and are as accurate as those derived from conventional methods. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has produced a guideline that describes tests that can be used to identify a number of aerobic gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci, a number of commonly isolated anaerobes, and 3 species of yeast. An overview of the organisms included in the guideline, the tests that identify them, and the situations in which rapid testing is appropriate is presented here.

  5. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  6. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  7. Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

  8. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  9. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of OXA-48 carbapenemase.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Elisa; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Pitart, Cristina; Campo, Irene; Alejo-Cancho, Izaskun; Fasanella, Assumpta; Vergara, Andrea; Marco, Francesc; Vila, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the OXA-48K-Set, a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of Oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48) carbapenemases, among 37 strains expressing OXA-48 and OXA-48-like carbapenemases and 20 additional strains harboring other β-lactamases. The test showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and the results were obtained in 15minutes.

  10. Evaluation of a Rapid Lateral Flow Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Cryptosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Fleece, Molly E.; Heptinstall, Jack; Khan, Shaila S.; Kabir, Mamum; Herbein, Joel; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A new rapid lateral flow fecal antigen detection test for Cryptosporidium was evaluated using diarrheal stool samples from a cohort of children in Bangladesh. The test had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94% when compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigen detection. PMID:27573629

  11. Utility of the Determine Syphilis TP rapid test in commercial sex venues in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Campos, P E; Buffardi, A L; Chiappe, M; Buendía, C; Garcia, P J; Carcamo, C P; Garnett, G; White, P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the utility of the Determine Syphilis TP test performed in Peruvian commercial sex venues for the detection of active syphilis; and determine the feasibility of integrating rapid syphilis testing for female sex workers (FSW) into existing health outreach services. Methods We tested 3586 female sex workers for syphilis by Determine in the field using whole blood fingerstick, and by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) in a central laboratory in Lima using sera. Results 97.4% of the FSW offered rapid syphilis testing participated; and among those who tested positive, 87% visited the local health centre for treatment. More than twice as many specimens were RPR reactive using serum in Lima (5.7%) than tested positive by whole blood Determine in the field (2.8%), and although most were confirmed by TPHA, only a small proportion (0.7%) were RPR reactive at ⩾1:8 dilutions, and likely indicating active syphilis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the Determine Syphilis TP test in whole blood when compared to serum RPR reactivity at any dilution confirmed by TPHA as the gold standard were 39.3%, 99.2% and 71.4%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 64.0% when using serum RPR ⩾1:8 confirmed by TPHA. Invalid tests were rare (0.3%). Conclusions Rapid syphilis testing in sex work venues proved feasible, but Determine using whole blood obtained by fingerstick was substantially less sensitive than reported in previous laboratory‐based studies using serum. Although easy to perform in outreach venues, the utility of this rapid syphilis test was relatively low in settings where a large proportion of the targeted population has been previously tested and treated. PMID:17116642

  12. Rapid HIV testing experience at Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System's Homeless Stand Downs.

    PubMed

    Hooshyar, Dina; Surís, Alina M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Lepage, James P; Bedimo, Roger; North, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, 21% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are unaware they are HIV-infected. In 2011, Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Office of Public Health in conjunction with VHA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program funded grants to support rapid HIV testing at homeless outreach events because homeless populations are more likely to obtain emergent rather than preventive care and have a higher HIV seroprevalence as compared to the general population. Because of a Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS)'s laboratory testing requirement, VANTHCS partnered with community agencies to offer rapid HIV testing for the first time at VANTHCS' 2011 Homeless Stand Downs in Dallas, Fort Worth, and Texoma, Texas. Homeless Stand Downs are outreach events that connect Veterans with services. Veterans who declined testing were asked their reasons for declining. Comparisons by Homeless Stand Down site used Pearson χ², substituting Fisher's Exact tests for expected cell sizes <5. Of the 910 Veterans attending the Homeless Stand Downs, 261 Veterans reported reasons for declining HIV testing, and 133 Veterans were tested, where 92% of the tested Veterans obtained their test results at the events - all tested negative. Veterans' reported reasons for declining HIV testing included previous negative result (n=168), no time to test (n=49), no risk factors (n=36), testing is not a priority (n=11), uninterested in knowing serostatus (n=6), and HIV-infected (n=3). Only "no time to test" differed significantly by Homeless Stand Down site. Nonresponse rate was 54%. Offering rapid HIV testing at Homeless Stand Downs is a promising testing venue since 15% of Veterans attending VANTHCS' Homeless Stand Downs were tested for HIV, and majority obtained their HIV test results at point-of-care while further research is needed to determine how to improve these rates.

  13. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  14. Factors Associated With Receiving Rapid HIV Testing Among Individuals on Probation or Parole.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Carswell, Steven B; Wilson, Monique; Kinlock, Timothy W; Restivo, Lauren; McKenzie, Michelle; Rich, Josiah D

    2016-10-01

    Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = .024), Black race (p = .004), homeless (p = .016), early age of crime onset (p = .001), more drug use during the past 90 days (p = .033), and previously tested for hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (p = .024). Such findings make it especially important that individuals under community supervision be linked with services in the community to ensure that HIV testing and health care planning occur simultaneously.

  15. Field Evaluation of a Dual Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for HIV and Syphilis infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Claire C.; Leon, Segundo R.; Huang, Emily; Ramos, Lourdes B.; Vargas, Silver K.; Flores, Juan A.; Konda, Kelika A.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated prevention for HIV and syphilis is warranted because both syphilis and HIV infections have evidence-based, scalable interventions using current health care mechanisms. The advent of dual rapid point-of-care tests, single devices that can detect multiple infections using the same specimen, provides the opportunity to integrate the screening of syphilis into HIV programs, potentially increasing the numbers of people tested and allowing for same-day testing and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test (MedMira Inc, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), a qualitative, rapid immunoassay that detects antibodies to T. pallidum and HIV. Methods The reference standard test for comparison to the T. pallidum component of the Multiplo TP/HIV Test was Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination assay. For the HIV component, the reference test included a 4th-generation enzyme immunoassay with a confirmatory Western blot test. Results The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody component were 93.8% (95% CI: 69.8%, 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI: 97.7%, 100%), respectively. The Treponema pallidum component of the test had a sensitivity of 81.0% (95% CI: 68.1%, 94.6%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%). Conclusions Our study showed excellent performance of the HIV antibody component of the test and very good performance for the Treponema pallidum antibody component of the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test, which should be considered to improve screening coverage. Use of effective dual tests will create improved access to more comprehensive care by integrating the screening of syphilis into HIV prevention programs. PMID:26650998

  16. A novel microbead-based microfluidic device for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    He, J; Mu, X; Guo, Z; Hao, H; Zhang, C; Zhao, Z; Wang, Q

    2014-12-01

    Effective treatment of infectious diseases depends on the ability to rapidly identify the infecting bacteria and the use of sensitive antibiotics. The currently used identification assays usually take more than 72 h to perform and have a low sensitivity. Herein, we present a microbead-based microfluidic platform that is highly sensitive and rapid for bacterial detection and antibiotic sensitivity testing. The platform includes four units, one of which is used for bacterial identification and the other three are used for susceptibility testing. Our results showed that Escherichia coli O157 at a cell density range of 10(1)-10(5) CFU/μL could be detected within 30 min. Additionally, the effects of three antibiotics on E. coli O157 were evaluated within 4-8 h. Overall, this integrated microbead-based microdevice provides a sensitive, rapid, reliable, and highly effective platform for the identification of bacteria, as well as antibiotic sensitivity testing.

  17. Rapid methods for testing the efficacy of sterilization-grade filter membranes.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M H; Andrew, P W; Ball, P R; Hall, G M

    2000-08-01

    The validation of sterilization-grade membranes is integral to ensuring the efficient and safe use of microfiltration systems. Here validation refers to the production of sterile filtrate for sterilizing-grade membranes under challenge test conditions. Current validation methods require 48 h of culture for results to become available, which creates time delays within the manufacturing process and quality control (QC) backlogs. This work compares four methods for the production of filter challenge test data, to the desired test sensitivity, within 24 h using bioluminescent and fluorescent recombinant strains of the test organism Brevundimonas diminuta. These methods should provide a way to implement more rapid QC test regimens for filters.

  18. Rapid, modified Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test with single, high-concentration antimicrobial disks.

    PubMed

    Boyle, V J; Fancher, M E; Ross, R W

    1973-03-01

    A rapid (6-7 hr), modified Kirby-Bauer disk-susceptibility method, by which derivatives of tetrazolium dyes are used to enhance delineation between areas of growth and zones of inhibition, has been developed. Inoculated petri plates, prepared by the Kirby-Bauer method, were sprayed, after 6 to 7 hr of incubation (37 C), with aqueous solutions of MTT-tetrazolium or INT-tetrazolium resulting in readily detectable zones of inhibition. Excellent correlation was obtained between the modified test and the standard Kirby-Bauer test when challenged with a variety of gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Additionally, the modified test has demonstrated reproducibility comparable to the standard Kirby-Bauer test. It is demonstrated that the modified test is applicable to susceptibility determinations with representative, commercially available antimicrobial disks. This applicability indicates that the modified method could provide rapid in vitro guidelines for in vivo therapy.

  19. Implementing rapid, robust, cost-effective, patient-centred, routine genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    George, Angela; Riddell, Daniel; Seal, Sheila; Talukdar, Sabrina; Mahamdallie, Shazia; Ruark, Elise; Cloke, Victoria; Slade, Ingrid; Kemp, Zoe; Gore, Martin; Strydom, Ann; Banerjee, Susana; Hanson, Helen; Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing have made genetic testing fast and affordable, but limitations of testing processes are impeding realisation of patient benefits. Ovarian cancer exemplifies the potential value of genetic testing and the shortcomings of current pathways to access testing. Approximately 15% of ovarian cancer patients have a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation which has substantial implications for their personal management and that of their relatives. Unfortunately, in most countries, routine implementation of BRCA testing for ovarian cancer patients has been inconsistent and largely unsuccessful. We developed a rapid, robust, mainstream genetic testing pathway in which testing is undertaken by the trained cancer team with cascade testing to relatives performed by the genetics team. 207 women with ovarian cancer were offered testing through the mainstream pathway. All accepted. 33 (16%) had a BRCA mutation. The result informed management of 79% (121/154) women with active disease. Patient and clinician feedback was very positive. The pathway offers a 4-fold reduction in time and 13-fold reduction in resource requirement compared to the conventional testing pathway. The mainstream genetic testing pathway we present is effective, efficient and patient-centred. It can deliver rapid, robust, large-scale, cost-effective genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 and may serve as an exemplar for other genes and other diseases. PMID:27406733

  20. Proposed acceptance, qualification, and characterization tests for thin-film PV modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, D.; Mrig, L.; Deblasio, R.; Ross, R.

    1988-01-01

    Details of a proposed test program for PV thin-film modules which the Department of Energy has directed the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to prepare are presented. Results of one of the characterization tests that SERI has performed are also presented. The objective is to establish a common approach to testing modules that will be acceptable to both users and manufacturers. The tests include acceptance, qualification, and characterization tests. Acceptance tests verify that randomly selected modules have similar characteristics. Qualification tests are based on accelerated test methods designed to simulate adverse conditions. Characterization tests provide data on performance in a predefined environment.

  1. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    PubMed

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  2. Performance Characteristics of a Rapid New Immunochromatographic Test for Detection of Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Lauro; Cunha, Carla B.; Cabral, Valéria P.; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2003-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test (Rapid Check HIV 1&2; Núcleo de Doenças Infecciosas) for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 in human samples (whole blood, serum, and plasma) was evaluated and compared to the commercially available Determine (Abbott Laboratories). When whole-blood samples were evaluated, the specificity and sensitivity of both tests were 100%. However, when plasma samples were used, sensitivity for the Rapid Check HIV 1&2 and the Determine tests were 100 and 98.58%, respectively. The observed specificity for plasma samples was 98.94% for the Rapid Check HIV 1&2 and 96.97% for the Determine test. The results presented here are encouraging and support the adoption of both tests as an alternative to enzyme-lined immunosorbent assay and/or Western blots in regions where laboratorial infrastructure is not available or for use in the management of occupational accidents for healthcare workers. PMID:12626458

  3. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  4. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  5. B-type natriuretic peptide rapid assay: a diagnostic test for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ancheta, Irma B

    2006-01-01

    Hospitals are constantly besieged with congestive heart failure admissions. Current studies show that the advent of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) rapid assay as a quick and easy blood test is beneficial to nurses in confirming the diagnosis of heart failure. B-type natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone produced by the failing heart in response to increased volume and cardiac overload. The BNP rapid assay measures the presence of BNP levels present in the circulating bloodstream to confirm the diagnosis of congestive heart failure. It is a simple blood test that can be done at the bedside or at the clinic so it is a valid point-of-care modality. Elevated levels suggest severity of heart failure and possibility of sudden death. This article focuses on the description of the diagnostic performance of the BNP rapid assay, its clinical dimensions, and its implications to nursing practice and collaborative practice models.

  6. [A new rapid antibiotic susceptibility test for enteric bacteria using a color change method].

    PubMed

    Kocagöz, T; Hayran, M; Kocagöz, S

    1988-01-01

    The rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests that have been developed so far cannot be used in daily work, because of their many difficulties and disadvantages. We have developed a new antibiotic susceptibility test for enteric bacteria which gives the result in 4 hours, easy to perform and inexpensive. This method depends upon the mechanism which detects the acid formed by the bacteria, by the change of the color of the pH indicator in the medium. The susceptibility of 110 different isolates of enteric bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Enterobacter) to ampicillin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephradine, cefazolin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and ofloxacin is examined by this new "Rapid Color Change Test" and disc diffusion method. For most organisms tested, there was a good correlation between the results of the two methods. The overall agreement is found to be 91.43%.

  7. Rapid toxicity screening tests for aquatic biota. 1. Methodology and experiments with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. )

    1993-04-01

    A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude and correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.

  8. Use of the rapid fermentation test in determining carbohydrate reactions of fastidious bacteria in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, D G; Sottnek, F O; Brown, W J; Weaver, R E

    1980-01-01

    The rapid fermentation test was used to determine the carbohydrate reactions of some of the fastidious bacteria encountered in clinical laboratories, such as: Haemophilus species, including Haemophilus vaginalis; Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans; Cardiobacterium hominis; Kingella species; Corynebacterium species; Propionibacterium species; and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Results were usually obtained within 4 h by using inocula from 24- or 48-h blood or chocolate agar media. PMID:6999028

  9. The generation of monoclonal antibodies and their use in rapid diagnostic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are the most important component of an immunoassay. In these proceedings we outline novel methods used to generate and select monoclonal antibodies that meet performance criteria for use in rapid lateral flow and microfluidic immunoassay tests for the detection of agricultural pathogens ...

  10. Rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus with low demands on sample preparation and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Eboigbodin, Kevin E; Brummer, Mirko; Ojalehto, Tuomas; Hoser, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus has only recently gained attention due to recent large outbreaks worldwide. An easy to use nucleic acid amplification test could play an important role in the early detection of the infection and patient management. Here, we report a rapid and robust isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay for the detection of Zika virus. The method is cost-effective and compatible with portable instrumentation, enabling near patient testing and field use.

  11. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Cervical / vaginal and urinary tract infections occur commonly among 17-25 year old women and pose a significant problem for military...women especially on deployment. This project is to develop a rapid "self-test kit" for common, treatable cervical / vaginal and urinary tract infections... cervical / vaginal and urinary tract infections. Testing will be performed on self-collected vaginal (introital) swabs (Q tips) and a urine sample. The

  12. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test AGENCY: U.S. Census..., reducing the need for more costly enumerator-administered options. The 2014 Census Site Test will allow the... under consideration for the 2020 Census. To improve self- response, the Census Bureau plans to test...

  13. 77 FR 13532 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test AGENCY: U.S... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Census Bureau must conduct a series of research projects and tests throughout... Decennial Census questionnaire on the Internet. One of the first tests to support this planning effort...

  14. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    PubMed

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  15. Rapid Real-Time Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with Electrical Sensing on Plastic Microchips with Printed Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Pandya, Hardik J; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Anupriya; Prabhakar, Devbalaji; Chug, Manjyot Kaur; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-03-30

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is important for efficient and timely therapeutic decision making. Due to globally spread bacterial resistance, the efficacy of antibiotics is increasingly being impeded. Conventional antibiotic tests rely on bacterial culture, which is time-consuming and can lead to potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescription and up-front broad range of antibiotic use. There is an urgent need to develop point-of-care platform technologies to rapidly detect pathogens, identify the right antibiotics, and monitor mutations to help adjust therapy. Here, we report a biosensor for rapid (<90 min), real time, and label-free bacteria isolation from whole blood and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Target bacteria are captured on flexible plastic-based microchips with printed electrodes using antibodies (30 min), and its electrical response is monitored in the presence and absence of antibiotics over an hour of incubation time. We evaluated the microchip with Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as clinical models with ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, and methicillin antibiotics. The results are compared with the current standard methods, i.e. bacteria viability and conventional antibiogram assays. The technology presented here has the potential to provide precise and rapid bacteria screening and guidance in clinical therapies by identifying the correct antibiotics for pathogens.

  16. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  17. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination.

  18. Rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis using bioluminescent reporter phage

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, David A.; Molineux, Ian J.; Westwater, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis is paramount for a positive prognosis. We previously engineered a Y. pestis-specific ‘bioluminescent’ reporter phage for the identification of Y. pestis. In this study, we generated an improved reporter phage and evaluated the ability of this phage to provide direct and rapid susceptibility testing. Compared to the first generation reporter, the second generation reporter exhibited a 100-fold increase in signal strength, leading to a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. Y. pestis antimicrobial testing in the presence of the reporter elicited bioluminescent signals that were drug concentration-dependent, and produced susceptibility profiles that mirrored the standard CLSI method. The phage-generated susceptibility profiles, however, were obtained within hours in contrast to days with the conventional method. PMID:22579583

  19. Rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis using bioluminescent reporter phage.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David A; Molineux, Ian J; Westwater, Caroline

    2012-08-01

    The rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Yersinia pestis is paramount for a positive prognosis. We previously engineered a Y. pestis-specific 'bioluminescent' reporter phage for the identification of Y. pestis. In this study, we generated an improved reporter phage and evaluated the ability of this phage to provide direct and rapid susceptibility testing. Compared to the first generation reporter, the second generation reporter exhibited a 100-fold increase in signal strength, leading to a 10-fold increase in assay sensitivity. Y. pestis antimicrobial testing in the presence of the reporter elicited bioluminescent signals that were drug concentration-dependent, and produced susceptibility profiles that mirrored the standard CLSI method. The phage-generated susceptibility profiles, however, were obtained within hours in contrast to days with the conventional method.

  20. Rapid identification of Listeria spp.: an AOAC performance test of the MIT 1000 rapid microbial identification system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods that rapidly confirm the identification of foodborne pathogens are highly desired. The Micro Imaging Technology (MIT) 1000 Rapid Microbial Identification (RMID) System is a benchtop instrument that detects laser light scattered from individual bacterial cells in solution with an array of 35 ...

  1. Proposed screening test for central auditory disorders: follow-up on the dichotic digits test.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E; Gollegly, K M; Kibbe, K S; Verkest-Lenz, S B

    1991-03-01

    A follow-up report on the dichotic digits test (DDT) demonstrates that this procedure has good sensitivity to central auditory nervous system (CANS) pathology while remaining relatively resistant to mild-to-moderate high-frequency cochlear hearing loss. The DDT's test-retest reliability and short administration time make it an attractive screening procedure for CANS disorders.

  2. Evaluation of Dengue NS1 Antigen Rapid Tests and ELISA Kits Using Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subhamoy; Dauner, Allison L.; Mitra, Indrani; Forshey, Brett M.; Garcia, Paquita; Morrison, Amy C.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1) has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) targeting NS1 antigen (Ag) are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i) “Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP” and (ii) “Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA” (Bio-Rad, France), (iii) “Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation)” and (iv) “DENV Detect NS1 ELISA” (InBios International, United States), (v) “Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation)” (vi) “Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation)” and (vii) “SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test” (Alere, United States). Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%–79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6–95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3–4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%–100%. Conclusions ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care. PMID:25412170

  3. Proposed pyrometallurgical process for rapid recycle of discharged fuel materials from the integral fast reactor. [Metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.; Steindler, M.; Miller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The pool-type Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site recycle of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process and fabrication steps will be demonstrated in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility with IFR fuel irradiated in EBR-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. The proposed process consists of two major steps: a halide slagging step and an electrorefining step. The fuel is maintained in the metallic form to yield directly a metal product sufficiently decontaminated to allow recycle to the reactor as new fuel. The process is further described and available information to support its feasibility is presented.

  4. Proposed new damp heat test standards for commercial CIGS modules with bias application or light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Keiichiro; Tomita, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kinichi; Schmitz, Darshan; Shibata, Hajime; Tokuda, Shuuji; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Based on our results that conventional damp-heat (DDH) test on a commercial CCIGS (a.k.a. CCIS, CIGSS) module causes an irreversible "Test-specific" degradation (TSD) that is not observed in modules deployed in fields, we propose a new option for DDH testing of CIGS modules. We have tested full-size CIGS modules with/without forward bias, light irradiation and humidity during heat tests. The results clearly show that adding forward bias, or white light irradiation during DH tests suppresses this irreversible degradation. Based on these results, we have proposed to add forward bias and/or light irradiation during DH tests of CIGS modules, to make the test condition closer to real fields and suppress degradations not observed in the field.

  5. Proposed noncryogenic, nondrag-free test of the equivalence principle in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Bramanti, D.; Catastini, G.; Polacco, E.; Genta, G.; Brusa, E.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.; Cook, A. J.; Hough, J.; Roxburgh, I. W.; Polnarev, A.; Flury, W.; Barlier, F.; Marchal, C.

    1998-04-01

    Ever since Galileo scientists have known that all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass and composition. Known as the Universality of Free Fall, this is the most direct experimental evidence of the Weak Equivalence Principle, a founding pillar of General Relativity according to which the gravitational (passive) mass mg and the inertial mass mi are always in the same positive ratio in all test bodies. A space experiment offers two main advantages: a signal about a factor of a thousand bigger than on Earth and the absence of weight. A new space mission named GALILEO GALILEI (GG) has been proposed (Nobili et al., 1995 [J. Astronautical Sciences, 43, 219]; GALILEO GALILEI (GG), PRE PHASE A REPORT, ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), September 1996) aimed at testing the weak Equivalence Principle (EP) to 1 part in 10 17 in a rapidly spinning (5 Hz) drag-free spacecraft at room temperature, the most recent ground experiments having reached the level of 10 -12 (Adelberger et al., 1990 [PhRvD, 42, 3267]; Su et al., 1994 [PhRvD, 50, 3614]). Here we present a nondrag-free version of GG which could reach a sensitivity of 1 part in 10 16. The main feature of GG is that, similarly to the most recent ground experiments, the expected (low frequency) signal is modulated at higher frequency by spinning the system, in this case by rotating the test bodies (in the shape of hollow cylinders) around their symmetry axes, the signal being in the perpendicular plane. They are mechanically suspended inside the spacecraft and have very low frequencies of natural oscillation (due to the weakness of the springs that can be used because of weightlessness) so as to allow self-centering of the axes; vibrational noise around the spin/signal frequency is attenuated by means of mechanical suspensions. The signal of an EP violation would appear at the spin frequency as a relative ( differential) displacement of the test masses perpendicularly to the spin axis, and be detected

  6. Evaluation of a commercial latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Salmonella in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Bänffer, J R; van Zwol-Saarloos, J A; Broere, L J

    1993-08-01

    A latex agglutination test for the detection of salmonella in feces was evaluated in comparison to direct culture and enriched culture using both artificially inoculated samples and clinical samples. In the samples inoculated artificially with different concentrations of salmonella (10(1) to 10(5) per gram) the enriched culture performed better only at the 10(2) level in 0.4 g samples, whereas the latex test performed as well as the enriched culture at all levels in 4 g samples. In the tests using clinical samples, there was no significant difference between results of the latex test performed in 2283 samples and the enriched culture performed in 2072 samples. The sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values of the latex test were 88.2%, 98%, 97.5% and 63% respectively. The test provided results rapidly but yielded a number of false positive results.

  7. 78 FR 60287 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing Communications on Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an...

  8. Water table tests of proposed heat transfer tunnels for small turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Water-table flow tests were conducted for proposed heat-transfer tunnels which were designed to provide uniform flow into their respective test sections of a single core engine turbine vane and a full annular ring of helicopter turbine vanes. Water-table tests were also performed for the single-vane test section of the core engine tunnel. The flow in the heat-transfer tunnels was shown to be acceptable.

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic test and the rapid plasma reagin test for antenatal syphilis screening in Mozambique.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Brentlinger, Paula E.; Blanco, Ana J.; Floriano, Florencia; Sairosse, Josefa; Gloyd, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Programmes to control syphilis in developing countries are hampered by a lack of laboratory services, delayed diagnosis, and doubts about current screening methods. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the combined gold standard (RPR, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay and direct immunofluorescence stain done at a reference laboratory) for the detection of syphilis in pregnancy. METHODS: We included test results from 4789 women attending their first antenatal visit at one of six health facilities in Sofala Province, central Mozambique. We compared diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of ICS and RPR done at the health facilities and ICS performed at the reference laboratory. We also made subgroup comparisons by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria status. FINDINGS: For active syphilis, the sensitivity of the ICS was 95.3% at the reference laboratory, and 84.1% at the health facility. The sensitivity of the RPR at the health facility was 70.7%. Specificity and positive and negative predictive values showed a similar pattern. The ICS outperformed RPR in all comparisons (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of the ICS compared favourably with that of the gold standard. The use of the ICS in Mozambique and similar settings may improve the diagnosis of syphilis in health facilities, both with and without laboratories. PMID:16501726

  10. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  11. Assessment of Accelerated Tests Compared to Beachfront Test and Proposed Evaluation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    corrosion tests to beachfront test NCAP Data Assessment Data set includes: – 4 aluminum alloys: 2024, 7075, 2219 , 5083 – 9 conversion coatings...2024-T3 Alodine 1600 2024-T3 TCP-IC 7075- T6 Alodine 1600 7075- T6 TCP-IC 18 Months Exposure at KSC 20X view of surface As is Cleaned Unpainted Corrosion ...Certification Program (ESTCP) funded project entitled “Non-Chromate Aluminum Pretreatments” (NCAP) – Funding began in 2000, ended 2004 for Phase I

  12. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

    PubMed

    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  13. Rapid inoculum standardization system: a novel device for standardization of inocula in antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, J H; Nelson, R L; Krejcarek, G E

    1983-01-01

    A rapid inoculum standardization system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing without incubation or the conventional turbidity adjustment has been developed. The rapid inoculum standardization system consists of a plastic rod with cross-hatched grooves on one end and a specific nutrient medium in a vial. The crosshatched grooves are designed to pick up and release a known number of viable microorganisms. In use, the end of the rod is touched to five colonies 1 to 2 mm in diameter from a primary agar plate, thus filling the grooves with bacteria. The rod is placed into the vial, and the bacteria are suspended in the medium by agitation with a Vortex Genie Mixer. The resulting suspension contains 5 X 10(7) to 5 X 10(8) CFU/ml for most gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. Microorganisms such as streptococci that have colonies less than 1 mm in diameter require as many as 10 colonies for an adequate inoculum suspension. Ninety-five commonly encountered bacterial isolates were tested in triplicate by agar plate counts. The resulting overall geometric mean of the agar plate counts was 1.52 X 10(8) CFU/ml for the species tested. We have found that the rapid inoculum standardization system provides a consistent and reproducible method for the standardization of inoculum for antimicrobial susceptibility testing without the incubation period and turbidity adjustment. Images PMID:6874902

  14. How Do Patients and Health Workers Interact around Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing, and How Are the Tests Experienced by Patients in Practice? A Qualitative Study in Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Altaras, Robin; Nuwa, Anthony; Agaba, Bosco; Streat, Elizabeth; Tibenderana, James K.; Martin, Sandrine; Strachan, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Successful scale-up in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) requires that patients accept testing and treatment based on RDT results and that healthcare providers treat according to test results. Patient-provider communication is a key component of quality care, and leads to improved patient satisfaction, higher adherence to treatment and better health outcomes. Voiced or perceived patient expectations are also known to influence treatment decision-making among healthcare providers. While there has been a growth in literature on provider practices around rapid testing for malaria, there has been little analysis of inter-personal communication around the testing process. We investigated how healthcare providers and patients interact and engage throughout the diagnostic and treatment process, and how the testing service is experienced by patients in practice. Methods This research was conducted alongside a larger study which explored determinants of provider treatment decision-making following negative RDT results in a rural district (Kibaale) in mid-western Uganda, ten months after RDT introduction. Fifty-five patients presenting with fever were observed during routine outpatient visits at 12 low-level public health facilities. Observation captured communication practices relating to test purpose, results, diagnosis and treatment. All observed patients or caregivers were immediately followed up with in-depth interview. Analysis followed the ‘framework’ approach. A summative approach was also used to analyse observation data. Results Providers failed to consistently communicate the reasons for carrying out the test, and particularly to RDT-negative patients, a diagnostic outcome or the meaning of test results, also leading to confusion over what the test can detect. Patients appeared to value testing, but were frustrated by the lack of communication on outcomes. RDT-negative patients were dissatisfied by the absence of information on an

  15. Making species salinity sensitivity distributions reflective of naturally occurring communities: using rapid testing and Bayesian statistics.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Graeme L; Kefford, Ben J; Dunlop, Jason E; Craig, Peter S

    2008-11-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) may accurately predict the proportion of species in a community that are at hazard from environmental contaminants only if they contain sensitivity data from a large sample of species representative of the mix of species present in the locality or habitat of interest. With current widely accepted ecotoxicological methods, however, this rarely occurs. Two recent suggestions address this problem. First, use rapid toxicity tests, which are less rigorous than conventional tests, to approximate experimentally the sensitivity of many species quickly and in approximate proportion to naturally occurring communities. Second, use expert judgements regarding the sensitivity of higher taxonomic groups (e.g., orders) and Bayesian statistical methods to construct SSDs that reflect the richness (or perceived importance) of these groups. Here, we describe and analyze several models from a Bayesian perspective to construct SSDs from data derived using rapid toxicity testing, combining both rapid test data and expert opinion. We compare these new models with two frequentist approaches, Kaplan-Meier and a log-normal distribution, using a large data set on the salinity sensitivity of freshwater macroinvertebrates from Victoria (Australia). The frequentist log-normal analysis produced a SSD that overestimated the hazard to species relative to the Kaplan-Meier and Bayesian analyses. Of the Bayesian analyses investigated, the introduction of a weighting factor to account for the richness (or importance) of taxonomic groups influenced the calculated hazard to species. Furthermore, Bayesian methods allowed us to determine credible intervals representing SSD uncertainty. We recommend that rapid tests, expert judgements, and novel Bayesian statistical methods be used so that SSDs reflect communities of organisms found in nature.

  16. Performance of rapid-test kits for the detection of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Kuo, Yung-Bin; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chau, Shao-Wen; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2011-05-01

    The early detection of pandemic influenza strains is a key factor for clinicians in treatment decisions and infection control practices. The aims of this study were to determine the analytical sensitivity and clinical performance of the commercially available influenza rapid tests in Taiwan. Four rapid tests for influenza virus (BinaxNow test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Formosa Rapid test) were evaluated for their detection limit against four influenza viruses (the 2009 pandemic influenza A virus H1N1, seasonal influenza virus H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B virus) circulating in Taiwan. The viral load of these isolates were quantified by rtRT-PCR and then diluted 2-fold serially for the comparison. The lowest detectable viral load of the pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 by the Formosa Rapid test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Binax Now test was 5.3×10(4), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(5), and 4.2×10(5)copies/μL, respectively. Of these four tests, the two most sensitive tests (the QuickVue test and the Formosa Rapid test) were chosen to evaluate 62 nasopharyngeal specimens from patients who were suspected of infection with pandemic influenza A virus H1N1. The positive rate for the Formosa Rapid test and the QuickVue test were 53.2% (33/62) and 45.2% (28/62) (McNemar's test, P=0.125), respectively. In conclusion, the Formosa Rapid test was the most sensitive test in the present study for the detection of influenza antigens and its clinical performance was similar to that of the QuickVue test (Kappa=0.776). This suggests that the Formosa Rapid test could be used to aid clinical decision making in primary health care settings during outbreaks of influenza.

  17. Validation of a rapid conductimetric test for the measurement of wine tartaric stability.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Motta, Silvia; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Asproudi, Andriani; Panero, Loretta

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed at optimizing a rapid and reproducible conductivity test for the evaluation of wine tartaric stability, in order to improve the practices for the prevention of tartaric precipitations during bottle aging. The test consists in measuring the drop of conductivity in wines kept under stirring for a fixed time, at low temperature, after the addition of micronized potassium bitartrate crystals (KHT). An experimental design was planned to study three factors affecting the test: temperature, duration and dose of added potassium bitartrate. A standard protocol was defined to produce a micronized potassium bitartrate starting from available commercial products, since the dimensions of the crystals can affect the final conductivity values. After the choice of the best conditions the method was validated. Two different stability thresholds were defined for white wines and for red/rosé wines by comparing the results of the mini-contact test with those of the cold test.

  18. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Production Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. 4 Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Build/Test Build on SpaceX ...Multiengine Approach SpaceX ) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA clearance # 15122. Engines: Merlin 1D on Falcon 9 v1.1 (Photo 5...to utilize features of high performance engines advances and the economies of scale of the multi-engine approach of SpaceX Falcon 9 – Rapid Prototype

  19. [Benefits of using rapid HIV testing at the PMU-FLON walk-in clinic in Lausanne].

    PubMed

    Gilgien, W; Aubert, J; Bischoff, T; Herzig, L; Perdrix, J

    2012-05-16

    Lab tests are frequently used in primary care to guide patient care. This is particularly the case when a severe disorder, or one that will affect patients' initial care, needs to be excluded rapidly. At the PMU-FLON walk-in clinic the use of HIV testing as recommended by the Swiss Office of Public Health was hampered by the delay in obtaining test results. This led us to introduce rapid HIV testing which provides results within 30 minutes. Following the first 250 tests the authors discuss the results as well as the benefits of rapid HIV testing in an urban walk-in clinic.

  20. 4. PROPOSED C1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PROPOSED C-1 ASSEMBLY AND TESTING FACILITIES FOR THE ORDINANCE GUIDED MISSILE CENTER AT REDSTONE ARSENAL, NEAR THE SOUTH END OF MADKIN MOUNTAIN. OCTOBER 1950, HANNES LUEHRSEN COLLECTION, MSFC MASTER PLANNING OFFICE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  2. Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Kadeba, Myriam T.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

  3. Sodium chloride-esculin hydrolysis test for rapid identification of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Qadri, S M; Flournoy, D J; Qadri, S G

    1987-06-01

    The ability of enterococci to cause severe disease in humans and their relative resistance to chemotherapeutic agents make it desirable to rapidly differentiate these organisms from other streptococci. We developed and evaluated a test that within 2 h distinguishes enterococci from other alpha-, beta-, or nonhemolytic streptococci in a buffered solution containing 0.2% esculin and 5% sodium chloride. All 239 strains of enterococci tested gave a positive reaction within 2 h, whereas 95 of 96 isolates of other streptococci remained negative at 4 h.

  4. Preparation of a blood culture pellet for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-10-15

    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  5. Preparation of a Blood Culture Pellet for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections. PMID:25350577

  6. Comparison of Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Hess, Kristen L.; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L.; Cummins, Catherine A.; Alonzo, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%–70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results. OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%–96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%–96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%–95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%–96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%–85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%–87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%–100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%–99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions. The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those

  7. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  8. The use of the rapid exchange grip test in detecting sincerity of effort, Part II: validity of the test.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, O; Taylor, C

    2000-01-01

    The rapid exchange grip (REG) test was developed to identify patients exerting insincere effort. The premise of the REG test is that a maximal, sincere effort yields a "negative REG," in which peak static grip (SG) scores are greater than peak REG scores, and that a submaximal, insincere effort yields a "positive REG," in which REG scores are greater than SG scores. There is disagreement in the literature concerning what constitutes a positive REG test, suggesting that the REG may not be a valid measure of sincerity of effort. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the REG test by examining its premise as well as its sensitivity and specificity values. The 146 uninjured subjects performed a series of randomized grip strength tests, exerting both maximal and submaximal efforts. The tests included the REG at hand switch rates of 45 rpm (REG-45) and 60 rpm (REG-60), the maximal static grip test (MSGT), and the five-rung test (5R). Our findings supported the concept of a "negative REG" for both REG maneuvers and both comparative SG tests. The concept of a "positive REG," however, was supported only when peak REG scores were compared with peak 5R scores. The authors found relatively low sensitivity and specificity values, suggesting that the REG test may not be sensitive or specific enough to effectively detect sincerity of effort. The authors discuss the likelihood that mistakes will be made when the REG test is used to diagnose sincerity of effort and the possible consequences of making such mistakes.

  9. The use of rapid diagnostic tests for transfusion infectious screening in Africa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Cristina R; Vermeulen, Marion; Zacharias, Pete; Ingram, Charlotte; Tayou Tagny, Claude; Bloch, Evan M

    2015-01-01

    Infectious risk associated with blood transfusion remains a major public health challenge in Africa, where prevalence rates of the major transfusion-transmissible infections (ie, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis) are among the highest in the world. Resource-limited blood services often operate with minimal predonation screening safeguards, prompting exclusive reliance on laboratory testing to mitigate infectious risk. Transfusion screening with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been adopted in areas that lack the capacity to support the routine use of more sophisticated technologies. However, uncertainty surrounding the performance of some RDTs in the field has spurred debate regarding their application to blood donation screening. Our review of the literature identified 17 studies that evaluated RDTs for the infectious screening of blood donors in Africa. The review highlights the variable performance of available RDTs and the importance of their use in a quality-assured manner. Deficiencies in performance observed with some RDTs underscore the need to validate test kits prior to use under field conditions with locally acquired samples. Suboptimal sensitivities of some available tests, specifically hepatitis B virus rapid assays, question their suitability in single-test algorithms, particularly in high-prevalence regions. Although RDTs have limitations, many of which can be addressed through improved training and quality systems, they are frequently the only viable option for infectious screening in resource-poor African countries. Therefore, additional studies and specific guidelines regarding the use of RDTs in the context of blood safety are needed.

  10. Rapid-Rate Compression Testing of Sheet Materials at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernett, E. C.; Gerberich, W. W.

    1961-01-01

    This Report describes the test equipment that was developed and the procedures that were used to evaluate structural sheet-material compression properties at preselected constant strain rates and/or loads. Electrical self-resistance was used to achieve a rapid heating rate of 200 F/sec. Four materials were tested at maximum temperatures which ranged from 600 F for the aluminum alloy to 2000 F for the Ni-Cr-Co iron-base alloy. Tests at 0.1, 0.001, and 0.00001 in./in./sec showed that strain rate has a major effect on the measured strength, especially at the high temperatures. The tests, under conditions of constant temperature and constant compression stress, showed that creep deformation can be a critical factor even when the time involved is on the order of a few seconds or less. The theoretical and practical aspects of rapid-rate compression testing are presented, and suggestions are made regarding possible modifications of the equipment which would improve the over-all capabilities.

  11. Emerging Rapid Resistance Testing Methods for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Their Potential Impact on Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Zautner, Andreas E.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical and multidrug resistance, especially ESBL and carbapenemase expressing Enterobacteriaceae, is globally spreading. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve therapeutic success by calculated antibiotic therapy. Consequently, rapid antibiotic resistance testing is essential. Various molecular and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been introduced in diagnostic microbiology to speed up the providing of reliable resistance data. PCR- and sequencing-based approaches are the most expensive but the most frequently applied modes of testing, suitable for the detection of resistance genes even from primary material. Next generation sequencing, based either on assessment of allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms or on the detection of nonubiquitous resistance mechanisms might allow for sequence-based bacterial resistance testing comparable to viral resistance testing on the long term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), based on specific binding of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, provides a less expensive molecular bridging technique. It is particularly useful for detection of resistance mechanisms based on mutations in ribosomal RNA. Approaches based on MALDI-TOF-MS, alone or in combination with molecular techniques, like PCR/electrospray ionization MS or minisequencing provide the fastest resistance results from pure colonies or even primary samples with a growing number of protocols. This review details the various approaches of rapid resistance testing, their pros and cons, and their potential use for the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:25343142

  12. Increasing Early Diagnosis of HIV through Rapid Testing in a Street Outreach Program in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, J.; Hoyos, J.; Belza, M.J.; Álvarez, J.; Gutiérrez, J.; Neira-León, M.; Suárez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to analyze the results of a multicity program offering rapid HIV testing in a mobile unit in central locations. Between October 2006 and December 2007, 7138 persons were tested, providing a finger-prick blood sample and filling out a brief questionnaire while waiting for the results of the Determine® test. Seventy people were classified as reactive and 3 as indeterminate. Confirmatory test results were obtained for 83.6%. Of the 56 reactive persons contacted, 2 were confirmed as negative, giving a positive predictive value of 96.6%. Those tested were primarily men (60.6%), persons with university education (47.4%), and included a large percentage of immigrants (26.2%), especially from Latin America, and 37.3% were men who have sex with men (MSM). Forty-seven percent had ever been tested for HIV. Global HIV prevalence was 0.98% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.75–1.21), 1.59%, (CI: 1.21–1.97) in men and 0.19%, (CI: 0.02–0.35) in women. In the tree analysis the high prevalence node included Latin Americans with only primary studies (study level finished at least at the age of 12). Of the 64% HIV-positive tests in 2007 with available CD4 counts, 18.75% had CD4 counts under 350. Street-based mobile units offering rapid HIV testing in selected sites, may diagnose HIV at an earlier stage of infection than clinic-based sites, and have a low rate of false-positives. PMID:19591605

  13. Validation of a rapid DNA process with the RapidHIT(®) ID system using GlobalFiler(®) Express chemistry, a platform optimized for decentralized testing environments.

    PubMed

    Salceda, Susana; Barican, Arnaldo; Buscaino, Jacklyn; Goldman, Bruce; Klevenberg, Jim; Kuhn, Melissa; Lehto, Dennis; Lin, Frank; Nguyen, Phong; Park, Charles; Pearson, Francesca; Pittaro, Rick; Salodkar, Sayali; Schueren, Robert; Smith, Corey; Troup, Charles; Tsou, Dean; Vangbo, Mattias; Wunderle, Justus; King, David

    2017-05-01

    The RapidHIT(®) ID is a fully automated sample-to-answer system for short tandem repeat (STR)-based human identification. The RapidHIT ID has been optimized for use in decentralized environments and processes presumed single source DNA samples, generating Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)-compatible DNA profiles in less than 90min. The system is easy to use, requiring less than one minute of hands-on time. Profiles are reviewed using centralized linking software, RapidLINK™ (IntegenX, Pleasanton, CA), a software tool designed to collate DNA profiles from single or multiple RapidHIT ID systems at different geographic locations. The RapidHIT ID has been designed to employ GlobalFiler(®) Express and AmpFLSTR(®) NGMSElect™, Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) STR chemistries. The Developmental Validation studies were performed using GlobalFiler(®) Express with single source reference samples according to Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods guidelines. These results show that multiple RapidHIT ID systems networked with RapidLINK software form a highly reliable system for wide-scale deployment in locations such as police booking stations and border crossings enabling real-time testing of arrestees, potential human trafficking victims, and other instances where rapid turnaround is essential.

  14. Rapid home-based human immunodeficiency virus testing to reduce costs in a large tuberculosis cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, C.; Lecca, L.; Shin, S.; Lobatón, R.; Zhang, Z.; Calderón, R.; Murray, M.; Becerra, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing with home-based rapid HIV testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role-playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Although the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were lower with the home-based rapid testing strategy compared to the original approach. Rapid testing could be used in similar research or routine care settings. PMID:25580381

  15. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts.

  16. Rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18 by multiplex nested PCR-immunochromatographic test.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Bin; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are known to be high-risk viruses that cause cervical cancer. An HPV rapid testing kit that could help physicians to make early and more informed decisions regarding patient care is needed urgently but not yet available. This study aimed to develop a multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction-immunochromatographic test (PCR-ICT) for the rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18. A multiplex nested PCR was constructed to amplify the HPV 16 and 18 genotype-specific L1 gene fragments and followed by ICT which coated with antibodies to identify rapidly the different PCR products. The type-specific gene regions of high-risk HPV 16 and 18 could be amplified successfully by multiplex nested PCR at molecular sizes of approximately 99 and 101bp, respectively. The capture antibodies raised specifically against the moleculars labeled on the PCR products could be detected simultaneously both HPV 16 and 18 in one strip. Under optimal conditions, this PCR-ICT assay had the capability to detect HPV in a sample with as low as 100 copies of HPV viral DNA. The PCR-ICT system has the advantage of direct and simultaneous detection of two high-risk HPV 16 and 18 DNA targets in one sample, which suggested a significant potential of this assay for clinical application.

  17. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing for health information systems: is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Baylis, Tristin B; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    Usability testing is a step of the usability engineering process that focuses on analyzing and improving user interactions with computer systems. This study was designed to determine if an approach known as Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be introduced as a standard part of the system development lifecycle (SDLC) for health information syste ms in a cost effective manner by completing a full cost-benefit analysis of this testing technique. It was found that by introducing this technique into the system development lifecycle to allow for earlier detection of errors in a health information syste m it is possible for a health organization to achieve an estimated 36.5% to 78.5% cost savings compared to the impact of errors going undetected and potentially causing a technology-induced error. Overall it was found that Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be implemented in a cost effective manner to develop health information systems, and computer systems in general, which will have a lower incidence of technology-induced errors.

  18. 76 FR 13621 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), CDC, HHS, in collaboration with the National Truck Equipment... Retention System Dynamic Test--Proposed (draft), seeks to improve patient and litter retention during crash... Recommended Practice, Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity--Frontal Impact...

  19. Inversion of the acetabular labrum triggers rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: representative case report and proposed etiology.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2014-12-01

    The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is unknown. This study documented cases of inversion of the acetabular labrum, which has clinicoradiologic features similar to those of initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA. Our study was based on a prospective review of data for 9 patients with rapidly destructive hip OA. Intraoperative findings showed that the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum had inverted into the articular space, along with many fragments of articular cartilage, in all patients. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral heads were seen just under the inverted labra in 8 of the 9 patients. Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be involved in rapid joint-space narrowing and subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive hip OA.

  20. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology. PMID:26997474

  1. Rapid DNA haplotyping using a multiplex heteroduplex approach: application to Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier testing.

    PubMed

    Prior, T W; Wenger, G D; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Bartolo, C; Moore, J W; Highsmith, W E

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy has been developed for rapid haplotype analysis based on an initial multiplex amplification of several polymorphic sites, followed by heteroduplex detection. Heteroduplexes formed between two different alleles are detected because they migrate differently than the corresponding homoduplexes in Hydrolink-MDE gel. This simple, rapid method does not depend on specific sequences such as restriction enzyme sites or CA boxes and does not require the use of isotope. This approach has been tested using commonly occurring polymorphisms spanning the dystrophin gene as a model. We describe the use of the method to assign the carrier status of females in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) pedigrees. The method may be used for other genetic diseases when mutations are unknown or there are few dinucleotide markers in the gene proximity, and for the identification of haplotype backgrounds of mutant alleles.

  2. Rapid CE-UV binding tests of environmentally hazardous compounds with polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Alsudir, Samar; Miah, Musharraf; Lai, Edward P C

    2011-08-01

    Hazardous compounds and bacteria in water have an adverse impact on human health and environmental ecology. Polydopamine (or polypyrrole)-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymethacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate submicron particles were investigated for their fast binding kinetics with bisphenol A, proflavine, naphthalene acetic acid, and Escherichia coli. A new method was developed for the rapid determination of % binding by sequential injection of particles first and compounds (or E. coli) next into a fused-silica capillary for overlap binding during electrophoretic migration. Only nanolitre volumes of compounds and particles were sufficient to complete a rapid binding test. After heterogeneous binding, separation of the compounds from the particles was afforded by capillary electrophoresis. % binding was influenced by applied voltage but not current flow. In-capillary coating of particles affected the % binding of compounds.

  3. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.

  4. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  5. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    PubMed

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings.

  6. State of the art syphilis diagnostics: rapid point-of-care tests.

    PubMed

    Kay, Natasha S; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David C

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis remains an important and entirely preventable cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. More than 1 million women with active syphilis become pregnant each year. Without treatment, 25% of them will deliver a stillborn baby, 33% will deliver a live low-birth weight baby with an increased chance of dying in the first month of life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes due to syphilis can be prevented by screening pregnant women, and treating those who test positive with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks gestation. Until recently access to screening in low- and middle-income countries has been limited, since screening tests have been laboratory based, requiring equipment, electricity and trained laboratory staff. Now a number of rapid, cheap, simple and accurate screening tests are available and can give a result in 15-20 min, enabling those who require treatment to be treated at their first visit.

  7. A rapid test for chitinase activity that uses 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, M; Colwell, R R

    1987-01-01

    A total of 101 strains of bacteria from environmental and clinical sources, most of which were gram negative, were tested for chitobiase activity by using a filter paper spot test with 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide as the substrate. The results were compared with those obtained by a conventional plate method for chitinase activity by using colloidal chitin as the substrate. There was excellent agreement in the results for both methods. The filter paper spot test with 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide has the advantages of being rapid, simple to perform, and inexpensive. This method should be adaptable to a wider range of microorganisms, particularly those with unusual growth requirements. PMID:3662513

  8. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  9. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  10. Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V. )

    1992-03-01

    A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

  11. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase.

  12. Determining the relative sensitivity of benthic diatoms to atrazine using rapid toxicity testing: a novel method.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides pose a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems, especially to phototrophic organisms such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms may be a valuable indicator of the toxic impacts of herbicides in aquatic systems. However, this requires information on the herbicide sensitivity of a wide range of freshwater benthic diatom taxa. Unfortunately this information is only available for a limited number of species as current methods of developing new algae toxicity tests on individual taxa are lengthy and costly. To address this issue, we developed a new rapid toxicity test method to test natural benthic communities, from which the relative herbicide sensitivity of many individual taxa can be derived. This involved the collection of natural benthic communities from rocks in situ, which were placed directly into laboratory toxicity tests. Sensitivity data for several diatom genera in a 48 hour exposure toxicity test were produced, without the need for cultures or multiple site visits. After exposure to the highest treatment of atrazine (500 μg L(-1)) there were significant declines of healthy cells in the most sensitive genera: Gomphonema declined by 74%, Amphora by 62%, Cymbella by 54% and Ulnaria by 34% compared to control levels. In contrast, the genera, Eunotia, Achnanthidium and Navicula, had no statistically significant decline in cell health. This method can identify the diatom taxa most at risk of herbicide toxicity within the natural benthic diatom community. The rapid toxicity testing method presented is a simple and effective method to obtain sensitivity data for multiple taxa within a natural benthic diatom community in a relatively short period of time.

  13. A Rapid Screening Test on Dried Blood for the Neonatal Diagnosis of Tyrosinemia Type I

    PubMed Central

    Bodaghkhan, Farahnaz; Geramizadeh, Bita; Rajeh, Abbas Abdollah; Haghighat, Mahmoud; Dehghani, Mohsen; Honar, Naser; Zahmatkeshan, Mojgan; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tyrosinemia is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of tyrosine and its metabolites in plasma. Without treatment, the disease will progress to hepatic and renal failure, so that without liver transplantation will cause death in less than 10 years of age. So, early diagnosis and treatment can be life saving and crucial. It means that with early treatment starting in the neonatal period, the patient can have normal life with very few restrictions in diets containing tyrosine and phenylalanine. Objectives: In this study we wanted to evaluate an easy to perform, rapid and sensitive qualitative test with low cost, as a part of neonatal screening tests to help early diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, during the study period (2013 - 2014), 100 patients were selected. Fifty three (53) of these patients had proven tyrosinemia and the other 47 cases biliary atresia, paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts, cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis, galactosemia and storage diseases. Results: There were 2 false negative and 14 false positive cases of hereditary tyrosinemia (HT-1) in the test. Six cases of biliary atresia, 7 cases of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and one patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis were falsely positive with the test. Sensitivity of the test was 96.23%, specificity 71.43%, positive predictive value (PPV) 78.46%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.59%. Conclusions: This rapid qualitative test on dried blood sample is an easy, cheap, and feasible method for the screening of hereditary tyrosinemia in neonatal period. PMID:28203327

  14. Guided-mode resonance sensors for rapid medical diagnostic testing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawro, D.; Ding, Y.; Gimlin, S.; Zimmerman, S.; Kearney, C.; Pawlowski, K.; Magnusson, R.

    2009-02-01

    A new tag-free photonic resonance concept occurring on subwavelength waveguide gratings is applied for rapid medical testing applications. These high-resolution sensors operate in real time while being sensitive to a wide variety of analytes, including microbials. This method does not require extensive processing steps, thus simplifying assay tests and enabling a rapid response (less than 30 minutes is possible). In this work, a sensor system that uses a single, fixed-wavelength source with a shaped input wavefront to auto-scan in angle has been developed. As binding events occur at the sensor surface, shifts in a resonance reflection peak (or a corresponding transmission minimum) are tracked as a function of incident angle. The amount of angular shift is correlated to the quantity of analyte in the test sample. Due to inherent polarization diversity, two narrow peaks shift their positions on the sensor surface when a bioreaction occurs, thereby providing cross-referenced data. The sensor system connects to portable interfaces for data acquisition and analysis by dedicated software codes. A portable guided-mode resonance sensor system prototype has been developed. Its performance for the detection of the microbial S. aureus in buffer and rat serum is presented in this paper.

  15. Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotrophin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, J C; Kelly, T; MacLean, A B; McAllister, E J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of a sensitive one step urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with suspected complications of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Test on women presenting to accident and emergency department with gynaecological problems over six months. Results were validated using a quantitative assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. SETTING--Accident and emergency department and gynaecology wards of a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--130 unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin by one step test, presence of ectopic pregnancy, and results of quantitative analysis of chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. RESULTS--79 women had a positive urine test result and 51 a negative result. All 12 women with ectopic pregnancy had a positive test result, although urinary concentration varied from 191 IU/l to 47,800 IU/l. Only one woman, who had a faintly positive result, was found not to be pregnant on subsequent examination. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the urine test were 100% respectively. 33 women were sent home from the accident and emergency department with normal clinical findings after a negative urine test result. All these women had undetectable concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin in matched samples of urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS--A simple, rapid one step test for chorionic gonadotrophin should be available for the initial evaluation of emergency gynaecological problems. The additional cost of the test is offset by not admitting those patients whose clinical findings are normal and who have a negative urine test result and by reducing the number of women requiring quantitative assays of chorionic gonadotrophin. Images FIG 1 PMID:2059687

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  17. Prospective evaluation of rapid antigen tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements.

  18. Prospective Evaluation of Rapid Antigen Tests for Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements. PMID:18337386

  19. Internal Production versus External Exchange - A Proposal for an Empirical Test of the Transaction Cost Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    factors may mitigate against the hypothesized relationships. As a final comment, I wish to stress that the emphasis of this proposal lies on theory ...development and how empirically test that theory . I do not yet have results. My main ef- fort lay in the elaboration and operationalization of the 3 theory ...developped theory accompanied by an appropriate empirical test will allow in- sight and depth for the interpretation of the findings. VJ 4 2

  20. Implementation science in the real world: a case study of HIV rapid testing.

    PubMed

    Knapp, H; Anaya, H D

    2013-01-01

    Implementation science theories offer technical principles for carrying out activities designed to create or improve systems; however, such theories tend not to provide pragmatic or streamlined guidance when it comes to executing the actual implementation. We assembled a streamlined and comprehensive six-step theory-based implementation science model (ADAPTS - Assessment, Deliverables, Activate, Pretraining, Training, Sustainability) derived from the methods we have used to successfully execute multiple self-sustaining implementation efforts within the Veteran's Affairs Healthcare System. This paper provides a case study of our ADAPTS implementation science model, using a complex multisite HIV rapid testing implementation project as an exemplar.

  1. Evaluation of Pyloriset Dry, a new rapid agglutination test for Helicobacter pylori antibody detection.

    PubMed Central

    Lozniewski, A; De Korwin, J D; Conroy, M C; Plenat, F; Weber, M

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new latex agglutination test, Pyloriset Dry (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland), in the simultaneous detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and compared it with that of the Pyloristat test (BioWhittaker, Fontenay-sous-Bois, France), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting IgG to H. pylori, for 96 untreated dyspeptic patients who had undergone gastroduodenal endoscopy. Infection was diagnosed in 56 cases by positive culture and/or positive Giemsa stain and rapid urease test (antral biopsies) and was associated with chronic gastritis in 52 patients. Forty noninfected patients did not have chronic gastritis. The sensitivity of Pyloriset Dry was 91.1%. The sensitivity of Pyloristat was 91.1 or 82.1%, depending on whether equivocal results were considered positive or negative, respectively. Both tests had a specificity of 87.5%. Their performances were not statistically different. Thus, Pyloriset Dry is an alternative to serological tests for adults, particularly when a small number of serum samples has to be tested. PMID:8784587

  2. Increasing use of rapid HIV testing in labor and delivery among women with no prenatal care: a local initiative.

    PubMed

    Levison, Judy; Williams, Lena T; Moore, Anna; McFarlane, Jenny; Davila, Jessica A

    2011-08-01

    Pregnant women who do not receive prenatal care and may not be aware of their HIV status are at greatest risk of transmitting HIV to their newborn. A multi-component intervention was designed and implemented to increase the use of rapid HIV testing among pregnant women with no prenatal care at labor and delivery in two county hospitals in Houston/Harris County, Texas. The intervention involved establishing a local task force including representatives from each hospital, assessing each hospital's readiness to implement rapid testing, providing educational presentations and materials, and offering individualized follow-up. Outcomes data were obtained and included the number of patients presenting with no prenatal care who received rapid HIV testing on admission. Before the intervention, both hospitals had rapid test kits available but were not using them consistently. Following the intervention, we observed a significant increase in the use of rapid HIV testing at both institutions (P < 0.001). In the 3 months immediately following the intervention, use of rapid testing at Hospital 1 increased from 7.4 to 35.3% and at Hospital 2 from 27.4 to 41.5%. At 1 year, almost 100% of women with no prenatal care at both hospitals received rapid testing. Educating staff and clinicians and implementing system-wide changes may facilitate behavior change regarding prenatal HIV testing.

  3. Multilaboratory Validation of Rapid Spot Tests for Identification of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    York, Mary K.; Baron, Ellen Jo; Clarridge, Jill E.; Thomson, Richard B.; Weinstein, Melvin P.

    2000-01-01

    To validate the accuracy of rapid tests for identification of Escherichia coli, five laboratories sequentially collected 1,064 fresh, clinically significant strains with core criteria of indole-positive, oxidase-negative, nonspreading organisms on sheep blood agar plates (BAP), having typical gram-negative rod plate morphology, defined as good growth on gram-negative rod-selective media. An algorithm using beta-hemolysis on BAP, lactose reaction on eosin-methylene blue or MacConkey agar, l-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG) was evaluated. Identifications using the algorithm were compared to those obtained using commercial kit system identifications. One thousand strains were E. coli and 64 were not E. coli by kit identifications, which were supplemented with conventional biochemical testing of low probability profiles. Of the 1,064 isolates meeting the core criteria, 294 were beta-hemolytic and did not require further testing to be identified as E. coli. None of the 64 non-E. coli strains were hemolytic, although other indole-positive, lactose-negative species were found to be hemolytic when further strains were examined in a follow-up study. Of the remaining strains, 628 were identified as E. coli by a lactose-positive and PYR-negative reaction. For nonhemolytic, lactose-negative E. coli, PYR was not helpful, but a positive MUG reaction identified 65 of 78 isolates as E. coli. The remaining 13 E. coli strains required kit identifications. This scheme for E. coli identification misidentified three non-E. coli strains as E. coli, for an error rate of 0.3%. A total of 13 kit identifications, 657 PYR tests, and 113 MUG tests were needed to identify 1,000 E. coli strains with the algorithm. The use of this rapid system saves laboratory resources, provides timely identifications, and yields rare misidentifications. PMID:10970389

  4. Rapid screening for soil ecotoxicity with a battery of luminescent bacteria tests.

    PubMed

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Kurvet, Imbi; Waterlot, Cristophe; Sepp, Kalev; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Douay, Francis

    2007-03-01

    A bacterial test battery, involving i) Microtox, an aquatic test, ii) the Flash assay, a soil-suspension test (with Vibrio fischeri as the test organism), and iii) the Metal Detector assay, a semi-specific aquatic test for heavy metals (with recombinant luminescent Escherichia coli), was used in a combined toxicological and chemical hazard assessment of Estonian soils sampled from a former Soviet military airfield (13 samples) and from traffic-influenced roadsides (5 samples). The soils showed slightly elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), but not of heavy metals. In most of the samples, the levels of TPH did not exceed the Estonian permitted limit values set for residential areas. Toxicity testing was performed on both fresh and dried soils, after aqueous extraction for 1 hour and 24 hours. The toxicity results obtained with the Microtox test did not significantly differ in all of the sample treatment schemes; however, it appeared that the drying and sieving of the soils increased the bioavailability of toxicants, probably due to an enlarged reactive soil surface area. According to chemical analysis of the soils and the data from the Microtox test and the Metal Detector assay (performed on aqueous elutriates of the soils), these soils would not be considered to be hazardous. In contrast, the Flash assay performed on soil-water suspensions of dried soils, showed that most of the soils were toxic and thus probably contained undetermined particle-bound bioavailable toxicants. The photobacterial toxicity test (the Flash assay) can be recommended for the rapid screening of soils, as it is sensitive, cheap and inexpensive, and provides valuable information on particle-bound bioavailable toxicants, useful for complementing a chemical analysis and for assessing the risks originating from polluted soils.

  5. NCLB Plan Would Add New Rules: Spellings Proposes Changes on Testing, Tutoring, Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In a comprehensive action intended to change how the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) law is carried out, the U.S. Secretary of Education formally proposed a package of new regulations that would require state and local school officials to provide more and better information about high school graduation rates, student test performance, and the…

  6. Testing the Construct Validity of Proposed Criteria for "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandy, William P. L.; Charman, Tony; Skuse, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the proposed "DSM-5" symptom model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison to alternative models, including that described in "DSM-IV-TR." Method: Participants were 708 verbal children and young persons (mean age, 9.5 years) with mild to severe autistic…

  7. Proposal of an optimized strategy for intraoperative testing of speech and language during awake mapping.

    PubMed

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature about the definitions of errors observed by direct electrical stimulation during language testing. As a practical application, we propose an optimized strategy for differentiating accurately motor arrest, speech arrest, and anomia in the context of intraoperative mapping. Finally, we also discuss the anatomical correlates of the networks sustaining these different errors, both cortically and axonally.

  8. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test...@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the..., mail and in person interview. The Census Bureau seeks to explore alternative modes of contact...

  9. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test...@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the..., mail and in person interview. The Census Bureau seeks to explore alternative modes of contact...

  10. Applications of a Rapid and Sensitive Dengue DUO Rapid Immunochromatographic Test Kit as a Diagnostic Strategy during a Dengue Type 2 Epidemic in an Urban City

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lin, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Sung, Tzu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A prospective observational study in a university-affiliated hospital was conducted between August 2015 and September 2015. Patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with a presentation of any symptoms of dengue were eligible for the dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM/IgG rapid immunochromatographic tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests. Considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard for the dengue diagnosis, the ideal primary results of sensitivity (80–100%), specificity (60–84%), positive predicted value(75%-95%), and negative predicted value (70–100%) suggested that the NS1-based test with or without a combination of IgM and IgG tests have good diagnostic performances in detecting dengue infections, even in the afebrile or elderly populations. PMID:27415767

  11. Assessment of Rapid Tests for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies in Recently Infected Individuals▿

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Liska, Sally; Hecht, Frederick; Dowling, Terri; Obeso, Martha; Phillips, Susan S.; Pandori, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated four current Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies with a panel of specimens from recently infected individuals. Recent infection was detected by RNA-based screening coupled with enzyme immunoassay-based testing. We found that the sensitivities of the various rapid tests vary greatly with regard to their ability to detect HIV-specific antibodies in recently infected individuals. PMID:18234875

  12. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  13. The administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip test: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, Orit; Goodall, Sara K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip (REG) test vary among hand therapists nationally. The REG is used to determine sincerity of effort of grip strength. There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding the administration and interpretation of the REG, as various studies use different testing protocols and diverse interpretation criteria for what constitutes a sincere effort. As a result, we expected to find a lack of standardization in the administration and interpretation of the REG in clinical practice. We conducted a random nationwide survey of 200 hand therapists. The questionnaire items regarding the administration of the REG included patient position, test instructions, handle settings, handling of the dynamometer, hand switch rate, number of repetitions, and techniques used to record the score. The items for the interpretation of the REG involved questions regarding comparative tests. We found that the REG test lacks standardized administration protocols and interpretation criteria among therapists nationwide. The lack of standardization is likely to affect the reliability and validity of the REG and to hinder the therapist's ability to accurately report its outcomes. The implications of lack of standardization in assessment techniques to the profession are discussed.

  14. A simple and rapid test of physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Albarrati, Ali Mufraih; Gale, Nichola S; Enright, Stephanie; Munnery, Margaret M; Cockcroft, John R; Shale, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    Impaired physical performance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its assessment can be difficult in routine clinical practice. We compared the timed up and go (TUG) test and other easily applied assessments of physical performance with the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). In a longitudinal study of comorbidities in COPD, submaximal physical performance was determined in 520 patients and 150 controls using the TUG test and 6MWD. Spirometry, body composition, handgrip strength, the COPD assessment test, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale were also determined. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and sex proportions. The TUG in the patients was greater than that in the control group, P=0.001, and was inversely related to 6MWD (r=−0.71, P<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in one second predicted (r=−0.19, P<0.01) and was directly related to the SGRQ activity (r=0.39, P<0.001), SGRQ total (r=0.37, P<0.001), and total COPD assessment test scores (r=0.37, P<0.001). The TUG identified the difference in physical performance between patients and controls. The TUG test and validated questionnaires provide a measure of physical performance, which is rapid and could be used in clinical practice. PMID:27536090

  15. Evaluation of a rapid IgM detection test for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lizer, J; Grahlmann, M; Hapke, H; Velineni, S; Lin, D; Kohn, B

    2017-02-24

    Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira-specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45). During acute phase of illness, LFA scored positive for 28/37 sera with a sensitivity of 75.7 per cent while only 9/37 (24.3 per cent) samples were positive on microscopic agglutination test. The specificity of the LFA was 98.3 per cent (59/60). This test showed 89.7 and 100 per cent overall agreements with clinical diagnosis for acute-phase and convalescent-phase sera, respectively. The impact of vaccination on the LFA was also determined and vaccine-stimulated IgM responses were negative in 19/25 (76 per cent) dogs at 12 weeks post vaccination. In conclusion, the LFA is a rapid and reliable test for early detection of Leptospira-specific IgM during acute phase of canine leptospirosis. However, interpretation of a positive result must be made in the context of clinical signs and vaccination history.

  16. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Irarrazábal, Lisette Paola; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Reed, Reiley; Levy, Judith; Pérez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT) to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants’ perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. Methods A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. Results The ELISA reported 184 (37%) of the 497 participants as being “positive” for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4%) as being “reactive” for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%–99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval) and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001). Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. Conclusions The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. PMID:23939368

  17. The latex agglutination test versus counterimmunoelectrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, Robert; Wort, Arthur J.; Casey, Stephanie

    1982-01-01

    A modified latex agglutination (LA) test was compared with Gram-staining and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the rapid detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of antigen to Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B and C, Escherichia coli K1, Streptococcus pneumoniae and group B streptococci, seven frequent causes of bacterial meningitis in children. Of 50 CSF samples from patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis 90% were correctly shown by the LA test to contain antigen of the responsible organism. Gram-staining revealed organisms in 80% of 45 of these samples. In 75% of the 40 samples that were of sufficient volume for CIE, positive results for the appropriate antigen were obtained. The concentration of antigen detected in the CSF by the LA test varied from undetectable to 800 000 ng/ml. Patients with a high concentration (more than 2000 ng/ml or a positive result at dilutions of CSF over 1/8) were significantly more likely to have a poor response to therapy (two died and two had persistent pleocytosis or bacteria in the CSF) than patients with a lower concentration (4/16 v. 0/18, P < 0.05). After appropriate therapy was begun the concentration of antigen fell dramatically, but measurable amounts of antigen persisted in the CSF for up to 6 days. The LA test detected bacterial antigen at concentrations 2 to 70 times below the lower limit detected by CIE. In seven additional patients who had received antibiotics before lumbar puncture was performed the LA test detected antigen from meningitis-causing bacteria even though cultures of the CSF were sterile. In another 145 patients who did not have meningitis the results of the LA test were negative. The LA test, done as described in this article, is easier to perform than CIE and should be a useful addition to the diagnostic tests carried out on the CSF of any patient suspected of having meningitis. PMID:6749272

  18. Diagnostic performance characteristics of a rapid field test for anthrax in cattle.

    PubMed

    Muller, Janine; Gwozdz, Jacek; Hodgeman, Rachel; Ainsworth, Catherine; Kluver, Patrick; Czarnecki, Jill; Warner, Simone; Fegan, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Although diagnosis of anthrax can be made in the field with a peripheral blood smear, and in the laboratory with bacterial culture or molecular based tests, these tests require either considerable experience or specialised equipment. Here we report on the evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a simple and rapid in-field diagnostic test for anthrax, the anthrax immunochromatographic test (AICT). The AICT detects the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin present within the blood of an animal that has died from anthrax. The test provides a result in 15min and offers the advantage of avoiding the necessity for on-site necropsy and subsequent occupational risks and environmental contamination. The specificity of the test was determined by testing samples taken from 622 animals, not infected with Bacillus anthracis. Diagnostic sensitivity was estimated on samples taken from 58 animals, naturally infected with B. anthracis collected over a 10-year period. All samples used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AICT were also tested using the gold standard of bacterial culture. The diagnostic specificity of the test was estimated to be 100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI) and the diagnostic sensitivity was estimated to be 93.1% (83.3-98.1%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Four samples produced false negative AICT results. These were among 9 samples, all of which tested positive for B. anthracis by culture, where there was a time delay between collection and testing of >48h and/or the samples were collected from animals that were >48h post-mortem. A statistically significant difference (P<0.001; Fishers exact test) was found between the ability of the AICT to detect PA in samples from culture positive animals <48h post-mortem, 49 of 49, Se=100% (92.8-100%; 95% CI) compared with samples tested >48h post-mortem 5 of 9 Se=56% (21-86.3%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Based upon these results a post hoc cut-off for use of

  19. Evaluation of the rapid RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® test in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Camarasa, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier Moises; Sampedro-Martínez, Antonio; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new rapid immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® (r-biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany) for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter antigens in pathologic feces from primary and specialist care patients. Three hundred feces samples were studied from patients with diarrhea, 50.6% from adults and 49.4% from children, which were received by our microbiology laboratory for coproculture. Campylobacter culture results, with or without PCR data, served as reference values for the comparative evaluation of RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® findings. Campylobacter was detected in 12.3% of samples. The diagnostic accuracy values of the RidaQuick Campylobacter® versus culture were: sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 97%, and positive and negative predictive values of 77% and 98%, respectively. RIDAQUICK Campylobacter® is a rapid test for the diagnosis of enteritis due to Campylobacter and could be an option for the clinical diagnosis of one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis in resource-limited settings.

  20. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  1. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  2. Accuracy of a new rapid antigen detection test for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Seifi, Mahnaz; Safavi, Enayat; Abdolrahimi, Farid; Shahriaran, Shahriyar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in the world. Treatment and control of TB needs detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) in the proper samples. While smear doesn’t have enough sensitivity, culture and PCR are expensive, time consuming and unavailable in many centers. Recent development of a rapid TB antigen detection test (PrTBK) at Pasteur Institute of Iran could give a simple way for diagnosis of TB in about two hours. In this test the antigen-antibody complex will change color when gold conjugated mouse anti-rabbit antibody detects specific MT cell wall antigen in suspected samples. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PrTBK for diagnosis of pulmonary TB in comparison with smear, culture and PCR techniques in 56 consecutive samples (47 BAL and 13 sputum samples) obtained from patients with clinical suspicion of active TB. Results: Twentynine patients (52%) were female and seven patients were HIV positive. PrTBK was positive in 17 culture positive and 4 culture negative samples (100% sensitivity, 89% specificity and 92% accuracy in comparison with culture method). In two out of four patients with negative culture who were positive for PrTBK, PCR and anti-tuberculosis drugs trial therapy responses were in favor of tuberculosis. If we take this finding into account, the accuracy of PrTBK will rise. Conclusion: High sensitivity and accuracy of PrTBK test enable us to initiate treatment on the basis of this convenient and rapid test. PMID:28210462

  3. Using a Multitest Algorithm to Improve the Positive Predictive Value of Rapid HIV Testing and Linkage to HIV Care in Nonclinical HIV Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Kevin P.; Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Facente, Shelley; Dowling, Teri; Janson, Mike; Knoble, Thomas; Vu, Annie; Hu, Yunyin W.; Kerndt, Peter R.; King, Jan; Scheer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of a rapid HIV testing algorithm (RTA) in which all tests are conducted within one client appointment could eliminate off-site confirmatory testing and reduce the number of persons not receiving confirmed results. Methods An RTA was implemented in 9 sites in Los Angeles and San Francisco; results of testing at these sites were compared with 23 sites conducting rapid HIV testing with off-site confirmation. RTA clients with reactive results on more than 1 rapid test were considered HIV+ and immediately referred for HIV care. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of a single rapid HIV test and the RTA were calculated compared with laboratory-based confirmatory testing. A Poisson risk regression model was used to assess the effect of RTA on the proportion of HIV+ persons linked to HIV care within 90 days of a reactive rapid test. Results The PPV of the RTA was 100% compared with 86.4% for a single rapid test. The time between testing and receipt of RTA results was on average 8 days shorter than laboratory-based confirmatory testing. For risk groups other than men who had sex with men, the RTA increased the probability of being in care within 90 days compared with standard testing practice. Conclusions The RTA increased the PPV of rapid testing to 100%, giving providers, clients, and HIV counselors timely information about a client’s HIV-positive serostatus. Use of RTA could reduce loss to follow-up between testing positive and confirmation and increase the proportion of HIV-infected persons receiving HIV care. PMID:26284530

  4. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1994-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of HIV infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The AIDS patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. We proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis.

  5. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  6. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  7. Multicenter Pivotal Clinical Trial of Urine Malaria Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ezeigwe, Nnenna; Ntadom, Godwin; Oladosu, Oladipo O.; Rainwater-Loveth, Kaitlin; O'Meara, Wendy; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Brieger, William

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The need to expand malaria diagnosis capabilities alongside policy requirements for mandatory testing before treatment motivates exploration of noninvasive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We report the outcome of the first cross-sectional, single-blind clinical performance evaluation of a urine malaria test (UMT) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. Matched urine and finger-prick blood samples from participants ≥2 years of age with fever (axillary temperature of ≥37.5°C) or with a history of fever in the preceding 48 h were tested with UMT and microscopy (as the gold standard). BinaxNOW (Pf and Pan versions) blood RDTs were done to assess relative performance. Urinalysis and rheumatoid factor (RF) tests were conducted to evaluate possible interference. Diagnostic performance characteristics were computed at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 1,800 participants screened, 1,691 were enrolled; of these 566 (34%) were febrile, and 1,125 (66%) were afebrile. Among enrolled participants, 341 (20%) tested positive by microscopy, 419 (25%) were positive by UMT, 676 (40%) were positive by BinaxNOW Pf, and 368 (22%) were positive by BinaxNow Pan. UMT sensitivity among febrile patients (for whom the test was indicated) was 85%, and specificity was 84%. Among febrile children ≤5 years of age, UMT sensitivity was 93%, and specificity was 83%. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of UMT (0.84) was not significantly different from that of BinaxNOW Pf (0.86) or of BinaxNOW Pan (0.87), indicating that the tests do not differ in overall performance. Gender, seasons, and RF did not impact UMT performance. Leukocytes, hematuria, and urobilinogen concentrations in urine were associated with lower UMT specificities. UMT performance was comparable to that of the BinaxNOW Pf/Pan tests, making UMT a promising tool to expand malaria testing in public and private health care settings where there are challenges to blood

  8. [Rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Levy, C; Chalumeau, M; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most frequently identified bacterium in children with acute pharyngitis. Clinical signs and symptoms cannot distinguish accurately between viral and GAS pharyngitis. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) can identify GAS by an immunologic reaction within a few minutes. Compared to throat culture, most RADTs have a high specificity (around 95 %), allowing antibiotic prescribing on the basis of a positive RADT result. Similarly, the negative predictive value of RADTs seems sufficiently high (around 95 %) to ensure against the presence of GAS in case of a negative RADT result. Among several factors affecting RADT sensitivity, the training and expertise of the person performing the test and the quality of the throat swab specimen seem to be key determinants. Available evidence suggests that clinical prediction rules for the triage of children who should undergo GAS testing are not sufficiently accurate. Implementing RADTs into clinical practice has an important impact on antibiotic prescription rates, for a reduction of about 30 %. French guidelines that recommend using RADTs in all children above 3 years of age presenting with pharyngitis without backup culture of negative tests seem relevant in this context.

  9. Capturing saccades in multiple sclerosis with a digitized test of rapid number naming.

    PubMed

    Hainline, Clotilde; Rizzo, John-Ross; Hudson, Todd E; Dai, Weiwei; Birkemeier, Joel; Raynowska, Jenelle; Nolan, Rachel C; Hasanaj, Lisena; Selesnick, Ivan; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Rucker, Janet C

    2017-04-07

    The King-Devick (K-D) test of rapid number naming is a visual performance measure that captures saccadic eye movements. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have slowed K-D test times associated with neurologic disability and reduced quality of life. We assessed eye movements during the K-D test to identify characteristics associated with slowed times. Participants performed a computerized K-D test with video-oculography. The 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and its 10-Item Neuro-Ophthalmic Supplement measured vision-specific quality of life (VSQOL). Among 25 participants with MS (age 37 ± 10 years, range 20-59) and 42 controls (age 33 ± 9 years, range 19-54), MS was associated with significantly longer (worse) K-D times (58.2 ± 19.8 vs. 43.8 ± 8.6 s, P = 0.001, linear regression models, accounting for age). In MS, test times were slower among patients with higher (worse) Expanded Disability Status Scale scores (P = 0.01). Average inter-saccadic intervals (ISI) were significantly longer in MS participants compared to controls (362 ± 103 vs. 286 ± 50 ms, P = 0.001), and were highly associated with prolonged K-D times in MS (P = 0.006). MS participants generated greater numbers of saccades (P = 0.007). VSQOL scores were reduced in MS patients with longer (worse) K-D times (P = 0.04-0.001) and longer ISI (P = 0.002-0.001). Patients with MS have slowed K-D times that may be attributable to prolonged ISI and greater numbers of saccades. The K-D test and its requisite eye movements capture VSQOL and make rapid number naming a strong candidate efferent visual performance measure in MS.

  10. Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

    2011-07-01

    Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp.

  11. BRAF mutation testing with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostics system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Helen J.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Devogelaere, Benoit; Kockx, Mark; Bempt, Isabelle Vanden; Reijans, Martin; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Holley, Veronica R.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Stepanek, Vanda M.; Patel, Sapna P.; Kopetz, E. Scott; Subbiah, Vivek; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Zinner, Ralph G.; Karp, Daniel D.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Sablon, Erwin; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Maertens, Geert; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate diagnostic systems are needed for further implementation of precision therapy of BRAF-mutant and other cancers. The novel IdyllaTM BRAF Mutation Test has high sensitivity and shorter turnaround times compared to other methods. We used Idylla to detect BRAF V600 mutations in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples and compared these results with those obtained using the cobas 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test or MiSeq deep sequencing system and with those obtained by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory employing polymerase chain reaction–based sequencing, mass spectrometric detection, or next-generation sequencing. In one set of 60 FFPE tumor samples (15 with BRAF mutations per Idylla), the Idylla and cobas results had an agreement of 97%. Idylla detected BRAF V600 mutations in two additional samples. The Idylla and MiSeq results had 100% concordance. In a separate set of 100 FFPE tumor samples (64 with BRAF mutation per Idylla), the Idylla and CLIA-certified laboratory results demonstrated an agreement of 96% even though the tests were not performed simultaneously and different FFPE blocks had to be used for 9 cases. The IdyllaTM BRAF Mutation Test produced results quickly (sample to results time was about 90 minutes with about 2 minutes of hands on time) and the closed nature of the cartridge eliminates the risk of PCR contamination. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate that the Idylla test is rapid and has high concordance with other routinely used but more complex BRAF mutation–detecting tests. PMID:26330075

  12. Barriers to Implementation of Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Wilkinson, Samantha; Deli-Houssein, Roni; Vijh, Rohit; Vadnais, Caroline; Behlim, Tarannum; Steben, Marc; Engel, Nora; Wong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation of human immunodeficiency virus rapid and point-of-care tests (RDT/POCT) is understood to be impeded by many different factors that operate at 4 main levels—test devices, patients, providers, and health systems—yet a knowledge gap exists of how they act and interact to impede implementation. To fill this gap, and with a view to improving the quality of implementation, we conducted a systematic review. Methods Five databases were searched, 16,672 citations were retrieved, and data were abstracted on 132 studies by 2 reviewers. Findings Across 3 levels (ie, patients, providers, and health systems), a majority (59%, 112/190) of the 190 barriers were related to the integration of RDT/POCT, followed by test-device–related concern (ie, accuracy) at 41% (78/190). At the patient level, a lack of awareness about tests (15/54, 28%) and time taken to test (12/54, 22%) dominated. At the provider and health system levels, integration of RDT/POCT in clinical workflows (7/24, 29%) and within hospitals (21/34, 62%) prevailed. Accuracy (57/78, 73%) was dominant only at the device level. Interpretation Integration barriers dominated the findings followed by test accuracy. Although accuracy has improved during the years, an ideal implementation could be achieved by improving the integration of RDT/POCT within clinics, hospitals, and health systems, with clear protocols, training on quality assurance and control, clear communication, and linkage plans to improve health outcomes of patients. This finding is pertinent for a future envisioned implementation and global scale-up of RDT/POCT-based initiatives. PMID:26366129

  13. Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems.

    PubMed

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L(-1) calcium chloride (CaCl2), 0.43 mol L(-1) acetic acid (CH3COOH), and 0.05 mol L(-1) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH3COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH3COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.

  14. Immunochromatographic IgG/IgM Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-01-01

    For rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active tuberculosis (TB) and other pulmonary diseases, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies raised against mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens by a commercial rapid immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea) in 246 serum samples from three groups of patients: (i) 171 patients with active TB (128 with pulmonary TB [pTB] and 43 with extrapulmonary TB [epTB]), (ii) 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases, and (iii) two leprosy patients. The sensitivities of IgG and IgM in patients with active TB (pTB and epTB) were 68.4% and 2.3%, respectively. IgG had the best performance characteristics, with sensitivities of 78.1% and 39.5% in sera from patients with active pTB and epTB, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivities of IgM were poor and were similar for pTB and epTB (2.3%). In contrast, specificity was very elevated (100%). The combination of IgG with IgM did not improve its sensitivity. IgG-mediated responses against the mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens might constitute a clinically useful tool for presumptive diagnosis and discrimination of active pTB from other pulmonary diseases. Moreover, based on its simplicity and rapidity of application, it could be a screening tool for active pTB in poorly equipped laboratories. PMID:21994352

  15. Immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Boukadida, Jalel

    2011-12-01

    For rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active tuberculosis (TB) and other pulmonary diseases, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies raised against mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens by a commercial rapid immunochromatographic IgG/IgM test (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea) in 246 serum samples from three groups of patients: (i) 171 patients with active TB (128 with pulmonary TB [pTB] and 43 with extrapulmonary TB [epTB]), (ii) 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases, and (iii) two leprosy patients. The sensitivities of IgG and IgM in patients with active TB (pTB and epTB) were 68.4% and 2.3%, respectively. IgG had the best performance characteristics, with sensitivities of 78.1% and 39.5% in sera from patients with active pTB and epTB, respectively, and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivities of IgM were poor and were similar for pTB and epTB (2.3%). In contrast, specificity was very elevated (100%). The combination of IgG with IgM did not improve its sensitivity. IgG-mediated responses against the mycobacterial 38-kDa, 16-kDa, and 6-kDa antigens might constitute a clinically useful tool for presumptive diagnosis and discrimination of active pTB from other pulmonary diseases. Moreover, based on its simplicity and rapidity of application, it could be a screening tool for active pTB in poorly equipped laboratories.

  16. Dithionite Tube Test - A Rapid, Inexpensive Technique for the Detection of Hemoglobin S and Non-S Sickling Hemoglobin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    hemoglobinopathies of low solubility such as Kings County and Stanleyville II. The dithionite and urea-dithionite tests, however, will provide rapid, accurate, reliable, and inexpensive screening for hemoglobin S. (Author)

  17. Short communication: An assessment of the use of malaria rapid tests by village health volunteers in rural Laos.

    PubMed

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N; Yeung, Shunmay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phompida, Samlane; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; White, Nicholas J

    2004-03-01

    Rapid malaria diagnosis, a key component of malaria control strategies, is hampered by the expense and training requirements of reliable microscopy. Rapid malaria antigen tests may improve the diagnosis of malaria in the rural tropics. After 1 h training 64 village health volunteers (VHVs) from rural Laos, with no previous laboratory experience, performed two malaria rapid diagnostic tests (ParacheckPf and OptiMAL) accurately. The reliability of six VHVs was assessed longitudinally, over 10 months with different frequencies of retraining. Compared with microscopy, error rates in dipstick interpretation were low (<2%) for both tests and were not associated with retraining frequency (P>0.2). Previously untrained Lao VHVs performed malaria rapid tests reliably with high sensitivity and specificity after minimal training.

  18. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies

    PubMed Central

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M®, in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  19. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies.

    PubMed

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-09-10

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M(®), a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M(®) (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M(®) was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M(®), in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations.

  20. Proposed interpretive criteria and quality control parameters for ofloxacin susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, P C; Barry, A L; Baker, C; Murray, P R; Washington, J A

    1992-01-01

    A multilaboratory study designed to determine the in vitro susceptibility criteria and quality control parameters for ofloxacin against Neisseria gonorrhoeae was conducted according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Proposed susceptibility breakpoints are MICs of less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml for the agar dilution test and greater than or equal to 31 mm for the disk diffusion test. A category for resistance could not be defined. Proposed acceptable quality control MICs for N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 range from 0.004 to 0.03 microgram/ml and 0.25 to 1.0 microgram/ml, respectively. With 5-micrograms ofloxacin disks, acceptable inhibitory zone diameters for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and the N. gonorrhoeae control strains range from 22 to 27 mm and 43 to 51 mm, respectively. PMID:1572960

  1. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Juan I.; Navas, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Arcos, Susana C.; Manzanera, Maximino

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used. PMID:26779168

  2. Multisite clinical evaluation of a rapid test for Entamoeba histolytica in stool.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, Hans P; Hanbury, Blake; Siddique, Abdullah; Samie, Amidou; Haque, Rashidul; Herbein, Joel; Petri, William A

    2015-02-01

    Rapid point-of-care detection of enteric protozoa in diarrheal stool is desirable in clinical and research settings to efficiently determine the etiology of diarrhea. We analyzed the ability of the third-generation E. histolytica Quik Chek assay developed by Techlab to detect amebic antigens in fecal samples collected from independent study populations in South Africa and Bangladesh. We compared the performance of this recently released rapid test to that of the commercially available ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica microplate assay from Remel and the E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Techlab, using real-time and nested-PCR for Entamoeba species to resolve any discrepant results. After discrepant resolution, The E. histolytica Quik Chek assay exhibited sensitivity and specificity compared to the E. histolytica II ELISA of 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9% to 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%), respectively. Compared to the ProSpecT microplate assay, the E. histolytica Quik Chek (Quik Chek) assay exhibited 97.0% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.5% to 99.4%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 99.0% to 100%). Our results indicate that the Quik Chek is a robust assay for the specific detection of E. histolytica trophozoites in unfixed frozen clinical stool samples.

  3. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-08-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria.

  4. Proposed Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Glass-To-Metal Seal Stress Analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Emery, John M; Tandon, Rajan; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Stavig, Mark E.; Newton, Clay S.; Gibson, Cory S; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-09-01

    The material characterization tests conducted on 304L VAR stainless steel and Schott 8061 glass have provided higher fidelity data for calibration of material models used in Glass - T o - Metal (GTM) seal analyses. Specifically, a Thermo - Multi - Linear Elastic Plastic ( thermo - MLEP) material model has be en defined for S S304L and the Simplified Potential Energy Clock nonlinear visc oelastic model has been calibrated for the S8061 glass. To assess the accuracy of finite element stress analyses of GTM seals, a suite of tests are proposed to provide data for comparison to mo del predictions.

  5. Extension of in-situ stress test analysis to rapid hole evacuation at Yucca Mountain due to a network of open conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is underlain by tuffaceous rocks that are highly fractured and jointed. During drilling of bore-holes at Yucca Mountain there were numerous occurrences of lost circulation when whole mud was taken by the formation. This evidence suggests that parts of Yucca Mountain are controlled hydrologicaly by a network of open conduits along the existing joints and fractures. Also at Yucca Mountain, stress tests have been performed in-situ by charging a small section along the boreholes with an excess pressure head of water. For many of these tests, the initial drop in water head was so rapid that within seconds up to hundreds of meters of fall had occurred. The opening of fractures as the excess head increases has previously been proposed as an important factor in explaining the shape of the stress test curves at lower pressures. We propose that such induced hydraulic fractures, under increasing water heads, can grow to a length sufficient to intersect the existing network of open joints and fractures. We extend our previous model to incorporate flow out along these open conduits and examine the initial rapid drop in terms of these extended models. We show that this rapid evacuation model fits the observed data from many slug tests in wells in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. This result is confirmation of the drilling evidence that a network of open conduits exists at various depths below the water table and over a large geographic region around Yucca Mountain.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed T-10 Engine Test Cell Facilities, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-21

    associated with engine testing and with drips, leaks, and spills of petroleum products. Surface water resources would be protected by preventing soil erosion...physical environment (surface soils and surface water ); and noise. Environmental effects of the proposed action, alternate locations, and the no action...vanes to create stable airflow; an exhaust augmenter and a deflector ramp; a thrust restraint weighing between 70,000 and 100,000 pounds; fuel

  7. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  8. Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE): Application for Increasing Robutness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ashley; Rakoczy, John; Heather, Daniel; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  9. [Use of group A streptococcal rapid diagnostic test in extra-pharyngeal infections].

    PubMed

    Wollner, A; Levy, C; Benani, M; Thollot, F; Béchet, S; Cohen, J; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performances of the group A streptococcus (GAS) rapid antigen diagnostic tests (RADTs) in extra-pharyngeal infections. Between October 2009 and June 2014, 368 patients (median age: 48 months) were enrolled. The pathologies involved were : 160 perineal infections (44 %), 69 blistering distal dactylitis (19 %), 55 cervical lymphadenitis (15 %), 31 crusty or bleeding rhinitis (8 %), and 53 other diseases (14 %). The sensitivity of GAS-RADT used was 96 % (95 % CI: 92-99 %), the specificity 81 % (95 % CI: 75- 86 %), the negative predictive value 97 % (CI 95 %: 93-99 %), and the positive predictive value 79 % (95 % CI: 73-85 %). Finally, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 5 (95 % CI: 4-7) and 0.05 (95 % CI: 0.02-0.11) respectively. The GAS-RADTs developed for pharyngitis have comparable performances in these settings and therefore can be used.

  10. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joseph M.; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Conclusion: Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1. PMID:26558545

  11. [Improving malaria management through Rapid Diagnostic Tests: appropriation by providers communities (Sénégal)].

    PubMed

    Faye, S L

    2012-08-01

    Introduced in the public health services in Senegal since 2007, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are a new technical opportunity for clinical diagnosis of malaria. We analyze how different categories of caregivers, who are the providers, assume appropriation of their professional practices. Similarly, we document, from the analysis of their application for care, attitudes of recipients towards RDTs. The results show a time lag between the uses of this tool and the recommendations. RDTs have a recognized epidemiological usefulness. However, their positive integration requires a change in behaviors that caregivers and recipients are not always willing to assume. Indeed, the architecture, working conditions and applications for care influence the modes of appropriation of this technical innovation.

  12. Raman spectroscopy as a simple, rapid, nondestructive screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquids.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Jeremy S; Hatfield, Jennifer A; Kaeff, Tracy L; Ramsey, Christopher R; Robinson, Susan D; Standifer, Allison F

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has found increased use in the forensic controlled substances laboratory in recent years due to its rapid and nondestructive analysis capabilities. Here, Raman spectroscopy as a screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquid samples is discussed as a way to improve the efficiency of a laboratory by identifying the most probative samples for further workup among multiple samples submitted for analysis. Solutions of methamphetamine in ethanol, diethyl ether, and Coleman fuel were prepared in concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 10% w/v, and Raman spectra of each were collected. A concentration-dependent Raman peak was observed at 1003 per cm in each solution in 4% w/v and greater solutions. Case samples were analyzed and also found to reliably contain this diagnostic peak when methamphetamine was present. The use of this diagnostic indicator can save the forensic controlled substances laboratory time and materials when analyzing clandestine laboratory liquid submissions.

  13. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Mika PA; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes. PMID:24198463

  14. Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Mika Pa; Salmela, Jari; Gilbert, Leona; Kaivola, Risto; Tikkala, Topi; Oker-Blom, Christian; Pekola, Jukka; Vuento, Matti

    2009-01-01

    A rapid method and instrumentation for quantification of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The first anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the first anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detection zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μl of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.

  15. Temperature of a Dengue Rapid Diagnostic Test under Tropical Climatic Conditions: A Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Phommasone, Koukeo; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phonemixay, Ooyanong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Mayxay, Mayfong; Keomany, Sommay; Souvannasing, Phoutthalavanh; Newton, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    The Dengue Duo Rapid Diagnostic Test (SD Dengue RDT) has good specificity and sensitivity for dengue diagnosis in rural tropical areas. In a previous study, using four control sera, we demonstrated that that the diagnostic accuracy of these RDTs remains stable after long-term storage at high temperatures. We extended this study by testing sera from 119 febrile patients collected between July-November 2012 at Salavan Provincial Hospital (southern Laos) with RDTs stored for 6 months at 4°C, 35° and in a hut (miniature traditional house) at Lao ambient temperatures. The dengue NS1 antigen results from RDTs stored at 35°C and in the hut demonstrated 100% agreement with those stored at 4°C. However, lower positive percent agreements, with broad 95%CI, were observed for the tests: IgM, 60% (14.7–94.7) and 40% (5.3–85.3) for RDTs store at 35°C and in the hut, compared to those stored at 4°C, respectively. This study strenghtens the evidence of the robustness of the NS1 antigen detection RDT for the diagnosis of dengue after storage at tropical temperatures. PMID:28129346

  16. Rapid chloride permeability test for durability study of carbon nanoreinforced mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alafogianni, P.; Dalla, P. T.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    The addition of a conductive admixture in a cement-based material could lead to innovative products with multifunctional features. These materials are designed to possess enhanced properties, such as improved mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivity, and piezo-electric characteristics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as nano-reinforcement in cement-based materials because of their huge aspect ratio as well as their extremely large specific surface area. For cement-based composites, one of the major types of environmental attack is the chloride ingress, which leads to corrosion of the material and, subsequently, to the reduction of strength and serviceability of the structure. A common method of preventing such deterioration is to avert chlorides from penetrating the structure. The penetration of the concrete by chloride ions is a slow process. It cannot be determined directly in a time frame that would be useful as a quality control measure. Therefore, in order to assess chloride penetration, a test method that accelerates the process is needed, to allow the determination of diffusion values in a reasonable time. In the present research, nanomodified mortars with various concentrations of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (0.2% wt. cement CNTs - 0.6% wt. cement CNTs) were used. The chloride penetration in these materials was monitored according to ASTM C1202 standard. This is known as the Coulomb test or Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT).

  17. Interlaboratory study of the bioluminescence inhibition tests for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marinella; Arranz, Francesc; Ribó, Joan; Barceló, Damià

    2004-02-27

    Several toxicity procedures are currently being used for the wastewater toxicity assessment. We have undertaken an interlaboratory comparison of the use of different bioluminescence inhibition toxicity tests based on Vibrio fischeri, in order to evaluate their reproducibility for the rapid wastewater toxicity assessment. Twenty-two laboratories took part in this study organized by the Institut Català de Tecnologia (ICT) and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC). During the exercise, six series of six samples were analyzed along 5 months. Every batch of samples was composed by three real samples and three standard solutions. The real samples were: an untreated effluent of a paper industry, a sample from a first settlement of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the final effluent of the WWTP. The goals of the interlaboratory study were to evaluate the repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) when different laboratories conduct the test, the influence of different matrix samples, the variability between different tests based on the same principle: the bioluminescence inhibition of V. fischeri, but involving different commercial devices and to determine the rate at which participating laboratories successfully completed tests initiated. The maximum number of outlier values was corresponding to a non-treated effluent from a paper industry. This also was the most complex and toxic sample analyzed. An increase on the non-convergent values obtained for the participants was observed at higher matrix complexity and at lower toxicity level. In comparison with other editions of this interlaboratory study the matrixes of real samples analyzed were more complex, nevertheless the final variability coefficient for the exercise was nearby to the average value for the past editions. Due to the high complexity of some samples involved in this intercalibration the stability of real samples were also followed during the test. On the other hand, no relation

  18. Rapid and cost-effective multiparameter toxicity tests for soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, G; Pablos, M V; García, P; Ramos, C; Sánchez, P; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2000-03-20

    Three biochemical parameters, DNA quantification in soil samples and two enzymatic activities, beta-galactosidase and dehydrogenase have been assessed as potential end-points for the use in cost-effective toxicity tests on soil microorganisms. The assessment included the development of a classical dose-response 24-h assay and the incorporation of measurements of the effects on microbial activities in soil column leaching studies and multispecies miniaturised terrestrial systems (MTS). Four different chemicals, copper, a new herbicide, thiabendazole and fenthion were studied. A rapid fluorescence DNA quantification technique did not produce adequate responses. The efforts to quantify DNA after extraction and clean-up procedures failed due to the presence of humic acids. From the protocol of the technique one could see that the technical procedure is time-consuming and expensive and, for this reason, not suitable for use as a parameter in rapid and cost-effective tests. However, the enzymatic activities showed their potential as toxicity end-points. Copper produced a concentration/response inhibition of beta-galactosidase and dehydrogenase with EC50 values of 78.39 and 24.77 mg Cu/kg soil, respectively. In the soil column study, these endpoints allowed the measurement of the microbial activities through the column. The effects of the new herbicide on beta-galactosidase and dehydrogenase activities were statistically significant for the highest application dose (40 g/ha). Thiabendazole affected the microbial activity when mixed within the soil, but no effects were observed when this fungicide was applied on the soil surface. Fenthion produced effects when applied either in the soil or on the soil surface. These results can be explained by the low mobility of thiabendazole. The results show the capabilities of these biochemical parameters to be included as endpoints in cost-effective bioassays.

  19. Testing the Rapid Detection Capabilities of the Quake-Catcher Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.; Yildirim, B.; Christensen, C. M.; Kaiser, A. E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is a versatile network of MEMS accelerometers that are used in combination with distributed volunteer computing to detect earthquakes around the world. Using a dense network of QCN stations installed in Christchurch, New Zealand after the 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquake, hundreds of events in the Christchurch area were detected and rapidly characterized. When the M6.3 Christchurch event occurred on 21 February 2011, QCN sensors recorded the event and calculated its magnitude, location, and created a map of estimated shaking intensity within 7 seconds of the earthquake origin time. Successive iterations improved the calculations and, within 24 seconds of the earthquake, magnitude and location values were calculated that were comparable to those provided by GeoNet. We have rigorously tested numerous methods to create a working magnitude scaling relationship. In this presentation, we show a drastic improvement in the magnitude estimates using the maximum acceleration at the time of the first trigger and updated ground accelerations from one to three seconds after the initial trigger. 75% of the events rapidly detected and characterized by QCN are within 0.5 magnitude units of the official GeoNet reported magnitude values, with 95% of the events within 1 magnitude unit. We also test the QCN detection algorithms using higher quality data from the SCSN network in Southern California. We examine a dataset of M5 and larger earthquakes that occurred since 1995. We present the performance of the QCN algorithms for this dataset, including time to detection as well as location and magnitude accuracy.

  20. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    PubMed Central

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  1. Commercial latex agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of group B streptococcal infection in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, B J; Baker, C J

    1980-01-01

    Although latex agglutination assays for detection of a variety of bacterial antigens in body fluids from patients with systemic infection have been shown to be useful as rapid diagnostic techniques, lack of commercial availability has restricted their application. The Streptex latex test kit for the detection of group B streptococcal (GBS) antigen in admission body fluid specimens was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in 54 infants with meningitis and in 10 infants with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters. GBS antigen was detected in 22 of 28 (78.6%) CSF specimens by latex agglutination and in 23 of 28 (82.1%) by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. Antigen was present in 21 of 28 (latex agglutination) and 19 of 26 (countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis) CSF specimens after the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Heat-labile factors accounted for nonspecific agglutination reactions with latex suspensions other than group B in 3 of 28 CSF samples from patients with GBS meningitis. These nonspecific reactions were readily eliminated by heating specimens for 10 min at 100 degrees C. Fifteen patients with GBS meningitis had admission serum and urine samples collected in addition to CSF. Antigen was detected by latex agglutination and countercurrent immunoelelectrophoresis in 14 of 15 (93.3%) and 13 of 15 (86.7%) concentrated urine specimens, respectively, and in 12 of 15 (80%) CSF specimens and 4 of 15 (27%) sera by each method. These findings indicate that the Streptex latex test is a rapid, sensitive, and readily available method for detection of GBS antigen in admission body fluid specimens from infants with meningitis. PMID:7012177

  2. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Four commercial rapid screening methods for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning were applied to the analysis of naturally contaminated shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the reference LC-MS/MS method on a range of both positive and negative bivalve mollusc samples. A quantitative PP2A protein phosphatase assay was the only assay to show the complete absence of false negative results. It showed a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS but with an overall overestimation of sample toxicity together with some indications of interference from sample matrix, most notably within oyster species. A quantitative competitive ELISA also gave a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS, with no evidence of toxicity overestimation and with a good response to samples containing little or no DST's, although one false negative was recorded. The two qualitative lateral flow assays both provided a high percentage agreement with the LC-MS/MS results and there were no indications of false positive results, although both kits also returned one false negative result. The false negative results returned by the three assays were all associated with samples containing high proportions of DTX2, a toxin which occurs commonly in UK shellfish. The scanners provided with both lateral flow assays were easy to use and the provision of numerical results enables a semi-quantitative assessment of toxicities which would significantly benefit the end user. Whilst key differences exist between the proposed assays they are all rapid, do not require expensive equipment and the work here has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB. Further work is required however using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples, particularly for those containing high proportions of DTX2.

  3. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  4. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. Results The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4–98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Conclusion Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh. PMID:26945143

  5. Representative mammalian cell culture test materials for assessment of primary recovery technologies: a rapid method with industrial applicability.

    PubMed

    Popova, Daria; Stonier, Adam; Pain, David; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture material is often difficult to produce accurately and reproducibly for downstream studies. This article presents a methodology for the creation of a set of cell culture test materials where key variables including cell density, cell viability, product, and the host cell protein (HCP) load can be manipulated individually. The methodology was developed using a glutamine synthetase Chinese hamster ovary cell line cultured at 5-L and 70-L scales. Cell concentration post-cell growth was manipulated using tangential flow filtration to generate a range of target cell densities of up to 100 × 10(6) cells/mL. A method to prepare an apoptotic cell stock to achieve target viabilities of 40-90% is also described. In addition, a range of IgG1 and HCP concentrations was achieved. The results illustrate that the proposed methodology is able to mimic different cell culture profiles by decoupling the control of the key variables. The cell culture test materials were shown to be representative of typical cell culture feed material in terms of particle size distribution and HCP population. This provides a rapid method to create the required feeds for assessing the feasibility of primary recovery technologies designed to cope with higher cell density cultures.

  6. Rapid Syphilis Tests as Catalysts for Health Systems Strengthening: A Case Study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Cárcamo, César P.; Chiappe, Marina; Valderrama, Maria; La Rosa, Sayda; Holmes, King K.; Mabey, David C. W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT) offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening. Methods The study was implemented from September 2009–November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability. Results Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the “two for one strategy”, offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%. Conclusions Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1) engaging the authorities; (2) dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3) training according to the needs; (4) providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5) sharing results and discussing actions together; (6) consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7) integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV

  7. Development and validation of a rapid test for anaerobic inhibition and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Batstone, D J; Tait, S; Jensen, P D

    2015-09-15

    Despite the importance of quantifying inhibitory capacity of compounds in anaerobic digestion, there is currently no well-defined method to assess it. Experimental methods in literature are frequently time-consuming and resource intensive. As a result, detailed inhibition testing rarely forms part of anaerobic digestion studies, despite the importance and utility of this information. This study develops and validates a simple and rapid inhibition test protocol, based on relative inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. The inhibition potential of a compound is determined from the reduction in specific methanogenic activity as inhibitor concentration is increased. The method was successfully performed on two inoculums from different source environments and with both biostatic and biocidal inhibitors. Optimisation work indicated that: (i) sodium acetate is a preferred carbon source compared to acetic acid; (ii) an inoculum to acetate ratio of 5 g VS g(-1) acetate is preferred, and (iii) that the inoculum concentration should be normalised to 10 g L(-1) VS to reduce mass transfer problems and promote consistency. A key advantage over existing methods is that the sampling strategy has been optimised to three events over 1.5 days while effectively controlling the relative analytical error.

  8. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  9. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-08

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  10. Efficiency of a rapid test for detection of tetrodotoxin in puffer fish.

    PubMed

    Thattiyaphong, Aree; Unahalekhaka, Jirapa; Mekha, Nanthawan; Nispa, Wansatip; Kluengklangdon, Panawan; Rojanapantip, Laddawan

    2014-01-01

    The selling and importing of puffer fish species and their products was banned in Thailand in 2002, because of possible neurotoxic effects. However, the sale of their flesh is still happening in Thai markets. Standard methods for toxin quantification (HPLC and LC-MS) have significant limitations, therefore a lateral flow, immuno-chromatographic test (TTX-IC) was developed as a tool for rapid detection of toxin. A total of 750 puffer fishes (387 Lagocephalus lunaris(LL), and 363 Lagocephalus spadiceus (LS)) and 100 edible fishes were caught in Thailand from June 2011-February 2012. Screening of TTX from their flesh by TTX-IC revealed that 69 samples (17.8%) of LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels but LS and edible fishes did not. A selected 339 samples were quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing 50 LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels. Comparison of results with LC-MS/MS showed the TTX-IC to have 94.0% sensitivity and 92.4% specificity. The TTX-IC will be a useful tool for TTX screening of a large number of samples, reducing the testing required by LC-MS/MS, thus reducing costs. All positive cases found should be confirmed by standard methods.

  11. Validation of a Leishmania infantum ELISA rapid test for serological diagnosis of Leishmania chagasi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R

    2011-01-10

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi.

  12. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner. PMID:27606927

  13. The effects of enforced, rapid deceleration on performance in a multiple sprint test.

    PubMed

    Lakomy, Julie; Haydon, Daniel T

    2004-08-01

    The nature of multiple sprint sports such as soccer, hockey, and rugby is such that deceleration plays an important part in the movement patterns of players during a game and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deceleration on fatigue during repeated sprint efforts. A group of 18 elite field hockey players (all men) performed a running repeated sprint ability test (6 x 40 m using maximal effort and departing every 30 seconds). In one condition, there was no deceleration zone, and in the second condition, the test had a deceleration component (rapid deceleration to a stop within 6 m of the end of each sprint). Sprint times under each condition were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. No significant difference was seen between the 2 conditions for mean sprint times (p > 0.05) or for the mean fatigue index (p > 0.05). However, results showed a divergent trend, and further analysis extrapolating the data for an increased number of sprints showed that a significant difference (p < 0.05) would have been seen at the 11th sprint. Although this study found that the deceleration zone had little effect on the 6-sprint protocol, it was clear that the deceleration component would have shown an effect, giving rise to greater fatigue and slower sprint times, if the number of sprints had been increased. The implications are that deceleration training should be introduced into general fitness training programs for those competing in multiple sprint sports.

  14. Vapor containment tests of the rapid response system glovebox. Final report, December 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Arca, V.J.; Blewett, W.K.; Kinne, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rapid Response System (RRS) is a trailer-mounted facility for demilitarizing Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS), obsolete training kits containing ampules and/or bottles of chemical warfare agents (mustard and lewisite), or other industrial chemical compounds. The main component of the RRS is a glovebox divided into three areas - an airlock station, unpack station, and neutralization station, and the CAIS items are processed through each station by use of 11 glove ports. The glovebox is maintained at negative pressure differential by a gas-particulate filter-blower unit. To measure the performance of the glovebox in containing chemical vapors/gases, a series of tests was conducted on 811 April 1996 at Tooele Army Depot, UT, with methyl salicylate, a simulant for mustard. This testing addressed performance in steady state operation, airlock cycling, waste barrel changeout, and glove changeout. Two trials were also conducted in a simulated power-failure condition to determine the rate of leakage if system airflow is interrupted. The glovebox and its engineering controls provided a very high level of protection. Some procedural changes were recommended to increase the protection factor in glove and barrel changeout operations.

  15. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  16. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  17. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    PubMed

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork.

  18. Proposals for ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) support to Tiber LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). [Engineering Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Rosenthal, M.W.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-27

    This document describes the interests and capabilities of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in their proposals to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) project. Five individual proposals are cataloged separately. (FI)

  19. Ability of a rapid HIV testing site to attract and test vulnerable populations: a cross-sectional study on Actuel sur Rue.

    PubMed

    Engler, Kim; Rollet, Kathleen; Lessard, David; Thomas, Réjean; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Quebec's HIV epidemic persists, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and in Montreal. Increasing access to HIV testing is necessary and community-based rapid testing offers one strategy. This paper examines the clienteles and activities of a rapid HIV testing site in Montreal, the pilot project Actuel sur Rue. Comparative analyses were conducted with 1357 MSM, 147 heterosexual men and 64 women who visited Actuel sur Rue between July 2012 and November 2013 on socio-demographics, health, drug use, sexual practices/infection and HIV testing/prevention. Significant group differences were observed in each category. Actuel sur Rue received 1901 clients, conducted 1417 rapid HIV tests and tested 77 never-tested individuals. Rapid testing produced a high reactive rate (2%). Only 1/28 of those with reactive tests had no previous HIV testing, and 36% had used post-exposure prophylaxis, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention. Findings highlight diverse client vulnerability profiles and the relevance of checkpoints and further prevention efforts.

  20. Rapid susceptibility testing of mycobacterium avium complex and mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1993-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and M. avium Complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. Therefore, we proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis. The work was initiated in June 1992. In the last report, we described our efforts in developing ATP assay method using MAC. Studies were continued further, and during the period of this report, we established the relationship between colony forming units and ATP levels of these organisms during the growth cycle. Also, we evaluated the effects of standard antimycobacterial drugs using ATP assay technique and compared the results with those obtained with conventional tube dilution proportional method.

  1. Rapid and simple screening and supplemental testing for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Brattegaard, K; Kouadio, J; Adom, M L; Doorly, R; George, J R; De Cock, K M

    1993-06-01

    Researchers from an AIDS research project took blood samples from 1000 consecutive women during childbirth at a maternal and child health center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, and from 185 hospitalized patients to compare the results of a combination of synthetic peptide-based rapid tests (product names, Testpack and Genie), which check for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with those of the Western Blot-based test. They also wanted to see whether the rapid test-based strategy could replace the Western Blot-based test as a supplemental test. The Western Blot indicated the HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 prevalence to be 13% among the new mothers and 78% among the hospitalized patients for an overall prevalence of 23%. 3.3% of all people were positive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. 17.4% tested positive for just HIV-1. 2.1% were positive for HIV-2. The rapid tests had a sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. The positive predictive value was 99.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. The rapid tests identified 4% of the HIV-2 positive samples and 1% of the HIV-1 samples to be dually reactive. These findings demonstrated that rapid synthetic peptide-based assays reliably detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and can be supplemental tests. High quality HIV serology can be performed in a setting without running water and electricity which was the case in this study. A further advantage of this strategy is that each test takes only 10 minutes. These tests would have significant effects on HIV testing and counseling, diagnosis, and screening of blood for transfusion in rural areas of developing countries.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarker Using a Portable Fluorescence Biosensor based on Quantum Dots and a Lateral Flow Test Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-08-15

    A portable fluorescence biosensor with rapid and ultrasensitive response for trace protein has been built up with quantum dots and lateral flow test strip. The superior signal brightness and high photostability of quantum dots are combined with the promising advantages of lateral flow test strip and resulted in high sensitivity, selectivity and speedy for protein detection. Nitrated ceruloplasmin, a significant biomarker for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and stress response to smoking, was used as model protein to demonstrate the good performances of this proposed Qdot-based lateral flow test strip. Quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin was realized by recording the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots captured on the test line. Under optimal conditions, this portable fluorescence biosensor displays rapid responses for nitrated ceruloplasmin in wide dynamic range with a detection limit of 0.1ng/mL (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor was successfully utilized for spiked human plasma sample detection with the concentration as low as 1ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the quantum dot-based lateral flow test strip is capable for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin and hold a great promise for point-of-care and in field analysis of other protein biomarkers.

  3. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  4. Proposal for a Universal Test Mirror for Characterization of SlopeMeasuring Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony; Noll,Tino; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2007-07-31

    The development of third generation light sources like theAdvanced Light Source (ALS) or BESSY II brought to a focus the need forhigh performance synchrotron optics with unprecedented tolerances forslope error and micro roughness. Proposed beam lines at Free ElectronLasers (FEL) require optical elements up to a length of one meter,characterized by a residual slope error in the range of 0.1murad (rms),and rms values of 0.1 nm for micro roughness. These optical elements mustbe inspected by highly accurate measuring instruments, providing ameasurement uncertainty lower than the specified accuracy of the surfaceunder test. It is essential that metrology devices in use at synchrotronlaboratories be precisely characterized and calibrated to achieve thistarget. In this paper we discuss a proposal for a Universal Test Mirror(UTM) as a realization of a high performance calibration instrument. Theinstrument would provide an ideal calibration surface to replicate aredundant surface under test of redundant figure. The application of asophisticated calibration instrument will allow the elimination of themajority of the systematic error from the error budget of an individualmeasurement of a particular optical element. We present the limitationsof existing methods, initial UTM design considerations, possiblecalibration algorithms, and an estimation of the expectedaccuracy.

  5. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ontweka, Lameck N.; Deng, Lul O.; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K.; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Bior, Bior K.; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A.; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4–6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5–95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4–100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2–93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8–85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7–100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5–100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited. PMID:27992488

  6. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture.

    PubMed

    Ontweka, Lameck N; Deng, Lul O; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A; Wamala, Joseph F; Bior, Bior K; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Page, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4-6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5-95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4-100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2-93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8-85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7-100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5-100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited.

  7. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, P<0.01. In addition, the followed-up Spearman rank correlation showed a moderately high correlation at R=0.704 and P<0.01. In conclusion, the RDT kit was faster and easier to use than an ELISA and is useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of toxocariasis.

  8. Malaria rapid diagnostic test evaluation at private retail pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Audu, Rauf; Anto, Berko Panyin; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Abruquah, Akua Afriyie; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) provides a good alternative to malaria microscopy diagnosis, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This study therefore evaluated MRDT in private retail pharmacies (PRPs) as a critical step in community case malaria management. Methods: In a prospective, cross-over, validation survey at six PRPs in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, 1200 patients presenting with fever in the preceding 48 h were sampled. Fingerstick blood samples were collected for preparation of thick and thin blood films for malaria microscopy. Categorized patients (600 each) went through the processes of MRDT or presumptive diagnosis (PD) of malaria. The malaria disease prevalence of the study area was established. Selectivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) along with false discovery rate (FDR), and negative predictive value (NPV) along with the false omission rate (FOR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of MRDT were then calculated. Findings: While 43.0% tested positive using the MRDT, 57.0% tested negative. However, 62.0% MRDT-negative patients in addition to all the MRDT positives were given artemether-lumefantrine. Of those diagnosed by PD, 98.2% were prescribed with an antimalarial (microscopy however confirmed only 70.3% as positive). Se and Sp of the MRDT were 90.68 ± 11.18% and 98.68 ± 1.19%, respectively. Malaria prevalence was estimated to be 43.3%. PPV was 98.0%, FDR was 2.0%, NPV was 98.0%, FOR was 2.0%, and DOR was 2366.43. Conclusion: Results highlighted good performance of MRDTs at PRPs which could inform decision toward its implementation. PMID:27512708

  9. Proposed model for the high rate of rearrangement and rapid migration observed in some IncA/C plasmid lineages.

    PubMed

    Meinersmann, R J; Lindsey, R L; Bono, J L; Smith, T P; Oakley, B B

    2013-08-01

    IncA/C plasmids are a class of plasmids from the Enterobacteriaceae that are relatively large (49 to >180 kbp), that are readily transferred by conjugation, and that carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Reconstruction of the phylogeny of these plasmids has been difficult because of the high rate of remodeling by recombination-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We hypothesized that evaluation of nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the rate of HGT would help to develop a clock to show whether anthropic practices have had significant influences on the lineages of the plasmid. A system was developed to rapidly sequence up to 191 known open reading frames from each of 39 recently isolated IncA/C plasmids from a diverse panel of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli strains. With these data plus sequences from GenBank, we were able to distinguish six distinct lineages that had extremely low numbers of polymorphisms within each lineage, especially among the largest group designated as group 1. Two regions, each about half the plasmid in size, could be distinguished with a separate lineal pattern. The distribution of group 1 showed that it has migrated extremely rapidly with fewer polymorphisms than can be expected in 2,000 years. Remodeling by frequent HGT was evident, with a pattern that appeared to have the highest rate just upstream of the putative conjugation origin of transfer (oriT). It seems likely that when an IncA/C plasmid is transferred by conjugation there is an opportunity for plasmid remodeling adjacent to the oriT, which was also adjacent to a multiple antimicrobial resistance gene cassette.

  10. Proposal of a critical test of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier paradigm for compressible fluid continua.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    A critical, albeit simple experimental and/or molecular-dynamic (MD) simulation test is proposed whose outcome would, in principle, establish the viability of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations for compressible fluid continua. The latter equation set, despite its longevity as constituting the fundamental paradigm of continuum fluid mechanics, has recently been criticized on the basis of its failure to properly incorporate volume transport phenomena-as embodied in the proposed bivelocity paradigm [H. Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)]-into its formulation. Were the experimental or simulation results found to accord, even only qualitatively, with bivelocity predictions, the temperature distribution in a gas-filled, thermodynamically and mechanically isolated circular cylinder undergoing steady rigid-body rotation in an inertial reference frame would not be uniform; rather, the temperature would be higher at the cylinder wall than along the axis of rotation. This radial temperature nonuniformity contrasts with the uniformity of the temperature predicted by the NSF paradigm for these same circumstances. Easily attainable rates of rotation in centrifuges and readily available tools for measuring the expected temperature differences render experimental execution of the proposed scheme straightforward in principle. As such, measurement-via experiment or MD simulation-of, say, the temperature difference ΔT between the gas at the wall and along the axis of rotation would provide quantitative tests of both the NSF and bivelocity hydrodynamic models, whose respective solutions for the stated set of circumstances are derived in this paper. Independently of the correctness of the bivelocity model, any temperature difference observed during the proposed experiment or simulation, irrespective of magnitude, would preclude the possibility of the NSF paradigm being correct for fluid continua, except for incompressible flows.

  11. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    PubMed

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes.

  13. Rapid Test for Identification of a Highly Transmissible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strain of Sub-Saharan Origin

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Henar; Gavín, Patricia; Hernández-Febles, Melissa; Campos-Herrero, María Isolina; Copado, Rodolfo; Cañas, Fernando; Kremer, Kristin; Caminero, José Antonio; Martín, Carlos; Samper, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The development of a rapid test to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing isolates and specifically strain GC1237, coming from a sub-Saharan country, is needed due to its alarming wide spread on Gran Canaria Island (Spain). A rapid test that detects IS6110 present between dnaA and dnaN in the Beijing strains and in a specific site for GC1237 (Rv2180c) has been developed. This test would be a useful tool in the surveillance of subsequent cases. PMID:22116140

  14. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  15. Analysis of turbofan engine performance deterioration and proposed follow-on tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Kruckenberg, H. D.; Toomey, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data and engine parts on in-service JT3D and JT8D engines were analyzed and documented relative to engine deterioration. It is concluded that the fan-compressor system of these engines contributes to the long term engine deterioration. An engine test and instrumentation plan was formulated for a proposed follow-on program. The goal of this program is to verify the above conclusion and to attempt to identify more precisely which components of the fan-compressor system are at fault.

  16. Testing a proposed paradigm shift in analysis of phage DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We argue that a paradigm shift is needed in the analysis of phage DNA packaging. We then test a prediction of the following paradigm shift-engendering hypothesis. The motor of phage DNA packaging has two cycles: (1) the well-known packaging ATPase-driven (type 1) cycle and (2) a proposed back-up, shell expansion/contraction-driven (type 2) cycle that reverses type 1 cycle stalls by expelling accidentally packaged non-DNA molecules. We test the prediction that increasing the cellular concentration of all macromolecules will cause packaging-active capsids to divert to states of hyper-expansion and contraction. We use a directed evolution-derived, 3-site phage T3 mutant, adapted to propagation in concentrated bacterial cytoplasm. We find this prediction correct while discovering novel T3 capsids previously obscure. PMID:28090387

  17. Timing of HIV Seroreversion Among HIV-Exposed, Breastfed Infants in Malawi: Type of HIV Rapid Test Matters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily R; Hudgens, Michael; Sheahan, Anna D; Miller, William C; Wheeler, Stephanie; Nelson, Julie A E; Dube, Queen; Van Rie, Annelies

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV serological tests are a cost-effective, point-of-care test among HIV exposed infants but cannot distinguish between maternal and infant antibodies. The lack of data on the timing of decay of maternal antibodies in young infants hinders the potential use of rapid tests in exposed infants. We aimed to determine the time to seroreversion for two commonly used rapid tests in a prospective cohort of HIV-exposed breastfeeding infants ages 3-18 months of life. Methods We collected data on the performance of two commonly used rapid tests (Determine and Unigold) in Malawi between 2008 and 2012 or at the University of North Carolina between 2014 and 2015. Time to seroreversion was estimated for both rapid tests using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator which allows for interval censored data. Results At 3 months of age, 3 % of infants had seroreverted according to Determine and 7 % had seroreverted according to Unigold. About one in four infants had achieved seroreversion by 4 months using Unigold, but only about one in twelve infants by 4 months when using Determine. More than 95 % of all infants had seroverted by 7 months according to Unigold and by 12 months according to the Determine assay. Discussion We show that the time of seroreversion depends greatly on the type of test used. Our results highlight the need for recommendations to specify the timing and type of test used in the context of infant HIV detection in resource-poor settings, and base the interpretation of test result on knowledge of time to seroreversion of the selected test.

  18. Evaluation of growth based rapid microbiological methods for sterility testing of vaccines and other biological products.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Seema; Kaur, Simleen; David, Selwyn A Wilson; Kenney, James L; McCormick, William M; Gupta, Rajesh K

    2011-10-19

    Most biological products, including vaccines, administered by the parenteral route are required to be tested for sterility at the final container and also at various stages during manufacture. The sterility testing method described in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.12) and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP, Chapter <71>) is based on the observation of turbidity in liquid culture media due to growth of potential contaminants. We evaluated rapid microbiological methods (RMM) based on detection of growth 1) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology (Rapid Milliflex(®) Detection System [RMDS]), and 2) by CO(2) monitoring technologies (BacT/Alert and the BACTEC systems), as alternate sterility methods. Microorganisms representing Gram negative, Gram positive, aerobic, anaerobic, spore forming, slow growing bacteria, yeast, and fungi were prepared in aliquots of Fluid A or a biological matrix (including inactivated influenza vaccines) to contain approximately 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 colony forming units (CFU) in an inoculum of 10 ml. These preparations were inoculated to the specific media required for the various methods: 1) fluid thioglycollate medium (FTM) and tryptic soy broth (TSB) of the compendial sterility method (both membrane filtration and direct inoculation); 2) tryptic soy agar (TSA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and Schaedler blood agar (SBA) of the RMDS; 3) iAST and iNST media of the BacT/Alert system and 4) Standard 10 Aerobic/F and Standard Anaerobic/F media of the BACTEC system. RMDS was significantly more sensitive in detecting various microorganisms at 0.1CFU than the compendial methods (p<0.05), whereas the compendial membrane filtration method was significantly more sensitive than the BACTEC and BacT/Alert methods (p<0.05). RMDS detected all microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method (p<0.05). BacT/Alert and BACTEC methods detected most microorganisms significantly faster than the compendial method

  19. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M.; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K.; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J. M.; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Methods Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Results Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Conclusions Expanding services of PMRs to

  20. Counselling in STD/HIV/AIDS in the context of rapid test: Perception of users and health professionals at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernanda T; Both, Nalu S; Alnoch, Edi M; Conz, Jaqueline; Rocha, Katia B

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the perceptions of professionals and users about counselling practices at a counselling and testing centre in Porto Alegre/RS based on interviews with 27 service users and 14 members of the staff. The following categories emerged from thematic analysis: professionals' perceptions on counselling, users' perceptions on counselling and changes in counselling due to the introduction of rapid test procedures. The results show that, although initially there were some imprecision and apparent contradictions in its use, rapid testing was considered an invitation to rethink practices, bringing service closer to users' needs.

  1. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  2. Thermal testing of the proposed HUD energy efficiency standard for new manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Barker, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Thermal testing of two manufactured homes was performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Testing (CMFERT) environmental enclosure in the winter and spring of 1991. The primary objective of the study was to directly measure the thermal performance of the two homes, each built according to a proposed new US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standard. Secondary objectives were to test the accuracy of an accompanying compliance calculation method and to help manufacturers find cost-effective ways to meet the new standard. Both homes performed within the standard without major design or production line modifications. Their performance fell within 8% of predictions based on the new draft HUD calculation manual; however, models with minimum window area were selected by the manufacturer. Models with more typical window area would have required substantive design changes to meet the standard. Several other tests were also performed on the homes by both NREL and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to uncover potential thermal anomalies and to explore the degradation in thermal performance that might occur because of (a) penetrations in the rodent barrier from field hookups and repairs, (b) closing of interior doors with and without operation of the furnace blower, and (c) exposure to winds.

  3. Suite of proposed imaging performance metrics and test methods for fire service thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Francine; Lock, Andrew; Bryner, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    The use of thermal imaging cameras (TIC) by the fire service is increasing as fire fighters become more aware of the value of these tools. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is currently developing a consensus standard for design and performance requirements for TIC as used by the fire service. This standard will include performance requirements for TIC design robustness and image quality. The National Institute of Standards and Technology facilitates this process by providing recommendations for science-based performance metrics and test methods to the NFPA technical committee charged with the development of this standard. A suite of imaging performance metrics and test methods based on the harsh operating environment and limitations of use particular to the fire service has been proposed for inclusion in the standard. The performance metrics include large area contrast, effective temperature range, spatial resolution, nonuniformity, and thermal sensitivity. Test methods to measure TIC performance for these metrics are in various stages of development. An additional procedure, image recognition, has also been developed to facilitate the evaluation of TIC design robustness. The pass/fail criteria for each of these imaging performance metrics are derived from perception tests in which image contrast, brightness, noise, and spatial resolution are degraded to the point that users can no longer consistently perform tasks involving TIC due to poor image quality.

  4. Comparison of a Novel, Rapid Chromogenic Biochemical Assay, the Carba NP Test, with the Modified Hodge Test for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Simner, Patricia J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 271 Gram-negative bacilli (of which 131 were carbapenemase producers) using a novel chromogenic rapid test—the Carba NP test (CNP)—and the modified Hodge test (MHT). Sensitivities were comparable (CNP, 100%, versus MHT, 98%; P = 0.08), but CNP was more specific (100% versus 80%; P < 0.0001) and faster. PMID:23824767

  5. A Rapid Diagnostic Test to Distinguish Between American and European Populations of Phytophthora ramorum.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Verstappen, Els C P; Kox, Linda F F; Flier, Wilbert G; Bonants, Peter J M

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT A new devastating disease in the United States, commonly known as Sudden Oak Death, is caused by Phytophthora ramorum. This pathogen, which previously was described attacking species of Rhododendron and Viburnum in Germany and the Netherlands, has established itself in forests on the central coast of California and is killing scores of native oak trees (Lithocarpus densiflora, Quercus agrifolia, Q. kelloggii, and Q. parvula var. shrevei). The phytosanitary authorities in the European Union consider non-European isolates of P. ramorum as a threat to forest trees in Europe. To date, almost all European isolates are mating type A1 while those from California and Oregon are type A2. The occurrence of both mating types in the same region could lead to a population capable of sexual recombination, which could generate a new source of diversity. To prevent contact between these two populations, a rapid, reliable, and discriminating diagnostic test was developed to easily distinguish the two populations. Based on a DNA sequence difference in the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol to distinguish between isolates of P. ramorum originating in Europe and those originating in the United States. A total of 83 isolates of P. ramorum from Europe and 51 isolates from the United States were screened and all isolates could be consistently and correctly allocated to either the European or the U.S. populations using the SNP protocol.

  6. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains not identified by slide agglutination tests.

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, P; Hildén, P; Savolainen, K; Vuento, M; Lyytikäinen, O; Vuopio-Varkila, J

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated during 1980 to 1990, were classified as MRSA Aggl- (14 strains) and MRSA Aggl+ (65 strains) strains on the basis of test results in slide agglutination assays designed to detect fibrinogen-binding protein (clumping factor) and protein A on the staphylococcal surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that lysostaphin digests of MRSA Aggl- strains contained a high-molecular-weight protein which was not detected in digests of MRSA Aggl+ strains. Immunization of rabbits with an MRSA Aggl- strain produced an antiserum which agglutinated all MRSA Aggl- strains and also 64 of 65 MRSA Aggl+ strains. Only 1 of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci showed agglutination in this assay. The anti-MRSA Aggl- antiserum reacted mainly with a 230-kDa staphylococcal surface protein but also with a 175-kDa protein, probably formed by proteolysis of the former and a few slightly smaller proteins. These could not be immunologically detected in lysostaphin digests of MRSA Aggl+ strains. Purified antibodies reacting with the 230-kDa protein agglutinated all MRSA Aggl- strains, indicating that the protein is located on the surfaces of staphylococci. The results suggest a tentative role for the 230-kDa protein or its fragments as a novel target to develop more efficient rapid identification methods for S. aureus, including MRSA. Images PMID:8126170

  7. Computerized neuropsychological testing to rapidly evaluate cognition in pediatric patients with neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Sherman, Elisabeth M S

    2012-08-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests represent a viable method for rapidly screening cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore performance on the CNS Vital Signs in a large pediatric neurology sample. Participants included 166 neurology patients (mean age, 13.0 years; standard deviation, 3.2) and 281 controls (mean age, 13.2 years; standard deviation, 3.2) between 7 and 19 years. The neurology sample performed significantly worse on all domain scores and nearly all subtest scores. Cohen d effect sizes were small to medium for verbal memory (d= 0.44), visual memory (d= 0.40), and reaction time (d= 0.48) and very large for psychomotor speed (d= 1.19), complex attention (d = 0.94), cognitive flexibility (d = 0.94), and the overall composite score (d = 1.08). Using the criterion for cognitive impairment of 2 or more scores ≤5th percentile, 36.6% of the neurology sample was identified as having an uncommon cognitive profile. This is the first study to demonstrate the performance of pediatric patients with neurologic disorders on CNS Vital Signs.

  8. Rapid in-vitro testing for chemotherapy sensitivity in leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth; Salisbury, Vyv

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacterial biosensors can be used in a rapid in vitro assay to predict sensitivity to commonly used chemotherapy drugs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The nucleoside analog cytarabine (ara-C) is the key agent for treating AML; however, up to 30 % of patients fail to respond to treatment. Screening of patient blood samples to determine drug response before commencement of treatment is needed. To achieve this aim, a self-bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli has been constructed and evaluated for use as an ara-C biosensor and an in vitro assay has been designed to predict ara-C response in clinical samples. Transposition mutagenesis was used to create a cytidine deaminase (cdd)-deficient mutant of E. coli MG1655 that responded to ara-C. The strain was transformed with the luxCDABE operon and used as a whole-cell biosensor for development an 8-h assay to determine ara-C uptake and phosphorylation by leukemic cells. Intracellular concentrations of 0.025 μmol/L phosphorylated ara-C were detected by significantly increased light output (P < 0.05) from the bacterial biosensor. Results using AML cell lines with known response to ara-C showed close correlation between the 8-h assay and a 3-day cytotoxicity test for ara-C cell killing. In retrospective tests with 24 clinical samples of bone marrow or peripheral blood, the biosensor-based assay predicted leukemic cell response to ara-C within 8 h. The biosensor-based assay may offer a predictor for evaluating the sensitivity of leukemic cells to ara-C before patients undergo chemotherapy and allow customized treatment of drug-sensitive patients with reduced ara-C dose levels. The 8-h assay monitors intracellular ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate) levels and, if fully validated, may be suitable for use in clinical settings.

  9. Rapid fluorescence-based assay for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity testing in mammalian cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Begg, A.C.; Mooren, E.

    1989-02-01

    An efficient and rapid cytotoxicity assay has been developed, particularly for radiobiological studies, utilizing 96-well microtiter plates. Several days after treatment, cell numbers per well were measured by fluorescent intensity using an automatic reader after staining with the DNA specific dye Hoechst 33258. For radiobiological applications, a microtiter plate irradiation box was designed and built which allowed a variable number of wells (minimum 4, maximum 16) to be irradiated at one time. In this manner, complete dose-response curves could be obtained from one plate. The assay depends on the growth of surviving and untreated cells, and by appropriate choice of conditions (cell numbers plated, time of assay), cell survival curves for this quick fluorescence assay were in reasonable agreement with those from a clonogenic assay for cisplatin and X-ray-induced cell killing. The assay can span 1.5-2 decades of cell survival and is suitable for any cell line which grows as a monolayer. Radiobiological applications were tested using agents or conditions which modified radiation damage. Firstly, sublethal damage repair could be demonstrated in RIF1 mouse tumor cells by comparing the survival curve for a single X-ray dose with that for two fractions separated by 4 h. Secondly, incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into cellular DNA was shown to radiosensitize Chinese Hamster cells, with similar enhancement ratios obtained from the fluorescence and clonogenic assays. Thirdly, radiosensitization by cisplatin and radioprotection by cysteamine could be readily measured using the quick fluorescence assay. The ability to have multiple dose groups per plate makes it an efficient assay for both radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity testing.

  10. Proposal of a New Specific Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test for Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Marcus P; Nóbrega, Antônio C L; Espinosa, Gabriel; Hausen, Matheus; Castro, Renata R T; Soares, Pedro P; Gurgel, Jonas L

    2015-12-18

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the cardiorespiratory variables of Taekwondo athletes while performing incremental exercise test on ergometer using a ramp protocol and to propose a specific protocol for assessing these physiological variables during Taekwondo practice. Fourteen athletes participated in two incremental exercise tests: a treadmill exercise test (TREADtest) and a Taekwondo-specific exercise test (TKDtest). The TKDtest consists in one-minute stages of kicks with an incremental load between then. The subjects perform kicks each time a sound signal was heard. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), and their reserve correspondents (V[Combining Dot Above]O2R and HRR) were divided into quartiles to verify their kinetics along the tests. Significant difference between two tests was found only for V[Combining Dot Above]O2R (p = 0.03). Regarding the quartiles, significant differences were found for HR in the 1 (p = 0.030) and 2 (p = 0.003). Analyzing the regression curves, significant differences were found for HR for intercept (p = 0.01) and slope (p = 0.05) and HRR for slope (p = 0.02). Analysis showed significant reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was found for the V[Combining Dot Above]O2PEAK (ICC = 0.855, p = 0.003), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 in ventilatory thresholds 1 (ICC = 0.709, p = 0.03) and 2 (ICC = 0.848, p = 0.003). Bland-Altman analyses reported a mean difference ± the 95% limits of agreement of 2.2 ± 8.4 ml.kg.min to V[Combining Dot Above]O2PEAK. TKDtest is reliable for measurement of cardiorespiratory variables, and the behavior of these variables differs mainly from TREADtest, probably due to the motor task performed.

  11. Performance of a New Rapid Immunoassay Test Kit for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Significant Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Marsha E.; DiNello, Robert K.; Geisberg, Mark; Abbott, April; Roberts, Pacita L.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in clinical practice and most commonly caused by Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative uropathogens. We tested RapidBac, a rapid immunoassay for bacteriuria developed by Silver Lake Research Corporation (SLRC), compared with standard bacterial culture using 966 clean-catch urine specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory in an urban academic medical center. RapidBac was performed in accordance with instructions, providing a positive or negative result in 20 min. RapidBac identified as positive 245/285 (sensitivity 86%) samples with significant bacteriuria, defined as the presence of a Gram-negative uropathogen or Staphylococcus saprophyticus at ≥103 CFU/ml. The sensitivities for Gram-negative bacteriuria at ≥104 CFU/ml and ≥105 CFU/ml were 96% and 99%, respectively. The specificity of the test, detecting the absence of significant bacteriuria, was 94%. The sensitivity and specificity of RapidBac were similar on samples from inpatient and outpatient settings, from male and female patients, and across age groups from 18 to 89 years old, although specificity was higher in men (100%) compared with that in women (92%). The RapidBac test for bacteriuria may be effective as an aid in the point-of-care diagnosis of UTIs especially in emergency and primary care settings. PMID:26063858

  12. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria and health workers’ adherence to test results at health facilities in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Zambia, there has been a large scaling up of interventions to control malaria in recent years including the deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to improve malaria surveillance data as well as guide malaria treatment in health facilities. The practical challenge is the impact of RDT results on subsequent management of patients. This study explored the role of RDTs in malaria diagnosis and the health workers’ adherence to test results. Methods An observational prospective study was carried out at health centres in four districts, namely Chibombo, Chingola, Chipata, and Choma. Children under the age of five years with history of fever were recruited and the clinicians’ use of RDT results was observed to establish whether prescriptions were issued prior to the availability of parasitological results or after, and whether RDT results influenced their prescriptions. Results Of the 2, 393 recruited children, 2, 264 had both RDT and microscopic results. Two in three (68.6%) children were treated with anti-malarials despite negative RDT results and almost half (46.2%) of these were prescribed Coartem®. Only 465 (19.4%) of the 2,393 children were prescribed drugs before receiving laboratory results. A total of 76.5% children were prescribed drugs after laboratory results. Children with RDT positive results were 2.66 (95% CI (2.00, 3.55)) times more likely to be prescribed anti-malarial drugs. Children who presented with fever at admission (although history of fever or presence of fever at admission was an entry criterion) were 42% less likely to be prescribed an anti-malarial drug compared to children who had no fever (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI (0.52, 0.65)). It was noted that proportions of children who were RDT- and microscopy-positive significantly declined over the years from 2005 to 2008. Conclusions RDTs may contribute to treatment of febrile illness by confirming malaria cases from non-malaria cases in children under the age of five. However

  13. Serological Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Southern India: Evaluation of InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test and Comparison with other Serological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Anitharaj, Velmurugan; Pradeep, Jothimani; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung-Han; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Eun-Ye; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scrub Typhus (ST) is being reported from different parts of India in the recent past. However, the diagnosis and confirmation of ST cases require specific serological and molecular diagnostic tests. Both rapid and conventional ELISA tests need to be properly evaluated. Aim Evaluation of a new ST IgM Immunochromatography (ICT) test kit (InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test) and compare it with another rapid kit, conventional ELISA kit and Weil-Felix (WF) test. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, during November 2015 to June 2016. Clinically suspected 220 ST patients were examined by a new kit, InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test, taking the conventional InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM ELISA as reference. Additional comparison was made with ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid, and WF test (single OXK titers ≥1:320). Statistical analysis was performed (Chi-square, Spearman’s correlation and Kappa) using IBM SPSS Statistics 17 for Windows (SPSS Inc; Chicago, USA). Results Percentage Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive and Negative Predictive Values for InBios, ImmuneMed and WF were 99.25, 93.02, 95.68, 98.77; 94.87, 94.19, 96.21, 92.05 and 50.38, 95.51, 94.29, 56.67 respectively. A total of 134 patients were positive in reference standard InBios IgM ELISA. Conclusion This new rapid ST IgM kit validated for the first time in India, showed good sensitivity and specificity. As a Point-of-Care (PoC) test, the kit would be helpful in both urban and remote rural parts of India. PMID:28050364

  14. Testing human hair for Cannabis. III. rapid screening procedure for the simultaneous identification of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Sachs, H; Kintz, P; Mangin, P

    1996-01-01

    delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) are three constituents of the 16 that can be currently isolated from some Cannabis spp plants. Their identification in decontaminated hair can indicate exposure to cannabis. In this study, we propose a rapid, simple, and direct (without derivatization) screening procedure for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of CBD, CBN, and THC in hair of chronic cannabis abusers. Hair samples were washed with methylene chloride, hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide, extracted with n-hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v), evaporated to dryness, and injected directly on a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric system operating in electron-impact mode. THC-d3 was used as the internal standard. Thirty hair samples were tested. CBD was detected 23 times, CBN was detected 22 times, and THC was detected five times. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 3.00 ng/mg (mean, 0.44 ng/mg), from 0.01 to 1.07 ng/mg (mean, 0.13 ng/mg), and from 0.1 to 0.29 ng/mg hair (mean, 0.15 ng/mg) for CBD, CBN, and THC, respectively. These results show that this new screening procedure is suitable for the detection of CBD and CBN in the hair of cannabis abusers.

  15. A Comprehensive Systems Testing Plan for the Smart Phone Assisted Rapid Communication and Control System (SPARCCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    109 1. Human Factors Testing .......................109 2. BGAN on the Move Testing ....................110 3. Cellular Vendor Tests...Requirements Test Distribution..................28 Figure 5. Test Support Equipment..........................43 Figure 6. Hughes 9202 Inmarsat BGAN ...to BGAN Signal..............54 Figure 12. Outdoor Testing Range...........................55 Figure 13. Testing the BGAN at the Outdoor Testing

  16. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite of Southeast Asian macaques, infects humans and can cause fatal malaria. It is difficult to diagnose by microscopy because of morphological similarity to Plasmodium malariae. Nested PCR assay is the most accurate method to distinguish P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium species but is not cost effective in resource-poor settings. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended for settings where malaria is prevalent. In this study, the effectiveness of three RDTs in detecting P. knowlesi from fresh and frozen patient blood samples was evaluated. Methods Forty malaria patients (28 P. knowlesi, ten P. vivax and two P. falciparum) diagnosed by microscopy were recruited in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo during a 16-month period. Patient blood samples were used to determine parasitaemia by microscopy, confirm the Plasmodium species present by PCR and evaluate three RDTs: OptiMAL-IT, BinaxNOW® Malaria and Paramax-3. The RDTs were also evaluated using frozen blood samples from 41 knowlesi malaria patients. Results OptiMAL-IT was the most sensitive RDT, with a sensitivity of 71% (20/28; 95% CI = 54-88%) for fresh and 73% (30/41; 95% CI = 59-87%) for frozen knowlesi samples. However, it yielded predominantly falciparum-positive results due to cross-reactivity of the P. falciparum test reagent with P. knowlesi. BinaxNOW® Malaria correctly detected non-P. falciparum malaria in P. knowlesi samples but was the least sensitive, detecting only 29% (8/28; 95% CI = 12-46%) of fresh and 24% (10/41; 95% CI = 11-37%) of frozen samples. The Paramax-3 RDT tested positive for P. vivax with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi samples with sensitivities of 40% (10/25; 95% CI = 21-59%) with fresh and 32% (13/41; 95% CI = 17-46%) with frozen samples. All RDTs correctly identified P. falciparum- and P. vivax-positive controls with parasitaemias above 2,000 parasites/μl blood. Conclusions The RDTs detected Plasmodium in P. knowlesi-infected blood samples with

  17. 75 FR 16088 - Notice: Request for Substantive Comments on the EAC's Proposed Requirements for the Testing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Pilot Voting Systems To Serve UOCAVA Voters AGENCY: United States Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Request for public comment on proposed requirements for the testing of ] pilot voting systems to be used... public comment a set of proposed requirements for the testing of pilot voting systems to be used...

  18. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  19. A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Vieira, Cintia; Bohner, Lauren O L; Silva, Cristiane Felisbino; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; De Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2013-08-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a preclinical test to the screening of antidepressants based on rats or mice behaviours, which is also sensitive to stimulants of motor activity. This work standardised and validated a method to register the active and passive behaviours of Swiss mice during the FST in order to strength the specificity of the test. Adult male Swiss mice were subjected to the FST for 6 min without any treatment or after intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 ml/10 g), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, or fluoxetine, 30 mg/kg) or stimulants (caffeine, 30 mg/kg or apomorphine, 10mg/kg). The latency, frequency and duration of behaviours (immobility, swimming, and climbing) were scored and summarised in bins of 6, 4, 2 or 1 min. Parameters were first analysed using Principal Components Analysis generating components putatively related to antidepressant (first and second) or to stimulant effects (third). Antidepressants and stimulants affected similarly the parameters grouped into all components. Effects of stimulants on climbing were better distinguished of antidepressants when analysed during the last 4 min of the FST. Surprisingly, the effects of antidepressants on immobility were better distinguished from saline when parameters were scored in the first 2 min. The method proposed here is able to distinguish antidepressants from stimulants of motor activity using Swiss mice in the FST. This refinement should reduce the number of mice used in preclinical evaluation of antidepressants.

  20. Resazurin Microtiter Assay Plate Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibilities to Second-Line Drugs: Rapid, Simple, and Inexpensive Method

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anandi; Camacho, Mirtha; Portaels, Françoise; Palomino, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis calls for new, rapid drug susceptibility tests. We have tested 150 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates against the second-line drugs ethionamide, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and para-aminosalicylic acid by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method. By visual reading, MICs were obtained after 8 days. A very good correlation between results by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method was obtained. The colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay is inexpensive, rapid, and simple to perform, and implementation of the assay is feasible for low-resource countries. PMID:14576129

  1. Should countries implementing an artemisinin-based combination malaria treatment policy also introduce rapid diagnostic tests?

    PubMed Central

    Zikusooka, Charlotte M; McIntyre, Diane; Barnes, Karen I

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the context of increasing antimalarial costs and or decreasing malaria transmission, the importance of limiting antimalarial treatment to only those confirmed as having malaria parasites becomes paramount. This motivates for this assessment of the cost-effectiveness of routine use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as an integral part of deploying artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Methods The costs and cost-effectiveness of using RDTs to limit the use of ACTs to those who actually have Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in two districts in southern Mozambique were assessed. To evaluate the potential impact of introducing definitive diagnosis using RDTs (costing $0.95), five scenarios were considered, assuming that the use of definitive diagnosis would find that between 25% and 75% of the clinically diagnosed malaria patients are confirmed to be parasitaemic. The base analysis compared two ACTs, artesunate plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS+SP) costing $1.77 per adult treatment and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) costing $2.40 per adult treatment, as well as the option of restricting RDT use to only those older than six years. Sensitivity analyses considered lower cost ACTs and RDTs and different population age distributions. Results Compared to treating patients on the basis of clinical diagnosis, the use of RDTs in all clinically diagnosed malaria cases results in cost savings only when 29% and 52% or less of all suspected malaria cases test positive for malaria and are treated with AS+SP and AL, respectively. These cut-off points increase to 41.5% (for AS+SP) and to 74% (for AL) when the use of RDTs is restricted to only those older than six years of age. When 25% of clinically diagnosed patients are RDT positive and treated using AL, there are cost savings per malaria positive patient treated of up to $2.12. When more than 29% of clinically diagnosed cases are malaria test positive, the incremental cost per malaria positive patient

  2. Determining the Influence of Groundwater Composition on the Performance of Arsenic Adsorption Columns Using Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, A. R.; Siegel, M.

    2004-12-01

    The USEPA has established a more stringent drinking water standard for arsenic, reducing the maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 50 μ g/L to 10 μ g/L. This will affect many small communities in the US that lack the appropriate treatment infrastructure and funding to reduce arsenic to such levels. For such communities, adsorption systems are the preferred technology based on ease of operation and relatively lower costs. The performance of adsorption media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water is dependent on site-specific water quality. At certain concentrations, co-occurring solutes will compete effectively with arsenic for sorption sites, potentially reducing the sorption capacity of the media. Due to the site-specific nature of water quality and variations in media properties, pilot scale studies are typically carried out to ensure that a proposed treatment technique is cost effective before installation of a full-scale system. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an approach to utilize rapid small-scale columns in lieu of pilot columns to test innovative technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of treatment in small communities. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) were developed to predict full-scale treatment of organic contaminants by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). This process greatly reduced the time and costs required to verify performance of GAC adsorption columns. In this study, the RSSCT methodology is used to predict the removal of inorganic arsenic using mixed metal oxyhydroxide adsorption media. The media are engineered and synthesized from materials that control arsenic behavior in natural and disturbed systems. We describe the underlying theory and application of RSSCTs for the performance evaluation of novel media in several groundwater compositions. Results of small-scale laboratory columns are being used to predict the performance of pilot-scale systems and ultimately to design full

  3. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.T.; Long, E.R.

    1998-06-01

    Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km{sup 2}, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texas in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.T.; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. [Evaluation of immunochromatography test for rapid detection of influenza A and B viruses using real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Takao, Shinichi; Shinkai, Takayuki; Kai, Akemi; Fukuda, Shinji; Shimazu, Yukie; Kuwayama, Masaru; Miyazaki, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic kits to influenza B is lower than to influenza A. The cause-poor performance of the kit or the scarcity of viruses in type B specimens-has yet to be clarified. Using real-time PCR, we measured the amount of influenza viruses with nasopharyngeal aspirate fluid previously identified by virus isolation culture and passing the rapid diagnosis test by four types of kits, including the ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N (Fujirebio Corp., Japan). We classified the results of virus isolation and rapid diagnosis tests into three groups and examined them: group 1 (12 specimens, influenza B, all negative in tests using four types of kits); group 2 (57 specimens, influenza B, all positive in tests); and group 3 (36 specimens, AH3, all positive in tests). The average amount of viruses in group 1 (6.60 +/- 0.81 log10copies/mL) was significantly lower (p<0.0001) than that in group 2 (8.51 +/- 0.57 log10copies/mL) or group 3 (8.72 +/- 0.63 log10copies/mL). No significant difference was seen in the amount of viruses between groups 2 and 3. We concluded that the cause of low sensitivity in rapid diagnostic kits to influenza B are attributable to the scarcity of viruses in the specimen.

  6. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  7. Testing the limits of Henriques' proposal: Wittgensteinian lessons and hermeneutic dialogue.

    PubMed

    Slife, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The limits of Henriques' "overarching conceptions" approach to defining psychology is first tested by comparing and contrasting his conceptions to two burgeoning movements within psychology: qualitative research and spiritual therapy strategies. These movements were selected because they represent many other fragments of a fragmented psychology that could fall outside Henriques' disciplinary matrix. This comparison reveals how the broader discipline of psychology resists propositional definitions, such as Henriques' proposal. As the later work of Wittgenstein (1958) reveals, one cannot unite the various language games of a discipline's discourse communities through common overarching features. Next, another approach to unification and definition is outlined--hermeneutic dialogue. Unlike an overarching framework, hermeneutic dialogue does not require "joint points." In fact, it assumes that the richness and vitality of a discipline can be drained away by such "unifying" principles. Instead, hermeneutic dialogue is a way of relating and unifying while preserving the integrity and identity of even incommensurable factions within a discipline.

  8. Assessing the impact of next-generation rapid diagnostic tests on Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies.

    PubMed

    Slater, Hannah C; Ross, Amanda; Ouédraogo, André Lin; White, Lisa J; Nguon, Chea; Walker, Patrick G T; Ngor, Pengby; Aguas, Ricardo; Silal, Sheetal P; Dondorp, Arjen M; La Barre, Paul; Burton, Robert; Sauerwein, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris; Smith, Thomas A; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-03

    Mass-screen-and-treat and targeted mass-drug-administration strategies are being considered as a means to interrupt transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the effectiveness of such strategies will depend on the extent to which current and future diagnostics are able to detect those individuals who are infectious to mosquitoes. We estimate the relationship between parasite density and onward infectivity using sensitive quantitative parasite diagnostics and mosquito feeding assays from Burkina Faso. We find that a diagnostic with a lower detection limit of 200 parasites per microlitre would detect 55% of the infectious reservoir (the combined infectivity to mosquitoes of the whole population weighted by how often each individual is bitten) whereas a test with a limit of 20 parasites per microlitre would detect 83% and 2 parasites per microlitre would detect 95% of the infectious reservoir. Using mathematical models, we show that increasing the diagnostic sensitivity from 200 parasites per microlitre (equivalent to microscopy or current rapid diagnostic tests) to 2 parasites per microlitre would increase the number of regions where transmission could be interrupted with a mass-screen-and-treat programme from an entomological inoculation rate below 1 to one of up to 4. The higher sensitivity diagnostic could reduce the number of treatment rounds required to interrupt transmission in areas of lower prevalence. We predict that mass-screen-and-treat with a highly sensitive diagnostic is less effective than mass drug administration owing to the prophylactic protection provided to uninfected individuals by the latter approach. In low-transmission settings such as those in Southeast Asia, we find that a diagnostic tool with a sensitivity of 20 parasites per microlitre may be sufficient for targeted mass drug administration because this diagnostic is predicted to identify a similar village population prevalence compared with that currently detected using

  9. Rapid maxillary expansion screws on the test bench--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Muchitsch, Alfred Peter; Wendl, B; Winsauer, H; Pichelmayer, M; Payer, M

    2011-06-01

    In order to apply high, short-term forces during rapid maxillary expansion (RME) to the sutures of the maxilla with minimum loss of force and without causing unwanted side-effects (dentoalveolar tipping, etc.), the appliance should be as rigid as possible. The retention arms of the RME screws, representing a particularly vulnerable and stressed weak point of RME appliances, were the focus of this laboratory technical study. Retention arms of 16 types of RME screws comprising four arms and one with eight arms were examined using a three-point bending test. According to their ability to absorb the applied bending loads, the screws were classified in product groups from 1 (highest) to 6 (lowest). Fifteen of the tested retention arms (stainless steel), despite having the same diameter (1.48-1.49 mm), differed up to 69.81 per cent between the highest (288.0 N) and lowest (169.6 N) maximum force parameters and up to 66.40 per cent between the highest (3325.9 N/mm(2)) and lowest (1998.7 N/mm(2)) maximum bending stress parameters. Due to optimum formability, though reduced rigidity, a titanium screw for nickel-sensitive patients (group 6) displayed the lowest force and bending tension values. The stainless steel double arms of the eight-arm screw device welded on both ends displayed the highest force data. The mean ductilities of the groups with the most and least rigid single steel arms differed by 22.77 per cent. Statistical analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant indirect correlation between ductility and both maximum force (r = -0.780, P < 0.001) and maximum bending stress (r = -0.778, P < 0.001). The SUPERscrews, the Tiger Dental four-arm screw (group 1), and the eight-arm screw displayed the highest capacity to absorb an applied bending load. The screws in groups 3-6 appear acceptable for RME during the pre-pubertal period, whereas in the pubertal and post-pubertal period, groups 1 and 2 are sufficient. In early adulthood only the

  10. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (Parascreen™) for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT) constitute a fast and opportune alternative for non-complicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is not available. The objective of this study was to validate a RDT named Parascreen™ under field conditions in Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru. Parascreen™ is a RDT that detects the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen from Plasmodium falciparum and lactate deshydrogenase from all Plasmodium species. Methods Parascreen™ was compared with microscopy performed by experts (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the following indicators: sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive (PV+) and negative predictive values (PV-), positive (LR+) and negative likehood ratio (LR-). Results 332 patients with suspected non-complicated malaria who attended to the MOH health centres were enrolled between October and December 2006. For P. falciparum malaria, Parascreen™ in comparison with EM, had Se: 53.5%, Sp: 98.7%, PV+: 66.7%, PV-: 97.8%, LR+: 42.27 and LR-: 0.47; and for non-P. falciparum malaria, Se: 77.1%, Sp: 97.6%, PV+: 91.4%, PV-: 92.7%, LR+: 32.0 and LR-: 0.22. The comparison of Parascreen™ with PCR showed, for P. falciparum malaria, Se: 81.8%, Sp: 99.1%, PV+: 75%, PV-: 99.4, LR+: 87.27 and LR-: 0.18; and for non-P. falciparum malaria Se: 76.1%, Sp: 99.2%, PV+: 97.1%, PV-: 92.0%, LR+: 92.51 and LR-: 0.24. Conclusions The study results indicate that Parascreen™ is not a valid and acceptable test for malaria diagnosis under the field conditions found in the Peruvian Amazon. The relative proportion of Plasmodium species, in addition to the genetic characteristics of the parasites in the area, must be considered before applying any RDT, especially after the finding of P. falciparum malaria parasites lacking pfhrp2 gene in this region. PMID:20529273

  11. In vitro viability test for the eggs of Echinococcus granulosus: a rapid method.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    In this study an attempt was made to develop an efficient, rapid, simple, and reproducible method for the in vitro viability test of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. The eggs were obtained from an experimentally infected dog and kept at 4°C until use. To prepare the dead or damaged eggs, the eggs were heated in hot water (69-72°C for 10 min), preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol (16 days) or exposed to direct sunlight (18 h). Sodium hypochlorite (0.5-0.7%) was used for the hatching process, and the hatched oncospheres were stained with 0.1% eosin for the viability test. With 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, the hatching rates for viable eggs and eggs killed or damaged by heat (69°C), 70% ethyl alcohol, and direct sunlight were 96%, 97.5%, 91.5%, and 94.6% respectively and there was no significant difference between the hatching rate for viable and dead or damaged eggs (p > 0.05). After staining with 0.1% eosin, the rates of the viable oncospheres hatched from viable eggs and the eggs killed or damaged by heat (69°C), 70% ethyl alcohol, and direct sunlight were 97.5% 3.6%, 7%, and 10.5%, respectively. The difference between the rates of viable oncospheres hatched from viable and dead or damaged eggs was extremely significant (P < 0.0001). With 0.7% sodium hypochlorite, the hatching rates for viable and dead eggs (killed by 72°C for 10 min) were 99.1% and 99.9%, respectively. In this condition, the rate of viable oncospheres was an average of 98.5% for viable eggs and 0.0% for dead ones. The results of this study showed that hatching of eggs by 0.7% sodium hypochlorite and staining of hatched oncospheres by 0.1% eosin are practical methods for the differentiation of viable and nonviable (dead) eggs of Echinococcus granulosus.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal from Proposed Pumping Near the Southeastern Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    R.W.H. Carroll; R.L.Hershey; G.M. Pohll

    2006-04-25

    Current modeling of the southeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) with a refined U.S. Geological Survey Death Valley regional groundwater flow system model shows that impacts from pumping by proposed Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) and Vidler Water Company (VWC) wells can be substantial over 75 years of operation. Results suggest that significant drawdown at proposed well sites will occur with depths of drawdown ranging from 8 m to nearly 1,600 m. The areal extent of 0.5 m of drawdown is also significant, impacting Mercury Valley, Amargosa, Indian Springs, Three Lakes, and Frenchman Flat basins. Drawdown will impact Army No.1 Water Well in Mercury Valley by lowering water levels 2.1 m but will not impact other NTS production wells. It is also predicted that flowpaths from detonation sites within the NTS will be altered with the potential to move material out of the NTS. Impacts to both springs and regions of groundwater evapotranspiration (modeled as MODFLOW drain cells) appear very minimal, with an estimated 0.2-percent reduction in flow to these regions. This amounts to a loss of more that 55,000 m3/year (45 acre-ft/year), or more than 4,000,000 m3 (3,400 acre-ft) during 75 years of groundwater withdrawal by pumping at proposed SNWA and VWC wells. Whether the reduced flow will impact specific springs more than any others, or if the reduction in flow is enough to have significant ecological implications, was not addressed in this study.

  13. INITIAL TEST OF A FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MODEL DIPOLE FOR GSIS PROPOSED SIS200 ACCELERATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; JOSHI,P.; MARONE,A.; MURATORE,J.; SCHMALZLE,J.; SOIKA,R.; THOMAS,R.; KAUGERTS,J.; MORITZ,G.; HASSENZAHL,W.; WILSON,N.M.

    2003-05-12

    Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) has proposed a large expansion of the existing facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The proposal includes an accelerator, SIS200, with rigidity of 200 Tam that utilizes 4 T superconducting dipoles ramped at 1 T/s. An R&D program including both the superconductor and the magnet is directed at achieving the desired ramp rate with minimal energy loss. The RHIC arc dipoles, with 8 cm aperture, possess adequate aperture and field strength but are ramped at only 1/20 of the desired rate. However, for reasons of speed and economy, the RHIC dipole is being used as the basis for this work. The superconductor R&D has progressed far enough to permit the manufacture of an initial cable with satisfactory properties. This cable has been used in the construction of a I m model magnet, appropriately modified from the RHIC design. The magnet has been tested successfully at 2 T/s to 4.38 T.

  14. Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Jail: How Testing at Exit With Linkage to Community Care Can Address Perceived Barriers.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Kari A; Shaikh, Raees A; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Boyle, Cole; Islam, K M; Younger, Heather; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Berthold, Elizabeth; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Despite recommendations from the CDC, only 36 % of jails offer routine HIV screening to inmates. Our purpose was to explore the feasibility of rapid HIV testing at release from an urban jail, and to identify potential barriers to this process. This project was incorporated into an established partnership between the jail, local academic medical center, and local public health department. We offered rapid HIV testing at the time of release to 507 jail inmates over a 7 week period of 2013. Three hundred and two (60 %) inmates elected testing. All participating inmates received individual test counseling, HIV prevention education, and linkage to care in the community prior to release. All tested inmates received results before release; one inmate screened positive for HIV and was linked to care. Previous HIV testing was the most frequently cited reason given (60 %) among the 205 inmates who declined at the time of the study. Utilizing the partnership between the jail, public health, and an academic medical center, we found that rapid HIV testing at exit was feasible and acceptable in this urban jail setting and could provide immediate linkage to care for those in need.

  15. Rapid-Antigen Test Negative Malaria in a Traveler Returning From Thailand, Molecularly Diagnosed as Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Mackroth, Maria S.; Tappe, Dennis; Tannich, Egbert; Addo, Marylyn; Rothe, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi has been identified in the last decade as a fifth species causing malaria in areas of South East Asia. Due to its short erythrocytic cycle, rapid development of high parasitemia and severe manifestations are frequently observed. Therefore, prompt diagnosis of infection is essential to prevent complications, but the low sensitivity of rapid diagnostic tests for P knowlesi pose a diagnostic challenge in acute settings. In this study, we report the case of a German traveler to Thailand, who was treated for P knowlesi malaria after returning to Germany. Rapid antigen test for malaria was negative on presentation. Diagnosis of a nonfalciparum malaria was made based on microscopy, and species definition was determined using polymerase chain reaction technique. PMID:27006963

  16. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  17. Use of a proposed antimicrobial susceptibility testing method for Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Kienzle, Marco; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2014-08-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 Haemophilus parasuis cultured from Australian pigs. As there is no existing standard antimicrobial susceptibility technique available for H. parasuis, methods utilising the supplemented media, BA/SN for disc diffusion and test medium broth (TMB) for a microdilution technique, were initially evaluated with the reference strains recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The results of the media evaluation suggested that BA/SN and TMB can be used as suitable media for susceptibility testing of H. parasuis. The proposed microdilution technique was then used with 97 H. parasuis isolates and nine antimicrobial agents. The study found that Australian isolates showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin (1%), penicillin (2%), erythromycin (7%), tulathromycin (9%), tilmicosin (22%), tetracycline (31%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40%). This study has described potential antimicrobial susceptibility methods for H. parasuis and has detected a low percentage of Australian H. parasuis isolates with elevated antimicrobial MICs.

  18. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-15

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D{sup −} beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D{sup −} and D{sup +}), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H{sup −} each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  19. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms and rapid diagnostic test in group A streptococcal perianal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Wollner, Alain; Koskas, Marc; Jung, Camille; Béchet, Stéphane; Chalumeau, Martin; Cohen, Jérémie; Bidet, Philippe

    2015-01-15

    From 2009 to 2014, we prospectively enrolled 132 children with perianal infections. The presentation of painful defecation, anal fissures, and macroscopic blood in stools was highly suggestive of group A streptococcal perianal infection (probability 83.3%). We found a high sensitivity of a group A streptococcal rapid diagnostic testing (98%) but relatively low specificity (72.8%).

  1. Host and viral factors affecting clinical performance of a rapid diagnostic test for respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Papenburg, Jesse; Buckeridge, David L; De Serres, Gaston; Boivin, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are used widely. RADT exhibited high specificity (97%) and moderate sensitivity (80%) compared with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 720 hospitalized children <3 years old. Older age, prolonged symptoms, and respiratory syncytial virus genotype-B infection were significantly associated with false-negative results of RADT.

  2. The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI): A Rapid Response Test Development Model for Assessing Reading Proficiency on the ILR Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…

  3. Rapid latex particle agglutination test for Escherichia coli strains of porcine origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z S; Moseley, S L; Moon, H W

    1983-01-01

    A latex particle agglutination test previously shown to be suitable for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli strains of human origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin (R. A. Finkelstein and Z. Yang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:23-28) is equally applicable to strains of porcine origin. PMID:6361056

  4. A Rapid Molecular Test for Determining Yersinia pestis Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin by the Quantification of Differentially Expressed Marker Genes

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger-Levy, Ida; Shifman, Ohad; Zvi, Anat; Ariel, Naomi; Beth-Din, Adi; Israeli, Ofir; Gur, David; Aftalion, Moshe; Maoz, Sharon; Ber, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests used to determine bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are growth dependent and time consuming. The long incubation time required for standard tests may render susceptibility results irrelevant, particularly for patients infected with lethal bacteria that are slow growing on agar but progress rapidly in vivo, such as Yersinia pestis. Here, we present an alternative approach for the rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, based on the quantification of the changes in the expression levels of specific marker genes following exposure to growth-inhibiting concentrations of the antibiotic, using Y. pestis and ciprofloxacin as a model. The marker genes were identified by transcriptomic DNA microarray analysis of the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain after exposure to specific concentrations of ciprofloxacin for various time periods. We identified several marker genes that were induced following exposure to growth-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, and we confirmed the marker expression profiles at additional ciprofloxacin concentrations using quantitative RT-PCR. Eleven candidate marker transcripts were identified, of which four mRNA markers were selected for a rapid quantitative RT-PCR susceptibility test that correctly determined the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values and the categories of susceptibility of several Y. pestis strains and isolates harboring various ciprofloxacin MIC values. The novel molecular susceptibility test requires just 2 h of antibiotic exposure in a 7-h overall test time, in contrast to the 24 h of antibiotic exposure required for a standard microdilution test. PMID:27242774

  5. Effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests to assess pathogens of fishers (Martes pennanti) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Wengert, Greta M; Matthews, Sean M; Higley, J Mark; Foley, Janet E; Blades, Amanda; Sullivan, Mike; Brown, Richard N

    2010-07-01

    Wildlife managers often need to assess the current health status of wildlife communities before implementation of management actions involving surveillance, reintroductions, or translocations. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available domestic canine rapid diagnostic antigen test for canine parvovirus and a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies toward Anaplasma phagocytophilum on populations of fishers (Martes pennanti) and sympatric gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Eighty-two fecal samples from 66 fishers and 16 gray foxes were tested with both SNAP((R)) PARVO rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Whole blood samples from 23 fishers and 53 gray foxes were tested with both SNAP 4Dx RDT and immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). The SNAP PARVO RDT detected no parvovirus, whereas PCR detected the virus in 17 samples. Eleven samples were positive using the SNAP 4Dx RDT, whereas 46 samples tested by IFA were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Both RDTs had low sensitivity and poor test agreement. These findings clearly demonstrate the importance of validating RDTs developed for domesticated animals before using them for wildlife populations.

  6. Rapid detection of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae from urine samples by use of the ESBL NDP test.

    PubMed

    Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    From June to September 2012, 500 urine samples were recovered from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) due to Gram-negative bacilli (≥ 10(4) leukocytes/ml and ≥ 10(5) Gram-negative isolates/ml) who visited the University hospital Bicêtre (France). They were challenged with extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) using the rapid diagnostic ESBL NDP test. Results of the ESBL NDP test were compared to the results of the double-disc susceptibility test (DDST) performed on solid-agar plates and molecular identification of the β-lactamase genes. Among the 450 nonduplicate urine samples, 11.3% were positive for ESBL-E by using the DDST, the ESBL determinants being mostly of the CTX-M type (CTX-M-15) according to molecular testing. Results of the ESBL NDP test were obtained within 15 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the ESBL NDP test were 98% and 99.8%, respectively, whereas the positive and negative predictive values of this test were 98% and 99.8%, respectively. A perfect correlation between cefotaxime resistance and positivity of the ESBL NDP test was observed. Therefore, the ESBL NDP test offers a powerful tool for a rapid identification of ESBL-E and associated resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. It may be useful in particular for guiding first-line antibiotic therapy.

  7. A paleomagnetic test of the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear in Northwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Karen Kluger; Anderson, Thomas H.; Schmidt, Victor A.

    1986-11-01

    Three Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic formations in southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico have been investigated paleomagnetically as a means of testing for displacement along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. Luning Formation of west-central Nevada and Sil Nakya Formation of southern Arizona lie north of the megashear whereas, in northwestern Sonora, Antimonio Formation lies south of the megashear. Previously published results from the Nazas Formation of presumed Lower Jurassic age from north-central Mexico were incorporated into the interpretations. These four units compose two sets of correlative formations on opposite sides of the proposed megashear. Restoration of 800 km of left-lateral displacement along the megashear about the pole of rotation determined by Anderson and Schmidt (1983), improves the grouping of the two sets of paleomagnetic poles noticeably, with the improvement having statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. We feel that the data support, but do not prove, the postulated displacement along the megashear. All four poles are displaced from Irving's (1979) smoothed apparent polar wander path for cratonic North America in the intervals 190 and 200 Ma. The displacement needed to bring all of these poles into coincidence is a pure rotation of about 8° counterclockwise about the sampling area. Two probable Cretaceous poles were obtained from the Sand Wells Formation of southern Arizona and from unnamed volcanics in northwest Sonora. These poles are essentially identical and suggest that displacement along the megashear had ceased by the Cretaceous. Data from the Early Jurassic Mulberry Wash and Pitoikam formations in southern Arizona appear to have been remagnetized in a later Cretaceous event and were not used in this study.

  8. Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Warren

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally

  9. Performance and usefulness of the Hexagon rapid diagnostic test in children with asymptomatic malaria living in the Mount Cameroon region

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Kimbi, Helen K; Eyong, Joan E; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ndamukong, Judith L

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid and correct diagnosis of malaria is considered an important strategy in the control of the disease. However, it remains to be determined how well these tests can perform in those who harbour the parasite, but are asymptomatic, so that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could be used in rapid mass surveillance in malaria control programmes. Methods Microscopic and immunochromatographic diagnosis of malaria were performed on blood samples from the hyperendemic Mount Cameroon region. Thin and thick blood films were stained with Giemsa and examined under light microscopy for malaria parasites. The RDT was performed on the blood samples for the detection of Plasmodium species. In addition, the performance characteristics of the test were determined using microscopy as gold standard. Results Results revealed 40.32% to be positive for microscopy and 34.41% to be positive for the RDT. Parasites were detected in a greater proportion of samples as the parasite density increase. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant Plasmodium species detected in the study population either by microscopy or by the RDT. Overall, the test recorded a sensitivity and specificity of 85.33% and 95.05% respectively, and an accuracy of 91.40%. The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT increased as parasite densities increased. Conclusion The Hexagon Malaria Combi™ test showed a high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing malaria in asymptomatic subjects and so could be suitable for use in mass surveillance programmes for the management and control of malaria. PMID:18498626

  10. Integrating Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing into Agile System Development of Healthcare IT: A Methodological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The development of more usable and effective healthcare information systems has become a critical issue. In the software industry methodologies such as agile and iterative development processes have emerged to lead to more effective and usable systems. These approaches highlight focusing on user needs and promoting iterative and flexible development practices. Evaluation and testing of iterative agile development cycles is considered an important part of the agile methodology and iterative processes for system design and re-design. However, the issue of how to effectively integrate usability testing methods into rapid and flexible agile design cycles has remained to be fully explored. In this paper we describe our application of an approach known as low-cost rapid usability testing as it has been applied within agile system development in healthcare. The advantages of the integrative approach are described, along with current methodological considerations.

  11. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  12. Vivione Bioscience RAPID-B(®) E. coli O157 test kit and non-O157 STEC test kit evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melinda; Ramsaroop, Shawn; Lopez, Chris; Brahmanda, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    RAPID-B(®) is a high performance, integrated microbiology/infectious disease diagnostic system. The system uses hardware and software that are specifically designed for optimal detection using custom, immuno-based reagents designed to react to cell surface antigens of the target bacteria. The Vivione Bioscience RAPID-B Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) kits were validated alongside the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.07 (for E. coli O157) and FSIS MLG 5B.04 (for non-O157 STEC) reference methods for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC. The matrixes, ground beef and beef trim, were inoculated with appropriate CFU/test portion of E. coli O157 and STEC so as to generate fractional positives results, 5 to 15 positives out of 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched in prewarmed Brain Heart Infusion broth at 42 ± 1°C for 6.5-7.5 h or 8.5-9.5 h depending on the sample size. All samples were confirmed using the MLG reference method, regardless of initial screen result. The RAPID-B test methods were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the detection of E. coli O157 and STEC in all tested samples. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing of the RAPID-B methods showed 100% specificity for both kits. Finally, the RAPID-B test methods were shown to be robust when variations were applied to enrichment time, broth temperature, and vortexing time.

  13. The Cotingo Dam as a Test of Brazil's System for Evaluating Proposed Developments in Amazonia

    PubMed

    Fearnside; Barbosa

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.KEY WORDS: Hydroelectric dams; Amazonia; Indigenous peoples; Brazil; Roraima

  14. Proposed test program and data base for LDEF polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; George, Pete; Steckel, Gary L.; Zimcik, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of the polymer matrix composite materials that were flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented with particular attention to the effect of circumferential location (alpha) on the measured degradation and property changes. Specifically, it is known that atomic oxygen fluence (AO), VUV radiation dose, and number of impacts by micrometeoroids/debris vary with alpha. Thus, it is possible to assess material degradation and property damage changes with alpha for those materials that are common to three or more locations. Once the alpha-dependence functions were defined, other material samples will provide data that can readily be used to predict damage and property changes as a function of alpha as well. What data can be realistically obtained from these materials, how this data can be obtained, and the scientific/design value of the data to the user community is summarized. Finally, a proposed test plan is presented with recommended characterization methodologies that should be employed by all investigators to ensure consistency in the data base that will result from this exercise.

  15. 76 FR 67557 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reimbursement of Licensing or Certification Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed......

  16. 75 FR 62187 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reimbursement of National Test Fee) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a currently approved......

  17. Reliability of the INSTI® rapid test for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants.

    PubMed

    Goupil de Bouillé, Jeanne; Le Moal, Gwénaël; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Guigon, Aurélie; Plainchamp, David; Giraudeau, Geneviève; Theillay, Aurélie; Languille, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Prazuck, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of Rapid HIV tests (RHTs) in detecting non-B subtype HIV-1 are limited. We evaluated the sensitivity of the INSTI® test for the detection of HIV-1 antibodies for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. We identified adults with HIV-1 infection due to non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. The participants were re-tested with INSTI® test. We included 258 patients. Overall, the INSTI® test sensitivity was 98.4% (95%CI: 96.9-99.9%). For the major CRF_02AG subtype, the sensitivity was 99.0% (95%CI: 97.1-100%). The HIV INSTI® test is reliable for the detection of various non-B HIV-1 antibodies.

  18. Rapid large-scale deployment of tuberculosis testing in a high school - Riverside County, California, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Cameron; Cole, Barbara; Saruwatari, Kimberly; Leon, Ramon

    2015-06-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can spread from person to person through the air, which can make contact investigations particularly complex in heavily populated settings such as schools. In November 2013, a student (the index patient) at a southern California high school with approximately 2,000 students and staff members was diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Because of an unexpectedly high number of positive tuberculin skin test results in the initial contact investigation, testing was extended to the entire school population, which had to be completed before the end of the school term. A total of 1,806 persons were tested in 24 hours. The rapid testing of the entire population of a high school is unusual and led to widespread media attention and community concern, requiring close coordination among branches of the County of Riverside Department of Public Health, local governments, and the school district. The testing resulted in identification of two additional cases of TB; in addition, 72 persons underwent treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI). This incident demonstrates the importance of a coordinated emergency response in a large-scale deployment of rapid testing, including efficiently focused resources, organized testing operations, and effective media relations.

  19. Failure to Identify HIV-Infected Individuals in a Clinical Trial Using a Single HIV Rapid Test for Screening

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wolf, Shauna; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Wendel, Sarah; Wang, Lei; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Mannheimer, Sharon; del Rio, Carlos; Kuo, Irene; Harawa, Nina T.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Moore, Richard; Blankson, Joel N.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. Objectives To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Methods Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Results Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. Conclusions In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections. PMID:24710920

  20. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    PubMed

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  1. Early diagnosis and retention in care of HIV-infected patients through rapid salivary testing: a test-and-treat fast track pilot study.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Negri, Silvia; Vidoni, Gian Marino; Gianotti, Nicola; Nozza, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the retention-in-care of individuals diagnosed during six years of salivary HIV testing (EASY-test project). Among those linked-to-care at the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy), the proportion of patients engaged, retained in care and virologically suppressed after the antiretroviral treatment was 96%, 100% and 95.2%, respectively. Results from our study suggest that salivary HIV testing may help bring to light cases of HIV infection otherwise undiagnosed, and thus favour a more rapid and wider reduction of the HIV infection burden at the population level.

  2. Novel gel-based rapid test for non-instrumental detection of ochratoxin A in beer.

    PubMed

    Goryacheva, I Y; Basova, E Y; Van Peteghem, C; Eremin, S A; Pussemier, L; Motte, J-C; De Saeger, S

    2008-01-01

    A rapid easy-to-use immunoassay was optimised for the non-instrumental detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer. The analytical method involves preconcentration on the immunoaffinity layer inside a column followed by direct competitive ELISA detection in the same layer. The visual cut-off value, i.e. the lowest OTA concentration resulting in no colour development, was 0.2 microg L(-1). Assay validation was performed using samples spiked with OTA. Thirty-seven naturally contaminated samples were screened with the gel-based method developed and no false-negative results were obtained. The method described offers a simple, rapid and cost-effective screening tool, thus contributing to better health protection of consumers.

  3. Development of Laboratory Testing Criteria for Evaluating Cementitious, Rapid-Setting Pavement Repair Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    components. Blended calcium sulfo- aluminate cement, calcium aluminate cement, gypsum cement, polymers, and ultrafine portland cement are common rapid...Blended calcium sulfo- aluminate and calcium aluminate cements may be categorized as high-alumina cements. Ultrafine portland cement Ultrafine...requiring care to prevent flash-setting of large batches. High alumina High-alumina materials use monocalcium aluminate (CaO-Al2O3) as the primary

  4. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Lyda; Uribe, Marcela; Ardila, Gloria Ines; Orejuela, Yaneth; Velasco, Margarita; Bonelo, Anilza; Parra, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5%) were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5) and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5) were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors. PMID:25993399

  5. Hypothesis-testing proposed control of strain weakening by crustal quartz abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. R.; Schutt, D.; Putirka, K. D.; Jean, M. M.; Pérez-Gussinyé, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé (Nature, 2011) observed a surprising correlation of low crustal seismic velocity ratio, VP/V_S, with both high lithospheric temperature and Cordilleran deformation. We hypothesize that the relationship is most plausibly explained by a robust dynamical feedback in which ductile strain first localizes in relatively weak, quartz-rich crust, and then initiates processes that promote advective warming, hydration, and further weakening. Strain-weakening by such a feedback mechanism not only would explain Wilson-cycle stationarity and spatial distributions of deformation, but it also would lend insight into the timing and distribution of thermal uplift. Here we test the hypothesis by examining heat transfer processes in the Cordillera. Preliminary modeling of western US thermal structure, assuming crustal heat production that linearly relates surface heat flow to surface radiogenic heating, suggests that nearly half of all thermal transfer in Cordilleran lithosphere is advective. We will test the effects of uncertainty in crustal heat-production by examining alternative thermal models with upper mantle temperatures derived from Pn and Rayleigh phase velocity measurements, as well as heat production modeled for compositions inferred from crustal VP/V_S. Assuming the estimate proves robust, advective heat transfer in the Cordillera is roughly an order-of-magnitude higher than can be explained by McKenzie-style stretching at geodetically-observed strain rates. This implies a very significant role for mass transfer via melts and other fluids. Spatial frequency distributions of NAVDAT volcanism in the western US suggest a strong bias toward extrusion in quartz-rich crust, opposite the relationship expected if spatial expressions of volcanism were primarily controlled by melt/crustal relative buoyancy. High 3He/4He ratios indicative of a mantle contribution similarly suggest a bias toward regions of quartz-rich crust. Both of these observations are

  6. Proposed minimum requirements for the operational characteristics and testing of submersible atmosphere monitoring and control units.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J C

    1998-01-01

    The design of a submersible and its myriad subsystems is a complex undertaking made more difficult by the interval between new designs. Special applications also tax the life support designer, such as diver lock-out submersibles, which are far more complex than one-atmosphere vehicles. The long intervals between designs generally means that a new generation of designers will be approaching the problems without the benefit of the knowledge and experience of the past generation of designers. This new generation of designers often has greatly improved technologies and materials at hand. Yet in the application of the new technology, life support issues that were addressed and resolved in the old and proven designs get lost in the process of redesign due to the lack of experience in the life support arena. Competent engineers operating outside their normal area of expertise can generate costly or even deadly mistakes. For this reason a set of performance requirements that details the critical functions of the life support systems is needed. Atmosphere control electronics can seriously impact the safety of the submersible crew. The triple dangers of fire, toxicity, and asphyxia demand that the electronics that monitor and control the submarine compartment atmosphere have certain characteristics. These characteristics are easily captured in a performance requirement. This article will present a set of proposed minimum performance requirements, with the goal of establishing a dialog for the creation of guidelines for the classification, rating, design, and testing of embedded electronics for life support systems used in submersible applications. These guidelines will serve as the foundation for the later creation of a set of industry specifications.

  7. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the DSM-5 Proposal and Etiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the DSM-5–proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not previously been tested in samples outside Europe or the United States. In this study, we used a large Brazilian community sample to compare the fit of different models for dimensions of oppositional symptoms; to examine the association of psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms with dimensions of oppositionality; and to examine the associations between dimensions of oppositionality and parental history of mental disorders. Method A Brazilian community sample of 2,512 children 6 through 12 years old were investigated in this study. Confirmatory factorial analyses were performed to compare the fit of alternative models, followed by linear and logistic regression analyses of associations with psychiatric diagnosis and parental history of psychopathology. Results A three-factor model with irritable, headstrong, and hurtful dimensions fitted best. The irritable dimension showed a strong association with emotional disorders in the child (p<.001) and history of depression (p<.01) and suicidality (p<.05) in the mother. The headstrong dimension was uniquely associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the child (p<.001) and with maternal history of ADHD symptoms (p<.05). The hurtful dimension was specifically associated with conduct disorder (p< .05). Conclusions Our findings from a large community sample of Brazilian children support a distinction between dimensions of oppositionality consistent with current DSM-5 recommendations and provide further evidence for etiological distinctions between these dimensions. PMID:23582870

  8. Rapid urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: clinical use and barriers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, a leading cause of death. The majority of pneumococcal CAP is diagnosed by blood culture, which likely underestimates the burden of disease. The 2007 CAP guidelines recommend routine use of the rapid pneumococcal urinary antigen (UAg) test. To assess the how pneumococcal UAg testing is being used among hospitalized adult CAP patients and what barriers restrict its use, a Web-based survey was distributed in 2013 to 1287 infectious disease physician members of the Emerging Infectious disease Network of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Of 493 eligible responses, 65% use the pneumococcal UAg test. The primary barrier to UAg use was availability (46%). UAg users reported ordering fewer other diagnostic tests and tailoring antibiotic therapy. Increased access to UAg tests could improve pneumonia management and pneumococcal CAP surveillance.

  9. Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H.; Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

  10. Metaanalysis of the Performance of a Combined Treponemal and Nontreponemal Rapid Diagnostic Test for Syphilis and Yaws

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Yin, Yue-Ping; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Castro, Arnold; Causer, Louise; Guy, Rebecca; Wangnapi, Regina; Mitjà, Oriol; Aziz, Abdul; Castro, Rita; da Luz Martins Pereira, Filomena; Taleo, Fasihah; Guinard, Jérôme; Bélec, Laurent; Tun, Ye; Bottomley, Christian; Ballard, Ronald C.; Mabey, David C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human treponematoses are important causes of disease. Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis remains a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal death. There are also almost 100 000 cases of endemic treponemal disease reported annually, predominantly yaws. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) would improve access to screening for these diseases. Most RDTs cannot distinguish current and previous infection. The Dual Path Platform (DPP) Syphilis Screen & Confirm test includes both a treponemal (T1) and nontreponemal (T2) component and may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a metaanalysis of published and unpublished evaluations of the DPP-RDT for the diagnosis of syphilis and yaws. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement of the test compared with reference laboratory tests. Results. Nine evaluations, including 7267 tests, were included. Sensitivity was higher in patients with higher titer rapid plasma reagin (≥1:16) for both the T1 (98.2% vs 90.1%, P < .0001) and the T2 component (98.2% vs 80.6%, P < .0001). Overall agreement between the DPP test and reference serology was 85.2% (84.4%–86.1%). Agreement was highest for high-titer active infection and lowest for past infection. Conclusions. The RDT has good sensitivity and specificity of the treponemal and nontreponemal components both in cases of suspected syphilis and yaws, although the sensitivity is decreased at lower antibody titers. PMID:27217216

  11. ParaSight-F rapid manual diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Uguen, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; De Pina, J. J.; Vigier, J. P.; Martet, G.; Maret, M.; Peyron, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ParaSight(R)-F test is a qualitative diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum, which is based on the detection by a monoclonal antibody of a species-specific soluble antigen (histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)) in whole blood and which can be performed without special equipment. A visual reading is given by a polyclonal antibody coupled with dye-loaded liposomes; when positive, a pink line appears. The test has been compared with microscopic examination of thin blood smears and with Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria test (QBC(R) in a single-blind study. A total of 358 patients who had returned to France from malarial areas and consulted their doctor with symptoms or for a routine examination were enrolled in the study; 33 of them were found to have a falciparum malaria infection by the diagnostic test. On the day of consultation, the specificity of the ParaSight(R)-F test was 99% and its sensitivity 94%. The follow-up of infected patients after treatment showed that the test became negative later than the other reference tests. There was no correlation between antigen persistence and the intensity of the ParaSight(R)-F signal or circulating parasitaemia. No cross-reaction was noted for seven malaria cases due to other Plasmodium species. The test was performed quickly (10 tests in 20 minutes), was easy to read, and required minimal space. For cases of imported malaria, the test's specificity and low threshold for detection could make it a valuable adjunct test. However, in its present form, it cannot replace microscopic techniques which are species-specific and quantitative. In endemic areas, the test seems to be very promising by its results and ease of use according to published field studies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8846490

  12. Effect of blood on ROM diagnosis accuracy of PAMG-1 and IGFBP-1 detecting rapid tests.

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Babett; Duwe, Wiebke; Schlehe, Bettina; Pitts, Regina; Wagner, Dirk; Wutkewicz, Katja; Chuvashkin, Dmitry; Abele, Harald; Lachmann, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Vaginal bleeding may be present in up to 30% of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of a rupture of the fetal membranes (ROM). The presence of blood may lead to false positive results with biochemical markers. The data presented in this study came from a multi-centric prospective observational clinical study that, for the first time, systematically evaluated the performance of placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) detecting tests in 151 women with vaginal bleedings as well as signs and symptoms indicative of ROM. Our data showed better performance for the PAMG-1 compared with the IGFBP-1 detecting tests in all quality parameters evaluated. In detail, sensitivity (SN) was 97.8% (91.0%), specificity (SP) was 91.5% (75.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 94.6% (83.5%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 96.4% (85.7%) for PAMG-1 tests (and IGFBP-1 tests, respectively). A major difference between both tests was related to the number of non-evaluable test results (e.g., hidden bands due to blood smear on the test strips). While 2% of all results were not evaluable for PAMG-1 tests, this artifact appeared in 11% of the results obtained with IGFBP-1 tests. This difference and also those in Specificity and PPV were statistically significant, demonstrating superiority of PAMG-1 over IGFBP-1 detecting tests. In conclusion, the PAMG-1 detecting test was significantly less susceptible to interference by blood than the IGFBP-1 detecting test.

  13. Are Participants in a Street-Based HIV Testing Program Able to Perform Their Own Rapid Test and Interpret the Results?

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Pulido, José; Santos, Sara; Bravo, María José; Barrio, Gregorio; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza, María José

    2012-01-01

    Objective Availability of over-the-counter rapid HIV tests could improve access to testing those reluctant or unable to use current services. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of HIV self-testing using a finger-stick whole-blood rapid test (Determine™ HIV Combo) to detect both antigen and antibody. Methods Before being tested, 313 participants in a street-based testing program were given adapted instructions and a test kit, and performed the self-test without supervision. These participants, together with another 207 who performed supervised self-testing, received additional instructions on how to interpret the test results shown in six colour photos and filled out a questionnaire. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in the statistical analysis. Results About 8.0% (95%CI:4.8%–11.2%) obtained an invalid self-test. An invalid result was inversely associated with male participants who had sex with men (OR = 0.3;95%CI:0.1–1.0). Of the 3111 photos interpreted,4.9% (95%CI:4.1–5.7) were incorrect. Only 1.1% (95%CI:0.3–1.8) of the positive results were interpreted as negative. Age 30 or older (OR = 2.1; 95%CI:1.2–3.7), having been born in Latin America (OR = 1.6; 95%CI:1.1–2.2),and not having university education (OR = 2.1;95%CI:1.2–3.7) were associated with misinterpreting test results in the GEE. Participant's perceptions of both their proficiency when conducting the test and interpretation were related with actual outcomes. Most participants (83.9%) were more motivated than before to use the self-test in the future, and 51.7% would pay >10 Euros for the test if it was sold in pharmacies. Conclusions This is the first study showing that blood-based self-testing with current technology is feasible in HIV-negative participants demanding the test and without prior training or supervision. Bearing in mind that it was conducted under difficult weather conditions and using a complex kit, over

  14. Rapid method for detection, identification, and susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stager, C E; Erikson, E; Davis, J R

    1983-01-01

    Three hundred and seven colonies believed to be enteric pathogens were selected from primary plates of MacConkey, xylose desoxycholate, or salmonella-shigella agar for inoculation to lactose-sucrose broth, urea-41 motility medium, modified Andrade glucose broth with inverted Durham tube, pregrowth broth, triple sugar iron agar, lysine iron agar (LIA), and Christensen urea agar. The rapid screen consisted of interpreting the lactose-sucrose, urea-41 motility, and modified Andrade glucose broth gas reactions after 4 to 6 h at 35 degrees C. These rapid screening biochemicals plus LIA were incubated for 24 h if further interpretation was required. Reference biochemicals (triple sugar iron, LIA, and Christensen urea agars) were interpreted at 24 h. Of 307 isolates, 49 (16%) were reported as negative for enteric pathogens after 4 to 6 h because their biochemical profiles were not compatible with those for enteric pathogens. A total of 87 (28.3%) isolates produced biochemical profiles at 4 to 6 h that were presumptive for enteric pathogens. The 87 presumptive pathogens were inoculated into the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility Card and the AutoMicrobic system Enterobacteriaceae-Plus Biochemical Card (AMS-EBC+) after 4 to 6 h of growth in pregrowth broth. Of these isolates, 63 were confirmed to be enteric pathogens, of which 61 (96.8%) were correctly identified by the AMS-EBC+. One isolate was identified as Shigella dysenteriae by AMS-EBC+ but confirmed as Shigella flexneri biotype 6 by a reference laboratory. The other isolate was identified as Arizona hinshawii by AMS-EBC+ but was confirmed as Salmonella enteritidis. Of the 307 isolates, 166 (54.1%) required further interpretation of the rapid screening biochemicals plus LIA at 24 h; 5 of these were detected as enteric pathogens. The same 68 enteric pathogens were detected by both the rapid method and the reference method. The results from the general susceptibility card agreed with agar diffusion

  15. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  16. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  17. Rapid, simple, and reliable doctor's office test for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 in serum.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, A; Irvine, J D; Kurn, N; Becker, M; Bryning, Z; Ullman, E F

    1990-07-01

    This "Unit Test Method" assay for detecting anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibody is suitable for nonlaboratory testing and has a sensitivity comparable with that of present enzyme immunoassay methods. The method does not require instrumentation, gives a result in less than 15 min, and incorporates a procedural control. Little technical expertise and hands-on time are required of the user.

  18. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (≥90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals.

  19. Rapid Syphilis Testing Is Cost-Effective Even in Low-Prevalence Settings: The CISNE-PERU Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mallma, Patricia; Garcia, Patricia; Carcamo, Cesar; Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Peeling, Rosanna; Mabey, David; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Studies have addressed cost-effectiveness of syphilis testing of pregnant women in high-prevalence settings. This study compares costs of rapid syphilis testing (RST) with laboratory-based rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests in low-prevalence settings in Peru. The RST was introduced in a tertiary-level maternity hospital and in the Ventanilla Network of primary health centers, where syphilis prevalence is approximately 1%. The costs per woman tested and treated with RST at the hospital were $2.70 and $369 respectively compared with $3.60 and $740 for RPR. For the Ventanilla Network the costs per woman tested and treated with RST were $3.19 and $295 respectively compared with $5.55 and $1454 for RPR. The cost per DALY averted using RST was $46 vs. $109 for RPR. RST showed lower costs compared to the WHO standard costs per DALY ($64). Findings suggest syphilis screening with RST is cost-effective in low-prevalence settings. PMID:26949941

  20. Rapid Syphilis Testing Is Cost-Effective Even in Low-Prevalence Settings: The CISNE-PERU Experience.

    PubMed

    Mallma, Patricia; Garcia, Patricia; Carcamo, Cesar; Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Peeling, Rosanna; Mabey, David; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Studies have addressed cost-effectiveness of syphilis testing of pregnant women in high-prevalence settings. This study compares costs of rapid syphilis testing (RST) with laboratory-based rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests in low-prevalence settings in Peru. The RST was introduced in a tertiary-level maternity hospital and in the Ventanilla Network of primary health centers, where syphilis prevalence is approximately 1%. The costs per woman tested and treated with RST at the hospital were $2.70 and $369 respectively compared with $3.60 and $740 for RPR. For the Ventanilla Network the costs per woman tested and treated with RST were $3.19 and $295 respectively compared with $5.55 and $1454 for RPR. The cost per DALY averted using RST was $46 vs. $109 for RPR. RST showed lower costs compared to the WHO standard costs per DALY ($64). Findings suggest syphilis screening with RST is cost-effective in low-prevalence settings.

  1. Performance of a Rapid Strip Test for the Serologic Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Thaveekarn, Wichit; Kerdpanich, Phirangkul; Skulpichetrat, Urailak; Saekhow, Orawan; Boonchang, Supatsorn; Bharnthong, Thipchuta; Sitprija, Visith

    2015-01-01

    Background: The serodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) present a high variability in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Data on patients with latent TB infection (LTBI) and children in high prevalence settings are still limited. The present study aimed to evaluate an in-house strip test for detection of anti-M. tuberculosis antibodies in TB patients, mostly children aged under 15 y, grouped into four diagnostic categories: active TB, LTBI, healthy TB contacts, and other non-TB diseases. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic performance of strip test was compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Sensitivity and specificity were assessed for all three diagnostic tests. The detection accuracy among the tests was calculated by using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: TST and IGRA could diagnose the active TB cases correctly (100%). The sensitivity of strip test for active TB was 58.3% and 37.5% for LTBI, while the sensitivities of TST and IGRA for LTBI were 90.3% and 37.5%, respectively. The overall specificities of strip test and IGRA were 91.5% and 95.7%, respectively, which were superior to that of TST (68.1%). Conclusion: The strip test did not appear to be useful for diagnosis of active TB in comparison with the current diagnostic standard. The assay may be particularly significant in situations where TB is clinically difficult to diagnose like LTBI and could be a meaningful tool in terms of high specificity and simplicity for ruling in pediatric TB in countries with high TB infection rate. Further studies are needed to determine whether strip test can be improved in its sensitivity and should be implemented into routine clinical practice. PMID:25737986

  2. The proposed tier 2 medaka extended one generation reproduction test (MEOGRT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to develop and implement a program using valid tests for determining the potential endocrine effects from pesticides. The EPA established advisory group, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC)...

  3. Rapid and robust resampling-based multiple-testing correction with application in a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Huang, Shunping; Sun, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have emerged as a powerful tool to understand the genetic basis of gene expression and complex traits. In a typical eQTL study, the huge number of genetic markers and expression traits and their complicated correlations present a challenging multiple-testing correction problem. The resampling-based test using permutation or bootstrap procedures is a standard approach to address the multiple-testing problem in eQTL studies. A brute force application of the resampling-based test to large-scale eQTL data sets is often computationally infeasible. Several computationally efficient methods have been proposed to calculate approximate resampling-based P-values. However, these methods rely on certain assumptions about the correlation structure of the genetic markers, which may not be valid for certain studies. We propose a novel algorithm, rapid and exact multiple testing correction by resampling (REM), to address this challenge. REM calculates the exact resampling-based P-values in a computationally efficient manner. The computational advantage of REM lies in its strategy of pruning the search space by skipping genetic markers whose upper bounds on test statistics are small. REM does not rely on any assumption about the correlation structure of the genetic markers. It can be applied to a variety of resampling-based multiple-testing correction methods including permutation and bootstrap methods. We evaluate REM on three eQTL data sets (yeast, inbred mouse, and human rare variants) and show that it achieves accurate resampling-based P-value estimation with much less computational cost than existing methods. The software is available at http://csbio.unc.edu/eQTL.

  4. Development of Proposed Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storage Devices. NBS Technical Note 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James E.; And Others

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards of the different techniques that are or could be used for testing solar collectors and thermal storage devices that are used in solar heating and cooling systems. This report reviews the various testing methods and outlines a recommended test procedure, including apparatus and…

  5. Proposed Objectives and Tentative Schedule for Surface Circulation and Injection Testing of the Phase II Reservoir Test Facility – Nov. 20 to 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, Donald S.; Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-19

    The following are proposed for the initial Test Facility commissioning and training operations. 1. Set up and test alarm modes on FIXDMACS program with an alarm print out to the guard shack. (automatic shut down is not installed). 2. Set up and test the control loop for fluid level control in the Production Separator using the feed pumps for circulation and using the 125 psig air system for a vapor supply. The list continues on in the document.

  6. Development of a simple method for the rapid identification of organisms causing anthrax by coagglutination test.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, T G; Chaturvedi, V K; Gupta, P K; Siju, S J; Susan, C; Bincy, J; Laxmi, U; Sunita, S C; Rai, A K

    2014-11-01

    A protective antigen (PA) based coagglutination test was optimized in the present study for the specific and sensitive identification of bacteria causing anthrax in a cost effective and less risky manner. The test showed 100% specificity and sensitivity up to 9 × 10(3) formalinized vegetative cells or 11 ng of PA. The optimized test also detected anthrax toxin directly from the serum as well as blood of anthrax infected animals indicating the potential application for direct diagnosis of anthrax under field conditions.

  7. The TSCA Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) proposed strategy for identifying and coordinating U.S. government data needs for endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The ITC`s Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Subcommittee will implement a proposed strategy for identifying and coordinating the US government ecological and health effects data needs for endocrine-disrupting chemicals, These include chemicals with potential to cause reproductive, developmental, immunological, neurologic or other biological effects by adversely affecting endocrine tissues, hormones or receptors in fish, wildlife or humans. To meet these needs, the Subcommittee will consider three options. First, the information collecting authority of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) will be considered as a cost-effective mechanism to rapidly (within 60 days) obtain unpublished health and ecological effects studies related to reproductive effects and endocrine-disrupting activity. Second, the chemical testing authority of TSCA will be considered as a method to request that the manufacturers of endocrine-disrupting chemicals conduct tests that are amenable to standardization. Third, consideration will be given to coordinating standardized testing with testing related to research and to using the results of this research to develop standardized methods for assessing the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The Subcommittee will focus on 16 alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates with 1989 production or importation volumes greater than 1 million pounds that were identified using the Substructure based Computerized Chemical Selection Expert System (SuCCSES). The ITC`s proposed strategy will be discussed.

  8. Rapid drug susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using microscopic time-lapse imaging in an agarose matrix.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Eun-Geun; Park, Kyung Ock; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Kim, Taeyoung; Choi, Myungjin; Kim, Hee Chan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are spreading throughout the world. However, conventional drug susceptibility test (DST) methods, which rely on the detection of the colony formation on a solid medium, require 1-2 months to the result. A rapid and accurate DST is necessary to identify patients with drug-resistant TB and treat them with appropriate drugs. Here, we used microscopic imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) immobilized in an agarose matrix for a rapid DST. The agarose matrix, which was molded in a microfluidic chip, was inoculated with MTB, and TB drugs in liquid culture medium diffused throughout the agarose to reach the MTB immobilized in the agarose matrix. After the responses of MTB to drugs were tracked with an automated microscopic system, an image-processing program automatically determined the susceptibility and resistance of MTB to specific doses of TB drugs. The automatic DST system was able to assess the drug susceptibility of various drug-resistant clinical TB strains within 9 days with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional method. Our rapid DST method based on microscopic time-lapse imaging greatly reduces the time required for a DST and can be used to rapidly and accurately treat TB patients.

  9. Field and laboratory testing of seal materials proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, M.K.; Howard, C.L.

    1996-02-05

    The Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) were a series of in situ tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of various materials for sealing purposes. Testing was initiated in 1985 and concluded in 1995. Materials selected for the SSSPT included salt-saturated concrete, a 50%/50% mixture of crushed salt and bentonite, bentonite, and crushed salt. This paper presents a summary of the SSSPT field program, results of the in situ testing, and a discussion of post-testing laboratory studies of salt-saturated concrete. Results of the SSSPT support the use of salt-saturated concrete, compacted bentonite clay, and compacted crushed salt as sealing materials for the WIPP.

  10. 78 FR 41066 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is... Division of Dockets Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm....

  11. Model Test of Proposed Loading Rates for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    State regulatory agencies set standards for onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS), commonly known as septic systems, based on expected hydraulic performance and nitrogen (N) treatment in soils of differing texture. In a previous study, hydraulic loading rates were proposed fo...

  12. PAH RIS{reg_sign} soil test - a rapid, on-site screening test for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.P.; Almond, R.E.; Friedman, S.B.

    1994-03-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals of concern when they contaminate the environment. Current detection methods (gas chromatography and liquid chromatography) are laborious, time consuming, and expensive. As an alternative, we developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit that can be used on site for the detection of PAHs at 1 ppm in soil. The immunoassay kit includes all the components necessary to conduct the analysis in the field. The test consists of 3 major steps: (1) sample treatment; (2) immunoassay, in which the target compound is bound by a specific antibody followed by the development of an indicator color; and (3) interpretation of results. A sample the develops less color than the standard is interpreted as positive (soil sample contaminated with PAHs at {ge}1 ppm). Validation studies demonstrated that the assay is sensitive and specific. The assay detects PAH contamination in soil at 1 ppm or greater and specifically detects the 3- and 4-ringed aromatics and most of the 5- and 6-ringed aromatics. PAH-free soil samples gave negative results in the assay at a confidence level of >95%. Matrix effects, interperson, and interlot variations were minimal. The test requires <25 min to complete. The test kit is field compatible and provides a cost effective method for screening soils at risk for PAH contamination. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Novel Tests for Rapid Detection of Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Vectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-25

    in pest populations that are under chemical control relies in large part on the development of simple tests to detect the presence of specific...Conclusions and future plans: Field evaluation of the FP/Est test kit by personnel of mosquito control agencies has confirmed our laboratory results...It is also widespread in the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus in Central America and to a lesser extent in certain other Anopheles species elsewhere

  14. Self Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    gonorrhoeae; 2. To evaluate a vaginal amine and pH testing in a simple, easily readable, test for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas...Chlamydia trachomatis are responsible for most cases of cervicitis while Trichomonas vaginalis, 5 Candida species, and bacterial vaginosis account for nearly...all cases of infectious vaginitis/ vaginosis .2-4,13,14 Chlamydial infections are the most common bacterial STDs in the developed world. There are an

  15. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives.

  16. Rapid detection of human group C rotaviruses by reverse passive hemagglutination and latex agglutination tests using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuya, M; Fujii, R; Hamano, M; Nagabayashi, T; Tsunemitsu, H; Yamada, M; Nii, S; Mori, T

    1993-01-01

    Reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA) tests and a latex agglutination test with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for the rapid detection of noncultivatable human group C rotaviruses. For RPHA tests, two MAbs, MAb 5A12 recognizing the outer capsid and MAb 13A3 recognizing the inner capsid, were separately used for the coating of sheep erythrocytes (SRBCs). Forty-six fecal samples were examined to confirm the practicality of the tests. As a result, there was concordance between the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 5A12 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA (RNA-PAGE) in 44 (95.6%) of 46 samples, while the diagnoses by the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 13A3 were in complete agreement with those by RNA-PAGE. Furthermore, a latex agglutination test with MAb 13A3 was also developed, and this test was fast enough and sensitive enough to successfully detect the viruses from most fecal samples within 2 min. The present procedures would be useful for the diagnosis of human group C rotavirus infections in clinical laboratories which are not well equipped. Images PMID:8388891

  17. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  18. Rapid quantitative serological test for detection of infection with Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Balagon, Marivic F; Maghanoy, Armi; Orcullo, Florenda M; Cang, Marjorie; Dias, Ronaldo Ferreira; Collovati, Marco; Reed, Steven G

    2014-02-01

    Leprosy remains an important health problem in a number of regions. Early detection of infection, followed by effective treatment, is critical to reduce disease progression. New sensitive and specific tools for early detection of infection will be a critical component of an effective leprosy elimination campaign. Diagnosis is made by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, but few clinicians are able to confidently identify these. Simple tests to facilitate referral to leprosy experts are not widely available, and the correct diagnosis of leprosy is often delayed. In this report, we evaluate the performance of a new leprosy serological test (NDO-LID). As expected, the test readily detected clinically confirmed samples from patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy, and the rate of positive results declined with bacterial burden. NDO-LID detected larger proportions of MB and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy than the alternative, the Standard Diagnostics leprosy test (87.0% versus 81.7% and 32.3% versus 6.5%, respectively), while also demonstrating improved specificity (97.4% versus 90.4%). Coupled with a new cell phone-based test reader platform (Smart Reader), the NDO-LID test provided consistent, objective test interpretation that could facilitate wider use in nonspecialized settings. In addition, results obtained from sera at the time of diagnosis, versus at the end of treatment, indicated that the quantifiable nature of this system can also be used to monitor treatment efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that the NDO-LID/Smart Reader system can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of MB leprosy and can detect a significant number of earlier-stage infections.

  19. Can newly developed, rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection tests be reliably used for the laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infections?

    PubMed

    Dunn, James J; Ginocchio, Christine C

    2015-06-01

    Five years ago, the Point-Counterpoint series was launched. The initial article asked about the role of rapid immunochromatographic antigen testing in the diagnosis of influenza A virus 2009 H1N1 infection (D. F. Welch and C. C. Ginocchio, J Clin Microbiol 48:22-25, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02268-09). Since that article, not only have major changes been made in immunochromatographic antigen detection (IAD) testing for the influenza viruses, but there has also been rapid development of commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for influenza virus detection. Further, a novel variant of influenza A, H7N9, has emerged in Asia, and H5N1 is also reemergent. In that initial article, the editor of this series, Peter Gilligan, identified two issues that required further consideration. One was how well IAD tests worked in clinical settings, especially in times of antigen drift and shift. The other was the role of future iterations of influenza NAATs and whether this testing would be available in a community hospital setting. James Dunn, who is Director of Medical Microbiology and Virology at Texas Children's Hospital, has extensive experience using IAD tests for diagnosing influenza. He will discuss the application and value of these tests in influenza diagnosis. Christine Ginocchio, who recently retired as the Senior Medical Director, Division of Infectious Disease Diagnostics, North Shore-LIJ Health System, and now is Vice President for Global Microbiology Affairs at bioMérieux, Durham, NC, wrote the initial counterpoint in this series, where she advocated the use of NAATs for influenza diagnosis. She will update us on the commercially available NAAT systems and explain what their role should be in the diagnosis of influenza infection.

  20. Specimen Referral Network to Rapidly Scale-Up CD4 Testing: The Hub and Spoke Model for Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Frantz Jean; Osborne, Anna Janick; Elias, Viala Jean; Buteau, Josiane; Boncy, Jacques; Elong, Angela; Dismer, Amber; Sasi, Vikram; Domercant, Jean Wysler; Lauture, Daniel; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Marston, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Regular and quality CD4 testing is essential to monitor disease progression in people living with HIV. In Haiti, most laboratories have limited infrastructure and financial resources and have relied on manual laboratory techniques. We report the successful implementation of a national specimen referral network to rapidly increase patient coverage with quality CD4 testing while at the same time building infrastructure for referral of additional sample types over time. Method Following a thorough baseline analysis of facilities, expected workload, patient volumes, cost of technology and infrastructure constraints at health institutions providing care to HIV patients, the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory designed and implemented a national specimen referral network. The specimen referral network was scaled up in a step-wise manner from July 2011 to July 2014. Results Fourteen hubs serving a total of 67 healthcare facilities have been launched; in addition, 10 healthcare facilities operate FACSCount machines, 21 laboratories operate PIMA machines, and 11 healthcare facilities are still using manual CD4 tests. The number of health institutions able to access automated CD4 testing has increased from 27 to 113 (315%). Testing volume increased 76% on average. The number of patients enrolled on ART at the first healthcare facilities to join the network increased 182% within 6 months following linkage to the network. Performance on external quality assessment was acceptable at all 14 hubs. Conclusion A specimen referral network has enabled rapid uptake of quality CD4 testing, and served as a backbone to allow for other future tests to be scaled-up in a similar way. PMID:26900489

  1. Developing a More Rapid Test to Assess Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara; Stutzman, Paul; Peltz, Max; Winpigler, John

    2005-01-01

    External sulfate attack of concrete is a major problem that can appear in regions where concrete is exposed to soil or water containing sulfates, leading to softening and cracking of the concrete. Therefore, it is important that materials selection and proportioning of concrete in susceptible regions be carefully considered to resist sulfate attack. American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) limits the tricalcium aluminate phase in cements when sulfate exposure is of concern. The hydration products of tricalcium aluminate react with the sulfates resulting in expansion and cracking. While ASTM standard tests are available to determine the susceptibility of cements to sulfate attack, these tests require at least 6 months and often up to a year to perform; a delay that hinders development of new cements. This paper presents a new method for testing cement resistance to sulfate attack that is three to five times faster than the current ASTM tests. Development of the procedure was based upon insights on the degradation process by petrographic examination of sulfate-exposed specimens over time. Also key to the development was the use of smaller samples and tighter environmental control. PMID:27308177

  2. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Ong, S.K. )

    1992-10-01

    A in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O[sub 2]) and production of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O[sub 2]/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O[sub 2] utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO[sub 2] production, CO[sub 2] produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Hinchee, R E; Ong, S K

    1992-10-01

    An in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O2) and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O2/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O2 utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO2 production. CO2 produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions.

  4. 76 FR 24060 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ..., Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration. ACTION: Notice of... inspection, testing, approval and certification, and quality control of mining equipment and...

  5. A rapid sex-identification test for the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) based on the ZFX/ZFY gene.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yanyun; Zou, Fangdong; Wei, Kun; Yue, Bisong

    2007-05-01

    We describe a rapid sex-identification method for the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) using PCR based on zinc-finger protein-encoding genes (ZFX/ZFY) located on the X and Y chromosomes. Fragments of the ZFX and ZFY genes were amplified and sequenced. The ZFX and ZFY fragments were identical in length and 94% similar in nucleotide sequence. Specific primers for forest musk deer sex identification were designed on the basis of sequence differences between ZFX and ZFY. All the primers were multiplexed in single-tube PCR. Both male and female forest musk deer showed amplification bands of 447 bp and 212 bp separated in agarose gels. A sex-specific 278-bp band was amplified only from males. These results show that testing by PCR for the presence of the 278-bp sequence is a rapid and reliable method for sex identification.

  6. Rapid presumptive diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in men by the limulus lysate test.

    PubMed Central

    Spagna, V A; Prior, R B; Perkins, R L

    1979-01-01

    In an evaluation of the limulus assay as a method for detecting endotoxin in urethral exudates, positive results of urethral samples at a 1/200 dilution were obtained from 73 out of 73 patients with culture-positive gonococcal urethritis while negative results were obtained from 26 out of 27 patients with cuture-negative urethral specimens. A specimen from one patient, which gave negative results on Gram stain and culture, gave positive results to the limulus test. The overall accuracy of the limulus test for predicting culture results was 99% (p less than 0.001). Thus, in preliminary studies of otherwise healthy men, the results of the limulus assay correlated with those of biological methods for diagnosing urethral gonorrhoea; the test may, therefore, be of use in identifying cases of nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:466383

  7. [Evaluation of an immunochromatography test using enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of influenza A and B viruses].

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Keiko; Yamazaki, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Masataka; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Chiharu; Shimizu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Sumi; Imai, Mitsunobu; Shinjo, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshinao; Sugaya, Norio

    2004-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of an improved version of Espline Influenza A & B-N (Fujirebio Inc., Japan), an immunochromatography test using enzyme immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B. The test produced positive results for four strains of influenza viruses and thirty-one influenza viral antigens and negative results for all of thirty strains of other respiratory viruses that were tested. The detection limit of this test was 5.8 x 10(2) to 5.8 x 10(3) pfu/assay, which is more sensitive than the old version of Espline. Furthermore, 715 respiratory specimens collected from the patients (children, 79.4%; adults, 18.5%; unknown, 2.1%) with influenza-like illnesses during the 2002/2003 influenza season in Japan were tested as part of a clinical evaluation of this test. The relative performance of this test compared to cell culture and nested RT-PCR results were examined. In the cell cultures, influenza viruses were detected in 488 of the 715 specimens (overall, 68.3%; AH3, 41.7%; B, 26.4%; AH3 and B, 0.1%). For influenza A, the sensitivity of this test was 95.4% (125/131) for nasal aspirates, 96.8% (92/95) for nasal swabs, and 85.1% (63/74) for throat swabs. For influenza B, the sensitivity of this test was 91.2% (52/57) for nasal aspirates, 88.1% (59/67) for nasal swabs, and 71.6% (48/67) for throat swabs. The new test exhibited a remarkably higher sensitivity to influenza A in throat swabs than the old version of Espline. Only two false positive results were obtained out of a total of 223 virus negative specimens; the specificity of the test was 100% (88/88) for nasal aspirates, 97.6% (81/83) for nasal swabs, and 100% (52/52) for throat swabs. We conclude that the new Espline Influenza A&B-N rapid diagnostic test is easy to use and has a high sensitivity and specificity, especially for influenza A.

  8. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Abrasion of mechanical components and fabrics by soil on Earth is typically minimized by the effects of atmosphere and water. Potentially abrasive particles lose sharp and pointed geometrical features through erosion. In environments where such erosion does not exist, such as the vacuum of the Moon, particles retain sharp geometries associated with fracturing of their parent particles by micrometeorite impacts. The relationship between hardness of the abrasive and that of the material being abraded is well understood, such that the abrasive ability of a material can be estimated as a function of the ratio of the hardness of the two interacting materials. Knowing the abrasive nature of an environment (abrasive)/construction material is crucial to designing durable equipment for use in such surroundings. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement; in some cases, considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for de tailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness par ameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Further - more, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized

  9. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  10. Clean fog rapid procedure test of artificially and naturally polluted HVDC porcelain barrel insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastos, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    The first question asked in this paper refers to the variation of the peak leakage current prior to the flashover and the variation of the time prior to flashover in the test of artificially polluted insulators when using the up-and-down method. To answer this question sums up the test procedure used in the up-and-down method. For each trial represented the insulator was again polluted artificially and then dried following the procedure described in the paper. Then the insulator was transported into the fog chamber and the voltage and fog was switched on simultaneously. In these experiments a low fog injection rate was used.

  11. Proposed Junction-Box Stress Test (Using an Added Weight) for Use During the Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-02-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. Furthermore, there are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the j-box adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to the preliminary results conducted using representative materials and components.

  12. Randomized Trial of Rapid Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based Blood Culture Identification and Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritu; Teng, Christine B.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Ihde, Sherry M.; Steckelberg, James M.; Moriarty, James P.; Shah, Nilay D.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Patel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The value of rapid, panel-based molecular diagnostics for positive blood culture bottles (BCBs) has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial evaluating outcomes associated with rapid multiplex PCR (rmPCR) detection of bacteria, fungi, and resistance genes directly from positive BCBs. Methods. A total of 617 patients with positive BCBs underwent stratified randomization into 3 arms: standard BCB processing (control, n = 207), rmPCR reported with templated comments (rmPCR, n = 198), or rmPCR reported with templated comments and real-time audit and feedback of antimicrobial orders by an antimicrobial stewardship team (rmPCR/AS, n = 212). The primary outcome was antimicrobial therapy duration. Secondary outcomes were time to antimicrobial de-escalation or escalation, length of stay (LOS), mortality, and cost. Results. Time from BCB Gram stain to microorganism identification was shorter in the intervention group (1.3 hours) vs control (22.3 hours) (P < .001). Compared to the control group, both intervention groups had decreased broad-spectrum piperacillin-tazobactam (control 56 hours, rmPCR 44 hours, rmPCR/AS 45 hours; P = .01) and increased narrow-spectrum β-lactam (control 42 hours, rmPCR 71 hours, rmPCR/AS 85 hours; P = .04) use, and less treatment of contaminants (control 25%, rmPCR 11%, rmPCR/AS 8%; P = .015). Time from Gram stain to appropriate antimicrobial de-escalation or escalation was shortest in the rmPCR/AS group (de-escalation: rmPCR/AS 21 hours, control 34 hours, rmPCR 38 hours, P < .001; escalation: rmPCR/AS 5 hours, control 24 hours, rmPCR 6 hours, P = .04). Groups did not differ in mortality, LOS, or cost. Conclusions. rmPCR reported with templated comments reduced treatment of contaminants and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Addition of antimicrobial stewardship enhanced antimicrobial de-escalation. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01898208. PMID:26197846

  13. Test Purchaser Qualifications: Present Practice, Professional Needs, and a Proposed System. Issues in Scientific Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Kevin L.; And Others

    Three papers are included in this document. The first, "An Introduction to the Problem of Test User Qualifications," by Kevin L. Moreland, is a short history of the American Psychological Association (APA)/American Educational Research Association (AERA)/National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Working Group on Test User…

  14. 76 FR 9374 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Examinations and Testing of Electrical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Testing of Electrical Equipment, Including High Voltage Longwalls AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... information collection for 30 CFR 75.351 Atmospheric monitoring systems; 75.512 Electric equipment; examination, testing and maintenance; 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and enclosures...

  15. Rapid semi-continuous calibration and field test of membrane-enclosed silicone collector as passive water sampler.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Albrecht; Schwab, Katrin; Brümmer, Janine; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Paschke, Heidrun; Popp, Peter

    2006-08-18

    The new membrane-enclosed silicone collector (MESCO) was, in two different configurations with respect to the thickness of low-density polyethylene membrane used, subject to serial batch extraction tests to obtain (preliminary) sampling rates for estimating water concentrations of selected chlorinated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This rapid calibration procedure is simple to implement compared to experiments in a flow-through apparatus and yielded reasonable sampling rates in the range of 50 microL-2 mL per hour for the compounds tested. The new MESCO formats were also exposed for 28 days in the polluted creek to test their field performance. For priority contaminants of special interest, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene, the time-weighted average concentrations derived from the freshly calibrated sampling devices agree well with those obtained by conventional water analysis of spot samples.

  16. Rapid genotyping of carcinogenic human papillomavirus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a new automated DNA test (Clinichip HPV™).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Fujii, Takuma; Sato, Osamu; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Onuki, Mamiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Aoki, Daisuke; Hirai, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the Clinichip HPV test, a new DNA test that detects carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) rapidly by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and performs genotyping of all 13 carcinogenic types using automated DNA chip technology with an assay time 2.5h. Using this test, 247 Japanese women (109 with normal cytology, 43 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, 60 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and 35 with invasive cervical cancer) were tested for carcinogenic HPV genotypes. The results were compared to those obtained by the polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA sequencing using 13 type-specific primers. Overall, there was very good agreement for the detection of carcinogenic HPV between the Clinichip test and direct sequencing, with 95.5% total agreement and a kappa value of 0.91. Comparison of the detection of individual HPV types shows that the overall agreement was also high (range: 96.8-100%). In women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse, the detection rate of carcinogenic HPV was 95.7% by both the Clinichip test and the direct-sequencing method, indicating complete agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, it was found that the Clinichip test is a promising new laboratory method for genotyping of carcinogenic HPV.

  17. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals removal by sewage sludge-derived adsorbents with rapid small-scale column tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Ding, R.; Wallace, R.; Bandosz, T.

    2015-12-01

    New composite adsorbents were developed by pyrolyzing sewage sludge and fish waste (75:25 or 90:10 dry mass ratio) at 650 oC and 950 oC. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the composite adsorbents were able to adsorb a wide range of organic contaminants (volatile organic compounds, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and nitrosamine disinfection byproducts) with high capacities. Here we further examine the performance of the adsorbents for the simultaneous removal of 8 pharmaceuticals and EDCs with rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT). Results show that the order of breakthrough in RSSCT is in general consistent with the affinity determined via batch tests. As expected, the maximum amount of adsorption for each compound obtained from RSSCT is identical to or less than that obtained from batch tests (with only one exception), due to adsorption kinetics. However, despite the very different input concentration (1 mg/L vs. 100 mg/L) and contact time (2 min empty bed contact time vs. 16 hour equilibrium time) used in RSSCT and batch tests, the maximum amount of pharmaceuticals and EDCs adsorbed under RSSCT is still about one half of that under equilibrium batch tests, validating the approach of using batch tests with much higher input concentrations to determine adsorption capacities. Results of a pilot-scale column test in a drinking water treatment plant for pharmaceuticals removal will also be presented.

  18. Can Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Malaria Increase Adherence to Artemether-Lumefantrine?: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saran, Indrani; Yavuz, Elif; Kasozi, Howard; Cohen, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Most patients with suspected malaria do not receive diagnostic confirmation before beginning antimalarial treatment. We investigated the extent to which uncertainty about malaria diagnosis contributes to patient nonadherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment through a randomized controlled trial in central Uganda. Among 1,525 patients purchasing a course of AL at private drug shops, we randomly offered 37.6% a free malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and then assessed adherence through home visits 3 days later. Of these subjects, 68.4% tested positive for malaria and 65.8% adhered overall. Patients who tested positive did not have significantly higher odds of adherence than those who were not offered the test (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.734-1.57,P= 0.719). Patients who received a positive malaria test had 0.488 fewer pills remaining than those not offered the test (95% CI: -1.02 to 0.043,P= 0.072). We found that patients who felt relatively healthy by the second day of treatment had lower odds of completing treatment (adjusted OR: 0.532, 95% CI: 0.394-0.719,P< 0.001). Our results suggest that diagnostic testing may not improve artemisinin-based combination therapy adherence unless efforts are made to persuade patients to continue taking the full course of drugs even if symptoms have resolved.

  19. HIV testing histories and risk factors among migrants and recent immigrants who received rapid HIV testing from three community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Schulden, Jeffrey D; Painter, Thomas M; Song, Binwei; Valverde, Eduardo; Borman, Mary Ann; Monroe-Spencer, Kyle; Bautista, Greg; Saleheen, Hassan; Voetsch, Andrew C; Heffelfinger, James D

    2014-10-01

    Migrants and recent immigrants in the US constitute a large population that is vulnerable to HIV. From March 2005 to February 2007, three community-based organizations conducted rapid HIV testing among migrants in five states. Participants were asked to complete a survey on sociodemographics, HIV-risk behaviors, and HIV-testing histories with the aim of understanding factors associated with HIV testing. Among 5,247 persons tested, 6 (0.1 %) were HIV-positive. Among 3,135 persons who completed surveys, more than half had never been tested for HIV previously (59 %). Participants reported high levels of HIV-risk behaviors in the past year, including 2 or more sex partners (45 %), sex while high/drunk (30 %), and transactional sex (29 %). Multivariate analysis identified several factors independently associated with decreased likelihood of prior HIV testing, including poor spoken English. Continued efforts are needed to ensure that migrant populations have improved access to HIV testing and prevention services. Understanding factors associated with migrants' lack of previous HIV testing may help focus these efforts.

  20. Evaluation of Six Commercially Available Rapid Immunochromatographic Tests for the Diagnosis of Rabies in Brain Material.

    PubMed

    Eggerbauer, Elisa; de Benedictis, Paola; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Schlottau, Kore; Ngoepe, Ernest C; Sabeta, Claude T; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths annually. The main burden lies on developing countries in Asia and Africa, where surveillance and disease detection is hampered by absence of adequate laboratory facilities and/or the difficulties of submitting samples from remote areas to laboratories. Under these conditions, easy-to-use tests such as immunochromatographic assays, i.e. lateral flow devices (LFD), may increase surveillance and improve control efforts. Several LFDs for rabies diagnosis are available but, except for one, there are no data regarding their performance. Therefore, we compared six commercially available LFDs for diagnostic and analytical sensitivity, as well as their specificity and their diagnostic agreement with standard rabies diagnostic techniques using different sample sets, including experimentally infected animals and several sets of field samples. Using field samples the sensitivities ranged between 0% up to 100% depending on the LFD and the samples, while for experimentally infected animals the maximum sensitivity was 32%. Positive results in LFD could be further validated using RT-qPCR and sequencing. In summary, in our study none of the tests investigated proved to be satisfactory, although the results somewhat contradict previous studies, indicating batch to batch variation. The high number of false negative results reiterates the necessity to perform a proper test validation before being marketed and used in the field. In this respect, marketing authorization and batch release control could secure a sufficient quality for these alternative tests, which could then fulfil their potential.

  1. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  2. Evaluation of Six Commercially Available Rapid Immunochromatographic Tests for the Diagnosis of Rabies in Brain Material

    PubMed Central

    Eggerbauer, Elisa; de Benedictis, Paola; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Schlottau, Kore; Ngoepe, Ernest C.; Sabeta, Claude T.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths annually. The main burden lies on developing countries in Asia and Africa, where surveillance and disease detection is hampered by absence of adequate laboratory facilities and/or the difficulties of submitting samples from remote areas to laboratories. Under these conditions, easy-to-use tests such as immunochromatographic assays, i.e. lateral flow devices (LFD), may increase surveillance and improve control efforts. Several LFDs for rabies diagnosis are available but, except for one, there are no data regarding their performance. Therefore, we compared six commercially available LFDs for diagnostic and analytical sensitivity, as well as their specificity and their diagnostic agreement with standard rabies diagnostic techniques using different sample sets, including experimentally infected animals and several sets of field samples. Using field samples the sensitivities ranged between 0% up to 100% depending on the LFD and the samples, while for experimentally infected animals the maximum sensitivity was 32%. Positive results in LFD could be further validated using RT-qPCR and sequencing. In summary, in our study none of the tests investigated proved to be satisfactory, although the results somewhat contradict previous studies, indicating batch to batch variation. The high number of false negative results reiterates the necessity to perform a proper test validation before being marketed and used in the field. In this respect, marketing authorization and batch release control could secure a sufficient quality for these alternative tests, which could then fulfil their potential. PMID:27336943

  3. Lextale-Esp: A Test to Rapidly and Efficiently Assess the Spanish Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izura, Cristina; Cuetos, Fernando; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The methods to measure vocabulary size vary across disciplines. This heterogeneity hinders direct comparisons between studies and slows down the understanding of research findings. A quick, free and efficient test of English language proficiency, LexTALE, was recently developed to remedy this problem. LexTALE has been validated and shown to be an…

  4. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  5. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  6. Development and testing of a rapid method for measuring shoal size discrimination.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco; Gatto, Elia; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The shoal-choice test is a popular method to investigate quantity discrimination in social fish based on their spontaneous preference for the larger of two shoals. The shoal-choice test usually requires a long observation time (20-30 min), mainly because fish switch between the two shoals with low frequency, thus reducing the possibilities of comparison. This duration limits the use of the shoal-choice test for large-scale screenings. Here, we developed a new version of the shoal-choice test in which the subject was confined in a large transparent cylinder in the middle of the tank throughout the experiment to bound the minimum distance from the stimulus shoals and favour switching. We tested the new method by observing guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a 4 versus 6 fish discrimination (experiment 1). The new method allowed for a faster assessment of the preference for the larger shoal (<5 min), resulting in potential application for large population screenings. Guppies switched five times more frequently between the two shoals and remained close to the first chosen shoal ten times less compared to experiments with the old method. In experiment 2, we found that with the new method guppies were able to discriminate up to 5 versus 6 fish, a discrimination that was not achieved with the classical method. This last result indicates that minor methodological modifications can lead to very different findings in the same species and suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting inter-specific differences in quantitative abilities.

  7. Investigation of migration from paper and board into food--development of methods for rapid testing.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, W; Cooper, I

    2001-01-01

    A range of paper and board materials including carton board, corrugated board, napkins and paper towels intended for contact with food have been solvent extracted and substances present at the highest levels identified and quantified by GC/MS. Dibutyl phthalate, and diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) were selected to study migration to food and potential food simulants with the aim of developing a simple quick test that will give an equivalent or higher result. Tenax was found to be a suitable food simulant for dry foods and dry 'fatty foods' such as pastry and cake and was also found to be a suitable simulant for pizza base tested at higher temperatures for short contact times. The percentage migration values from corrugated and carton boards were generally in the range 15-40%, with the highest percentage being 49% for rice using conditions representing ambient storage. Quick tests were developed using Tenax under accelerated conditions of 4 h at 80 degrees C to cover room temperature storage with dry foods and fatty dry foods. These tests are suitable for compliance testing of paperboard samples if migration limits are applied in future legislation. Migration from tissues, napkins and paper towels was found to be at very low or not detectable levels, even when the levels of DIPN and DBP were significant. It is strongly suspected that this finding is due to a combination of short contact time, low grammage and the fact that the tissues absorb fat and moisture from foods, thus minimizing extraction from the paper. In all cases, the results from migration experiments into food and Tenax indicate that for the substances found at highest concentrations in the paper, currently accepted safety limits were not exceeded where they exist in EU legislation or in working documents applying to plastics.

  8. F-15E testing for Rapid Targeting System used in Bosnian operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Brian; Sargent, William; O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.

    1997-06-01

    The rapid targeting system (RTS) has been in operation at the Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) in Vicenza, Italy since June 1996. RTS provides sensor-to-shooter support to the CAOC Battle Staff Director. Since June 1996, RTS has been involved in over 200 operational training sorties flown for Operation Decisive Endeavour and the newly created Operation Deliberate Guard. Training sorties have been run with U.S. Air Force F- 15Es, U.S. Navy F/A-18Ds and A-6s, and U.S. Marine Corps F/A- 18D aircraft. RTS provides these aircraft with near-real-time imagery of mobile and stationary targets from the U-2, JSTARS, Predator UAV, GNAT, Tactical Reconnaissance, and National Reconnaissance sensors. In response to Air South requests, RTS was recently used in conjunction with the 48th Fighter Wing, 492nd Fighter Squadron during a two week deployment from Lakenheath Air Base, UK to Aviano Air Base, Italy.

  9. Rapid biochemical test to identify verocytotoxin-positive strains of Escherichia coli serotype O157.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Borczyk, A A

    1990-01-01

    Fluorogenic procedures were used with the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) to identify Escherichia coli. Most strains produced beta-glucuronidase and, thus, were MUG positive. A 20-min procedure was developed to detect glucuronidase activity in 1,295 bacterial cultures, representing 23 genera, of strains that were isolated from clinical specimens. Very few organisms other than E. coli were MUG positive. Of 682 E. coli strains that were isolated, 630 (92.4%) were MUG positive. When an additional 188 E. coli serotype O157 isolates were examined, 155 E. coli O157:H7, 10 E. coli O157:H-, and 1 E. coli O157:H (rough) isolate were MUG negative. All 166 cultures were verocytotoxin positive. Of the remaining 22 E. coli O157 isolates, 2 isolates were O157:H-, 1 isolate was O157:H (rough), and 19 isolates were other H types (H6, H16, H19, H25, H42, and H45); these 22 isolates were MUG positive. All 22 cultures were verocytotoxin negative. The rapid MUG procedure can be used to predict verocytotoxin-positive isolates of E. coli O157; that is, there is a very good likelihood that MUG-negative E. coli O157 isolates are verocytotoxin positive. PMID:2229338

  10. Proposal of a skin tests based approach for the prevention of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Della-Torre, E; Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Guglielmi, B; Tombetti, E; Sabbadini, M G; Voltolini, S; Colombo, G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of an approach that combines clinical history, skin tests results, and premedication, in preventing recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM). Skin Prick tests, Intradermal tests, and Patch tests were performed in 36 patients with a previous reaction to ICM. All patients underwent a second contrast enhanced radiological procedure with an alternative ICM selected on the basis of the proposed approach. After alternative ICM re-injection, only one patient presented a mild NIR. The proposed algorithm, validated in clinical settings where repeated radiological exams are needed, offers a safe and practical approach for protecting patients from recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to ICM.

  11. 77 FR 30540 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cognitive Testing of Instrumentation and Materials for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... (NIDA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to...: See Table 1. The annualized cost to respondents is estimated at: $11,861. There are no Capital Costs to report. There are no Operating or Maintenance Costs to report. Table 1--Estimated Annual...

  12. 45 CFR 162.940 - Exceptions from standards to permit testing of proposed modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (x) Incorporate flexibility to adapt more easily to changes in the health care infrastructure (such... proposed modifications. 162.940 Section 162.940 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services... effectiveness of the health care system by leading to cost reductions for, or improvements in benefits...

  13. 45 CFR 162.940 - Exceptions from standards to permit testing of proposed modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (x) Incorporate flexibility to adapt more easily to changes in the health care infrastructure (such... proposed modifications. 162.940 Section 162.940 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... effectiveness of the health care system by leading to cost reductions for, or improvements in benefits...

  14. 45 CFR 162.940 - Exceptions from standards to permit testing of proposed modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (x) Incorporate flexibility to adapt more easily to changes in the health care infrastructure (such... proposed modifications. 162.940 Section 162.940 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... effectiveness of the health care system by leading to cost reductions for, or improvements in benefits...

  15. 45 CFR 162.940 - Exceptions from standards to permit testing of proposed modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (x) Incorporate flexibility to adapt more easily to changes in the health care infrastructure (such... proposed modifications. 162.940 Section 162.940 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... effectiveness of the health care system by leading to cost reductions for, or improvements in benefits...

  16. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Armament Overhaul and Test Facility, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-12

    Loucks ), and there are two former landfills in the vicinity (former landfill LF003 was located to the north of the proposed action and former...Program Manager, (801) 775-3651 Mark Loucks , Restoration Section Chief, (801) 777-6299 Shannon Smith, IRP Project Manager, (801) 775-6913 Blair

  17. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the "DSM-5" Proposal and Etiological Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle.; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the "DSM-5"-proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not…

  18. 45 CFR 162.940 - Exceptions from standards to permit testing of proposed modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proposed modifications. 162.940 Section 162.940 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... as new services, organizations, and provider types) and information technology. (2) Specifications... exception. The Secretary may grant an initial exception, for a period not to exceed 3 years, based on,...

  19. Manufacturer's recall of rapid assay kits based on false positive Cryptosporidium antigen tests--Wisconsin, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    2002-03-08

    The Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH) reported that a recent cluster of cryptosporidiosis cases in a three-county area in southeastern Wisconsin was the result of false-positive tests. During December 1, 2001-February 1, 2002, approximately 30 cases of cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed at a laboratory in southeastern Wisconsin using the Becton, Dickinson, and Company (Franklin Lakes, New Jersey) ColorPAC Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (lot number 219370, expiration date 2002-06-05). Seventeen stool specimens, which were collected from 11 patients and tested positive by the rapid assay, were re-evaluated at WSLH. Six of these stool specimens were in EcoFix (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), eight were in Cary-Blair transport media, and three were formalin fixed. All 17 specimens tested negative for Cryptosporidium at WSLH using the hot safranin stain and MeriFluor (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) Cryptosporidium/Giardia direct fluorescent antibody kit with concentrated specimens.

  20. Rapid testing for respiratory syncytial virus in a paediatric emergency department: benefits for infection control and bed management.

    PubMed

    Mills, J M; Harper, J; Broomfield, D; Templeton, K E

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for annual winter outbreaks of respiratory tract infection among children in temperate climates, placing severe pressure on hospital beds. Cohorting of affected infants has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in reducing nosocomial transmission of RSV, and may keep cubicles free for other patients who require them. Testing of symptomatic children for RSV is standard practice, but unfortunately traditional laboratory testing is not rapid enough to aid decision-making processes. Rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) in the emergency department has been suggested as an alternative. We performed a prospective study to quantify the amount of cubicle time saved by using POCT results to allow a targeted cohorting strategy. Over the four-month study period, the POCT allowed 183 children to be admitted directly to a designated cohort area, thus saving 568.5 cubicle-days for other patients. This is equivalent to five cubicles being left free for each day of the study period. This is the first time the benefits of using POCT have been quantified in this way. POCT for RSV is a safe, cost-effective and efficient way to improve bed management.

  1. Prevalence of PCR detectable malaria infection among febrile patients with a negative Plasmodium falciparum specific rapid diagnostic test in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Baltzell, Kimberly A; Shakely, Deler; Hsiang, Michelle; Kemere, Jordan; Ali, Abdullah Suleiman; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas; Omar, Rahila; Elfving, Kristina; Msellem, Mwinyi; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Rosenthal, Philip J; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2013-02-01

    We screened for malaria in 594 blood samples from febrile patients who tested negative by a Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein-2-based rapid diagnostic test at 12 health facilities in Zanzibar districts North A and Micheweni, from May to August 2010. Screening was with microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene (cytbPCR) of the four major human malaria species, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The prevalence of cytbPCR-detectable malaria infection was 2% (12 of 594), including 8 P. falciparum, 3 Plasmodium malariae, and 1 Plasmodium vivax infections. Microscopy identified 4 of 8 P. falciparum infections. Parasite density as estimated by microscopy or qPCR was > 4,000 parasites/μL in 5 of 8 cytbPCR-detectable P. falciparum infections. The infections that were missed by the rapid diagnostic test represent a particular challenge in malaria elimination settings and highlight the need for more sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tools to improve case detection of all human malaria species in febrile patients.

  2. Evaluation of the BYG Carba Test, a New Electrochemical Assay for Rapid Laboratory Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Pierre; Yunus, Sami; Massart, Marion; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-02-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) constitutes a major laboratory diagnostic challenge. We evaluated an electrochemical technique (the BYG Carba test) which allows detection of CPE in less than 35 min. The BYG Carba test was first validated in triplicate against 57 collection isolates with previously characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms (OXA-48, n = 12; KPC, n = 8; NDM, n = 8; VIM, n = 8; IMP, n = 3; GIM, n = 1; GES-6, n = 1; no carbapenemase, n = 16) and against a panel of 10 isolates obtained from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). The test was then evaluated prospectively against 324 isolates referred to the national reference center for suspicion of CPE. The BYG Carba test results were compared with those obtained with the Carba NP test using multiplex PCR sequencing as the gold standard. Of the 57 collection and the 10 NEQAS isolates, all but one GES-6-producing isolate were correctly identified by the Carba BYG test. Among the 324 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested prospectively, 146 were confirmed as noncarbapenemase producers by PCR while 178 harbored a carbapenemase gene (OXA-48, n = 117; KPC, n = 25; NDM, n = 23; and VIM, n = 13). Prospectively, in comparison with PCR results, the BYG Carba test displayed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity versus 89% and 100%, respectively, for the Carba NP test. The BYG Carba test is a novel, rapid, and efficient assay based on an electro-active polymer biosensing technology discriminating between CPE and non-CPE. The precise electrochemical signal (electrochemical impedance variations) allows the establishment of real-time objective measurement and interpretation criteria which should facilitate the accreditation process of this technology.

  3. Evaluation of the BYG Carba Test, a New Electrochemical Assay for Rapid Laboratory Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Sami; Massart, Marion; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri

    2015-01-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) constitutes a major laboratory diagnostic challenge. We evaluated an electrochemical technique (the BYG Carba test) which allows detection of CPE in less than 35 min. The BYG Carba test was first validated in triplicate against 57 collection isolates with previously characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms (OXA-48, n = 12; KPC, n = 8; NDM, n = 8; VIM, n = 8; IMP, n = 3; GIM, n = 1; GES-6, n = 1; no carbapenemase, n = 16) and against a panel of 10 isolates obtained from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). The test was then evaluated prospectively against 324 isolates referred to the national reference center for suspicion of CPE. The BYG Carba test results were compared with those obtained with the Carba NP test using multiplex PCR sequencing as the gold standard. Of the 57 collection and the 10 NEQAS isolates, all but one GES-6-producing isolate were correctly identified by the Carba BYG test. Among the 324 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested prospectively, 146 were confirmed as noncarbapenemase producers by PCR while 178 harbored a carbapenemase gene (OXA-48, n = 117; KPC, n = 25; NDM, n = 23; and VIM, n = 13). Prospectively, in comparison with PCR results, the BYG Carba test displayed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity versus 89% and 100%, respectively, for the Carba NP test. The BYG Carba test is a novel, rapid, and efficient assay based on an electro-active polymer biosensing technology discriminating between CPE and non-CPE. The precise electrochemical signal (electrochemical impedance variations) allows the establishment of real-time objective measurement and interpretation criteria which should facilitate the accreditation process of this technology. PMID:26637378

  4. Clinical evaluation of the QuickVet/RapidVet canine dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood-typing test.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Barbara; Classe, Gabriele; Weingart, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    In transfusion medicine, blood typing is an integral part of pretransfusion testing. The objective of the current study was the clinical evaluation of an automated canine cartridge dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 blood-typing method (QuickVet/RapidVet) and comparison of the results with a gel column-based method (ID-Gel Test Canine DEA 1.1). Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated blood samples from 11 healthy and 85 sick dogs were available for typing. Before blood typing, all samples were tested for agglutination and hemolysis. All samples were tested once or multiple times with both methods according to the manufacturer's guidelines. With the gel method, 53 dogs tested DEA 1.1 positive and 42 dogs DEA 1.1 negative; blood typing was not possible due to erythrocyte autoagglutination in 1 dog. With the cartridge test, 53 samples tested DEA 1.1 positive, 34 samples tested DEA 1.1 negative, and 6 results were inconclusive (3 samples were not included due to autoagglutination or severe hemolysis). Without taking the inconclusive samples into account, the agreement between both methods was 96.5%. The sensitivity and specificity for samples that were definitively typed by both methods were 100% and 91.9%, respectively. The cartridge test was suitable for in-clinic canine DEA 1.1 blood typing, although some discrepancies compared to the gel method existed. The cartridge test is software-directed, is easy to use, and does not require user interpretation, but preanalytical guidelines (sample evaluation for agglutination and hemolysis) have to be followed. For inconclusive results, an alternate blood-typing method should be performed.

  5. Iodometric Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Beta-Lactamase: Rapid Presumptive Test for Ampicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B. Wesley

    1975-01-01

    Strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b sporadically isolated from clinical specimens are ampicillin resistant due to production of a β-lactamase. This enzyme which inactivates ampicillin and penicillin G is not produced by ampicillin-susceptible strains. Various characteristics of β-lactamase production and ampicillin resistance of three H. influenzae type b isolates were investigated. A sensitive iodometric test was employed to detect β-lactamase; positive results were obtained in 5 min with 109 bacteria taken from cultures on a nutritionally adequate agar medium. This simple chemical test will enable the hospital laboratory to obtain presumptive evidence of ampicillin resistance on the same day that H. influenzae is isolated. PMID:1079712

  6. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis; 3. To combine the vaginal lactoferrin, amine/pH test and urine leukocyte esterase/nitrite dipstick... bacterial vaginosis account for nearly all cases of infectious vaginitis/ vaginosis . 2-4,13,14 Chlamydial infections are the most common bacterial ...vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis . Vaginal yeast infections commonly occur in women. It has been estimated that 75% of women will have at least one episode

  7. Evaluation of a rapid and simple placental growth factor test in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gullai, Nóra; Stenczer, Balázs; Molvarec, Attila; Fügedi, Gergely; Veresh, Zoltán; Nagy, Bálint; Rigó, János

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the Triage placental growth factor (PlGF) assay, together with its prognostic efficiency in determining the need for preterm delivery in all forms of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. A total of 130 pregnant women with a diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE: 23), HELLP syndrome (20), superimposed preeclampsia (SIPE: 17), chronic hypertension (CHT: 25), gestational hypertension (GHT: 18) and 27 normotensive pregnant controls were enrolled in this case-control study. A single blood sample was taken between 22 and 34 weeks of gestation, and the plasma was analyzed for PlGF using the Alere Triage PlGF assay. The PlGF levels found in all hypertensive disorder groups differed significantly from those observed in controls. There was a highly significant difference in PlGF concentrations between women with a pregnancy duration <35 weeks and controls. Using a gestational age-dependent threshold of 5% of normal, a positive PlGF test predicted delivery before 35 weeks in 93.7% of hypertensive women and delivery before 37 weeks in 90.5% of hypertensive women. A positive PlGF test identified the following proportions of hypertensive patients: 95.7% (PE), 95.0% (HELLP syndrome), 82.4% (SIPE), 60.0% (CHT) and 44.4% (GHT). A positive PlGF test was associated with a significantly shorter duration of pregnancy (hazard ratio of 3.43 adjusted for the gestational age at the time of sample collection and hypertension with proteinuria). In conclusion, PlGF concentrations are significantly lower in all hypertensive disorders. A positive test using the Triage PlGF assay at 22-34 weeks of gestation predicts delivery before 37 weeks in women with both proteinuric and non-proteinuric hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  8. A Multisite Study of the Prevalence of HIV With Rapid Testing in Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Michael B.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Balaji, Alexandra B.; Metzger, David S.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Rose, Charles E.; Oraka, Emeka; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Thompson, William W.; Heffelfinger, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated HIV prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving mental health treatment in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, January 2009 to August 2011. Methods. We used a multisite, cross-sectional design stratified by clinical setting. We tested 1061 individuals for HIV in university-based inpatient psychiatric units (n = 287), intensive case-management programs (n = 273), and community mental health centers (n = 501). Results. Fifty-one individuals (4.8%) were HIV-infected. Confirmed positive HIV tests were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7%, 9.4%) for inpatient units, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.1%, 8.5%) for intensive case-management programs, and 4.0% (95% CI = 2.6%, 6.1%) for community mental health centers. Characteristics associated with HIV included Black race, homosexual or bisexual identity, and HCV infection. Conclusions. HIV prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was about 4 times as high as in the general population. We found a positive association between psychiatric symptom severity and HIV infection, indicating that engaging persons with mental illness in appropriate mental health treatment may be important to HIV prevention. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine HIV testing in all clinical settings to ensure that HIV-infected persons receiving mental health services are identified and referred to timely infectious disease care. PMID:24524493

  9. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing: Its Application in Both Product Development and System Implementation.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.

  10. Rapid heating tensile tests of hydrogen-charged high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1989-05-19

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. Proper design of the equipment will require an understanding of how tritium and its decay product helium affect mechanical properties. This memorandum describes results of rapid heating tensile testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) 316L stainless steel. These results provide a data base for comparison with uncharged and tritium-charged-and-aged specimens to distinguish the effects of hydrogen and helium. Details of the experimental equipment and procedures and results for uncharged specimens were reported previously. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Simões, M

    2009-01-15

    Panels of sera from African buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (A and B) for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis. The sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. Overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their use in bovine tuberculosis management and control strategies in South African game reserves.

  12. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.

  13. Data from Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Proposed High-Speed Submarine in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocke, Bennie W.; Lipson, Stanley; Scallion, William I.

    1950-01-01

    Tests of a 1/5 scale model of a proposed 153-foot high-speed submarine have been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Ships, Department of the Navy. The test program included: (1) force tests to determine the drag, control effectiveness, and static stability characteristics for a number of model configurations, both in pitch and in yaw, (2) pressure measurements to determine the boundary-layer conditions and flow characteristics in the region of the propeller, and (3) an investigation of the effects of propeller operation on the model aerodynamic characteristics. In response to oral requests from the Bureau of Ships representatives t hat the basic data obtained in these tests be made available to them as rapidly as possible, this data report has been prepared to present some of the more pertinent results. All test results given in the present paper are for the propeller-removed condition and were obtained at a Reynolds number of approximately 22,300,000 based on model length.

  14. Impact of rapid diagnostic testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea on appropriate antimicrobial utilization in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Kaitlyn R; Dumkow, Lisa E; Draper, Heather M; Brandt, Kasey L; Whalen, David W; Egwuatu, Nnaemeka E

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged turnaround time of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) test results may delay time to notification and treatment of test-positive patients and result in unnecessary antimicrobial use in test-negative patients. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the impact of NG/CT rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) in an urban emergency department (ED) on treatment appropriateness, time to notification, and cost. Patients tested in December 2013-January 2014 (traditional group, n=200) were compared with those in December 2014-January 2015 (RDT group, n=200). There was a significant increase in treatment appropriateness in the RDT group, 72.5% versus 60% (P=0.008) and time to results notification was significantly faster (median 17.4 versus 51.5hours, P=0.010). Availability of test result prior to discharge was associated with increased treatment appropriateness (odds ratio, 22.65 [95% confidence interval, 2.86-179.68]). The RDT would save approximately $37,000 annually. These results support the use of NG/CT RDT to expand antimicrobial stewardship efforts within the ED.

  15. Rapid in vivo testing of drug response in multiple myeloma made possible by xenograft to turkey embryos

    PubMed Central

    Farnoushi, Y; Cipok, M; Kay, S; Jan, H; Ohana, A; Naparstek, E; Goldstein, R S; Deutsch, V R

    2011-01-01

    Background: The best current xenograft model of multiple myeloma (MM) in immune-deficient non-obese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficient mice is costly, animal maintenance is complex and several weeks are required to establish engraftment and study drug efficacy. More practical in vivo models may reduce time and drug development cost. We recently described a rapid low-cost xenograft model of human blood malignancies in pre-immune turkey. Here, we report application of this system for studying MM growth and the preclinical assessment of anticancer therapies. Methods: Cell lines and MM patient cells were injected intravenously into embryonic veins on embryonic day 11 (E11). Engraftment of human cells in haematopoietic organs was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and circulating free light chain. Results: Engraftment was detected after 1 week in all embryos injected with cell lines and in 50% of those injected with patient cells. Injection of bortezomib or lenalinomide 48 h after cell injection at therapeutic levels that were not toxic to the bone marrow dramatically reduced MM engraftment. Conclusion: The turkey embryo provides a practical, xenograft system to study MM and demonstrates the utility of this model for rapid and affordable testing therapeutics in vivo. With further development, this model may enable rapid, inexpensive personalised drug screening. PMID:22045188

  16. Acceptability of Using Electronic Vending Machines to Deliver Oral Rapid HIV Self-Testing Kits: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sean D.; Daniels, Joseph; Chiu, ChingChe J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Flynn, Risa P.; Kwok, Justin; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits. Materials and Methods African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN) code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience. Results Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience. Discussion Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method. PMID:25076208

  17. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis

    2005-02-01

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called "HPR-1".

  18. Bounding flow and transport analysis of proposed 105A mock-up tank tracer test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepho, M.G.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this bounding analysis was to determine bounding estimates of salt concentrations in the aquifer below the salt-tracer plume test at the 105A mockup-tank site near the inactive Semi-Works Plant in the 200 East Area. The objective was to calculate the bounding salt concentrations and compare them to the appropriate maximum contamination level (MCL) allowed by state law, which for sodium chloride is 415 mg/l as a secondary standard. The tracer test is part of the Electrical-Resistance Tomography (ERT) demonstration, which will provide an effective method of detecting tank leaks if it is shown to be successful. The basic idea of ERT method is that the electrical resistance in the soils will change enough to be detected when water with salts infiltrate the soils, even if a high-conductance metal tank is just above the leak. The 105A mockup tank did not have an impermeable bottom and was open at the top until the time of the test. It was assumed, at the time of the tracer test or shortly afterwards, that an impermeable bottom (concrete) would be placed at the bottom of the tank, but still remain open at the top. Hence, in this analysis, no artificial recharge is produced due to water running off a tank top, since no top is assumed. The conceptual model is discussed in Section 2.0 with the mathematical and numerical models briefly discussed in Section 3.0. The main results are given in Section 4.0 with the conclusions drawn in Section 5.0. These calculations were made before the tracer test. A similar set of calculations will be performed after the tracer test assuming more details concerning leak location and soil properties are available. The tracer test could be used to validate or confirm the modeling methodology/capability of plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford site.

  19. CV 990 interface test and procedure analysis of the monkey restraint, support equipment, and telemetry electronics proposed for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A biological system proposed to restrain a monkey in the Spacelab was tested under operational conditions using typical metabolic and telemetered cardiovascular instrumentation. Instrumentation, interfaced with other electronics, and data gathering during a very active operational mission were analyzed for adequacy of procedure and success of data handling by the onboard computer.

  20. Rapid Identification of Dengue Virus Serotypes Using Monoclonal Antibodies in an Indirect Immunofluorescence Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    encephalitis(TBH-28), West Nile(E-101), Yellow fever(French neurotropic and 17D strains), and Zika. Two Sandfly Fever viruses (213452 and Candiru) were...thaw at room temperature for 5 minutes,. washed with PBS and drained. The cells were first incubated at 35°C wit an appropriate dilution of hybridoma...include IB8, IB10, ICl0, 4G2, 2C4, 1B6, 4BI0, and ID7 which generally reacted with all of the flaviviruses tested and did not recognize the sandfly

  1. A rapid amphipod reproduction test for sediment quality assessment: In situ bioassays do not replicate laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Mann, Reinier M; Hyne, Ross V; Simandjuntak, Desiree L; Simpson, Stuart L

    2010-11-01

    An underlying assumption of laboratory-based toxicity tests is that the sensitivity and exposure of organisms in the laboratory is comparable to that in the field. We sought to make a comparison between field-based and laboratory-based sediment toxicity tests using a recently developed rapid amphipod reproduction test that encompasses gametogenesis, fertilization, and embryo development before hatching. The test species, Melita plumulosa, is an epibenthic, detritivorous amphipod native to Eastern Australia. Test sediments were sourced from Lake Macquarie, a large saltwater lagoon located 100 km north of Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) that has received heavy-metal pollution over many decades, primarily from a Pb/Zn smelter but also from collieries, coal-fired power stations, and urban areas. This has led to a north-south trace-metal concentration gradient, including Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu, in the sediments of Lake Macquarie. Sediments from these northern bays were demonstrated to reduce amphipod fecundity in laboratory-based tests. For the current study, the amphipod reproduction test has been modified for use in situ. In situ test chambers were deployed at the mouth of Cockle Creek, Lake Macquarie. Sediments that were demonstrated to reduce fecundity of M. plumulosa in the laboratory reproduction test were not similarly toxic when amphipods were exposed to the same sediments in situ. Factors related to the regular tidal renewal of overlying water likely altered exposure profiles in situ, including the provision of additional or alternative nutrition that obviated the need for amphipods to interact with the contaminated sediments, and a washout effect that prevented the accretion of dissolved zinc in the overlying water.

  2. Primary HPV testing: a proposal for co-testing in initial rounds of screening to optimise sensitivity of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Herbert, A

    2017-02-01

    As explained by Kitchener in a previous issue of Cytopathology (2015;26:4-6), primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is likely to be introduced in the UK for all women aged 25-64 years following pilot site studies already in place. This will be necessary when the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors declines when vaccination takes effect but there is a risk in abandoning cytology as a primary test: a risk that would be most apparent in the present unvaccinated population in which the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors is exceptionally high. HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology but has a significant false-negative rate that could be detrimental to a successful screening programme if introduced without cytology backup. Accurate cytology would be needed for triage and could be compromised if HPV-negative tests were excluded from examination. This article proposes a compromise: cytology and HPV co-testing for the first two screening tests to optimise the sensitivity of the test as a whole. Registrations of invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix in England indicate that the prevalence of the disease is highest in young women in the early rounds of screening. Calculations of the likely impact on the workload of this proposal have been based on a service evaluation of 295 cytology tests received at St Thomas' Hospital, which suggests that the volume of cytology tests would be reduced by approximately 60% compared with 80% for primary HPV testing alone. This proposal should be debated openly before irrevocable changes are made to a skilled workforce.

  3. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  4. Refinement of biodegradation tests methodologies and the proposed utility of new microbial ecology techniques.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Martin, Timothy James; Price, Oliver Richard; Snape, Jason Richard; van Egmond, Roger Albert; Finnegan, Christopher James; Schäfer, Hendrik; Davenport, Russell James; Bending, Gary Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Society's reliance upon chemicals over the last few decades has led to their increased production, application and release into the environment. Determination of chemical persistence is crucial for risk assessment and management of chemicals. Current established OECD biodegradation guidelines enable testing of chemicals under laboratory conditions but with an incomplete consideration of factors that can impact on chemical persistence in the environment. The suite of OECD biodegradation tests do not characterise microbial inoculum and often provide little insight into pathways of degradation. The present review considers limitations with the current OECD biodegradation tests and highlights novel scientific approaches to chemical fate studies. We demonstrate how the incorporation of molecular microbial ecology methods (i.e., 'omics') may improve the underlying mechanistic understanding of biodegradation processes, and enable better extrapolation of data from laboratory based test systems to the relevant environment, which would potentially improve chemical risk assessment and decision making. We outline future challenges for relevant stakeholders to modernise OECD biodegradation tests and put the 'bio' back into biodegradation.

  5. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing. PMID:28316631

  6. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; ...

    2014-08-05

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and moremore » accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.« less

  7. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; ...

    2014-12-15

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of themore » optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.« less

  8. A motion artifact generation and assessment system for the rapid testing of surface biopotential electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Alper; Hyttinen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Dry electrodes can reduce cost while increasing the usability and comfort of wearable monitoring systems. They are, however, susceptible to motion artifacts. The present electrode testing methods lack reliability and do not separate the factors that affect the motion artifact. In this paper, we introduce a first generation motion artifact generation and assessment system that generates the speed, amplitude, and pattern-wise programmable movement of the electrode. The system simultaneously measures electrode-skin impedance, the motion artifact, and one channel of an electrocardiogram that contains the motion artifact and monitors the mounting force applied to the electrode. We demonstrate the system by comparing the applied movement and the measured signals for electrode movements up to 6 mm and movement frequencies from 0.4 Hz to 4 Hz. Results show that the impedance change and surface potential are visually clearly related to the applied motion, with average correlations of 0.89 and 0.64, respectively. The applied force, electrode location, and electrode structure all affect the motion artifact. The setup enables the motion of the electrode to be accurately controlled. The system can be used as a precursor to the testing of integrated systems because it enables thorough, repeatable, and robust motion artifact studies. The system allows a deeper insight into motion artifacts and the interplay of the various factors that affect them.

  9. Evaluation of an MPN test for the rapid enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital waters.

    PubMed

    Sartory, David P; Pauly, Danièle; Garrec, Nathalie; Bonadonna, Lucia; Semproni, Maurizio; Schell, Christiane; Reimann, Annika; Firth, Susan J; Thom, Christopher; Hartemann, Philippe; Exner, Martin; Baldauf, Henning; Lee, Susanne; Lee, John V

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the performance of a new most probable number (MPN) test (Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®)) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital waters was compared with both international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water - Part 8 (MoDW Part 8), which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods was conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine hospital water samples (80 from six laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (192 from five laboratories), paired counts from each sample and the enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®). For the artificially contaminated samples, the data revealed higher counts of P. aeruginosa being recorded by Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®). The Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®) method does not require confirmation testing for atypical strains of P. aeruginosa, saving up to 6 days of additional analysis, and has the added advantage of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 hours incubation compared to 40-48 hours or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  10. Comparison tests and experimental compliance calibration of the proposed standard round compact plane strain fracture toughness specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Standard round specimen fracture test results compared satisfactorily with results from standard rectangular compact specimens machined from the same material. The location of the loading pin holes was found to provide adequate strength in the load bearing region for plane strain fracture toughness testing. Excellent agreement was found between the stress intensity coefficient values obtained from compliance measurements and the analytic solution proposed for inclusion in the standard test method. Load displacement measurements were made using long armed displacement gages and hollow loading cylinders. Gage points registered on the loading hole surfaces through small holes in the walls of the loading cylinders.

  11. An Architecture Proposal for the ILC Test Beam Silicon Telescope at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Turqueti, M.A.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The requirements for an ILC Test Beam silicon telescope system are foreseen to be very stringent. Resolution, noise, and throughput must be carefully managed in order to provide a useful instrument for the high energy physics community to develop detector technologies for the ILC. Since the ILC Test Beam is meant to test a wide variety of different detectors, it must employ universally accepted software techniques, hardware standards and protocols as well as easy integration of hardware and software with the various clients using the system. In this paper, we describe an open modular architecture to achieve these goals, including an analysis of the entire chain of software and hardware needed to meet the requirements.

  12. A proposed method for assembly and interpretation of short-term test data.

    PubMed Central

    Brusick, D

    1991-01-01

    The genetic toxicology databases for chemicals that have been tested extensively are generally composed of inconsistent responses from a diverse set of assays. Consequently, difficulties arise when the data are evaluated for classifying the agent or for assessing the chemical's hazard potential. Several years ago, the International Commission for Protection against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens (ICPEMC) established a committee to construct a process for compiling and interpreting diverse data sets. The Committee has developed a weight-of-evidence approach that combines test data into a series of scores for test type, class, family, and a consensus score defining the relative mutagenic activity of the agent compared with other chemicals in the database. This report describes the method and preliminary results from 113 chemicals. PMID:1820250

  13. A proposed test to support the clinical movement analysis laboratory accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Holden, John P; Selbie, W Scott; Stanhope, Steven J

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a testing methodology and resultant set of four variables that can be used to quickly and easily document the correct installation, configuration, and combined working status of force platform (FP) and three-dimensional (3D) motion capture components of a clinical movement analysis (CMA) laboratory. Using a rigid, rod-shaped testing device, CMA laboratory data are collected simultaneously from the FP and motion capture components (typically, video-based kinematic measurements) as the device is manually loaded while being pivoted broadly about a point on the FP. Using a computational method based on static equilibrium, it is possible to independently measure the rod's orientation and tip position during the moving trial, using FP derived data exclusively, and to compare these estimates to rod orientation and tip position estimates derived exclusively from the motion capture component. The motion laboratory accreditation test (MLAT) variables include: the difference (angle) between the orientation of the long axis of the testing device as independently determined from kinematic measures (motion capture component) and the FP derived data; and the difference (x, y, z) between the center of pressure position (FP derived) and the position of the testing device tip (motion capture derived) that loads the FP. A numerical dynamics model was explored to evaluate the appropriateness of the static equilibrium-based FP data model and to determine guidelines for testing device movement frequency and FP loading. The MLAT technique provides a simple means of detecting the combined presence of errors from many sources, several of which are explored in this paper. The MLAT has been developed to help meet one criteria of the CMA laboratory accreditation process, and to serve as a routine quality assessment tool.

  14. Improvement of Vicia-micronucleus test for assessment of soil quality: a proposal for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    The Viciafaba root tip micronucleus test is one of the most employed plant genotoxicity assays, and has been used on various types of contaminated materials. This test has been standardized by AFNOR, the French member organization of ISO. However, this test is usually performed with a water extraction step but soil genotoxicity assessment would be more relevant when performed directly in the soil itself. In order to harmonize these protocols, an ISO standard for the V.faba micronucleus test in both liquid phase (exposure of plants to different liquid matrix, including soil water extracts) and solid phase (direct exposure of plants to the soil) would be very useful. In this context, we compared two exposure durations in the solid phase (48 h and 5 d) for the V.faba micronucleus test with two different well-known genotoxicants, maleic hydrazide and copper sulfate. We concluded that these two durations induced equivalent sensitivity: the micronucleus frequency was significantly increased with 5 μmol maleic hydrazide per kg dry soil and with 2 mmol copper sulfate per kg dry soil with both exposure durations. However, exposing roots to soil during 48 h is more practical. Moreover, organically and conventionally cultured seeds were employed to determine whether the seed provenance influenced the test sensitivity. Organic seeds were less sensitive to copper, possibly because copper-based treatments are permitted, and often applied, in organic farms. Therefore, in the absence of completely non-treated seeds, organically-cultured seeds did not appear to offer any advantages over conventional seeds.

  15. A Smart CMOS Assay SoC for Rapid Blood Screening Test of Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Hung; Kuo, Jui-Chang; Hsueh, Hsiao-Ting; Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Huang, Yi-Chun; Wang, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chih-Ting; Yang, Yao-Joe; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2015-12-01

    A micro-controller unit (MCU) assisted immunoassay lab-on-a-chip is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The MCU automatically controls the detection procedure including blood filtration through a nonporous aluminum oxide membrane, bimolecular conjugation with antibodies attached to magnetic beads, electrolytic pumping, magnetic flushing and threshold detection based on Hall sensor array readout analysis. To verify the function of this chip, in-vitro Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) tests are performed by this 9 mm(2)-sized single chip. The cost, efficiency and portability are considerably improved compared to the prior art.

  16. BEAP profiles as rapid test system for status analysis and early detection of process incidents in biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Refai, Sarah; Berger, Stefanie; Wassmann, Kati; Hecht, Melanie; Dickhaus, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between specific BEAP profiles for standard biogas plants and for biogas reactors with process incidents (beginning of NH4(+)-N inhibition, start of acidification, insufficient hydrolysis and potential mycotoxin effects). Finally, BEAP profiles also functioned as a warning system for the early prediction of critical NH4(+)-N concentrations leading to a drop of CH4 formation.

  17. An experimental proposal to test the physical effect of the vector potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2016-01-01

    There are two interpretations of the Aharonov–Bohm (A–B) effect. One interpretation asserts that the A–B effect demonstrates that the vector potential is a physical reality that can result in the phase shift of a moving charge in quantum mechanics. The other interpretation asserts that the phase shift of the moving charge results from the interaction energy between the electromagnetic field of the moving charge and external electromagnetic fields. This paper briefly reviews these two interpretations and analyzes their differences. In addition, a new experimental scheme is proposed to determine which interpretation is correct. PMID:26822526

  18. Proposal of the Next Incarnation of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Hayano, H.; Higashi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Kanazawa, K.; Kubo, K.; Kume, T.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Masuzawa, M.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Sugahara, R.; Takahashi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Toge, N.; Urakawa, J.; Vogel, V.; Yamaoka, H.; Yokoya, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Daresbury /CERN /Hiroshima U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oxford U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /DESY /SLAC /University Coll. London /Oregon U. /Tokyo U.

    2005-05-27

    To reach design luminosity, the International Linear Collider (ILC) must be able to create and reliably maintain nanometer size beams. The ATF damping ring is the unique facility where ILC emittances are possible. In this paper we present and evaluate the proposal to create a final focus facility at the ATF which, using compact final focus optics and an ILC-like bunch train, would be capable of achieving 37 nm beam size. Such a facility would enable the development of beam diagnostics and tuning methods, as well as the training of young accelerator physicists.

  19. An experimental proposal to test the physical effect of the vector potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2016-01-01

    There are two interpretations of the Aharonov–Bohm (A–B) effect. One interpretation asserts that the A–B effect demonstrates that the vector potential is a physical reality that can result in the phase shift of a moving charge in quantum mechanics. The other interpretation asserts that the phase shift of the moving charge results from the interaction energy between the electromagnetic field of the moving charge and external electromagnetic fields. This paper briefly reviews these two interpretations and analyzes their differences. In addition, a new experimental scheme is proposed to determine which interpretation is correct.

  20. An experimental proposal to test the physical effect of the vector potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Feng

    2016-01-29

    There are two interpretations of the Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect. One interpretation asserts that the A-B effect demonstrates that the vector potential is a physical reality that can result in the phase shift of a moving charge in quantum mechanics. The other interpretation asserts that the phase shift of the moving charge results from the interaction energy between the electromagnetic field of the moving charge and external electromagnetic fields. This paper briefly reviews these two interpretations and analyzes their differences. In addition, a new experimental scheme is proposed to determine which interpretation is correct.